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The National Strength and Conditioning Association's Basic Guidelines for the Resistance Training of Athletes

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... The youth strength training programs should not rely on one form of strength training, such as weight training (2,3,7). Programs should be designed to include and encourage participation in a variety of physical activities and training methods rather than ''specializing'' in one sport or one training method. ...
... Learning and using good training habits reduces the risk of injury (2,4). Use no-load repetitions when initially learning new movement patterns and exercises (3,4,8) to help develop balance and control. Once basic movement and breathing patterns are established, use sets of relatively light loads to further establish coordination of movement patterns. ...
... Because serious injury is possible if proper guidelines are not followed (3,4), close attention should be given to any related pain and injury. Pain during an exercise precludes continuation of that exercise. ...
Article
Learning Objective: To learn how to develop and implement a safe, effective, and fun strength training program for youth.
... Sufficient evidence now exists that supports the implementation of safe and effective strength training programs for youth. Youth strength training following recommended guidelines is now well accepted by the medical and professional community (Table 3) (1,(5)(6)(7)(8)(9). A summary of the recommended guidelines for strength training in youth will appear in Part 2 of this article. ...
... Weightlifting: A competitive form of strength training using Olympic style lifts: snatch and the clean and jerk. (6,8,10). There have been no reported cases of epiphseal injury in any of the prospective strength training studies involving children and adolescents (6,10). ...
... Second, for a strength training program to increase strength effectively in children and adolescents, the program must be able to increase strength above and beyond that which might otherwise have occurred because of normal growth and maturation. Although improvements in strength resulting from a low volume, short duration training program may not be distinguishable from strength gains caused by normal growth, the literature (6,8,10) supports the fact that children can experience significant improvements in strength above and beyond that attributable to growth and maturation. In summary, a well designed, 8 to 12 week strength training program can produce significant (30% to 50%) gains in strength. ...
Article
Learning Objective: To be able to address questions and concerns encountered when developing and implementing a strength training program for youth.
... Effects of strength training have been shown in children as young as 5 [17]. The instruction must be appropriate for the age of the child or adolescent, involving a proper warm-up, cool-down, and appropriate choice of exercises [14,15,18]. ...
... For the athlete to gain maximal results from their resistance program, muscular tension needs to be applied frequently. There is quite a lot of research that has been carried out on this component [2,3,4,5,14,15,18,20,21,25,26,27]. The majority of research has identified that the most beneficial frequency consists of at least 2 nonconsecutive days/week, as resistance training only once a week may result in suboptimal adaptations [3]. ...
... Given the information outlined a general summary has been developed: the minimum age for a child to start weight training is around 6-8 years of age (dependent upon maturation and development), the athlete should weight train 2-3 days per week, on nonconsecutive days. Body weight is considered both safe and effective for younger athletes (6-9 years of age), although once creating a sound training foundation and using sensible progression, the athlete can increase the intensity to 6-15RM or 50-80% 1RM (15)(16)(17)(18) year olds). The rest period should be at least 3 minutes (allowing for appropriate recovery) and an overall volume of 1-3 sets per muscle group of 6-15 repetitions. ...
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ABSTRACT The purpose of this article was to outline the current strength guidelines by reviewing the current literature found in the following databases, Pubmed, AUSPORT, ScienceDirect, Sports discus, Medline and the Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning. This article will specifically examine five components of youth strength training (YST); (1) What age is appropriate to start strength training, (2) Frequency of strength training, (3) Intensity of strength training, (4) Rest periods and (5) Recommended volume. Upon revising the literature the following recommendations have been developed, the minimal age for a child to start weight training is 6-8 years of age (maturation and developmental stages present around this age making athletes more suitable), the athlete should weight train 2-3 days per week, on non-consecutive days, at an intensity of 6-15RM or 50-85% 1RM, given a rest period of at least 3 minutes (allowing for appropriate recovery) and an overall volume of 1-3 sets per muscle group of 6-15 repetitions. This paper aims to give athletes, coaches and parents a better understanding of adolescent strength training. Key words: youth strength training, children's strength programs, young athlete strength programs.
... Effects of strength training have been shown in children as young as 5 [17]. The instruction must be appropriate for the age of the child or adolescent, involving a proper warm-up, cool-down, and appropriate choice of exercises [14,15,18]. ...
... For the athlete to gain maximal results from their resistance program, muscular tension needs to be applied frequently. There is quite a lot of research that has been carried out on this component [2,3,4,5,14,15,18,20,21,25,26,27]. The majority of research has identified that the most beneficial frequency consists of at least 2 nonconsecutive days/week, as resistance training only once a week may result in suboptimal adaptations [3]. ...
... Given the information outlined a general summary has been developed: the minimum age for a child to start weight training is around 6-8 years of age (dependent upon maturation and development), the athlete should weight train 2-3 days per week, on nonconsecutive days. Body weight is considered both safe and effective for younger athletes (6-9 years of age), although once creating a sound training foundation and using sensible progression, the athlete can increase the intensity to 6-15RM or 50-80% 1RM (15)(16)(17)(18) year olds). The rest period should be at least 3 minutes (allowing for appropriate recovery) and an overall volume of 1-3 sets per muscle group of 6-15 repetitions. ...
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... The use of exercises for the same muscle group that contemplates different portions of the same musculature should be proposed for the recruitment and activation of available contractile tissue [ External aid can be an essential tool to overcome the point of greatest mechanical limitation in certain exercises, for example, the initial concentric phase of the bench press or arm-curl [117]; ...
... External aid should be a valuable tool to overcome the point of greatest mechanical limitation, particularly in maximal strength exercises [117]; ...
... The maximal isometric strength is angle-dependent; that is, it occurs mainly at the angle that the stimulus is being performed [3,27,104,117]. The maximal isometric strength training may favor the mechanical point of least strength in particular exercises during eccentric and concentric dynamic actions [122][123][124][125], especially in very high loads and close to the maximum [126]. Studies have also indicated that isometric strength differs according to exercise angles used [127]. ...
Chapter
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p>This chapter deals with historical aspects of strength training, contextualizing the relevance of strength training for combat sports to maximize the performance of grapplers, strikers, and mixed martial artists. Scientific articles were listed that presented data related to maximum strength in the leading research databases. Scientific evidence presented in official and simulated matches, and official competitions are presented. Likewise, longitudinal studies on the development of maximal strength in combat sports athletes, maximal strength tests for combat sports athletes (dynamic, isometric, and isokinetic tests), and reference for maximal strength (dynamic and isometric exercises) values in several exercises, as well as normative tables are presented. Another point approached was training prescription for muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength development (dynamic and isometric) for combat sports athletes.</p
... The following is a traditional format of periodization for strength athletes. Each cycle lasts for typically 4 weeks ( Pearson et al., 2000;). ...
... General Fitness Cycle (GFC)-this involves the development of a general level of fitness for the novice athlete, before entering into their first training cycle of a periodized program. The athlete should lower intensity (15-20 reps), learn the exercise technique, and gain initial adaptation to resistance exercise ( Pearson et al., 2000;). The GFC is grounded on several theories such as the Learning Curve proposed by Fitts and Posner (1967). ...
... Numerous other studies attest to the superiority of a traditional periodized program over a linear program (Kraemer, 1997;O' Bryant, 1988;Stone, 1981;Stowers, 1983;Fleck and Kraemer, 2004;Pearson et al., 2000;Rhea, 2002;Graham, 2002). ...
Article
Current research has explored the degree of undulation (variation) necessary to optimize athletic preparedness. In this context Linear, Traditional, and Non- Traditional periodization strategies are analyzed. Special emphasis is placed on the advantages and disadvantages of increasing undulation.
... The most disputed of these factors is how to produce the greatest muscular overload via a resistance training program. Many variables can be manipulated within a resistance training program: types of muscle actions, rest between sets, velocity of repetitions, exercise volume, exercise selection, exercise order, workout frequency, rest between workouts, exercise intensity, and/or the use of periodization (2,6,15,16,19,38,41,49,67). Olympic weightlifting. ...
... Even though increased mechanization and technology have reduced the need for humans to produce muscular force to carry out the activities of daily living, strength training has become a more accepted as well as popular form of exercise over the past two decades (41,49). Research in this area is growing in importance alongside the growing popularity of weightlifting as a training method. ...
... Resistance training is no longer being viewed as just a necessary part of the athletic or military arenas. Resistance exercise has gained support as a form of exercise for both the elderly and adolescents/children if performed safely and properly according to the specific needs and abilities of the individual (1,2,6,15,49,61). It had once been thought to be too risky to allow these populations to perform strength training, but benefits have been shown with minimal risks for such populations. ...
... One of the most popular training methods that produce the mentioned results is the SAQ (speed, agility, quickness) method (Pearson, 2001).Within the context of randomized intermittent, dynamic and skilled movement type sports (randomized intermittent, dynamic type sports [RIDS]), to which soccer undoubtedly belongs, the integrated effects are wanted. The problem is to decide which type of conditioning should be implemented (programmed or random conditioning) to improve SAQ in soccer. ...
