Article

Push-ups As a Measure of Upper Body Strength

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using push-ups to predict one-repetition maximum (1 RM) concentric bench press performance. College males (n = 106 enrolled in a basic fitness course were evaluated for a 1 RM bench press with free weights and for maximum one-minute push-up performance. Push-ups were adjusted for body height (PU[middle dot]cm), body mass (PU[middle dot]kg), lean body mass (PU[middle dot]kg LBM) and height and body mass (PU[middle dot]cm[middle dot]kg[middle dot]100-1). Push-ups were only moderately related (r = 0.47) to bench press. The correlations between adjusted push-ups and bench press were r = 0.49 (PU[middle dot]cm), r = 0.71(PU[middle dot]kg), r = 0.65 (PU[middle dot]kg LBM) and r = 0.71 (PU[middle dot]cm[middle dot]kg[middle dot]100-1). Cross-validation (n = 53) of the prediction equation developed from the original sample (PU[middle dot]kg) and the equation proposed by Dean et al. were moderately successful (r = 0.70 for both). However, the standard errors of estimate were +/- 15.7 kg for each equation, although the Dean et al. equation significantly overestimated bench press performance. Because of the large error noted when predicting 1 RM bench press, push-ups are not an accurate reflection of upper body strength in young males. (C) 1991 National Strength and Conditioning Association

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... Although performing RTF at 225 lb is a commonly used procedure, there have been other methods and other muscle groups employed to predict the 1-RM for the bench press. Mayhew, et al. used a one-minute push up test to predict the 1-RM bench press in college males (23). The prediction correlation was not high (r=0.47) in this investigation (23). ...
... Mayhew, et al. used a one-minute push up test to predict the 1-RM bench press in college males (23). The prediction correlation was not high (r=0.47) in this investigation (23). The results indicated that the push up test was not highly correlated with the 1-RM bench press in college males (23). ...
... The prediction correlation was not high (r=0.47) in this investigation (23). The results indicated that the push up test was not highly correlated with the 1-RM bench press in college males (23). Grip strength has also been correlated with a 1-RM bench press in untrained and trained college age males and females (4). ...
Article
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to develop and validate a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) prediction model for the upper and the lower body in non-resistance trained women. METHODS: Sixty seven healthy, non-resistance trained women between the ages of 18 and 25 years volunteered for this investigation. The investigation was performed in 2 phases. During phase I, all subjects completed 2 experimental sessions. During the first session, subjects performed a bench press repetition to fatigue (RTF) test with 45 lb and 55 lb. Subjects also performed a leg press RTF with 175 lb and 215 lb. Additional variables that were measured were: body height (in.), body weight (lb), and sum of skinfolds (mm). During the second session, subjects performed a 1-RM bench press and a 1-RM leg press. Phase II of the experiment involved the development and validation of 1-RM prediction models for the bench press and the leg press exercise. RESULTS: A stepwise regression analysis was carried out to develop a 1-RM prediction model for the bench press exercise and for the leg press exercise. The initial set of predictor variables considered for the upper body prediction model were: RTF with the bench press, body height (in.), body weight (lb), and sum of skinfolds (mm). The variable selected by the stepwise regression analysis for inclusion in the bench press prediction model was RTF with 55 lb (r = 0.914). The model to predict 1-RM bench press was: Model I: 1-RM bench press = 56.199 + 1.94(RTF55). A paired samples t-test indicated that the difference between the mean measured and mean predicted 1-RM was not significant (p>.05). The correlation between the measured and the predicted 1-RM values for the bench press was r = 0.935. The initial set of predictor variables considered for the lower body prediction model were: RTF with the leg press, body height (in.), body weight (lb), and sum of skinfolds (mm). The variables selected by the stepwise regression analysis for inclusion in the leg press prediction model were RTF with 215 lb and body weight (lb) (r = 0.798). The model to predict 1-RM leg press was: Model II: 1-RM leg press = 145.099 + 2.752 (RTF215) + .618 (body weight). A paired samples t-test indicated that the difference between the mean measured and mean predicted 1-RM was not significant (p>.05). The correlation between the measured and the predicted 1-RM values for the leg press was r = 0.695. CONCLUSION: The models developed in this investigation can be used to estimate the upper and/or lower body 1-RM strength of non-resistance trained women. These models will be useful for coaches, personal trainers, and fitness professionals who wish to design strength-training programs to enhance performance and the health-fitness levels of recreationally active females.
