Depression and the Risk of Alzheimer Disease

Odense University Hospital, Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 6.2). 02/2005; 16(2):233-238. DOI: 10.1097/01.ede.0000152116.32580.24


Background: Several epidemiologic studies have examined depression as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease with conflicting results. Most studies relied on self-reported depression, but the agreement between self-reported depression and clinical diagnosis has been reported to be weak, thereby diluting the association.
Methods: A population-based cohort in Odense, Denmark, of 3346 persons age 65-84 years was examined at baseline (1992-1994) and after 2 years (1994-1996) and 5 years (1997-1999). History of depression was collected at baseline as self-report. We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results: Persons with a history of depression had an increased risk of Alzheimer disease both at baseline (OR = 1.7; CI = 1.0-2.7) and at follow up (at 2 years, 1.9 [1.0-3.3] and at 5 years, 1.6 [0.9-2.7]).
Conclusions: Depression was associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease. The odds ratios were lower than generally reported from follow-up studies and are similar to cross-sectional studies.

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    • "Nevertheless, it is clear the association between the manifestation of depressive symptoms and the condition of frailty. It is important to highlight that these two conditions assume predictive values due to the same kind of results, including: cognitive impairment (Andersen et al., 2005), disability ( Bruce, 2001), fractures (Whooly et al., 1999) and mortality ( Rovner et al., 1991; Laursen et al., 2007). In light of crosssectional studies arises the empirical work of Chang et al. (2010) that tests the frailty phenotype and its relationship to mood. "

    Preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    • "Depression and depressive symptoms are very common in the elderly and often co-occur with dementia [2]. Depression and dementia share many vascular risk factors [3], and various studies have shown that depression in late life is associated with a 2-to 5-fold increased risk of dementia [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]. Most studies investigated this association over a follow-up period of at most 7 years. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Whether depression is a long-term risk factor for dementia or represents a dementia prodrome is unclear. Therefore, we examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and dementia during short and long follow-up in a population-based cohort. Methods In the Rotterdam Study, 4393 nondemented individuals were followed for incident dementia for 13.7 years by continuous monitoring. Cox proportional hazards models for different time intervals were used to estimate the risk of incident dementia. Results Five-hundred eighty-two participants developed dementia during 13.7 years. Persons with depressive symptoms had an 8% increased risk of dementia compared with those without depressive symptoms during the overall follow-up. The risk was highest in the short and intermediate follow-up, particularly in men. We did not find an association in the follow-up period beyond 10 years. Conclusion Our results suggest that late-life depressive symptoms are part of a dementia prodrome rather than an independent risk factor of dementia.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association
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    • "These conceptualizations of depression in later life share many characteristics with frailty. Depression in later life is predictive of many of the same kinds of out-comes as frailty, including cognitive impairment (Andersen et al., 2005), disability (Bruce, 2001), fracture (Whooley et al., 1999), and mortality (Rovner et al., 1991; Laursen et al., 2007). However, as yet, there has been relatively little attention paid in the literature as to how these two syndromes may be related. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Many of the symptoms, consequences, and risk factors for frailty are shared with late-life depression. However, thus far, few studies have addressed the conceptual and empirical interrelationships between these conditions. This review synthesizes existing studies that examined depression and frailty among older adults and provides suggestions for future research.MethodsA search was conducted using PubMed for publications through 2010. Reviewers assessed the eligibility of each report and abstracted information on study design, sample characteristics, and key findings, including how depression and frailty were conceptualized and treated in the analysis.ResultsOf 133 abstracted articles, 39 full-text publications met inclusion criteria. Overall, both cross-sectional (n = 16) and cohort studies (n = 23) indicate that frailty, its components, and functional impairment are risk factors for depression. Although cross-sectional studies indicate a positive association between depression and frailty, findings from cohort studies are less consistent. The majority of studies included only women and non-Hispanic Whites. None used diagnostic measures of depression or considered antidepressant use in the design or analysis of the studies.ConclusionsA number of empirical studies support for a bidirectional association between depression and frailty in later life. Extant studies have not adequately examined this relationship among men or racial/ethnic minorities, nor has the potential role of antidepressant medications been explored. An interdisciplinary approach to the study of geriatric syndromes such as late-life depression and frailty may promote cross-fertilization of ideas leading to novel conceptualization of intervention strategies to promote health and functioning in later life. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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