... Also, it is important to notice that agility training forms a long lasting response from motor memory. Pearson (2001) mentioned four elements of agility such as balance, coordination, programmed and random agility all of which are used on the SAQ continuum with appropriate volume and intensity with regard to athletes' age and level of motor readiness. The purpose of this study, in agreement with the previously referred, was to determine how much the SAQ training actually influences the power performance parameters of elite soccer players during in-season period. ...
... Those athletes who have more time and want to improve further can increase their frequency of resistance training per muscle group to three times per week (Feigenbaum & Pollock 1999;Hass, Feigenbaum, & Franklin 2001). For adequate recovery, resistance training days for specific muscle groups should be separated by at least 48-72 hours (Feigenbaum & Pollock 1999;Winett & Carpinelli 2001) and a minimum of 24h should normally separate training sessions (Pearson, Faigenbaum, Conley, & Kraemer, 2000). ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of small-sided games and interval training on the aerobic work capacity and the performance related variables of the amateur soccer players in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The variables investigated were mean arterial pressure, maximum oxygen uptake, heart rate reserve, vital capacity, speed, agility and power. To facilitate this study, a number of hypotheses were formulated and they provided the anchor for the study. Selected amateur soccer players in Ekiti State formed the sample for the study. Three forms of training were used for the study. The small-sided games formed the experimental group one. The interval training group formed the experimental group two while the traditional training group formed the control group. The statistical analysis used in this study includes percentage counts, mean, standard deviation, bar chart, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), Sidak multiple comparison and Scheffe post-hoc test analysis. The alpha level was set at 0.05 level. It was concluded that the use of small-sided games for training will be effective to improve the aerobic work capacity and performance related variables but the combination of the small-sided games and interval training will be much more effective. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations were made. These include; more financial resources to be invested in the grassroot development of football for talent identification and development, full integration of small-sided games to soccer training for skill development, use of interval training should be much more emphasized off-season to maintain fitness level and more variation of small-sided games could be designed by the coaches to foster the skills improvement.
... We used the parallel back squat as a representative exercise because it is a lift common to resistance training programs, incorporates a large muscle mass, and will recruit motor units and fiber types across the continuum at the various loads incorporated in this study. Resistance training protocols designed to develop ME, HYP, and STR with equal work volumes were used, as these protocols are commonly used by strength and conditioning professionals (13,19,27). ...
... Squat depth was visually analyzed by the same investigator to ensure that each subject achieved parallel (top of quadriceps parallel to the floor) for all testing sessions. Training variables were based on typical workout recommendations for ME, HYP, and STR (13,19,27). Greater than 3 but less than 7 days separated exercise testing sessions and protocol order was randomized among subjects to control for muscle adaptation and learning effects. ...
... Workouts for ME consisted of 2 sets of 20 repetitions (2 3 20) at 53% of 1RM with a 45-second rest period between sets (13,19,27). The HYP workout consisted of 3 3 10 at 70% 1RM with a 120-second rest period between sets (13,19,27). ...
Article
: Three parallel squat protocols with equal total work volume were employed to determine the metabolic response of resistance exercise with different practical training protocols combining program variables the way they are typically prescribed in the field. Sixteen men able to back squat 1.5 times their body weight participated in the study. Individualized muscular endurance (ME), strength (STR), and hypertrophy (HYP) squat workouts were developed based on a one repetition max back squat. Each protocol was performed 3-7 days apart in random order. Venous blood was obtained after five minutes of seated rest both before and after each workout for ammonium and lactate analysis. The ME protocol (79.8μM (SD 45.4), 95% CI: 55.7-104.0) produced a greater change of plasma ammonium than both the HYP (45.3μM (SD 34.5), 95% CI: 26.9-63.6, p=0.017) and STR (31.7μM (SD 52.3), 95% CI: 3.9-59.6, p=0.006) protocols. Change of blood lactate concentration from resting levels to post exercise levels was significantly different (p=0.005) between ME (6.1mM (SD 2.9), 95% CI: 4.6-7.7) and STR (3.9mM (SD 2.5), 95% CI: 2.6-5.2) protocols. The main finding of this study is that blood ammonium and lactate appear to accumulate in response to an increasing number of repetitions with decreasing rest time between sets. As consequence, a greater number of repetitions should be added to a resistance workout, along with a shorter rest time between sets when training for events that induce a large metabolic load. The metabolic accumulation associated with high rep exercise may represent the need for longer recovery time between these types workouts compared to workouts utilizing a low number of repetitions.
... An effective program should also follow a general periodization model, starting with high-volume/low-resistance general exercises in the off-season and progressing toward low-volume/high-resistance sport-specific movements as the competitive season approaches (4). Moreover, the development of a successful program calls for the analysis of the requirements of the specific activity that the program targets (6,12). ...
... Along with weight-management issues and injury prevention, an effective sportspecific program for wrestling should consider the primary muscles used, contraction types, muscle actions, and the basic energy sources used in the activity (6,12). The manipulation of acute program variables, such as exercise selection and order, exercise volume (sets × repetitions), exercise intensity, and length of rest intervals, is an effective means to target the specific needs of wrestling (6). ...
... The selection of exercises for a sportspecific program should match the recruitment patterns and muscle actions of the activity to maximize the transfer of training gains (6,12). Strength and power capabilities are also vital components in wrestling. ...
... To maximize the results of physical training, it is necessary to adhere to certain fundamental principles of physical training. [16] Specific adaptation to imposed demands (SAID) is one of these fundamental principles. According to the SAID principle, the human body will uniquely adapt in response to demands and pressures. ...
... According to the SAID principle, the human body will uniquely adapt in response to demands and pressures. [16] The SE programme comprises of closed kinetic chain positions that exert unilateral load on the hip extensors, with the movement task consisting of maintaining and controlling these positions. In the posteromedial and posterolateral orientations, this tension resembles the stress of the Y balance test.A 24-hour interval was taken to examine the immediate effects of a single bout of stabilizing exercises on the grounds of previous studies which indicate that the lasting effect of a single bout of SE stays for at least 24 hours. ...
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Introduction: One of the most overlooked areas is sports-related injury owing to the fact that many athletes simply "play through the pain." They avoid seeing a doctor for fear of missing out on their physical training or a tournament if things go wrong. A critical thing for majority of sports is the ability to maintain truncal stability. True stability is essential for coordination, performance, and injury prevention. Trunk stability refers to the ability to maintain the trunk's posture and motion throughout dynamic loading and movement scenarios.Y Balance test was used in this study for evaluation of dynamic balance. In terms of dynamic balance, it's a demanding test for athletes and other physically active people. Methods: This was an experimental, randomized controlled trial. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the benefits of adding trunk stability exercises to Mallakhamb players in order to improve their performance and lower their risk of injury. We selected 126 male Mallakhamb players. Random sampling was used. The outcome measures was distance traversed in Y Balance test. Results: The control and intervention groups were comparable at baseline. Significant differences were observed between the 2 groups. Results indicated that the experimental group's Y balance test score improved in the anterior, posterior-medial, and posterior-lateral directions. However the anterior direction of the control group did not alter. Conclusion: The SEBT improved in the posteromedial and posterolateral directions immediately after the SE, but not in the anterior direction.
... Some basic principles of physical training must be followed to obtain the optimal effects of physical training. 41 The specific adaptation to imposed demands (SAID) is one such basic principle. The SAID principle states that the human body will adapt specifically in response to the demands and stresses placed on it. ...
... The SAID principle states that the human body will adapt specifically in response to the demands and stresses placed on it. 41 The SE program consists of closed kinetic chain positions that place unilateral stresses on the hip extensors, and the task of movement is to maintain and control these positions. This stress resembles the stress of the SEBT in the posteromedial and posterolateral directions. ...
Article
Purpose/background: Trunk exercises, such as trunk stabilization exercises (SE) and conventional trunk exercises (CE), are performed to improve static or dynamic balance. Recently, trunk exercises have also been often used as part of warm-up programs. A few studies have demonstrated the immediate effects of SE and CE on static balance. However, immediate effects on dynamic balance are not yet known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effect of SE with that of CE on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Methods: Eleven adolescent male soccer players (17.9 ± 0.3 years, 168.5 ± 5.4 cm, and 60.1 ± 5.1 kg) participated in this study. A crossover design was used, and each participant completed three kinds of testing sessions: SE, CE, and non-exercise (NE). Experiments took place for three weeks with three testing sessions, and a 1-week interval was provided between different conditions. Each testing session consisted of three steps: pretest, intervention, and posttest. To assess dynamic balance, the SEBT score in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions was measured before and 5 minutes after each intervention program. The data of reach distance were normalized with the leg length to exclude the influence of the leg length on the analysis. Results: The SEBT composite score was significantly improved after the SE (p < 0.05) but did not change after the CE and NE (p > 0.05). Furthermore, in the SE condition, SEBT scores of the posterolateral and posteromedial directions were significantly improved at the posttest, compared with those at the pretest (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrated the immediate improvements in the posteromedial and posterolateral directions of the SEBT only after the SE. This result suggests that the SE used in this study is effective in immediately improving dynamic balance. Levels of evidence: 3b.