... The bench press and push-up are two exercises used to both monitor upper body strength and enhance strength in upper body movement (Calatayud et al., 2015;Mayhew et al., 1991). The selection of which exercise to use is largely dependent on the athletes' goal, movement capabilities and relative strength levels. ...
... Within the bench press, the maximum load lifted for prescribed reps or the velocity of the lift measured with a linear encoder at a certain % of 1 repetition-maximum (1-RM), is frequently used to assess strength capabilities . In contrast, for push-ups the total number of repetitions is often used as an indication of upper body strength or strength endurance (Invergo et al., 1991;Mayhew et al., 1991). In addition to assessment of different expressions of strength, administering tests related to the two exercises is also different. ...
... Prior studies have investigated the relationship between push-up strength and bench press strength for the purposes of predicting performance (Bartolomei et al., 2018;Blackard et al., 1999;Invergo et al., 1991;Mayhew et al., 1991). Invergo et al. (1991) and Mayhew et al. (1991) found that the number of push-ups completed in 60 s was unable to predict the 1-RM bench press load. ...
Article
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The aims of this study were firstly to compare the similarity in upper-body muscle activation between the bench press and push-up at similar loads, and secondly to establish a 1-RM prediction equation between the two exercises based upon the load-velocity relationship. Twenty resistance-trained male athletes (age 22.5 ± 5.24 years, body mass 83.7 ± 10.7 kg, body height 1.80 ± 0.06 m) performed push-ups and bench presses with four different loads. Push-ups were performed without a weight vest and with a 10-20-30 kg weight vest. Bench presses were performed at 50-80% of athletes’ assumed 1 repetition max (1-RM) in 10 kg steps, while a linear encoder measured performance during the exercises. A load-velocity relationship was established as a product of the load and velocity for the push-up and bench press per participant and the equation was used to establish a predicted 1-RM. Mean muscle activation of eight upper body muscles was recorded for each exercise and each load. The main findings of this study demonstrate an extremely large association between the predicted 1-RM loads performed with the push-up and bench press (r = 0.93) in experienced resistance trained men. Furthermore, most muscles showed similar activations between the two exercises with the different loads except the deltoid and biceps brachii muscles. It may be concluded that it is possible to predict a cross-over 1-RM between the two exercises based upon the load-velocity relationship in each exercise, and that training push-ups largely targets the same muscles as the bench press except the deltoid and biceps muscles. For coaches and athletes, the use of this method is a low cost and time-effective alternative for standard 1-RM bench press testing to predict maximal upper body strength.
... During the tennis ground strokes the elbow is maintained at a rather extended position of around 40–60 @BULLET [11,12,25] with the elbow's range of motion no more than around 11 @BULLET [23]. During a handball game players often have to use their arms at " static " flexed elbow angles in order to push against their opponent's great body mass, a pattern similar to the standardized push-up test [27, 32] that justifies the advantageous performance of the more muscular handball players [19] . Thus, the expression of elbow muscular strength may be expected to differ between tennis and handball players, in respect to the sport specific combinations of angular velocities and angular range of elbow motion. ...
... Thus, the expression of elbow muscular strength may be expected to differ between tennis and handball players, in respect to the sport specific combinations of angular velocities and angular range of elbow motion. In addition , the force developed during a widely used dynamic performance test for the upper extremities, such as the push-up test [27,32] would be expected to relate better to the handball than the tennis players' muscular strength, since a similar pattern of movement is often encountered in the activities of a handball player during a game. Muscular strength may be assessed by a variety of methods, including isokinetic and isometric tests as well as tests of dynamic performance with significant correlations, although not consistently strong, between isokinetic and isometric torque for the elbow extensor and flexor inter se [1,24,30,31] , as well as with dynamic tests of the elbow musculature [29] and the ball throwing velocity [6,36] . ...
