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Warm-up, Stretching, and
Cool-down Strategies for
Combat Sports
Pablo B. Costa, PhD,
Hugo B. O. Medeiros, BS,
and David H. Fukuda, MS, CSCS
Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, California State University—San Bernardino, San
Bernardino, California;
Graduate Program in Physical Education, Gama Filho University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and
Metabolic and Body Composition Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma,
Norman, Oklahoma
Contemporary mixed martial arts
(MMA) originated from No
Holds Barred competitions in
Brazil, which derives from the Portu-
guese translation ‘‘vale-tudo’’ (literally,
‘‘anything goes’’) (29,37). MMA has
existed for decades in Brazil and other
countries (13,29), and is increasing in
popularity, while combining different
fighting styles (martial arts) (1,2,6,13).
Combatants wearing minimal protec-
tive gear can use punches, kicks, elbows
and knee strikes, stomps, chokes, joint
locks, throws, and more to obtain a
victory by knock-out, technical knock-
out, or submission (16). Arguably, the
most important occurrence has been
the creation of the Ultimate Fighting
Championship (UFC), which, along
with the interest of executives, has
required fighters to become more pre-
pared in their training as well as
physically conditioned and well-
rounded in different disciplines for these
events (32). Thus, the UFC was the
major commercialization of a sport that
The physiological demand of MMA as
a sport is tremendous, potentially taxing
all energy systems (13).
Adequate preparation is necessary for
any athlete during the various phases
of training and competition. This is
especially true given the overall train-
ing intensity that is required of an
MMA fighter (8). Consequently,
a warm-up routine before a training
session is generally accepted and is
a widely used practice before perform-
ing other forms of exercise (15,31,34).
With an effective warm-up routine,
an athlete can improve the initial
state of physical and mental readiness
necessary for muscular performance
(31). Thus, a successful warm-up
routine can improve subsequent per-
formance, reduce muscle soreness, and
aid in the prevention of injuries
(5,15,30,31,39). Muscles, tendons, and
ligaments become more compliant
as the temperature of the tissue is
increased, possibly decreasing the risk
of injury (31). Other benefits include
enhanced aerobic power and lower
levels of lactate, increased speed of
muscle contraction and transmission of
neuronal impulses, greater movement
economy, facilitated oxygen delivery,
and increased cardiac output and blood
flow (8,24,27,31,43). Scientific evidence
has suggested that an active warm-up
appears to be more beneficial than
a passive warm-up (5). Hence, a warm-
up should involve major muscles used
in the training or competition, be
similar to the activity to be engaged,
progress from lower to higher inten-
sity, and be at least 10 minutes in
duration (14), depending on environ-
mental conditions. It should grad-
ually increase in intensity sufficiently
enough to increase muscle and core
temperature without causing fatigue or
depleting energy stores (31). In con-
trast, although an increase in body
combat sports; grappling; Ultimate
Fighting Championship; reality
fighting; mixed martial arts; MMA
Copyright ÓNational Strength and Conditioning Association Strength and Conditioning Journal | 71
Figure 1. Example of a warm-up routine. (a) Alternating the base with a trunk rotation mimicking the movement of takedown. (b)
Alternating the base with a trunk rotation mimicking the movement of a single-leg takedown. (c) Mimicking the sprawl
movement, used to defend from takedowns with upright stabilization using preferred leg forward and isometric push-up
once on the floor. (d) Stabilization exercise known as ‘‘superman,’’ used to mimic passing the guard while moving and in
balance. (e) Movement to mimic abdomen strength effort from the guard position.
Warm-up, Stretching, and Cool-down for Combat Sports
Figure 2. Example of a warm-up routine. (a) Movement to mimic abdomen strength effort during trunk rotation from the guard
position. (b) Movement to mimic stabilization done with a partner, using isometric muscle actions to stabilize the lower
back and abdomen, increasing the strength in this region during the movement of guard passing. (c) Same concept as
above, but from a standing position, to increase lower back and abdomen strength. (d) Dynamic movement to switch
bases, mimicking knee strikes. (e) Movement of getting up from the guard, heavily used during fights.
Strength and Conditioning Journal | 73
temperature may be advantageous, an
excessive rise in temperature may
impair body function processes and
consequently lead to negative effects
on overall performance (10,11,25).
Thus, more attention must be given
to the methods and types of warm-up.
