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Evaluation of Plyometric Exercise Training, Weight Training, and Their Combination on Vertical Jumping Performance and Leg Strength


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The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different training protocols-plyometric training, weight training, and their combination-on selected parameters of vertical jump performance and leg strength. Forty-one men were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: plyometric training (n = 11), weight training (n = 10), plyometric plus weight training (n = 10), and control (n = 10). Vertical jump, mechanical power, flight time, and maximal leg strength were measured before and after 12 weeks of training. Subjects in each training group trained 3 days per week, whereas control subjects did not participate in any training activity. Data were analyzed by a 2-way (4 [middle dot] 2) analysis of variance (repeated-measures design). Results showed that all training treatments elicited significant (p < 0.05) improvement in all tested variables. However, the combination training group produced improvements in vertical jump performance and leg strength that were significantly greater than improvements in the other 2 training groups (plyometric training and weight training). This study provides support for the use of a combination of traditional and Olympic-style weightlifting exercises and plyometric drills to improve vertical jumping ability and explosive performance in general. (C) 2000 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2000, 14(4), 470–476
q2000 National Strength & Conditioning Association
Evaluation of Plyometric Exercise Training,
Weight Training, and Their Combination on
Vertical Jumping Performance and Leg Strength
Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini, 691 00,
Department of Exercise and Sports Sciences, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro,
Greensboro, North Carolina 27412;
Department of Physical and Health Education, University of Akron, Akron,
Ohio 44325;
Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, University of Athens, Athens, 17237, Greece.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3
different training protocols—plyometric training, weight
training, and their combination—on selected parameters of
vertical jump performance and leg strength. Forty-one men
were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: plyometric train-
ing (n511), weight training (n510), plyometric plus
weight training (n510), and control (n510). Vertical jump,
mechanical power, flight time, and maximal leg strength
were measured before and after 12 weeks of training. Sub-
jects in each training group trained 3 days per week, where-
as control subjects did not participate in any training activ-
ity. Data were analyzed by a 2-way (4 32) analysis of var-
iance (repeated-measures design). Results showed that all
training treatments elicited significant (p,0.05) improve-
ment in all tested variables. However, the combination train-
ing group produced improvements in vertical jump perfor-
mance and leg strength that were significantly greater than
improvements in the other 2 training groups (plyometric
training and weight training). This study provides support
for the use of a combination of traditional and Olympic-style
weightlifting exercises and plyometric drills to improve ver-
tical jumping ability and explosive performance in general.
Key Words: stretch-shorten cycle, power training, flight
time, leg strength
Reference Data: Fatouros, I.G., A.Z. Jamurtas, D. Leon-
tsini, K. Taxildaris, N. Aggelousis, N. Kostopoulos, and
P. Buckenmeyer. Evaluation of plyometric exercise
training, weight training, and their combination on
vertical jumping performance and leg strength. J.
Strength Cond. Res. 14(4):470–476. 2000.
ertical jumping constitutes an integral component
of explosive performance in numerous athletic ac-
tivities. As such, jumping ability is crucial in the exe-
cution of many athletic skills, such as rebounding in
basketball, spiking in volleyball, and high jumping.
Therefore, it is important to determine the parameters
involved in vertical jumping and develop them
through proper training regimens.
Several factors have been established as major de-
terminants of vertical jumping performance; these in-
clude force developed by the hip, knee, and ankle
joints, the rate of force development (muscle power)
produced by these muscles (32), and the neural coor-
dination of the movement (32). The extent to which
jumping performance can be improved by training
seems to depend on subjects’ strength status before the
initiation of the training program. Specifically, it has
been shown that subjects of a low-strength profile ex-
hibited substantial increments in their jumping ability
following training (2, 8, 21), whereas previously
strength-trained subjects experienced limited increase
in their jumping score after additional training (27).
Despite the fact that vertical jumping performance
seems to depend on leg strength, a low correlation be-
tween leg strength and vertical jumping performance
has been obtained (r50.35 and r50.40) on 2 occa-
sions (24, 34), but this may be due to the way leg
strength was assessed (dynamic vs. static measure-
ment) and the speed of movement adapted during the
measurement (4).
Jumping is a complex multijoint action that de-
mands not only force production but also a high pow-
er output. Numerous investigators have underlined the
significance of maximal rate of force development in
the improvement of explosive jumping performance
(9, 27, 39). Plyometric training has been advocated for
sports that require explosiveness and increased verti-
cal jumping ability by the athletes.
Effects of Plyometric and Weight Training on Vertical Jump and Leg Strength
Table 1. Descriptive data of subjects’ characteristics.
Group* nHeight (cm) Weight (kg) Age (y)
Control 10 181 61.5 80.8 63.1 20.5 61.8
PT 11 178 62.1 83.4 64.8 21.1 62.5
WT 10 180 61.9 85.0 62.7 20.9 62.4
PWT 10 178 63.0 79.9 62.2 20.1 61.4
*PT 5plyometric training; WT 5weight training; and
PWT 5plyometric plus weight training.