... Thus, relationships between isokinetic and isometric measures of strength would be stronger for higher angular velocities and more extended elbow angles in the tennis players than the handball players, who in turn would be expected to demonstrate stronger correlations for slower angular velocities and more flexed elbow angles. In addition, stronger relationships between the single-joint isokinetic and isometric measures of elbow muscular strength at a widely used test of the upper arm dynamic ability, such as the push-up test [27,32] would be expected for the handball players, who appear to use a similar to the push-up pattern of movement when pushing against their opponent body mass. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among isokinetic, isometric and dynamic measures of the elbow extensor and flexor muscular strength, in young athletes of two different overarm throwing specializations such as the tennis and handball players. ...
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The study examined the relationships among isokinetic, isometric and dynamic measures of the elbow extensor (EE) and elbow flexor (EF) strength, in junior throwing athletes. The isokinetic torque (T-ISOK) (90, 210, 300 degrees/s) and the isometric torque (T-ISOM) (10, 40, 90 degrees) of the EE and EF, and the maximum force (Fz(max)) during the push-up test were measured in tennis (TP, n = 7) and handball players (HP, n = 8) (13 to 16 yrs). Statistics included 2 (Group) x 3 (Angular velocity or Joint angle) ANOVA for group differences and the Pearson coefficient (r) for the relationships between strength measures. Handball players developed higher T-ISOK and T-ISOM (p < 0.05), however, when normalized to body mass, differences were not always significant. Fz(max) was the same between groups (p > 0.05). The angle-specificity of the strong relationships between T-ISOK and T-ISOM (p < 0.05) reflected sport specialization. All relationships between EE and EF were significant in TP (p > 0.05), whereas, T-ISOK and T-ISOM relationships with Fz(max) were significant in HP (p < 0.05). In conclusion, athletic specialization has an impact on the relationships between isokinetic, isometric and dynamic measures of elbow strength in junior tennis and handball players.
... Safety is also a major concern when performing 1 RM testing. Some individuals are not comfortable or are not able to perform this type of maximal strength testing and may be at a higher risk of injury (Kim, Mayhew, & Peterson, 2002; Kravitz, Akalan, Nowicki, & Kinzey, 2003; LeSuer, McCormick, Mayhew, Wasserstein, & Arnold, 1997; Mayhew, Ball, Arnold, & Bowen, 1991; Mayhew et al., 1992; Mayhew, Prinster, Ware, Zimmer, Arabas, & Bemben, 1995; Reynolds, Gordon, & Robergs, 2006; Whisenant & Panton, 2003). In certain populations, such as elderly or diseased, this type of testing would not be advised due to limited strength and resulting safety concerns. ...
... Most of these equations, which are very specific to the population in which they were developed, will either over-or under-predict the 1 RM if the proper protocol and population are not utilized (Cummings & Finn, 1998; Wood, Maddalozzo, & Harter, 2002). The most common method used to determine muscular endurance is the oneminute push-up test (Invergo et al., 1991; Mayhew et al., 1991). This test determines muscular endurance based on the number of push-ups completed in one minute. ...
... There has not been much research conducted on the reliability of the one-minute push-up test, with the exception of attempting to determine the relationship between push-ups and the 1 RM bench press test. Two studies that have looked at the relationship between push-ups and 1 RM bench press strength have determined that push-ups, specifically, are not significantly correlated with 1 RM bench press strength (Invergo et al., 1991; Mayhew et al., 1991). However, these studies did not standardize the protocol very well. ...
... All of the part icipants were instructed to perform the maximal number of co mplete pull-ups using a self-selected cadence [5,6]. The pull-up tests were corrected for body mass (rep/kg) [7,8]. ...
... We recorded the highest value of the three trials. The push-up ju mp tests were corrected for body mass (c m/kg) [7]. ...
... All participants were asked to perform three t rials of maximal horizontal displacement, and we used the longest value in our analysis [5]. The maximal horizontal ju mps were corrected for body mass (cm/kg) [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the strength and power performance of Parkour practit ioners and compare to those who do not. Eleven male Parkour practit ioners and 12 male physical educators participated in this study and performed: pull-up test, handgrip strength dynamometer test (HSDT), p lyo metric push-up test, maximal horizontal ju mp, and maximal bipodal and unipodal countermovement ju mps (CMJ). We calcu lated limb asymmetry fo r HSDT and CMJs and the bilateral deficit for CMJs. Significant differences were found between groups for the pull-up test (P=0.002), plyo metric push-up test (P=0.039), bipodal CMJ (P<0.001), dominant unipodal CMJ (P=0.008), nondominant unipodal CMJ (P<0.001), maximal horizontal ju mp (P<0.001), and bilateral deficit (P<0.004). The Parkour group presented higher performance than the active group, except for HSDT.