A warm-up can be classified as general
or specific (31). A general warm-up
refers to the type of warm-up in which
movements and energy substrates that
are predominant in the sport are not
explicitly addressed. With this type
of warm-up, heart rate, blood flow,
muscle temperature, respiratory rate,
and sweating are increased (5,9). For
example, a general warm-up involving
running increases internal body and
muscle temperature and prepares the
cardiovascular system for performance.
A warm-up is normally considered ade-
quate when the athlete begins to sweat.
A specific warm-up refers to a routine
that is more specific to a particular
activity, in which movements are
performed that mimic the training of
the intended activity, in this case,
combat sports. Dynamic and static
stretches have traditionally served as
a warm-up for the muscles directly
involved in the sport (5,9). A warm-up
routine that is appropriately timed and
performed is essential for the athlete to
benefit the most from training and
competing. For the purpose of practical
application, a sequence of exercises
is demonstrated (Figures 1, 2 and
Table 1) and can be placed into
the warm-up routine of an MMA
athlete. This combination of stimuli
lasts approximately 10–15 minutes,
with only 20–30 seconds of recovery
between exercises.
During a fight, it is evident that certain
movements require a rather large range
of motion and mobility. A decreased
range of motion in the basic move-
ments necessary in a fight can impair
striking motions while standing or
on the ground. In addition, a lack of
mobility can make it more difficult
to escape from possible submission
attempts. Hence, the level of flexibility
Table 1
Warm-up routine
Exercises Volume Mode
Lunges with unilateral trunk rotation (2 sides) (Figure 1A) 4 sets 10 s Static
Lunges with unilateral trunk rotation (2 sides) (Figure 1B) 4 sets 8 reps Dynamic
Elbow extension (sprawl) (Figure 1C) 4 sets 20 s Isometric
Superman (Figure 1D) 4 sets 20 s Isometric
Static crunches with hip abduction (2 sides) (Figure 1E) 4 sets 20 s Static
Static crunches with hip flexed and trunk rotations (2 sides) (Figure 2A) 3 sets 10 s Static
Static crunches with trunk rotations lying down (2 sides) (Figure 2 B) 3 sets 10 s Static
Static crunches with trunk rotations standing-up (2 sides) (Figure 2C) 3 sets 10 s Static
Static elbow extension with unilateral knee flexion (2 sides) (Figure 2D) 3 sets 10 reps Dynamic
Standing from the guard (2 sides) (Figure 2E) 3 sets 10 reps Dynamic
reps = repetitions.
Figure 3. Example of the importance of flexibility in combat sports. Fighter performing a front high kick to the face and attempting
an arm-bar submission escape.
Warm-up, Stretching, and Cool-down for Combat Sports
in this case is directly associated with
range of motion, and if it is low, it can
negatively affect performance. Further-
more, the importance of flexibility is
increased in combat sports, which
require movements to be performed
in the extreme ends of the range of
motion, such as in jiu-jitsu, muay thai,
and MMA (17,42). For example, head
kicks and arm-bar submission escapes
require high levels of hip and shoulder
flexibility, respectively (Figure 3). Spe-
cifically, high levels of flexibility of the
hip and knee joint are necessary for
a high kick, and high levels of flexibility
(and strength) of the shoulder joint are
necessary when trying to rotate the
arm around the shoulder joint when
attempting to escape from an arm-bar
submission. Hence, MMA is a combat
sport that requires mobility and an
enhanced range of motion in specific
movements, particularly in the hip and
shoulder joints. Stretching exercises
should aim to mimic and replicate
these movements as much as possible.
Although an extensive discussion on
stretching is beyond the scope of this
article, a distinction between dynamic
and static stretching is crucial because
studies have shown that acute static
stretching may induce performance
decrements (7). For example, pre-
activity static stretching has been shown
to reduce strength, power, speed, bal-
ance, and vertical jump performance(7).
In addition, the theory of stretching for
injury risk prevention is questionable
Table 2
Static stretching
Exercises Volume
Adductors (Figure 4A) 3 reps 20 s
Hamstrings (Figure 4B) 3 reps 20 s
Abductors (Figure 4C) 3 reps 20 s
Shoulders (Figure 4D) 3 reps 20 s
reps = repetitions.
Table 3
Dynamic/ballistic stretching
Exercises Volume
Backward roll (Figure 5A) 2 sets 10 reps 30 s
Base changes for the abductors (Figure 5B) 2 sets 10 reps 30 s
Scorpion for shoulders and trunk (Figure 5C) 2 sets 10 reps 30 s
Hip abduction (Figure 5D) 2 sets 10 reps 30 s
reps = repetitions.