Plyometric or stretch-shortening cycle exercises are
those that are characterized by rapid deceleration of
the body followed almost immediately by rapid accel-
eration of the body in the opposite direction (35). Ply-
ometric exercises evoke the elastic properties of the
muscle fibers and connective tissue in a way that al-
lows muscle to store energy during the deceleration
phase and release that energy during the acceleration
period (5, 6, 14, 20, 26, 30, 43). The end result is that
muscles are trained under tensions greater than those
achieved by conventional slow-speed resistance train-
ing (28). Therefore, plyometric training has been rec-
ommended for sports that rely on generation of high
power output. Researchers and practitioners assumed
that these characteristics of plyometric exercises would
facilitate significant gains in muscle strength and pow-
er and therefore optimize jumping performance. De-
spite the support for plyometrics in improving power
(6, 11, 12, 17, 18, 23), their effectiveness in improving
jumping performance is less clear. Specifically, most
studies revealed that plyometric training resulted in
increased vertical jumping performance (2, 3, 11, 14,
18), although some studies indicated otherwise (2, 10,
37, 45), and one study showed improvement of vertical
jumping performance only after 18 months of plyome-
tric training (13).
Weight training has been able to improve vertical
jumping performance in most cases by 2–8 cm (or by
5–15%) (2, 3, 10, 11, 45), with lighter more explosive
lifts being more effective than the heavier and slower
lifts (27, 45). The comparison of plyometric exercises
and weight-training protocols has produced contro-
versial results. Plyometric protocols have been shown
to be more effective (44), equally effective (2, 3), or less
effective (25, 44) than weight training in improving
vertical jumping ability. Furthermore, 2 other studies
showed that plyometric training was no more effective
than isokinetic training (10) or flexibility training alone
The combination of plyometric exercises and
weight training increased (2, 8, 10) or maintained un-
affected vertical jumping performance (25). Adams et
al. (2) suggested that this combination may provide a
more powerful training stimulus to vertical jumping
performance than either weight training or plyometric
training alone. However, Clutch et al. (21) did not
reach similar conclusions.
It seems that researchers have not come to an
agreement about the relative effectiveness of plyome-
tric training compared with weight training or the
combination of both in the development of vertical
jumping ability. It seems likely that different durations
of training periods, different training status of the sub-
jects, or different training designs (i.e., training loads
or volumes or exercises) might have caused the dis-
crepancy in the results of previous studies. Therefore,
the purpose of the present investigation was to deter-
mine how selected variables of vertical jumping per-
formance, namely, leg power, jumping height, flight
time, ground time, and leg strength, are affected by a
typical 12-week plyometric training program, a typical
12-week weight-training program, and 12-week train-
ing program that combines plyometric exercises and
weight training.
Forty-one healthy men (20.7 61.96 years of age) vol-
unteered to participate in this study (subjects’ char-
acteristics are given in Table 1). Although subjects
could be classified as untrained (they did not partici-
pate in organized weight or other types of training),
they were able to lift at least 1.5 times their body
weight in the squat exercise. (Those who were not able
to lift that amount of weight were discharged from the
study.) Subjects received all necessary information
about the study’s procedures in oral and written form.
Each subject completed a medical history form (special
care was given to hypertension and orthopedic status
screening), a training background questionnaire, and
a written informed consent form. The study was ap-
proved by the university’s institutional review board
and conformed to requirements set by the American
College of Sports Medicine.
Data Acquisition
Each subject underwent measurements of vertical
jumping performance, leg power, flight time, and max-
imal leg strength. Pretesting was conducted in 4 ses-
sions 1 week before initiation of the training period.
The first session included an introduction of the test-
ing protocols to the subjects. The second session in-
cluded measurement of vertical jumping performance
and flight time. In the third session, leg strength was
determined. During the fourth session, leg power was
measured. There was a 24-hour pause between testing
sessions. Identical measurements were performed in
the same order 4 days following the completion of the
training period.
Vertical Jump Height
Vertical jump height was measured by the stand and
reach test (41). A vertical jump board marked in cen-
472 Fatouros, Jamurtas, Leontsini, Taxildaris, Aggelousis, Kostopoulos, and Buckenmeyer
timeters was used. A vertical jump test was completed
from a 2-footed standing position without a step into
the jump. Subjects were allowed to use their hands as
they desired. Three test jumps were completed, and
the highest of these was recorded. This test was se-
lected because it has high validity (0.80) and reliability
(0.93) coefficients (38) and because it allows arm move-
ment and a squat motion before the jump, such as
those performed in sports.
Measurement of Jumping Mechanical Power
Jumping mechanical power was obtained by use of the
Vertical Jump Test by Bosco et al. (15). This test was
preferred because it takes advantage of the potential
for using elastic energy storage in addition to chemi-
cal-mechanical energy conversion. The test has been
shown to have high validity (compared with the Win-
gate test, 0.87) and reliability (test-retest, 0.95) coeffi-
cients (15). The test calculates mechanical power both
for 15- and 60-second jumping intervals. The 15-sec-
ond jumping interval was selected, since it reflects real
jumping conditions in sports performance and exhib-
its a high validity coefficient when compared with the
Wingate power test (0.87) (15). A Dekan Automatic
Performance Analyzer was used. Two switch mats for
the timer were placed side by side and connected by
a Y adapter to the timer (‘‘start on break contact’’ in-
put). The timer was triggered by the feet of the subject
at the moment of release from the platform and
stopped at the moment of touch down. Thus, the flight
time of the subject during the jump was recorded. This
method of flight time calculation assumes that the po-
sitions of the jumper on the platform were the same
in takeoff and landing. The error of measurement,
when compared with film analysis, has been reported
to be approximately 62% (30). If several jumps are
performed, the timer is summing the respective flight
times of the single jumps. To standardize the knee an-
gular displacement during the contact phase, the sub-
ject was required to bend the knees to about 908. Fur-
thermore, to avoid unmeasurable work output, hori-
zontal and lateral displacements should be minimized,
and the hands were required to be kept on the hips
throughout the jump (15). Jumping frequency was vi-
sually counted and recorded manually by 2 testers for
15 seconds. The average power output during the trial
was computed as follows:
Power (W)
9,8 3total flight time (sec) 360
43number of jumps 3(60 2total flight time)
Measurement of Flight Time
The Dekan Automatic Performance Analyzer, which
was selected to measure jumping mechanical power,
was used for the measurement of flight time and
ground time. Subjects performed 3 single jumps, and
the time they remained in the air was recorded (the
best flight time of the 3 was recorded). Ground time
was defined as the amount of time subjects were in
contact with the ground between successive jumps.