... 29,48 82 83 Although the etiology of the patellofemoral pain is not fully understood, this condition is 84 thought to be multifactorial, including both local and non-local factors. 11,22,30,32 Local factors 85 are related to the patellofemoral joint and surrounding tissues, such as altered mechanics of 86 the joint and impaired quadriceps function. 10,13 Non-local factors are related to the mechanics 87 of the distal and proximal joints, such as increased foot pronation and increased hip adduction 88 and medial rotation during weight-bearing tasks. ...
... 364365The non-significant change in strength found in this review may be explained by the fact that 366 the strengthening interventions were not of sufficient duration and/or intensity. Although the 367 literature indicates a rapid increase in neurological activation of the motor units during the 368 initial phases of strength training, most of the muscle adaptations occur after 8 to 12 weeks of 369 training.32 The average duration of the strength training in this review was 6 weeks.Only 3 370 trials, 4,8,20 which investigated 8 to 12 weeks of hip and knee strengthening, provided data 371 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy® Downloaded from www.jospt.org ...
Article
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Study Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Background The addition of hip strengthening to knee strengthening for persons with patellofemoral pain has the potential to optimize treatment effects. There is a need to systematically review and pool the current evidence in this area. Objective To examine the efficacy of hip strengthening, associated or not with knee strengthening, to increase strength, reduce pain, and improve activity in individuals with patellofemoral pain. Methods A systematic review of randomized or controlled trials was performed. Participants in the reviewed studies were individuals with patellofemoral pain and the experimental intervention was hip and/or knee strengthening. Outcome data related to muscle strength, pain, and activity were extracted from the eligible trials and combined using a meta-analysis approach. Results Fourteen trials involving 673 participants were included. Random effects meta-analyses revealed that hip and knee strengthening decreased pain (MD -3.3, 95% CI -5.6 to -1.1) and improved activity (SMD 1.4, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.8), compared to no training/placebo. In addition, hip and knee strengthening was superior to knee strengthening alone for decreasing pain (MD -1.5, 95% CI -2.3 to -0.8) and improving activity (SMD 0.7, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.3). Results were maintained beyond the intervention period. Meta-analyses showed no significant changes in strength for any of the interventions. Conclusions Hip and knee strengthening is effective and superior to knee strengthening alone for decreasing pain and improving activity in persons with patellofemoral pain, however these outcomes were achieved without a concurrent change in strength. Level of Evidence Therapy, Level 1a-. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 15 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7365.
... This concept was discussed in a review by Fisher and Steele [50], who suggested that the high volumes of exercise typically recommended are unnecessary and that equal or better results can be achieved in a minimal amount of time. In addition, if muscle growth is not playing an appreciable role with exercise induced increases in muscle strength, this may undermine the traditional model of periodized resistance exercise for sport which incorporates a hypertrophy phase intended to increase muscle size before entering the strength phase of the programming [51]. This hypertrophy phase is typically characterized by having large amounts of volume which are believed necessary to elicit a maximal growth response [51]. ...
... In addition, if muscle growth is not playing an appreciable role with exercise induced increases in muscle strength, this may undermine the traditional model of periodized resistance exercise for sport which incorporates a hypertrophy phase intended to increase muscle size before entering the strength phase of the programming [51]. This hypertrophy phase is typically characterized by having large amounts of volume which are believed necessary to elicit a maximal growth response [51]. Newer models of periodization also incorporate hypertrophy work (under the assumption that hypertrophy is necessary to maximize strength) [52,53]. ...
Article
Resistance exercise is typically performed to increase both muscle size and strength and is regularly incorporated into training programs for sports performance. Presumably, the exercise would be expected to increase the force producing capabilities of skeletal muscle, which may have subsequent influence on various sports related abilities. Interestingly, few studies are designed to examine sports related benefits of resistance exercise while including a proper control group to account for adaptations to simply performing the sports related task. Much of our knowledge on resistance exercise for sport is based off cross-sectional work showing that stronger athletes tend to perform at the highest level, along with cross-sectional work demonstrating that higher levels of strength are associated with various performance related parameters. Although there is a large body of cross-sectional literature providing a rationale for resistance exercise for sport, its implementation is largely based on the following: 1) An increase in muscle size will produce an increase in strength and 2) a stronger muscle will increase sports performance. However, there is a lack of evidence to support these assumptions. The weight of evidence suggests that resistance exercise may indirectly impact sports performance through injury prevention, as opposed to directly improving sport related abilities.
... In several professions the relationship between a professional with expertise and the value that a client finds in that expertise is imperative [20][21][22][23]. Social cognitive theory tells us that individuals are influenced by opinions, behavior, advice, and thoughts from their social environment which helps explain why a patient would seek a doctor when ill, [20,21] an athlete would turn to an athletic trainer when hurt, [24][25][26][27] or an athlete would pursue a strength and conditioning coach when needing to enhance performance [2,28]. ...
Article
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This study investigated student-athletes’ beliefs and attitudes toward strength and conditioning programming, the individuals who facilitate strength and conditioning practices, and the strength and conditioning coach in regards to increased sport performance. Additionally, comparisons were made between gender, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) division, and time spent in the weight room. The participants were varsity athletes from two NCAA Division I and one Division II institutions that utilize strength and conditioning for sport performance. A 41-item questionnaire was distributed to participants to gauge their perceptions on strength and conditioning; responses were entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results showed positive responses in regards to athletes’ overall perceptions that strength and conditioning was essential to their athletic development in their sport and were satisfied with the performance of their strength and conditioning coach. Athletes believed their strength and conditioning coach was knowledgeable and the best individual to facilitate strength training sessions. Additionally, student-athletes valued their strength and conditioning coach and viewed them as an authority figure. Male athletes had stronger positive perceptions of strength and conditioning on increased athletic performance than females. Similar results were found between NCAA divisions, where Division II athletes had stronger positive perceptions of strength and conditioning on increased athletic performance than Division I. A correlation between time spent in the weight room and positive perceptions of strength and conditioning was found. These findings show that student-athletes recognize the importance of strength and conditioning to overall athletic performance and believe the strength and conditioning coach is the best individual to facilitate these programs.
... The effects of training on performance are variable, and are likely based upon the principle of the specific adaptation to imposed demands. 20 Thus, it would follow that training effects of SE would be different from those of CE. However, the beneficial aspects of each trunk exercise remain unclear due to lack of evidence. ...
Article
Many athletes perform trunk stabilization exercises (SE) and conventional trunk exercises (CE) to enhance trunk stability and strength. However, evidence regarding the specific training effects of SE and CE is lacking and there have been no studies for youth athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the training effects of SE and CE on balance and athletic performance in youth soccer players. Twenty-seven male youth soccer players were assigned randomly to either an SE group (n = 13) or CE group (n = 14). Data from nineteen players who completed all training sessions were used for statistical analyses (SE, n = 10; CE, n = 9). Before and after the 12-week intervention program, pre- and post-testing comprised of a static balance test, Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Cooper's test, sprint, the Step 50, vertical jump, and rebound jump were performed. After pre-testing, players performed the SE or CE program three times per week for 12 weeks. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess the changes over time, and differences between the groups. Within-group changes from pre-testing to post-testing were determined using paired t-tests. Statistical significance was inferred from p < 0.05. There were significant group-by-time interactions for posterolateral (p = 0.022) and posteromedial (p < 0.001) directions of the SEBT. Paired t-tests revealed significant improvements of the posterolateral and posteromedial directions in the SE group. Although other measurements did not find group-by-time interactions, within-group changes were detected indicating significant improvements in the static balance test, Cooper's test, and rebound jump in the only SE group (p < 0.05). Vertical jump and sprint were improved significantly in both groups (p < 0.05), but the Step 50 was not improved in either group (p > 0.05). Results suggested that the SE has specific training effects that enhance static and dynamic balance, Cooper's test, and rebound jump. 3b.
... Pearson et al. (20) , ao divulgarem as diretrizes básicas da National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) para treinamento de força para atletas, citam na seção destinada a desportistas com idade avançada que nenhuma recomendação especial poderia ser feita, pois faltariam estudos que dessem sustentação para isso. Afirmam, ainda, que para atletas nessa faixa etária as mesmas recomendações para indivíduos jovens poderiam ser aplicadas. ...