Figure 4. Example of static stretching exercises. (a) Static stretching for the guard. (b) Static stretching for the open guard, used often
during sweeps. (c) Static stretching with a switched base, used during sweeps. (d) Static stretching for the upper body
Strength and Conditioning Journal | 75
(18,19). Furthermore, static stretching
does not elevate body temperature and
hence cannot be considered a warm-up.
Therefore, it is suggested that static
stretching exercises should be per-
formed after training or in an entirely
separate training session.
Flexibility is used and required for
various movements in activities of daily
living, and in some sports it becomes
more important than others. Thus,
maintaining an optimal level of flexi-
bility may increase the performance of
athletes in combat sports. Flexibility
can be defined as the maximal passive
physiological amplitude for a given
joint motion (3,4). Flexibility is specific
and may be different across gender,
age, level of physical activity, and
anatomical and musculotendinous
structures (5,35). Flexibility is also
Figure 5. Example of dynamic stretching exercises. (a) Dynamic back roll, mimicking movements when fighting on the ground. (b)
Movement of flexion and extension of the hips and lumbar spine while attempting to switch bases often necessary
during a fight or training. (c) Base switch while on the ground, using the movement of ‘‘scissors’’ to switch bases and to
stand up during a fight. (d) Dynamic stretching for the adductors, often used during passing of the guard.
Warm-up, Stretching, and Cool-down for Combat Sports
specific to each joint and movement,
and, for example, one athlete can
present different levels of range of
motion for flexion and extension in
the same joint (20,38). Maintaining an
adequate level of flexibility is both
crucial and necessary to enhance
performance in athletes. The stretch-
ing exercises (listed in Tables 2, 3 and
Figures 4, 5) for training flexibility can
be classified as active, passive, ballistic,
and proprioceptive neuromuscular
facilitation (5). As an example of this
training application for MMA, dy-
namic stretching is recommended for
various reasons. First, the athlete re-
produces similar movements during
the warm-up that he/she will use in
training or in a fight, including specific
rehearsal of movement before exercise
(22,23,41). In addition, research sug-
gests an advantageous increase in body
temperature with dynamic stretching
(23,44) when compared with static
stretching, an increase in neuromuscu-
lar activity (21), stimulation of the
nervous system (28,44), and an associ-
ation with postactivation potentiation
(21,26,36,41,44), leading to perfor-
mance enhancements.
A training session consists of a warm-
up, the training itself, and a cool-down
(14,33). After training, a low-intensity
cool-down session should be per-
formed to facilitate a gradual transition
from an exercise level to a resting state
(33). A cool-down period is essential
after a training session and should last
approximately 5–10 minutes (33,34).
This cool-down period is characterized
as a way to transition the body to
a state of relaxation after training and if
done properly can optimize the pro-
cess of recovery (12). In fact, a cool-
down protocol can effectively recover
the heart rate and blood pressure to
pre-exercise resting levels leading to an
antiarrhythmic effect and protecting
the individual from a cardiac event or
hypotensive episode (40). For example,
the cool-down during recovery can
help facilitate venous return and
Table 4
Exercises Volume Mode
Frontal scorpion (Figure 6A) 2 sets 30 s Static
Spinal extension for the abdomen and hip flexors
(Figure 6B)
2 sets 30 s Static
Backward roll for the cervical and lumbar spine
(Figure 6C)
2 sets 30 s Static
Lateral base for the gluteus and lumbar spine
(Figure 6D)
2 sets 30 s Static
Figure 6. Example of cool-down exercises. (a) Lumbar cool-down using the ‘‘scissors’’ movement. (b) Trunk cool-down, especially of
the abdomen muscles heavily used during a fight or training. (c) Back roll mimicking fighting movements in which the
opponent rolls the fighter backward and achieves top control. This exercise helps the fighter relax in this position often
used during a fight. (d) Light stretch for the lumbar region and anterior thigh muscles mimicking positions in which the
fighter is on the ground and attempts to stand up by grabbing the opponent’s leg(s).
Strength and Conditioning Journal | 77
subsequently prevent pooling of ve-
nous blood (33,40). Thus, intensity
should be gradually decreased fol-
lowed by stretching (14). In addition,
the cool-down may minimize muscle
soreness and stiffness after training or
competition (14).