Ground time was selected for measurement as an in-
dication of the time delay between the eccentric and
concentric phase of the jump (42). Subjects had to ex-
ecute maximal jumps for 15 seconds. To standardize
the knee angular displacement during the contact
phase, subjects were required to bend the knees to
about 908. The following formula (15) was used to cal-
culate ground time:
Tc (s)
5Total Time (2)
2Total Flight Time (for Number of Jumps)/n
Measurement of Leg Strength
Leg strength was assessed by 2 weightlifting tests: the
1RM (1 repetition maximum) squat and 1RM leg press
tests. Bilateral leg press tests were completed using
standard leg press equipment (Universal, Irvine, CA),
with the subjects assuming a sitting position (about
1208flexion at the hips, 1008flexion at the knees, and
108dorsiflexion) and the weights sliding vertically.
During the lifts, the subjects extended their hips and
knees, with ankle plantar flexion to about 108. The sub-
jects’ 1RM weight was determined within 2–5 lifts, us-
ing weight increments selected by the subjects.
In the squat 1RM test, subjects executed the tradi-
tional back squat exercise following the NSCA guide-
lines for the execution of this particular test. However,
a manual goniometer was used at the knee to stan-
dardize range of motion. Subjects started the squat ex-
ercise at 308of knee flexion, descended to 908, and then
forcefully returned to the starting position by extend-
ing both knees and hips and plantar flexing at the an-
kles. Testers alerted the subjects when the starting and
finishing positions were attained.
Training Protocols
After the initial measurements, subjects were random-
ly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (n510), ply-
ometric training (n511), conventional weight training
(n510), and combination of plyometric plus weight
training (n510). The control group did not train. All
other 3 training groups trained for 12 weeks 3 days
per week. Before the initiation of the training periods,
subjects of all groups were instructed about the proper
execution of all the exercises to be used during the
training period for all training regimens. The training
protocols included only leg exercises. None of the sub-
jects had used plyometric exercises before. The train-
ing programs were designed to overload the leg mus-
cles involved in vertical jumping motion. All training
sessions were supervised.
Weight Training Protocol. Traditional leg exercises
Effects of Plyometric and Weight Training on Vertical Jump and Leg Strength
were used. Barbell squats, leg presses, leg curls, and
standing calf raises were used as core exercises in the
first 8 weeks, whereas jump squats (with a barbell),
cleans, snatches, and push presses were used as core
exercises in the last 4 weeks, supplemented by front
and side lunges, step ups, sitting calf raises, and dead
lifts in all 12 weeks of training. During the first 2
weeks, training intensities (average weight lifted or
percentage of 1RM lifted, 2 sets at 1 312 and 1 310)
and volumes (repetitions 3weight lifted) were kept
relatively low (weight lifted corresponded to approx-
imately 70% of 1RM) to accommodate subjects with
the training protocol. In the remaining training period,
intensity for the core exercises was maintained be-
tween 80 and 95% of each subjects 1RM, whereas sup-
plementing exercises were performed constantly at 70–
80%. The first training day of the week included high-
intensity (2 36,134,132), the second day inter-
mediate-intensity (2 310, 2 38), and the third day
low-intensity (4 312) exercises. Supplementing exer-
cises were performed at 1 312, 1 310, and 1 38.
Increases in training weight were adjusted carefully to
ensure that the subjects were able to complete the re-
quired sets and repetitions. (If a subject was perceived
to be using too little weight, adjustments were made.)
Plyometric Training Protocol. Plyometric exercises in-
cluded squat jumps, jumps over cones and bench, re-
peat triple jumps, single- or double-leg hops, alternate
leg bounds, depth jumps, and box jumps. Training in-
tensity and volume was kept low (up to 80 foot con-
tacts with low-intensity drills, while technique was
given special attention) during the first 2 weeks to
avoid injuries and have subjects adjusted to this new
(to them) type of training. During the remainder of
the training period (10 weeks), the first training day
of the week included high intensity of about 220 foot
contacts, the second included moderate-to-high inten-
sity of about 150–170 foot contacts, and the third day
included low-to-moderate intensity of about 120 foot
contacts. However, box jumps and depth jumps were
introduced in the sixth week of training, and the
height of boxes varied, depending on the training day
and the week within the program (started with 30 cm
and reached a high of 80 cm).
Plyometric Plus Weight Training Program. The com-
bined program consisted of a weight-training regimen
in conjunction with a plyometric routine that included
exercises used in the 2 protocols separately as de-
scribed above. The 2 protocols were performed on the
same day, with weight training taking place 180 min-
utes after the plyometric exercise program. The train-
ing intensities followed the same progression as the
ones used in the plyometric and weight-training
Statistical Analyses
A factorial, 2-way (4 32, 4 treatments by 2 times of
measurement) analysis of variance (repeated-measures
design) procedure was used to test for statistically sig-
nificant differences on all criterion variables across
time. Following a statistically significant Fratio, a
Newman-Keuls post hoc technique was used to clarify
the interaction. The 0.05 level was adopted as the prob-
ability level of significance throughout the analysis.
Data are presented as mean 6SE.