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La fuerza muscular es considerada componente importante de programas de ejercicios físicos. Los beneficios de ese tipo de entrenamiento dependen de la combinación del número de repeticiones, series, sobrecarga, secuencia e intervalos entre las series y ejercicios. A pesar de esto, no se tiene aún muy claro cuál es la mejor combinación de esas variables para una óptima relación dosis-respuesta en personas ancianas. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar las investigaciones sobre entrenamiento de fuerza para ancianos, mediante una revisión sistemática, con el propósito de identificar tendencias comunes en términos de efectos del entrenamiento provocados por la manipulación de estas variables. Una vez definidos los criterios de inclusión, fueron seleccionados 22 estudios, agrupados por semejanza de tratamiento (nº de series, frecuencia semanal, intensidad, intervalos y orden de los ejercicios). Técnicas de estadística descriptiva auxiliaron en la determinación de posibles tendencias en las relaciones dosis-respuesta. Al identificarse, esas tendencias fueron analizadas cualitativamente. De todas las variables revisadas, solamente para la intensidad de sobrecarga fueron encontradas evidencias, lo que permite afirmar que cargas mayores serían más eficaces para inducir un aumento de fuerza a esa edad. En relación a las demás variables, los resultados disponibles en la literatura no dan respaldo para realizar inferencias seguras respecto al mejor delineamiento de programas de entrenamiento que alíen, al mismo tiempo, efectividad y seguridad. Por tanto, se recomienda que estudios posteriores sean realizados para comparar experimentalmente los efectos de la manipulación de esas variables sobre la fuerza muscular de ancianos.
... No significant differences in weekly training volume were found between school years ( Table 2). It is well documented that sustained performance development requires athletes to be exposed to a systematic increase in training load over time, while adequate recovery is also ensured [49][50][51]. However, as shown in Fig 1, our results indicate a significant interaction effect of sports type and school year on weekly training volume, with a decreasing trend in weekly training volume for both weight-bearing sports and other team and ball sports across school years. ...
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This cross-sectional study examined self-reported weekly training volume and perceived training distress in Norwegian student athletes according to gender, type of sport, school program, and school year. The Norwegian version of the Multicomponent Training Distress Scale (MTDS-N) was completed by 608 student athletes (M age = 17.29 ± .94). Univariate and multivariate techniques were used in data analyses. Results revealed significant differences in weekly training volume between sport types. No significant differences in weekly training volume were found for gender, school year, or school program. However, a multivariate effect was found for gender, with females perceiving higher levels of training distress than males. A multivariate interaction effect between school year and training volume was also observed. We recommend that practitioners use a conceptual framework to periodize training and monitor training distress in student athletes, particularly in females, to preserve physiological and psychological well-being and ensure a progressive training overload leading to positive performance development.
... It acts as an integral part of a total strength and conditioning programme for the enhancement of athletic performance and also prescribed by many major health organisations, recreational and clinical communities for improving health, fitness and also in rehabilitation. (Pearson et al., 2000;ACSM, 2002;Chetlin, 2002). ...
... O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os efeitos de diferentes IR no desempenho muscular isocinético em idosos quando adotadas três séries compostas de 10 repetições unilaterais da musculatura extensora do joelho direito na velocidade 60°•s -1 . Este protocolo foi aplicado respeitando as recomendações para exercícios resistidos com o propósito de aumentar a força muscular 12,23 . Os resultados da pesquisa demonstraram que o tempo de IR pode interferir no desempenho muscular isocinético em idosos. ...
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OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different rest intervals (RI) between sets of isokinetic contractions on muscle performance in older adults.METHODS: Twenty older participants (66.9±3.9 years; 76.1±13.4kg; 169±5.2cm) underwent three sessions of unilateral isokinetic training for the knee extensor muscles, with different RI (1 minute, 2 minutes and 3 minutes) at an angular velocity of 60°•s-1. Each session consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions, during which the peak torque (PT), total work (TW) and fatigue index (FI) were evaluated. Factorial ANOVA for repeated measurements, with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, was used to identify possible differences between the RI. The statistical significance level was set at p<0.05.RESULTS: No differences in muscle performance during the first sets were observed between the different RI (p>0.05). Although muscle performance was lower during the third sets with all RI, the greatest decreases in PT, TW and FI occurred with the 1 minute RI (p<0.05).CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the RI variable has an important influence on isokinetic muscle performance in older adults, particularly from the third sets onwards, which suggests that RI should be increased as successive sets are performed within the same exercise session.
... Pearson et al. (20) , ao divulgarem as diretrizes básicas da National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) para treinamento de força para atletas, citam na seção destinada a desportistas com idade avançada que nenhuma recomendação especial poderia ser feita, pois faltariam estudos que dessem sustentação para isso. Afirmam, ainda, que para atletas nessa faixa etária as mesmas recomendações para indivíduos jovens poderiam ser aplicadas. ...
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A força muscular é considerada componente importante de programas de exercícios físicos. Os benefícios desse tipo de treinamento dependem da combinação do número de repetições, séries, sobrecarga, seqüência e intervalos entre as séries e exercícios. No entanto, não se tem ainda muito clara qual a melhor combinação dessas variáveis para uma ótima relação dose-resposta em pessoas idosas. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar as pesquisas sobre treinamento de força para idosos, por meio de revisão sistemática, com o propósito de identificar tendências comuns em termos de efeitos do treinamento provocados pela manipulação dessas variáveis. Após definição de critérios de inclusão, foram selecionados 22 estudos, agrupados por similaridade de tratamento (número de séries, freqüência semanal, intensidade, intervalos e ordem dos exercícios). Técnicas de estatística descritiva auxiliaram na determinação de possíveis tendências nas relações dose-resposta. Uma vez identificadas, essas tendências foram analisadas qualitativamente. De todas as variáveis revisadas, somente para a intensidade da sobrecarga foram encontradas evidências permitindo afirmar que cargas maiores seriam mais eficazes para induzir aumento de força nessa faixa etária. Quanto às demais variáveis, os resultados disponíveis na literatura não dão respaldo para inferências seguras quanto ao melhor delineamento de programas de treinamento que aliem, ao mesmo tempo, efetividade e segurança. Recomenda-se, então, que estudos sejam realizados para comparar experimentalmente os efeitos da manipulação dessas variáveis sobre a força muscular de idosos.
... El manejo de las variables de entrenamiento, como las mencionadas previamente, que es determinado por los objetivos del programa y por las necesidades de cada individuo; por ejemplo, con una misma carga de trabajo no siempre se obtienen los mismos resultados. Los errores en la progresión de cualquiera de estas variables puede, teoricamente, resultar en sobreentrenamiento y; por lo tanto, la manipulación de estas variables debe realizarse correctamente (Hakkinen et al., 1988; Kreider et al., 1998; Baechle et al., 2000; Pearson et al., 2000; Kraemer et al., 2002; Kraemer y Ratamess, 2004; Hackney y Battaglini, 2007). El volumen de entrenamiento es la suma del número de repeticiones realizadas durante una sesión de entrenamiento multiplicado por la carga utilizada. ...
... It acts as an integral part of a total strength and conditioning programme for the enhancement of athletic performance and also prescribed by many major health organisations, recreational and clinical communities for improving health, fitness and also in rehabilitation. (Pearson et al., 2000;ACSM, 2002;Chetlin, 2002). ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a 12 week (2 days per week) resistance training programme at an intensity of 50% of 1RM in adolescent males (13-16 years old) male taekwondo athletes on their isokinetic peak torque and anaerobic power. The intervention group (n=12) aged 14±1 years, participated in the prescribed resistance training programme along with the existing taekwondo skill/drill training (2 days/week), while the control group (n=11) aged 14±1 years, participated in an existing taekwondo skill/drill training only. Anaerobic power was estimated from Wingate anaerobic test. An isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex multi-joint system 3 pro, New York) was used in the collection of data from the knee (flexion/extension) and hip (flexion, extension, abduction and adduction) joints. Mean anaerobic power and peak anaerobic power in the intervention group increased 9% and 10%, respectively. However, these two variables in the control group significantly decreased from mid training to post training (11.5% and 16% respectively), (p
... Typically, maximal loads are used to determine absolute strength without taking into consideration differences in body size and fitness abilities but during adolescence, maximal loading can increase the possibility of injuries from physiological immaturity (Brown & Kimball, 1983;Pearson, Faigenbaum, Conley, & Kraemer, 2000), improper lifting techniques and poor supervision. At certain stages in the developmental process changes are occurring throughout the bone structure including: increased rates of cell division, increased length of replicating columns, increased number of cells, and increase in size of the cells (Faigenbaum, 2001;Schafer, 1991). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength measures and various sport performance measures in evaluating upper and lower body strength. Fifty-seven high school female athletes ages 14-18 participated in this study. All of the participants completed a 1RM bench and leg press test to determine absolute and relative strength. Athletes were also evaluated on eight different performance measures including: sit-ups, 40-yd sprint, vertical jump, sit and reach, medicine ball toss, shuttle run, leg press repetitions-to-fatigue (91 kg), and bench press repetitions-to-fatigue (27 kg) in conjunction with various body composition variables. A Pearson product correlation and Stepwise regression analysis was utilized to determine relationships between 1RM strength and the performance measures for upper and lower body strength. Based on the data analysis, it was concluded that bench press repetitions-to-fatigue (BPRTF27) using a weight load of 27 kg had the highest correlation with 1RM bench press strength (r= 0.802) and leg press repetitions-to-fatigue using a weight load of 91 kg had the highest correlation with 1RM leg press strength (r= 0.793) indicating that these tests were viable alternatives to 1RM testing for strength assessment. The Stepwise Regression analysis further confirmed that BPRTF27 and LBM (lean body mass) were significant variables in developing the model 1RMBP= 48.44 + (1.42) BPRTF27 + (.153) LBM for upper body strength testing. Similar results occurred in the lower body model (1RMLP= 69.92 + (3.65) LPRTF91 + (1.42) LBM + (2.63) with the addition of the SIT/REA (sit/reach) variable. A positive relationship between 1RM strength and repetitions-to-fatigue testing was evident for all models (p < .001).