Table 4 and Figure 6 presents examples
of 4 movements that can be used during
the cool-down period after an MMA
training session with the purpose of
enhancing relaxation of the muscles and
reducing the time needed for recovery
for subsequent training sessions.
MMA is composed of various combat
sports that require intense physical
training. A comprehensive strength
and conditioning program for an
MMA athlete should include appropri-
ately planned warm-up, cool-down, and
stretching components. Warm-up ses-
sions may be both general and specific
but should be designed to focus on
active or dynamic movements. Stretch-
ing programs are crucial for sport-
specific movements but should be part
of postexercise cool down routines or
used as a separate focused effort to
enhance flexibility. Cool-down strate-
gies should be developed to enhance
the return to basal metabolic levels and
aid in postexercise recovery.
The authors would like to thank
former Ultimate Fighting Champion-
ship (UFC) middleweight title con-
tender Thales Leites for the time taken
to pose for the pictures in this article.
They would also like to thank Mega
Sport Center Gym and Huston Huff-
man Center for making their facilities
available for the pictures to be taken.
Pablo B. Costa
is currently an
assistant professor
in the Department
of Kinesiology at
California State
University, San
Hugo B. O.
Medeiros is cur-
rently a master
research student in
the Graduate
Program in Physi-
cal Education at
Gama Filho
David H.
Fukuda is cur-
rently a doctoral
research and
teaching assistant
in the Metabolic
and Body Compo-
sition Laboratory at the University of
Oklahoma in the Department of Health
and Exercise Science.
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Strength and Conditioning Journal | 79
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... In addition, when the literature is examined, there are studies examining the effect of warm up on sports performance in other combat sports (MMA, wrestling, muay thai, kickboxing) [21,[76][77][78]. Herman and Smith [78] were to determine whether a dynamic-stretching warmup (DWU) intervention performed daily over 4 weeks positively influenced power, speed, agility, endurance, flexibility, and strength performance measures in collegiate wrestlers when compared to a static-stretching warm-up (SWU) intervention. ...
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This review aimed to analyze the findings in the literature related to Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) through an exploratory systematic review and to present the state of the art from a multifactorial perspective. The review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement, with a search performed in the Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. Participants were competitive athletes (amateurs or professionals) of regional, national, or international levels. Of the 2763 registries identified, 112 studies met the eligibility criteria. The pooled sample size and age were 20,784 participants, with a mean age of 27.7 ± 6 years for male and 28.9 ± 3 years for female, with the vast majority of athletes being male (94.9%). MMA athletes were 17.2% amateurs, 73.8% professionals, and 9% were not reported. The scientific literature related to MMA reported injuries (n = 28), weight loss (n = 21), technical and tactical analysis (n = 23), physical fitness (n = 8), physiological responses and training characteristics (n = 13), psychobiological parameters (n = 12), and interventions applied to MMA athletes (n = 7). Therefore, this exploratory systematic review presents practitioners and researchers with seven broad summaries of each facet of performance of importance in this population of athletes.
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Celem pracy było udzielenie odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy poczucie własnej skuteczności ma związek ze strategiami radzenia sobie ze stresem wśród zawodników uprawiających amatorsko brazylijskie jiu-jitsu. Aby zweryfikować hipotezy badawcze posłużono się polską adaptacją uogólnionej własnej skuteczności (GSES) oraz inwentarzem do pomiaru radzenia sobie ze stresem (Mini-COPE). W badaniu wzięło udział 100 osób w przedziale wiekowym między 18. a 49. rokiem życia o różnym poziomie zaawansowania brazylijskiego jiu-jitsu – początkujący (biały pas), średniozaawansowany (niebieski, purpurowy pas) oraz zaawansowany (brązowy, czarny pas). Analiza korelacji strategii radzenia sobie ze stresem z poczuciem własnej skuteczności wykazała dodatnie istotne związki dla strategii: aktywne radzenie sobie, planowanie, pozytywne przewartościowanie, akceptacja oraz poczucie humoru. Kolejne dane wskazują na ujemne związki strategii radzenia sobie ze stresem z poczuciem własnej skuteczności dla strategii: poszukiwanie wsparcia emocjonalnego, poszukiwanie wsparcia instrumentalnego, zaprzestanie działań oraz obwinianie sobie. Analiza wyników wykazał, że branie udziału w zawodach różnicuje poczucie własnej skuteczności zawodników brazylijskiego jiu-jitsu. Uzyskane wyniki stanowią podstawę do dalszych badań w tym kierunku. [EN] The study aimed to answer the question of whether self-efficacy is related to the strategies of coping with stress among amateur Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitors. To verify the research hypotheses the Polish adaptation of generalized self-efficacy (GSES) and the inventory for measuring coping with stress (Mini-COPE) were used. The study involved 100 people between the ages of 18 and 49 on different levels of advancement - beginner (white belt), intermediate (blue, purple belt), and advanced (brown, black belt). An analysis of the correlation between the coping strategy with stress and the sense of self-efficacy showed positive significant relationships for the strategy: active coping, planning, positive reevaluation, acceptance, and sense of humor. Further data indicate negative relationships between coping strategies and self-efficacy for the strategy: seeking emotional support, seeking instrumental support, ceasing to act, and self-blame. The analysis of the results showed that participation in competitions differentiates the self-efficacy of Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitors. The obtained results constitute the basis for further research in this direction.