Means and SEs for vertical jump height, jumping me-
chanical power, flight time, and leg strength (in leg
press and squat tests) are listed in Table 2. The com-
bination training group exhibited significantly (p,
0.05) better performance than the plyometric training
and the weight-training groups in vertical jump
height, jumping mechanical power, and flight time.
However, in leg press– and squat-measured leg
strength, the combination group presented significant-
ly (p,0.05) higher improvement compared with the
plyometric training group but not compared with the
weight-training group.
The purpose of this study was to determine if ply-
ometric training alone or in combination with weight
training can enhance selected variables of vertical
jumping performance. The results indicate that long-
term plyometric training is capable of improving ver-
tical jumping ability, but its combination with weight
training is even more beneficial.
The effectiveness of plyometric training in improv-
ing explosive performance has been supported by
most training studies in the field during the last 2 de-
cades (11, 14, 25, 30). Despite its wide use in athletics
and the specific guidelines given regarding its use,
more studies are needed to evaluate its effectiveness,
especially compared with other conventional training
methods such as weight training or its combination
with them. Combination of different training methods
will promote all qualities of muscle power and
Several previous investigations have failed to find
that plyometric training is significantly more effective
than other training methods in improving vertical
jumping ability (21, 25, 28, 33, 35). Furthermore, pre-
vious research that used a combination of plyometric
and weight training found either increased (2, 8, 10)
or unaffected vertical jumping performance (25). Oth-
er investigators (21, 33) found that the combination of
plyometric and weight training is equally effective to
plyometric or weight training. Results of the present
study indicate otherwise. This combination training
provided the most powerful stimulus in improving
various parameters of vertical jumping ability.
In contrast to previous studies, results of the pre-
sent study indicate that all treatments produced pro-
474 Fatouros, Jamurtas, Leontsini, Taxildaris, Aggelousis, Kostopoulos, and Buckenmeyer
Table 2. Means 6SEs between pretraining and posttraining for all dependent variables for the 3 groups.*
Leg press
Control (n510)
Pre 54.5 61.5 44.8 63.8 528 610.01 333 62.8 191.5 65.8 128.5 64.1
Post 54.9 61.9 45.1 13.5 533 610.09 333 63.6 194.2 66.4 130.2 63.8
PT (n511)
Pre 52.9 62.4 46,5 66.9 515 610.45 344 64.1 202.9 68.3 132.4 66.4
Post 58.9 62.3†‡§ 58.4 67.4†‡§ 578 610.31†‡§ 277 63.2†‡§ 221.3 67.3†‡§¶ 148.8 66.6†‡§¶
WT (n510)
Pre 58.1 61.4 46.5 64.0 522 612.39 343 64.5 189.8 69.3 133.0 64.4
Post 63.5 61.8†‡\58.0 64.0†‡\566 612.19†‡\290 64.8†‡\217.5 67.4†‡¶ 161.9 63.3†‡¶
PWT (n510)
Pre 58.8 63.0 43.0 64.6 508 620.53 341 62.9 133.0 68.9 125.0 64.5
Post 67.4 62.8†‡§\59.9 15.0†‡§\597 621.44†‡§\258 62.7†‡§\216.5 67.6†‡§ 161.1 63.4†‡§
* VJH 5vertical jump height; FT 5flight time; GT 5ground time; PT 5plyometric training; WT 5weight training; PWT
5plyometric plus weight training.
† Significant difference between pretraining and posttraining (p,0.05).
Significant difference with the control group (p,0.05).
§ Significant difference between the PT and PWT groups (p,0.05).
\Significant difference between the WT and PWT groups (p,0.05).
Significant difference between the PT and WT groups (p,0.05).
found improvement in vertical jumping performance
and leg power. However, the combination training
treatment evoked the most significant changes in these
variables. The discrepancy between these results and
results of previous investigations might be attributed
to several reasons. First, the training experience level
of the study subjects might offer one explanation. Sub-
jects in the present study were novices in plyometric
training in contrast to subjects in previous investiga-
tions. However, they were strength trained enough to
be able to sustain plyometric training loads. One needs
to be weight trained to enjoy positive adaptations to
plyometric training. The second explanation is the na-
ture of the training protocols used in the present study
and previous investigations. The present study used a
large variety of plyometric and weight-training exer-
cises compared with previous studies. During the first
phase of training, the weight-training protocols used
general strength training exercises (i.e., squats) aimed
at increasing maximal strength of the lower limb mus-
cles. During the last stage of training, special strength
exercises (i.e., snatches, cleans, jump squats) were used
to convert maximal strength to power as it relates to
jumping (7). This special type of strength training ex-
ercises are characterized by a more forceful and rapid
execution, generation of a higher power output, and
loss of foot contact with the ground (7). In plyometric
training protocols, several exercises were used, rang-
ing from bounds and hops to drop jumps. Another
difference between the present study and previous
ones is the model used to provide the training stim-
ulus to subjects. Training intensity, volume, and exer-
cise selection followed the principle of progressive
overload, starting with lower intensities, single-joint
exercises, and less complex exercise techniques and
progressing to higher intensities, multijoint exercises,
and more complex techniques. Intensity varied within
a single week. Training programs focused on devel-
oping basic strength and exercise technique initially,
maximal strength later, and finally transition of max-
imal strength to power.
Plyometric training resulted in a slightly better im-
provement than weight training in vertical jump per-
formance, but it was not statistically significant. These
results are in agreement with previous findings, in-
dicating that these 2 methods are equally effective in
improving jumping performance (1, 3). Lately, weight-
training protocols have been modified by incorporat-
ing more dynamic and explosive movements aimed
toward power development. Such weight-training pro-
tocols have been found to be very effective in improv-
ing mechanical power in movements requiring explo-
siveness (31, 45).