... The SJ and CMJ were selected as the most direct assessment of lower body explosive power. Both jumps were executed according to guidelines set forth by the National Strength and Conditioning Association and the American College of Sports Medicine position stands [8,9,24,25]. ...
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Training volume and the number of sets for developing lower body explosive power are important considerations for plyometric training. The purpose of this study was to compare training volume differing in number of sets in a 8-week program on field-based measures of lower-body explosive power. We hypothesized plyometric training would enhance lower body explosive power in a dose-dependent manner in which a 4-set program would result in greater power improvements than a 2-set program. Seventy-two recreational exercisers were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: 2-set, 4-set or non-plyometric control. Controls exercised ad libitum with the exception of any plyometric exercise. Training by experimental groups included weighted static jumps (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ) using heavy and light loads, under a supervised and periodized program for 3 d/wk over 8 wks. Heavy loads were ramped up by 10% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) each week starting from 60% of 1RM, followed by a light load of 30% of 1RM for 8 repetitions for the first 4 wks of training. During the last 4 wks, the heavy loads were ramped down by 10% of 1RM each week starting from 90% of 1RM. The executed repetitions for the heavy loads for each week and each work-out day were periodized from 4 to 50 repetitions. Lower-body power was measured before and after using a commercial-available contact mat that recorded the ground reaction forces. The dependent variables were vertical jump height (H) and power (PW) of SJ and CMJ. One-way analyses of variance with paired post-hoc analysis on mean post-pre differences were employed to determine significant effects (p < 0.05). Improvement in SJ-H (p = 0.0099), SJ-PW (p = 0.0208), CMJ-H (p = 0.0037), CMJ-PW (p = 0.0037) were all greater in 4-set group when compared to 2-set and control groups. The 2-set group did not differ from the control in any of the dependent variables. Plyometric training does not always improve explosive power. A periodized resistance plyometric program varied by exercise sets demonstrated that a greater training volume is necessary for developing lower-body explosive power. An effective way to increase plyometric training is to increase the number of sets.
... The principles of the bodybuilding training of the American professor Joe Weider, among which we find the one from our study, are very well structured and have an analytical approach on the human body [1]. One major component in all training programs is the principle of progressive overload (PPO) [2]. Progressive Overload is an important principle in strength training [3]. ...
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Introduction The concept of progressive overload is one of the most well known and well understood principles in strength training around athletes. To gain muscle mass, this principle consists of progress in weight, number of repetitions, frequency and sets. Aim Although it is a widely used principle, trough our study, we wanted to ascertain if, after training sessions applying Weider’s principle of progressive loading (PPO), we can highlight significant increases in some muscle groups (chest M c , and back M b ), in non-performance subjects. Materials and methods One sample (N= 8 subjects, 8 men, with a mean age of 20.4 ± 0.74 years), trained for 12 weeks with a frequency of 4 workouts per week, in a sports center from Arad county. Muscle perimeters were measured using a metric band. Subjects underwent bodybuilding-specific training with a predominant focus on PPO. Measurements of the pectoral muscle (M c ) and back muscle (M b ) were carried out in two stages: an initial test (C i , B i ) and a final test (C f , B f ), to see at the end of the experiment, if there are improvements. Results After 12 weeks of training, the final results indicate an increase of the average of both chest and back muscles (C i 102.6, C f 107.4 and B i 109.6, B f 113.8). Although the values of the T-test, at both groups, are identical, it seems that the PPO effective size (ω ² ) is larger in the back (14%) compared to the chest (12%). Conclusion Within the limits of our experiment, we consider that by only using the PPO, significant improvements can be obtained on the targeted muscle groups.
... 24 To derive the optimal e®ects of physical training basic principles, such as the Speci¯c Adaptation to Imposed Demands (SAID), must be followed, stating that the body adapts speci¯cally in response to the demands and stresses placed on it. 31 In CTE, stress to°exors and extensors of the lumbar spine is applied in a dynamic bilateral manner. SE program, to the contrary, maintain and control closed kinetic chain positions placing unilateral stresses on muscles involved in hip extension, in resemblance to stresses in the posterolateral and posteromedial directions of the YBT-LQ. ...
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Background: Trunk stability is key in controlling body balance and movements. Trunk Stabilization Exercises (TSE) and Conventional Trunk Exercises (CTE) are performed to improve dynamic balance. The authors have previously reported that dynamic balance was improved by a 12-week and 6-week TSE program. However, there is a dearth of research on its immediate effect on dynamic balance in trained soccer players. Objective: To compare the immediate effeect of TSE with that of CTE on dynamic balance in trained soccer players. Methods: Forty-eight male soccer players (24.60 ffi 1.38 years) participated in this crossover study, wherein each participant took part in three exercise sessions: TSE, CTE, and No Exercise control (NE), each consisting of three steps: pre-test, intervention and post-test, with an interval of one week between each exercise condition. To assess dynamic balance, the Y Balance Test-Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ) score in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions was measured before and 5 minutes after each intervention. Results: The YBT-LQ composite score was significantly improved after TSE (0.51) as compared to CTE (0.22) and NE (0.04) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in TSE and CTE conditions, YBT-LQ scores of the posterolateral and posteromedial directions significantly improved at the post-test (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Both TSE and CTE are effective in immediately improving dynamic balance; however, TSE showed greater improvement as compared to the latter. Immediate improvements in the posteromedial and posterolateral directions of the YBT-LQ were demonstrated after performing the TSE and CTE.
... The ability to perform a higher volume of training with a given load can stimulate greater adjustments to the strenght training. Hakkinen et al., 1988; Kreider et al., 1998; Baechle et al., 2000; Pearson et al., 2000; Kraemer et al., 2002; Kraemer y Ratamess, 2004; Hackney y Battaglini, 2007). El volumen de entrenamiento es la suma del n?mero de repeticiones realizadas durante una sesi?n de entrenamiento multiplicado por la carga utilizada. ...
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The aim of this investigation was to compare the effects of 2 different rest intervals on the volume of completed bench press during a session. Twenty-two men were volunteers to participate in this study (age 26.0 ± 7.5 years; body mass 73.0 ± 14.2 kg). All subjects performed 2 experimental sessions, which were conducted during the 3 sets of bench press with a load equal to 85% of 1RM. During each session, the series will be conducted with a recovery period of 1 to 3 minutes between sets. The volume was defined as the number of repetitions completed in the 3 series in each experimental condition. The condition in which it was conducted 3 min recovery resulted in the largest volume completed (+35,8%). The ability to perform a higher volume of training with a given load can stimulate greater adjustments to the strenght training.
... Although system-power is more appropriate to describe the total amount of mechanical power generated by a given system (and thus to produce methodological reports) Cormie et al., 2007aCormie et al., , 2007bMcbride et al., 2011), its utilization as a measure of loading intensity in ballistic exercises such as loaded jump squats is very limited. According to this approach, the optimum power load (i.e., load capable of maximizing power output) (Cormie et al., 2007b) in this exercise occurs at 0% of 1RM (Cormie et al., 2007a;Cormie, Mcguigan, & Newton, 2011a;Mcbride et al., 2011), which contradicts the (basic) principle of overload (Pearson, Faigenbaum, Conley, & Kraemer, 2000). While we recognize the importance of this evidence, the reason for not including the athletes' body mass in barbell assessments performed with LPTs is entirely related to strength-power training purposes. ...