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ABSTRACT Based on previous research, the aim of this systematic review research was to determine which barriers to physical activity occur in the elderly. For collecting literature, the following data bases were searched: Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science and Research Gate, using all available papers in the period from 2002 to 2017. A descriptive method was used to analyse the obtained data, and all the titles and abstracts were reviewed for potential papers that were included in this systematic review research. A total of 20 studies met the predefined criteria and were included in the quantitative analysis. The results were obtained after analysing the questionnaires that the responders filled in to evaluate the barriers. This systematic review research shows that there are still a large number of barriers that occur in the elderly. The health condition, lack of time and fear of injury are not the only barriers, but there are also a large number of barriers that prevent the practice of PA. Some of these barriers can be affected and the attitude towards them can be changed, improving the conditions in which elderly people can practice PA, such as transport, the environment, the lack of training facilities, and the lack of professional assistance. Keywords: physical activity, barriers, seniors, elderly people
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Over the last few years, childhood obesity has increased significantly. One of the proven reasons is reduced physical activity from an early age. Low levels of physical activity in students negatively affect the development of their motor skills, as well as their overall health. The aim of this study was to identify the differences in the level of motor skills in relation to the level of nutrition in students of the third and fourth grade of primary school. The sample included 212 students, 105 of which were boys and 107 girls aged 9.77 ± 0.69 years. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, triceps skin fold, back skinfold, abdominal circumference, body mass index and body fat percentage were used to assess body composition. Height was measured with the anthropometer, and weight with a body composition measurement device - Omron BF500 Body Composition Monitor. Skin folds were measured using the Lange Skinfold calliper. Motor skills were tested with standardized and validated tests that are being used in primary education in the Republic of Croatia and Europe (Findak, Metikoš, Mraković and Neljak, 1996; Eurofit, 1988). Based on the calculated body mass index, and by using tables recommended by the International Obesity Task Force (Cole et al., 2000), subjects were classified into three groups based on their nutritional status: normal weight, overweight, and obese. The results of the study show significant differences between subsamples in motor skills in relation to their level of nutrition. Two discriminant functions were obtained, the first of which was significant at the significance level of p = 0.0000. Variables that significantly differentiate subsamples based on their level of nutrition are standing long jump (p = 0.0049) and torso lift (p = 0.0000). Based on the obtained and analysed results, it can be concluded that students with normal weight have significantly better motor skills results. Well-developed motor skills are one of the prerequisites for the normal physical development of children. Encouraging children to engage in continuous physical exercise is one of the prerequisites for the proper development of motor skills.