Even though plyometric and weight training each
increased flight time and decreased ground time sig-
nificantly, it is their combination that caused the great-
est gains in these 2 parameters. It has been suggested
that the increased efficiency of plyometric movements
and generally in stretch-shortening cycle exercises is
due to the fact that previous stretching decreases the
time in which positive work is done during the sub-
sequent shortening (16, 17, 20). Part of the positive
Effects of Plyometric and Weight Training on Vertical Jump and Leg Strength
work measured does not derive from chemical energy
transformation but from recoil of tense elastic elements
(20). If the time delay between the stretch and the con-
centric contraction is too long, the energy stored dis-
sipates as heat (18). In the present study, results
showed that combination training decreased ground
time or the amortization phase between jumps (there-
by decreasing the time that the feet were in contact
with the ground between jumps). This adaptation
might have occurred because of a better utilization of
the stored elastic energy, resulting in a higher jump
and increased flight time (and thus reduced ground
time). Mechanical power results followed the same
trend between groups. Interestingly, maximal strength
as measured in leg press was improved more by
weight training than by plyometric training, whereas
maximal strength as measured by the squat exercise
was equally increased by the 2 treatments. This finding
probably is related to the nature of the plyometric and
weight-training exercises used.
Another interesting note is that, despite the fact
that subjects in the combination group performed ply-
ometric and weight training on the same day, their
performance was not impaired. NSCA and others (22,
36) do not recommend performing heavy strength and
plyometric training on the same day, with the excep-
tion of track and field athletes, who might benefit from
‘‘complex training.’’ In the present study, there was
enough rest between sessions to allow recovery of the
neuromuscular and metabolic systems of the subjects.
Plyometric training was performed first to ensure that
subjects would perform the plyometric drills with the
proper technique and full explosiveness.
However, some extraneous variables might have
confound the results of this study. It is very difficult
to control the total work performed in each training
session so that subjects in all groups handle the same
amount of total work. Total workload was not equated
between groups. Authors followed a traditional train-
ing scheme in each treatment based on the periodiza-
tion model. There is a possibility that subjects in the
combination training group were exposed to a higher
training stimulus than subjects in the other groups. It
would be very interesting if future studies made an
attempt to equate workloads between groups when
comparing different training methods.
Therefore, the results of this study indicate that
both plyometric and weight training are able to im-
prove selected variables of vertical jumping perfor-
mance. However, it is their combination that produced
the greatest improvement on these selected variables
of vertical jumping performance.
Practical Applications
The results of this study provide insight into several
aspects of vertical jump training and into training for
improvement of athletes’ explosiveness. First, very im-
portant parameters of vertical jumping performance
can be improved significantly by either plyometric or
weight training separately. However, strength and con-
ditioning professionals must notice that in this study
the combination of plyometric and weight training was
significantly more beneficial in increasing vertical
jump height and other related variables. Therefore,
strength professionals must be able to incorporate both
elements in their training regimens. Second, weight
training must incorporate special exercises, that is, ex-
ercises (such as power jumps, snatches, pulls, power
cleans, and push presses) that focus on power devel-
opment once strength levels have been improved.
Third, intensity and training volume followed the pro-
gressive overload principle in the present study. Inten-
sity and volume of training built up, gradually allow-
ing subjects to adjust effectively, especially subjects
who followed the plyometric training protocols. Vari-
ation of intensity within each week of training seems
to have helped subjects who participated in all train-
ing groups. Fourth, despite the fact that execution of
plyometric training and weight training is not gener-
ally recommended on the same day, the present study
indicates that this might not be true if adequate recov-
ery is allowed in between. Fifth, it seems that 12 weeks
is adequate for improvement of vertical jumping if the
training protocols maintain the appropriate intensity
and volume. Sixth, in this study, 3 days of training per
week was proven an effective training frequency for
vertical jump training. However, this cannot be accom-
plished during the in-season period. Such training
protocols should be incorporated in the preseason or
postseason training periods. Seventh, the results of
this study concern individuals relatively inexperienced
in jump training. It is possible that advanced athletes
in power sports would not exhibit the same magnitude
of improvement with the training protocols used here-
in. It is possible that more advanced athletes need a
different manipulation of training intensity and vol-
ume and selection of exercises.
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... These adaptations include enhanced motor unit recruitment and synchronization, improved intermuscular coordination, increased muscle fiber activation and force production, enhanced stretch-shortening cycle utilization, and improved proprioception and reactive capabilities. These neuromuscular adaptations can result in increased power output, greater force absorption and production during explosive movements, improved movement efficiency, and enhanced overall athletic performance (Fatouros et al., 2000;Chimera et al., 2004;Markovic et al., 2007). ...