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Our study in the Journal of Sports Sciences was originally designed to test whether the bar-velocity is a precise indicator of the power training intensity (i.e., optimum loads) in different exercises commonly included in athletes’ training programs. Furthermore, we presented secondary findings, related to the actual results obtained in our assessments. As a cross-sectional study with clear objectives, we focused on discussing issues and applications pertaining to neuromuscular training interventions, such as: (1) describing the advantages of using bar-velocities to control the power training intensity, (2) defining a range of loads capable of maximizing the power production in certain ballistic and traditional exercises, and (3) revealing the differences between these exercises and the respective implications for training. Fundamentally, we did not produce a mechanistic investigation and were very accurate and consistent in reporting our data, collected under rigorous and well-established experimental conditions. Here we provide our point-by-point comments to the concerns raised in the “Letter to the Editor”, along with some theoretical explanations about the secondary findings reported by the authors of the Letter. To better understand the nature and purposes of our experiment, we also present a series of practical examples and review previous investigations involving the “bar-power” approach.
... Examples of physiological adaptations that result from weight training are: increased size of muscle fibers and strength, increased capillary density, increased carbohydrate metabolism, increased tendon and ligament strength, increased body composition, and increased bone mineral density. The study also shows that consistent resistance training programs can improve athletic performance, have a positive psychological impact, and increase energy expenditure while reducing the risk of injury and some types of illness, and help in recovery from various complications (Pearson, Faigenbaum, Conley, & Kraemer, 2000). Along Santos, et al. (2010: 314) which states that alternative weight training and agonist / antagonist training is carried out every day for 8 weeks, 3 sets, 10-12 reps per set, except for abdominal exercises which are 3 sets with 15-20 reps, can increase strength and flexibility. ...
... Pertaining to the principles of Wolff's law and SAID (Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demand), an increase in suitable exercise intensity over-time would permit the cessation or reversal of causally reciprocated antalgic deconditioning, preventing further atrophy, bone involution or articular chondral wasting (Pearson et al., 2002;Singh, 2002;Teichahl et al., 2015). Specific to hydrotherapeutic interventions, not all studies addressed or utilised medium temperature or, to a greater extent, submersion depths. ...
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Introduction: Land-based exercise and hydrotherapy are often compared against each other in competition within rehabilitation; however, no coverage exists regarding a combined, poly-modular remit utilising both modalities in the treatment of general knee pain. Objectives: To accrue, analyse and interpret information and data from various related RCT’s with the intent of addressing the feasibility and permissibility of such a treatment. Methods: Google Scholar, PubMed and Cochrane Library were screened for knee pain specific populations that were treated by either land-based exercise and/or hydrotherapy. 63 articles were identified with 17 being included in the review following full PRISMA screening. Results: Pain (VAS, land and hydro = p < 0.05), active-daily life and quality of life scores improved across both modalities but were dependent upon the stage of rehabilitation and quality of exercise prescription regarding intensity standardisation. Conclusion: Hydrotherapy presents feasibility as an introduction to otherwise provocative full gravitational exposure in populations where pain impedes function. Water submersion provides an analgesic environment encouraging full pain-free ROM, heightened efficacy, adherence and a return to pre-antalgic homeostatic levels. This assists in the transfer to land-based rehabilitation where functional transfer to every-day life is more achievable. However, due to a limitation in available research, further elucidation is required.
... Moreover, the changes in the central and lateral nervous system occur to enable the activation of motor units for the production of the special force. Evidence shows that high intensity exercises affect the concentration of metabolic levels and hormones such as growth hormones, and their secretion is correlated with exercise intensity (Pearson, Faigenbaum, Conley & Kraemer, 2000). Resistance exercise has an important effect on public health, prevention and even treatment of many diseases of adult age (aging) and is often prescribed to enhance the ability of an individual to reduce and prevent injury associated with increasing age (such as osteoporosis) (Abe, Yasuda, et al., 2005). ...
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Resistance activity with new methods of exercise such as blood flow and respiration restriction has been performed at a lower intensity in pursuing various physiological responses. The main purpose of this research was to study the effect of blood flow and respiratory restriction on blood lactate concentration and growth hormone in the acute response to resistance exercise in collegiate wrestlers. A counter- balanced design was used in which 8 collegiate wrestlers (mean age 26.87±4.7 years and body mass index 25.26±2.49 kg/m2) were randomly assigned in three conditions including: control (80%1RM) and resistance exercise with blood flow and respiratory restriction (30%1RM). Four sets of squats were used as the resistance exercise. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after exercise. The data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA using SPSS software (version 19) with a significance level of p <0.05. All three types of exercise caused a significant increase in lactate and growth hormone immediately after the exercise, but no significant difference was observed between the groups. The results of this study indicated that resistance exercise with restriction of blood flow and respiration can lead to increased metabolic and hormonal responses. This research also confirms the effectiveness of this type of exercise and satisfies the goals expected from high intensity exercises. Keywords: KAATSU Training, Weight Training, Training Mask
... All these exercises support both respiratory parameters and core stability with an increased diaphragm and abdominal muscle activation. All movements in daily life, including exercises, create an adaptation in accordance with the (specific adaptations the imposed demands) (SAID) principle (23,24). This adaptation also applies to respiratory muscles and trunk stabilization. ...
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ABSTRACT Purpose: Trunk muscles are acrive in the forceful expiration, and trunk this study aimed to examine the relationship between pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, and trunk muscle endurance. Methods: The study was conducted with 60 volunteer and healthy individuals whose ages varied between 20 and 36 years. Pulmonary function and maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were measured using a desktop spirometer. Trunk muscle endurance of the subjects was evaluated using the prone bridge, side bridge, flexor endurance, and Sorensen tests. Results: A positive significant relationship was observed between the percentage of forced vital capacity (%FVC) and prone bridge (r=0.395, p=0.002), flexor endurance (r=0.256, p=0.049), and Sorensen (r=0.255, p=0.049) tests. Likewise, a positivesignificant correlation was found between the percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%FEV1 ) and prone bridge (r=0.408, p=0.001), flexor endurance (r=0.358, p=0.005), and side bridge (r=0.277, p=0.032) tests. The results revealed a positive relationship between MIP and prone bridge (r=0.376, p=0.003) and side bridge tests (r=0.470, p<0.001). Likewise, there was a positive correlation between MEP and prone bridge test (r=0.401, p=0.004) and side bridge test (r=0.365 p=0.002). Conclusion: Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength are associated with the endurance of the trunk muscles, which ensure core stability. Trunk muscle endurance exercises may have a positive influence on respiratory function. Key Words: Diaphragm; Endurance; Pulmonary Function; Respiratory Muscles; Trunk.
... [17] Resistance training has been prescribed for improving health, fitness, and also in rehabilitation. [18,19] Resistance training has been shown to increase muscular strength in both children and adolescents, and this increase was attributed to increased neuromuscular activation and co-ordination. [20] A couple of studies carried out in our laboratory have also demonstrated that resistance training using dumbbells and elastic bands elicited improvement in isokinetic muscular power in healthy male adults [21] and in adolescent athletes. ...
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Introduction: This study investigated the effects of resistance training and Eurycoma longifoliaJack supplementation on isokinetic muscular strength and power, Wingate anaerobic power, and testosterone: epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in young males. Methods: Forty young males were weight‑matched and assigned into four groups: control (C), Eurycoma longifolia jack (ElJ), resistance training (RT), and Eurycoma longifolia Jack plus resistance training group (ElJ & RT). Participants in ElJ and ElJ & RT groups consumed 200 mg Eurycoma longifolia Jack daily, whereas participants in the C and RT groups consumed placebo capsules daily for 8 weeks. Resistance training program which consisted of 10 different exercises was conducted three times per week for 8 weeks. Participants’ isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic power, and urinary TE ratio were measured before and after the intervention period. This is a randomized placebo‑controlled intervention study. Paired t‑test and one‑way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean average power of knee flexion at 300°/s in the RT and ElJ & RT groups was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the posttest compared with pretest. Wingate relative peak power in the RT group increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with respective pretest value, whereas peak power in the combined ElJ & RT group was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in posttest compared with pretest. There was no significant difference in T/E ratio between pre‑ and posttests in all the groups. Conclusions: The prescribed resistance training program, either with or without ElJ supplementation, improved isokinetic power of the lower limb. Resistance training alone improved relative anaerobic power, whereas combined Eurycoma longifolia Jack and resistance training improved peak power output. ElJ consumption of 200 mg daily for 8 weeks did not affect the urinary T/E ratio.
... All these exercises support both respiratory parameters and core stability with an increased diaphragm and abdominal muscle activation. All movements in daily life, including exercises, create an adaptation in accordance with the (specific adaptations the imposed demands) (SAID) principle (23,24). This adaptation also applies to respiratory muscles and trunk stabilization. ...
Article
summary: The concept of periodization is important for strength and conditioning professionals. This roundtable covers several aspects of periodization strategies.