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This research analyses the techniques involved in basic carving in relation to anthropometric characteristics of subjects. The first aim of this study was to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the subjects in the technique of performing basic carving in relation to their anthropometric characteristics. The second aim of this study was to determine the difference in the technique of basic carving in relation to anthropometric characteristics of subjects. A sample of 30 students, average age 22 years, male, was measured by 12 anthropometric measures and a situational-motor test. Alpine skiing technique was assessed through basic carving, the technical element of skiing which is present in the main form of skiing. Based on the performance of the basic carving and the obtained results, three subsamples of respondents were defined as “weak”, “moderate” and “good”. Between the treated subsamples, differences in anthropometric characteristics were established, and the limits in the degree of adoption of the basic carving technique were clearly defined. The subsample defined as “weak” has less pronounced measures of longitudinal and transversal dimensionality, volume and body weight, and has moderately pronounced skinfolds of the upper arm and back with a more pronounced length of the lower leg. The subsample defined as “moderate” has less pronounced skinfolds and moderately expressed length of the lower leg, the circumference of the upper leg, and the diameter of the knee. Body height, shoulder width, abdominal skinfold, body weight, arm length, medium chest circumference, and pelvic width are more pronounced. The subsample defined as “good” has a less pronounced knee length and medium chest circumference, and has a moderately pronounced body height, shoulder width, abdominal skinfold, body weight, arm length, and pelvic width. It has more pronounced skinfolds of the upper arm and back, as well as the circumference of the upper leg and the diameter of the knee. Based on these results, we can conclude that the differences are established and boundaries are clearly defined in the level of adoption of the basic carving techniques between subsamples in relation to anthropometric characteristics. Keywords: alpine skiing, basic carving, anthropometric characteristics
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To determine the rate and types of musculoskeletal injuries among Taekwondo players from Taekwondo clubs in Malaysia. A total of 490 Taekwondo players from various clubs in Malaysia were involved in a cross-sectional study using a self-response questionnaire adopted from different studies and validated before the commencement of the study. The players were recruited from various clubs in different states of Malaysia. The number of players suffered from injuries was 300 as compared to 190 with no injuries. Males players suffered from musculoskeletal injures more than females (p = 0.019). Also, males complained of multiple injuries more than females (p = 0.019). The rate of the injuries among black belt holders was higher as compared to the colour belt (p < 0.001) and black belt holders more liable for multiple injuries (p <0.001). The semi-professional players complained of sport injures more than others (p = 0.021). The longer the experience the higher rate of injuries (p < 0.001). Most of Taekwondo players have suffered from injuries, these injuries sometimes are dangerous. These injuries are more common among male and semi-professional players. Coaches and players must emphasize on warming-up and stretching before the training/ competitions and cooling-down after, that will help to reduce the rate and severity of the injuries. In addition to that, awareness compaing among the players will help the palyers to become more careful during training and competitions sessions.
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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of injuries in dance aerobic instructors in relation to the duration of warm up and cool down before, during and after a class and the types of stretching exercises. Methods: The sample of the study was constituted of 404 (120 male and 284 female) aerobic instructors who were educated in public and state colleges of physical education and sports in Greece. For the statistical treatment of the data, the method used was the analysis of frequencies and the non-parametric test X2 Results: According to the results, 58.7% of the instructors were injured: Most of the injured instructors were absent from class up to a month, 21.8% over a month and 12.9% up to a week. Out of all injuries, 159.5 (29.5%) were acute injuries and 384.5 (70.5%) overuse syndromes. The injury rate was 0.23 injuries per aerobic instructor per year. It was also recorded that there is a statistically important relation between the rate of injuries and the duration of the warm up and cool down. When the warm up and cool down during the program is about 15 minutes, the number of injured instructors appears significantly smaller. As for stretching exercises included in the warm up and cool down, the results showed that there is not a statistically significant relation between the rate of injuries and the type of stretching exercises. When instructors performed a private warm up and cool down before and after the program, the rate of injury decreased even further. Conclusions: Injuries may occur because of many factors, but in aerobicdance the duration of warm up and cool down must be taken into serious consideration, as much as specialized knowledge and constant update.
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While warm up is considered to be essential for optimum performance, there is little scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness in many situations. As a result, warm-up procedures are usually based on the trial and error experience of the athlete or coach, rather than on scientific study. Summarising the findings of the many warm-up studies conducted over the years is difficult. Many of the earlier studies were poorly controlled, contained few study participants and often omitted statistical analyses. Furthermore, over the years, warm up protocols consisting of different types (e.g. active, passive, specific) and structures (e.g. varied intensity, duration and recovery) have been used. Finally, while many studies have investigated the physiological responses to warm up, relatively few studies have reported changes in performance following warm up. The first part of this review critically analyses reported changes in performance following various active warm-up protocols. While there is a scarcity of well-controlled studies with large subject numbers and appropriate statistical analyses, a number of conclusions can be drawn regarding the effects of active warm up on performance. Active warm up tends to result in slightly larger improvements in short-term performance (10 seconds, but 2). While active warm up has been reported to improve endurance performance, it may have a detrimental effect on endurance performance if it causes a significant increase in thermoregulatory strain. The addition of a brief, task-specific burst of activity has been reported to provide further ergogenic benefits for some tasks. By manipulating intensity, duration and recovery, many different warm-up protocols may be able to achieve similar physiological and performance changes. Finally, passive warm-up techniques may be important to supplement or maintain temperature increases produced by an active warm up, especially if there is an unavoidable delay between the warm up and the task and/or the weather is cold. Further research is required to investigate the role of warm up in different environmental conditions, especially for endurance events where a critical core temperature may limit performance.