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Aim: The aim of this paper is to determine the effect of 6 weeks of plyometric training on speed, explosive power, pre-planned agility, and reactive agility in young tennis players. Methods: The participants in this study included 35 male tennis players (age 12.14 ± 1.3 years, height 157.35 ± 9.53 cm and body mass 45.84 ± 8.43 kg at the beginning of the experiment). The biological age was calculated and determined for all participants. 18 of the participants were randomly assigned to the control group, and 17 were assigned to the experimental group. Running speed (sprints at 5, 10, and 20 m), change of direction speed (4 × 10, 20 yards, t -test, TENCODS), reactive agility (TENRAG), and explosive power (long jump, single leg triple jump, countermovement jump, squat jump, and single leg countermovement jump) were all tested. The Mixed model (2 × 2) ANOVA was used to determine the interactions and influence of a training program on test results. Furthermore, Bonferroni post hoc test was performed on variables with significant time*group interactions. Results: The results of this research indicate that an experimental training program affected results in a set time period, i.e. 5 out of total 15 variables showed significant improvement after experimental protocol when final testing was conducted. The experimental group showed significantly improved results in the 5 m sprint test in the final testing phase compared to the initial testing phase, this was also the case in comparison to the control group in both measurements. Furthermore, the experimental group showed significant improvement in the single leg countermovement jump in the final test, as well as in comparison to the control group in both measurements. The change of direction speed and reactive agility test also exhibited significant improvement in the final testing phase of the experimental group. Conclusion: The results of this research indicated that a 6-week program dominated by plyometric training can have a significant effect on the improvement of specific motor abilities within younger competitive categories. These results offer valuable insights for coaches in designing diverse tennis-specific scenarios to enhance overall performance, particularly focusing on the neuromuscular fitness of their players.
... Plyometric exercises are widely used by coaches from numerous sports, during different phases of the annual training season (Bolger et al., 2016;Loturco et al., 2022;Weldon et al., 2022aWeldon et al., , 2022b. In more general terms, plyometrics (or stretch-shortening cycle [SSC] exercises) can be characterized by a rapid transition from the deceleration (e.g., drop landing) to the acceleration phase (e.g., a vertical jump) or by the combination of eccentric and concentric contractions (Fatouros et al., 2000;Hermassi et al., 2010). The efficiency of the SSC to improve the subsequent motor-task (e.g., a maximal vertical or horizontal jump) is well established in the literature and relies on the mechanical properties of the muscle-tendon complex (Flanagan and Comyns, 2008;McMahon, 2018). ...
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Plyometric training is extensively used by coaches to enhance neuromuscular performance in a wide variety of sports. Due to the high demands of sprint speed and power output in elite sprinters and jumpers, sprint and jump coaches are likely to have great knowledge on this topic. Undoubtedly, this expertise is even more pronounced for Olympic coaches, who work with some of the fastest and most powerful athletes in the world, and who are required to continually maintain these athletes at optimal performance levels. Describing and discussing the practices commonly adopted by these coaches in detail and extrapolating this experience to other sport coaching contexts and disciplines may be extremely relevant. The current article presents, explores, and illustrates the plyometric training practices of Brazilian Olympic sprint and jump coaches, with a special focus on training programming and exercise selection.
... Therefore, the characteristics of the training stimulus (i.e., the choice of acute variables in the training program) are crucial for the hormonal response in the training program (Jones et al., 2012;Houde, 2021). Complex training is a combination of resistance training and plyometric training, which provides a more comprehensive adaptation compared to single resistance training and plyometric training (Fatouros et al., 2000;Lee et al., 2014;Fathi et al., 2019;Zghal et al., 2019). Resistance training in complex training provides effective stimulation and activation of the nervous and muscular systems, allowing the individual to produce greater explosive power in the subsequent plyometric training (Ebben and Watts, 1998). ...
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Background: In Unilateral (UNI) exercises are more effective than bilateral (BI) exercises in improving athletic performance is debatable. Objectives: this meta-analysis investigated the effects of UNI and BI exercises on different effect indicators of jump ability, sprint ability, maximal force, change of direction ability, and balance ability. Data Sources: PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of science, CNKI, Proquest, Wan Fang Data. Study Eligibility Criteria: To be eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, the study had to be: 1) athletes; 2) UNI training and BI training; 3) the intervention period had to be more than 6 weeks and the intervention frequency had to be more than 2 times/week; 4) the outcome indicators were jumping ability, sprinting ability, maximum strength, and change of direction and balance. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Method: We used the random-effects model for meta-analyses. Effect sizes (standardized mean difference), calculated from measures of horizontally oriented performance, were represented by the standardized mean difference and presented alongside 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: A total of 28 papers met the inclusion criteria, and Meta-analysis showed that UNI training was more effective than BI training in improving jumping ability (ES = to 0.09; Z = 3.12, p = 0.002 < 0.01), sprinting ability (ES = −0.02, −0.03 to −0.01; Z = 2.73, p = 0.006 < 0.01), maximum strength (ES = 8.95,2.30 to 15.61; Z = 2.64, p = 0.008 > 0.05), change of direction ability (ES = −0.03, −0.06 to 0.00; Z = 1.90, p = 0.06 > 0.01) and balance ability (ES = 1.41,-0.62 to 3.44; Z = 1.36, p = 0.17 > 0.01). The results of the analysis of moderating variables showed that intervention period, intervention frequency and intervention types all had different indicators of effect on exercise performance. Conclusion: UNI training has a more significant effect on jumping and strength quality for unilateral power patterns, and BI training has a more significant effect on jumping and strength quality for bilateral power patterns.
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Background Complex training is found effective in improving physical performance in various sports. There is a paucity of research evidence comparing the efficacy of complex vs. plyometric training in cricket players. The study aimed to compare the efficacy of complex and plyometric training on physical performance parameters in cricket players. Methods Participants (n = 42 Male; age group = 18–26 years) were randomly allocated into three groups, complex training group (CTG) (n = 14; BMI = 20.51 ± 2.23), plyometric training group (PTG) (n = 14; BMI = 20.57 ± 2.82), and control group (CG) (n = 14; BMI = 20.51 ± 2.23). CTG and PTG received their respective training twice weekly, and CG received routine training for four weeks. Pre and post-intervention assessments of core muscle strength (CM), multistage fitness (MF), push-up (PU), lateral cone jump (LCJ), and stationary vertical jump (SVJ) were performed. This study has been registered in (ID: NCT05646914, on 05/12/2022). Results A significant difference was observed between CTG vs. CG for CM (p ≤ 0.01), LCJ (p < 0.05), and SVJ (p ≤ 0.01), similarly in PTG vs. CG for CM (p-value), LCJ (p ≤ 0.05) and SVJ (p ≤ 0.01). However, No significant difference was found between PTG vs. CTG for any variables (p ≥ 0.05). Also, No significant difference in MF and PU was found between the groups (p ≥ 0.05). Conclusions Complex training has been found to have effects similar to plyometric training alone. Therefore, either of the two strategies can be used to improve the performance of male cricket players.