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Objective: To compare the effects of different rest intervals (RI) between sets of isokinetic contractions on muscle performance in older adults. Methods: Twenty older participants (66.9±3.9 years; 76.1±13.4kg; 169±5.2cm) underwent three sessions of unilateral isokinetic training for the knee extensor muscles, with different RI (1 minute, 2 minutes and 3 minutes) at an angular velocity of 60°s -1. Each session consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions, during which the peak torque (PT), total work (TW) and fatigue index (FI) were evaluated. Factorial ANOVA for repeated measurements, with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, was used to identify possible differences between the RI. The statistical significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: No differences in muscle performance during the first sets were observed between the different RI (p>0.05). Although muscle performance was lower during the third sets with all RI, the greatest decreases in PT, TW and FI occurred with the 1 minute RI (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that the RI variable has an important influence on isokinetic muscle performance in older adults, particularly from the third sets onwards, which suggests that RI should be increased as successive sets are performed within the same exercise session. Article registered in the Clinical Trials under the number NDT00673998.
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Volume 16(1s) ~ 2021 ~ DOI: 10.18002/rama.v16i1s Strength and conditioning for combat sports athletes
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No accepted method for monitoring resistance exercise fatigue exists. Ammonium, lactate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for their utility in monitoring resistance exercise. Sixteen men (18-24 yrs.) participated in the study. Muscular endurance (ME), strength (STR), and hypertrophy (HYP) squat workouts were based on a one-repetition maximum squat. Protocols were performed at least 72 hours apart in random order. Work volume was equalized among protocols. Subjects reported RPE based on last set difficulty. Venous blood was obtained for ammonium and lactate analysis after five minutes of rest both before and after each workout. Differences among protocols were assessed by univariate ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc comparisons. Post exercise ammonium (p<.01) and lactate (p<.01) both increased from resting levels. However, no difference existed among protocols for post-exercise lactate (p=.10). A difference in post-exercise ammonium was found between the STR and ME protocols only (p=.01). Reported RPE differed between the HYP protocol and the STR (p=.04) and ME (p=.02) protocols, with no difference found between STR and ME (p=.97). Lactate levels appeared to correspond with total work volume whereas ammonium levels appeared to correspond with work density. Reported RPE appeared to be associated with both nervous system and metabolic stress.
Article
The study aim was to compare the chronic effects of maximal dynamic strength training with and without the addition of local mechanical vibration (LV), on maximal force generation and hypertrophy of the elbow flexor muscles in trained subjects. Twenty men were divided into two groups [conventional training (CT) group and vibration training (VT) group]. The CT group performed conventional maximal dynamic strength training, and the VT group performed maximal dynamic strength training with mechanical vibrations (frequency of 26 Hz and amplitude of 6 mm). Both groups performed 5 sets of 3-4 repetitions, with 2-minute rest intervals between sets. The subjects trained 3 times per week for 12 weeks. After the training period, the CT group presented a significant increase in the mean one-repetition maximum (1RM) value in the elbow flexion exercise in the orthostatic position (EFO) (7.2 ± 1.5%) (p<0.0001) and elbow flexion exercise using the Scott bench (EFSB) (6.3 ± 1.8%) (p<0.0001). The VT group also showed significant increases in 1RM values in the EFO (6.87 ± 0.8%) (p<0.0001) and EFSB (6.56 ± 1.4%) (p<0.0001). The CT group presented a significant increase in the mean maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) value after the training period (8.2 ± 2.3%) (p<0.0001). The VT group also showed a significant increase in the mean MVIC value after training (9.
Article
The purpose of this study was to a) assess the impact of prehabilitation on strength and power development within a block periodisation model, and b) integrate this task into a training plan without extending training time. Six trained subjects were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: an intervention group performing combined prehabilitation and resistance training (INT) (n=3) or a control group performing resistance training only (CON) (n=3). Outcome measures performed were; 3 repetition maximum back squat (3RM BS), 3RM bench press (3RM BP) and standing long jump (SLJ). An identical resistance training plan was delivered to both groups over the 7 week period. Prior to the resistance training component of each training session, the CON group performed a standard dynamic warm-up while the INT group performed prehabilitation activities which targeted common mechanisms of injury and neuromuscular capabilities. Volume load (VL) was equated between both groups. Post intervention, a statistically significantly difference favouring the INT group was found in the 3RM BS (p < 0.05), underpinned by an improvement of 28.18% from baseline, when compared to the CON group who expressed a 10.97% improvement. An improvement of 2.91% and 5.59% in the SLJ was exhibited by the INT and CON groups respectively, representing no statistical difference between the two groups. No difference was found between the INT and CON groups in the 3RM BP, where respective improvements of 10.43% and 11.76% were displayed. The results indicate that prehabilitation may have a positive effect on lower body strength when combined with periodised resistance training. Further, the warm-up is an opportune time for integrating injury prevention strategies without attenuating strength and power development whilst easing the time demands on a training schedule.
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The purpose of the study was to find out the relationship between height, weight, and 1 RM to the shot put performance among school boys. To achieve the purpose of the study forty male subjects were selected from Govt. higher secondary school, Rabta, Jammu and Kashmir, the age group ranged between 17 to 21 years. All the subjects were physically active. The above selected variables were tested through height (stadio-meter), weight (weighing machine), and 1RM (bench press) respectively. Each subject was given three trails and the best performance was considered in the final score. The collected data was statistically analyzed with Pearson Product Moment correlation. The result of the study showed that there was a moderate positive correlation between weight and shot put performance, whereas a strong positive correlation was found between weight and shot put performance and 1RM and shot put performance. To test the hypothesis, the level of significance was set at 0.05.
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Unlabelled: The rehabilitation process is driven by the manipulation of training variables that elicit specific adaptations in order to meet established goals. Periodization is an overall concept of training that deals with the division of the training process into specific phases. Programming is the manipulation of the variables within these phases (sets, repetitions, load) that are needed to bring about the specific adaptations desired within that particular period. The current body of literature is very limited when it comes to how these variables are best combined in an injured population since most of the periodization research has been done in a healthy population. This manuscript explores what is currently understood about periodization, gives clinical guidelines for implementation, and provides the sports physical therapist with a framework to apply these principles in designing rehabilitation programs. Level of evidence: 5.
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The concept of periodization is important for strength and conditioning professionals. This roundtable covers several aspects of periodization strategies.
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summary: The concept of periodization is important for strength and conditioning professionals. This roundtable covers several aspects of periodization strategies. (C) 2004 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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Learning objective: To understand the concept of risk management and to learn the steps necessary to protect your program from costly legal claims and lawsuits. (C) 2000 American College of Sports Medicine
Book
Founded on an analysis of scientific literature and backed by an abundance of references, this timely new book examines problems related to sports training, as well as the concept that training-induced changes are founded on adaptive protein synthesis. Discussions include: Alterations in the organism's adaptivity during exercise training Intracellular control of protein synthesis points on molecular mechanisms in exercise training Endocrine mechanisms with regard to acute adaptation during exercise, as well as amplification and post-translation control of the adaptive protein synthesis Practical benefits of the adaptation process in training.
Article
The effectiveness of a twice-a-week strength training program on children was evaluated in 14 boys and girls (mean age 10.8 yrs) who participated in a biweekly training program for 8 weeks. Each subject performed three sets of 10 to 15 repetitions on five exercises with intensities ranging between 50 and 100% of a given 10-repetition maximum (RM). All subjects were pre- and posttested on the following measures: 10-RM strength, sit and reach flexibility, vertical jump, seated ball put, resting blood pressure, and body composition parameters. The subjects were compared to a similar group of boys and girls (n = 9; mean age 9.9 yrs) who were randomly selected to serve as controls. Following the training period, the experimental group made greater gains in strength (74.3%) as compared to the control group (13.0%) (p < 0.001), and differences in the sum of seven skinfolds were noted (−2.3% vs. +1.7%, respectively, p < 0.05). Training did not significantly affect other variables. These results suggest that parti...
Article
This study examined the angular specificity and test mode specificity of strength training. Six males and six females (X̄ = 22.6 years) were assigned to groups which trained either isometrically (90°) or isokinetically (30°/second). They trained their left elbow extensors at 80% of their maximum voluntary contraction on a modified Cybex® apparatus for 10 weeks, three sessions per week, with 50 contractions per session. Before and after training, both groups were tested isometrically (70, 90, 110°) and isokinetically (30°/second). When tested isometrically, both groups improved equally, and strength was increased at all three test angles to about the same extent. When tested isokinetically, both groups improved, but the isokinetic group improved to a greater extent. In conclusion, no angular specificity of training was demonstrated within 20° of the training angle, and no test mode specificity was seen for isometric testing. However, isometric training showed less transfer to an isokinetic test.