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This article contributes to ongoing debates about trends in violence in sport through an examination of the emergence of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). The article counters suggestions that the rise of MMA is indicative of a decivilizing and/or de-sportizing process, arguing instead that the development of MMA can best be explained with reference to the concepts of informalization and the ‘quest for excitement’. More particularly, the article argues that MMA emerged as a global sport as a consequence of the ascendancy of professionalism over amateurism, through a hybridization of Eastern and Western combat styles, and due to participants’ desires to generate increased levels of excitement. The article argues that despite academic and public portrayals to the contrary, considerable self-restraint characterizes the violence in MMA. The sport has, however, oscillated between more and less violent forms as relatively ‘de-sensitized’ participants and wider public lobbies have contested the definition of socially tolerable violence. In order to maintain spectator appeal under increasingly stringent regulation promoters have sought to make ‘cosmetic’ changes to MMA to increase the appearance of de-controlled violence. The article concludes by arguing that combat sports are inherently contentious as they necessarily exist close to the boundary between ‘real’ and ‘mock’ fighting and thus on the margins of modern sport.
A significant body of scientific knowledge has been published in sports medicine in the past few decades, but there is huge demand for practical references that address different types of sport. This demand is highest in combat sports which are both highly physical and mentally demanding, and cause challenging issues such as risk of blood borne infections, weight reduction, head injuries, and stress management. Combat Sports Medicine has two parts, the first dealing with common topics in many combat sports: nutrition and psychology; ethical and social issues, including doping; injuries and infections; and combat sports in specific groups. The second part of the book covers aspects of sports science and injuries in selected popular combat sports are discussed. An international team of contributors have developed this book to meet the needs of practitioners who work with combat sports athletes. Based on the best available research evidence, this represents a key reference for neurologists, psychologists, orthopedic surgeons and sports injury specialists involved in the management of patients who practice contact sports.
Preface Sports medicine and sports science are relatively new and rapidly developing fields of knowledge. During the past 2 decades, a significant body of scientific knowledge has been published in these areas. However, there is a demand for practical references which address sports medicine and science in the context of different sports. This demand is higher in some sports including combat sports, which are highly physically and mentally demanding, and cause challenging issues such as risk of blood-borne infections, weight reduction, head injuries, stress management, and safety for women and children. This book has been developed to meet the needs of the practitioners who work with combat sports athletes in order to improve their health and performance. Combat sports include four Olympic sports (boxing, wrestling, judo, and taekwondo) and other popular sports such as karate, kick boxing, and Wushu. These sports are popular in most countries of the world, both at competitive and recreational levels. Combat sports are practiced by people of different ages for a variety of reasons such as to gain fitness and health benefits and to learn self-defense. This book has two parts. The first part deals with topics which are common in many combat sports. This is presented in four main sections: (a) nutrition and psychology; (b) ethical and social issues and doping; (c) specific injuries such as head injury, and infections; and (d) combat sports in specific groups including women, children, and professional athletes. In the second part, aspects of sports science and injuries in selected popular combat sports are discussed. There are literally hundreds of styles of combat sports practiced worldwide today, with many nations having indigenous forms. They include both ancient styles such as wrestling and twentieth-century styles such as taekwondo, and every year new styles of combat sports are developed. It is not possible to directly discuss all the combat sports styles in one book. However, we try to cover the most popular ones as, well as topics on sports medicine and sciences which are related to these. This information is likely to be applicable to other combat sports of similar style. Evidence-based medicine is "the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values."! A book in a practical field of sports science and medicine should be based on this framework. However, availability of high ¬quality scientific resources is a limitation in some combat sports and some areas of sports science and medicine. Very limited data are available in areas such as pre-participation physical evaluation. An international team of authors has written this book based on the best available research evidence, their experience, and the concerns and expectations of the target athletes as a group. We are sure you will enjoy it! Ramin Kordi, Nicola Maffulli, Randall R. Wroble, W. Angus Wallace (2009)