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of differences in muscle function training of Taekwondo sparring athletes on body composition, basic physical fitness, isokinetic muscle function, and electronic hogu hitting ability, and to present basic data for a training program for Taekwondo sparring athletes.METHODS This study randomly sampled 25(M: 20, F: 5) Taekwondo sparring athletes. The sampled subjects were divided into a weight training group (n=8), a plyometric training(plyometric) group (n=8), and a control group (n=9) and trained for 60 minutes, 5 times a week, for 12 weeks. Body composition, basic physical fitness, isokinetic muscle function, and electronic hogu hitting ability were evaluated before and after training. Statistical tests of RM Two-way ANOVA were conducted to verify the interaction between groups and times, main effects of times, and main effects between groups according to 12 weeks of training. Post-hoc was conducted using paired-T test(times) and One-way ANOVA test(groups).RESULTS Taekwondo sparring athletes showed positive changes in body composition(weight, BMI, Lean body mass, % body fat, WHR), basic physical fitness(muscle endurance, flexibility), isokinetic muscle function(knee endurance, low back strength), and electronic hogu hitting ability(round house kick, Turning back kick, number of hit) after participating in weight training for 12 weeks (All p <.05). Additionally, positive changes were observed in flexibility and electronic hogu hitting ability(Turning back kick) after participating in plyometric training for 12 weeks (All p <.05).CONCLUSIONS Weight training for 12 weeks in Taekwondo sparring athletes results in positive changes in body composition, increased flexibility and muscular endurance, increases in knee isokinetic muscular endurance and low back isokinetic strength, and improvement in overall electronic hogu hitting ability. Plyometrics for 12 weeks result in increased flexibility and increased electronic hogu hitting ability for back kick. Weight training shows greater improvement in strength and kick endurance than plyometrics.
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Aim: Basketball necessitates a holistic approach to player development, encompassing both skill and physicality, with a critical emphasis on understanding these requirements due to its complex tactics. Plyometric training’s potential in sport performance lacks comprehensive research. This systematic review, guided by PRISMA guidelines, aims to analyse diverse range of literature concerning healthy athletes, investigating its significance on functional performance and bone mineral density in basketball players of different age groups (pre-teen, adolescent, and young adult). Methods: The study conducted electronic searches in databases like PubMed, ScienceDirect, and ResearchGate, supplemented with manual reference searches, covering the period from 2013 to June 2023. Initially, 783 items were identified. Inclusion criteria involved English-language publications focusing on basketball players aged 8 to 28 years, assessing plyometric training’s effect on functional performance with quantitative measurements. Screening began with titles and abstracts, followed by full-text evaluation to ensure eligibility. Results: A database search yielded 26 peer-reviewed articles, primarily randomized controlled trials, showing significant functional improvements through plyometric training (4-36 weeks, 2-3 times weekly). Assessments covered explosive leg power, agility, sprinting, muscle strength, and bone density. Male participants dominated, but female and mixed-gender groups were included. Results consistently highlighted plyometric training’s positive impact with statistical significance. Conclusion: This review provides evidence that plyometric training improves agility, sprinting ability, leg power, basketball skills as well as BMD across different age groups of players. It establishes plyometrics as effective for boosting on-court performance. Integrating plyometric training holds great promise in advancing athlete success in basketball.
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The optimal intra-set rest for cluster sets (CLS) during plyometric-jump training (PJT) to improve physical fitness remains unclear. The objective of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effects of PJT with traditional (TRS) vs. CLS structures, using different intra-set rests, on the physical fitness of healthy participants. Forty-seven recreationally active young men performed 3-5 sets of 10-12 repetitions of upper- and lower-body PJT exercises twice a week for six weeks using different set configurations: TRS group (no intra-set rest), and the CLS10, CLS20 and CLS30 groups with 10, 20 and 30 s of intra-set rest, respectively, while the total rest period (i.e., 180 s) was equated. Pretest-posttest was carried out 48 h before and after the intervention and the rating of fatigue (ROF) was also assessed using a numerical scale (0-10 points) 20 min after the first and last (i.e., 12th) session. There was no significant difference in the mean energy intake between groups (p > 0.05). The repeated measures ANOVA revealed that all groups showed similar improvements (p < 0.05) in body mass, body mass index, fat-free mass, 1RM (dynamic strength) and repetitions to failure (muscular endurance) in back squat and chest press, handgrip strength, standing long jump, 20 m sprint, 9-m shuttle run (change of direction speed), and ROF. Of note, the ROF was lower for the CLS20 and CLS30 groups, independent from the training effect. The physical fitness of recreationally active young men improved after 6 weeks of PJT involving intra-set rest intervals of 0 s, 10 s, 20 s, or 30 s. However, an intra-set rest of 20 s and 30 s seems to induce lower exercise-induced fatigue perception.