Article
Regular vigorous physical exercise is probably as important as diet and insulin in the control of diabetes; the controlled diabetic should be encouraged to participate fully in almost any activity in which he or she is interested. (JD)
Article
ACSM Position Stand on Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc., Vol. 30. No. 6, pp. 992-1008, 1998. By the year 2030, the number of individuals 65 yr and over will reach 70 million in the United States alone; persons 85 yr and older will be the fastest growing segment of the population. As more individuals live longer, it is imperative to determine the extent and mechanisms by which exercise and physical activity can improve health, functional capacity, quality of life, and independence in this population. Aging is a complex process involving many variables (e.g., genetics, lifestyle factors, chronic diseases) that interact with one another, greatly influencing the manner in which we age. Participation in regular physical activity (both aerobic and strength exercises) elicits a number of favorable responses that contribute to healthy aging. Much has been learned recently regarding the adaptability of various biological systems, as well as the ways that regular exercise can influence them. Participation in a regular exercise program is an effective intervention/modality to reduce/prevent a number of functional declines associated with aging. Further, the trainability of older individuals (including octo- and nonagenarians) is evidenced by their ability to adapt and respond to both endurance and strength training. Endurance training can help maintain and improve various aspects of cardiovascular function (as measured by maximal V˙O2, cardiac output, and arteriovenous O2 difference), as well as enhance submaximal performance. Importantly, reductions in risk factors associated with disease states (heart disease, diabetes, etc.) improve health status and contribute to an increase in life expectancy. Strength training helps offset the loss in muscle mass and strength typically associated with normal aging. Additional benefits from regular exercise include improved bone health and, thus, reduction in risk for osteoporosis; improved postural stability, thereby reducing the risk of falling and associated injuries and fractures; and increased flexibility and range of motion. While not as abundant, the evidence also suggests that involvement in regular exercise can also provide a number of psychological benefits related to preserved cognitive function, alleviation of depression symptoms and behavior, and an improved concept of personal control and self-efficacy. It is important to note that while participation in physical activity may not always elicit increases in the traditional markers of physiological performance and fitness (e.g., V˙O2max, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, body composition) in older adults, it does improve health (reduction in disease risk factors) and functional capacity. Thus, the benefits associated with regular exercise and physical activity contribute to a more healthy, independent lifestyle, greatly improving the functional capacity and quality of life in this population.
Article
Anaerobic "sprint-interval" metabolic conditioning differs from aerobic in that exercise intensity is greater (supramaximal) and duration is shorter in the former; exercise modality may be identical, and is usually total-body in nature. Manipulation of the exercise:relief ratio should be based upon several criteria: competitive activity-inactivity profiles, bioenergetic kinetics and time courses of phosphagen repletion and lactate clearance during recovery. While there is discussion in the literature regarding manipulation of chronic training variables (especially exercise intensity, duration, volume, frequency, program progression and duration, concurrent "cross-training" compatibility and testing) and of the functional significance of such training in previously untrained subjects, data on athletic populations are scarce. However, it appears that sprint-interval training yields specific, positive physiological adaptations in the neuromusculature. Directions for future research should include the mechanisms and trainability of substrate repletion and metabolite clearance kinetics, concurrent strength-power and metabolic training compatibility and calcium metabolism. (C) 1991 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
Variation or periodization of training is an important concept in designing weight-training programs. To date, the majority of studies examining periodization of weight training have used a traditional strength/power training model of decreasing training volume and increasing training intensity as the program progresses. The majority of these studies have used males as subjects and do support the contention that periodized programs can result in greater changes in strength, motor performance, total body weight, lean body mass, and percent body fat than nonperiodized programs. However, studies are needed examining why periodized training is more beneficial than nonperiodized training. Studies are also needed examining the response of females, children, and seniors to periodized weight-training programs and the response to periodized models other than the traditional strength/power training model. (C) 1999 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
The purpose of this series of investigations was to gain insight on resistance training in American football and address some of the myths. Many theories about resistance training have been proposed, yet there has been little if any research on some of these training philosophies. This series of studies represents an accumulation of data that helped to formulate a training approach. Rather than having a training philosophy, it might be more productive to have a training approach based on facts and critical monitoring of test variables representative of the physical development possible through strength and conditioning programs. It was demonstrated that football players are capable of multiple maximal efforts in resistance training and that the length of the rest period was a determining factor. In general, multiple sets and various periodized training programs were superior to single-set programs in the rate and magnitude of improvements in body composition, strength, local muscular endurance, and power. Such data indicate that for building programs in previously trained football players, multiple-set programs that provide variation are more appropriate. (C) 1997 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
To examine the efficacy of a 3-week, high-intensity, resistance exercise protocol for inducing overtraining, 9 subjects trained their lower body on a squat-simulating resistance exercise machine. Five subjects performed a training (Trn) protocol 5 days a week to elicit an overtraining response. Four subjects performed a control (Con) protocol 2 days a week. Test batteries of sprints, jumps, and strength tests were performed four times during the study at l-week intervals (Tl, T2, T3, T4). One-RM performances increased for the Trn group by T2 and remained augmented through T4. Overtraining did not occur, but other performances were attenuated for the Trn group. Increased sprint times for 9.1 m and 36.6 m were evident by T2 for the Trn group and remained slower through T4. Leg extension torque decreased for the Trn group by T4. Future attempts to induce intensity-dependent overtraining for study should use greater training intensities or different training modalities and should monitor physiological factors that may contribute to this phenomenon. (C) 1994 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
While no clear-cut distinction between “muscle training” and “nerve training” can be made, the approach presented has emphasized the muscle during the early preparation (high volume), then emphasized the central nervous system (high intensity and increased technique work) during the later stages of training. The authors’ research and observations, that of other researchers, and the subjective evaluations of athletes and coaches who have tried this method suggest this to be a superior method of strength-power training. This model of training has been compared to various methods of strength-power training including 3 sets of six RM, pyramiding, low repetitions and various sets to exhaustion (1-3). Based on these comparisons the following conclusions were reached: 1. The model produced superior gains in leg and hip strength (1 RM) (10 of 11 studies). 2. The model produced superior gains in leg and hip power (VJ and Lewis formula) in all 11 studies. 3. The model generally produced superior gains in upper body strength (1RM Bench Press). (However, a few studies showed equal gains when compared to 3 × 6 RM and pyramiding over a short term [6–12 weeks]). 4. Positive changes in body composition (% fat and LBM) were greater in those subjects using the training model in most of the 11 studies. This was especially evident after high volume training (sets of 10). 5. Based on cycle ergometry of increasing intensity to exhaustion, the model produced greater gains in short term endurance. This was especially apparent after high volume training (sets of 10). While this method of training is not the final answer, it is based on sound concepts and principles and will provide the coach-athlete with a superior training program.
Article
This paper discusses statistics derived from surveys and competitions. Analyses of previous publications and comparative data from other studies appear to contradict a general view that weight training is safer than weightlifting, when the latter is defined according to the International Weightlifting Federation's rulebook. Both activities appear to be safer than many other sports. The age group considered is largely school age. (C) 1994 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
This study examined the effects of a single set of weight training exercise to failure and 2 multiple-set protocols (not to failure) on the 1-RM parallel squat. Forty-three men were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 weight training protocols emphasizing leg and hip strength: SS = single set to failure of 8-12 reps; MS = 3 x 10 reps; MSV = multiple-set program using a varied set and rep scheme. Relative intensity (% initial 1-RM), intensity (average mass lifted), and volume load (repetitions x mass) differed between groups over 14 weeks. Body mass, body composition, and the 1-RM parallel squat were assessed at baseline and at Weeks 5 and 14. Results showed no significant changes in body mass or body composition. The 1-RM squat increased significantly in all groups. Differences in 1-RM between groups indicate that MS and MSV increased approximately 50% more than SS over the 14 weeks. Results suggest that multiple sets not performed to failure produce superior gains in the 1-RM squat. (C) 1997 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
Six male subjects (26.0+/-3.1 years) performed an exercise regimen of repeated knee extension exercises in an attempt to induce size and strength changes in the quadriceps muscle (thigh). The left thigh was trained using a progressive constant external resistance exercise (CERE) lifting protocol and the right thigh was trained using an isokinetic (ISK) device. The total amount of torque produced by each protocol was the same. Knee extensions were performed at a velocity common to the CERE (120 deg/sec). Girth measurements, corrected for subcutaneous fat, and expressed as thigh volumes (cc), showed a significant hypertrophy of the posttrained CERE thigh (3300.67+/-526.67) compared to the pretrained CERE thigh (3044.13+/-448.50). No significant difference was found between pre- and posttrained ISK thigh volumes. The mean CERE (36.0+/-0.0) and ISK repetitions (64.54+/-13.61) necessary to produce equals work bouts (based on total torque produced) were significantly different. Strength gains as measured with the CERE and ISK device were specific to the training mode. The CERE thigh showed a significant strength (kg) gain when tested on a CERE device; the ISK thigh did not. However, the ISK thigh gained significant strength (kg.m) at all testing velocities (60, 180 and 240 deg/sec) while the CERE thigh did not. These data would indicate: 1) the suggested superiority of CERE training versus ISK training for producing hypertropby of the thigh at a training velocity common to CERE (120 deg/sec); 2) CERE training is more intense than ISK training for equal work bouts at a training velocity common to CERE; and 3) strength gains are specific to training and to the mode of testing. (C) 1988 National Strength and Conditioning Association