The problem in this study is the low level of the explosive power of the athlete's limb muscles. This study aims to determine how much influence Plyometric training has on increasing leg muscle power in SSC Women's volleyball athletes. This research is an experimental study, in which the authors wanted to know the effect of Plyometric training on increasing leg muscle power in PGSD students, women's volleyball athletes, and SSC. The method used in this research is a field experiment method. The population used as the sample in this study was 10 PGSD students, so this research is called population research. The variables in this study consisted of the independent variable, namely plyometric training, and the dependent variable, namely the Power Test using the Jump MD measuring instrument. The instruments used in the training process consist of five forms of training. Based on the results of the pre-test and post-test which were processed using statistical formulas, the hypotheses in this study can be proven that there is an increase in leg muscle power in PGSD students, and SSC women's volleyball athletes through plyometric training.
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This study examined the relative effectiveness of two leading forms of athletic training in enhancing dynamic performance in various tests. Thirty-three men who participated in various regional level sports, but who had not previously performed resistance training, were randomly assigned to either a maximal power training program, a combined weight and plyometric program, or a nontraining control group. The maximal power group performed weighted jump squats and bench press throws using a load that maximized the power output of the exercise. The combined group underwent traditional heavy weight training in the form of squats, and bench press and plyometric training in the form of depth jumps and medicine ball throws. The training consisted of 2 sessions a week for 8 weeks. Both training groups were equally effective in enhancing a variety of performance measures such as jumping, cycling, throwing, and lifting. (C) 1996 National Strength and Conditioning Association
To investigate the influence of strength training on the electrical and mechanical behaviour of leg extensor muscles during concentric and various stretch-shortening cycles exercises, eleven male subjects went through dynamic heavy resistance strength training with loads of 70 to 120% one maximum repetition three times a week for 24 weeks. The heavy resistance strength training resulted in specific changes in neuromuscular performance. This was demonstrated by the great (p< 0.001) shift of primarily the high force portions of the force velocity curves measured both during squat (SJ) and counter movement jumping (CMJ) conditions. An increase of 30.2% (p<0.001) in maximal strength was noted during the training, while the increases became gradually smaller near the high velocity portions of the curve, where an increase of 7.3% (p<0.05) in the jumping height in SJ and a non-significant increase in the maximal extension velocity with free loads were noted. The increases in positive work phases of force production were accompanied by significant (p<0.05) increases in the neural activation (IEMG) of primarily the vasti medialis and lateralis muscle, while only slight changes were noted in the RF muscle. Only minor and mostly nonsignificant changes were observed during the strength training in the neural activation and force production of the leg extensor muscles in various drop jumps, in which high contraction velocities are utilized. When the training was followed by a 12-week detraining, a great (p<0.001) decrease in maximal strength was observed, while the changes in various parameters of explosive force production were either small (p<0.05) or nonsignificant. The present findings regarding the changes in the electrical and mechanical behaviour of the leg extensor muscles during heavy resistance strength training give additional support to the concept of specificity of training.
Forty-eight volunteer males were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group I trained with isokinetic exercises, Group II trained with plyometric exercises, and Group III was the control. Subjects in the training groups trained three times per week for 8 weeks. The isokinetic group performed three sets of 10 repetitions per set of leg presses each training session. The plyometric group performed three sets of 10 repetitions per set of depth jumps from a height of 34 inches, with added resistance beginning with weeks 3, 5, and 7 of 10, 15, and 20 pounds, respectively. Prior to and at the end of the training period, all subjects were given a vertical jump-and-reach test. Covariance analysis was used to compare posttest scores with the effect of pretest differences removed. Results showed both training groups improved significantly in vertical jump capacity; however, no significant difference existed between training groups.
In recent years, a method of plyometrics (exercises that cause a rapid lengthening of a muscle prior to contraction) called depth jumping has become a part of the training routine of many athletes. Two experiments are described in which the effectiveness of the exercises is examined. In Experiment 1, undergraduate students in beginning weight training classes trained with three different jumping programs: (1) maximum vertical jumps, (2) 0.3 m depth jumps, and (3) 0.75 m and 1.10 m depth jumps. In addition, all groups also lifted weights. In Experiment 2, a weight training class and the volleyball team at Brigham Young University-Hawaii were divided into two groups. One group lifted weights and performed 0.75 and 1.10 m depth jumps. The other group only lifted weights. In Experiment 1, the three training programs resulted in increases in one repetition maximum (1 RM) squat strength, isometric knee extension strength, and in vertical jump; however, there were no significant differences between treatments. In Experiment 2, all groups made significant increases in vertical jump, except the group of weight lifters, who did no jumping. It was concluded that depth jumps are effective but not more effective than a regular jumping routine.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 10-week resistance and resistance-plyometrics training program on measures of lower body power and body composition. Twenty-two male and 15 female physical education students were randomly assigned to one of five groups as follows: free weights (FW, n = 8), Hydra Gym (HydraFitness, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), (HG, n = 8), plyometrics (P, n = 8), Hydra Gym with plyometrics (HG-P, n = 6) and free weights with plyometrics (FW-P, n = 7). All groups trained three times per week with each session lasting approximately 30 minutes. Vertical jump, percent body fat and isokinetic power variables were determined at the beginning and at the conclusion of the 10-week training program. Peak torque values, measured on the Cybex II (Lumex Corp., Bayshore, New York) at four velocity settings were expressed in terms of lean body mass (LBM). No between-group significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed for any of the test items measured. However, within each training group, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in peak torque measures following the training program. The results reveal that similar increases in lower extremity power may be induced by a variety of resistance and resistance-plyometrics programs. (C) 1990 National Strength and Conditioning Association