... During the tennis ground strokes the elbow is maintained at a rather extended position of around 40–60 @BULLET [11,12,25] with the elbow's range of motion no more than around 11 @BULLET [23]. During a handball game players often have to use their arms at " static " flexed elbow angles in order to push against their opponent's great body mass, a pattern similar to the standardized push-up test [27,32] that justifies the advantageous performance of more muscular handball players [19]. Thus, the expression of elbow muscular strength may be expected to differ between tennis and handball players, in respect to the sport specific combinations of angular velocities and angular range of elbow motion. ...
... Thus, the expression of elbow muscular strength may be expected to differ between tennis and handball players, in respect to the sport specific combinations of angular velocities and angular range of elbow motion. In addition, the force developed during a widely used dynamic performance test for the upper extremities, such as the push-up test [27, 32] would be expected to relate better to the handball than the tennis players' muscular strength, since a similar pattern of movement is often encountered in the activities of a handball player during a game. Muscular strength may be assessed by a variety of methods, including isokinetic and isometric tests as well as tests of dynamic performance with significant correlations, although not consistently strong, between isokinetic and isometric torque for the elbow extensor and flexor inter se [1,24,30,31] , as well as with dynamic tests of the elbow musculature [29] and the ball throwing velocity [6,36] . ...
... Thus, relationships between isokinetic and isometric measures of strength would be stronger for higher angular velocities and more extended elbow angles in the tennis players than the handball players, who in turn would be expected to demonstrate stronger correlations for slower angular velocities and more flexed elbow angles. In addition, stronger relationships between the single-joint isokinetic and isometric measures of elbow muscular strength at a widely used test of the upper arm dynamic ability, such as the push-up test [27,32] would be expected for the handball players, who appear to use a similar to the push-up pattern of movement when pushing against their opponent body mass. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to to examine the relationships among isokinetic, isometric and dynamic measures of the elbow extensor and flexor muscular strength, in young athletes of two different overarm throwing specializations such as the tennis and handball players. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study examined the relationships among isokinetic, isometric and dynamic measures of the elbow extensor (EE) and elbow flexor (EF) strength, in junior throwing athletes. The isokinetic torque (TISOK) (90, 210, 300 • /s) and the isometric torque (TISOM) (10, 40, 90 •) of the EE and EF, and the maximum force (Fzmax) during the push-up test were measured in tennis (TP, n = 7) and handball players (HP, n = 8) (13 to 16 yrs). Statistics included 2 (Group) × 3 (Angular velocity or Joint angle) ANOVA for group differences and the Pearson coefficient (r) for the relationships between strength measures. Handball players developed higher TISOK and TISOM (p < 0.05), however, when normalized to body mass, differences were not always significant. Fzmax was the same between groups (p > 0.05). The angle-specificity of the strong relationships between TISOK and TISOM (p < 0.05) reflected sport specialization. All relationships between EE and EF were significant in TP (p > 0.05), whereas, TISOK and TISOM relationships with Fzmax were significant in HP (p < 0.05). In conclusion, athletic specialization has an impact on the relationships between isokinetic, isometric and dynamic measures of elbow strength in junior tennis and handball players.
... A unique finding of the present study was that 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased maximal modified push-up performance by 28.6% (η 2 = 0.34). Push-up tests have been used as a measure of upper-body muscle strength and endurance (Mayhew et al., 1991). Ground reaction force studies have shown that 64-75% of body weight (depending on posture and segment of the range of motion) is supported during a regular traditional push-up, and 49-61% of body weight is supported during a modified push-up which must be overcome during the ascent or "up" phase (Ebben et al., 2011;Suprak et al., 2011). ...
... Thus, a blend of strength and endurance is needed to overcome the resistance of body weight and perform a large number of push-ups. Previous studies have shown significant positive correlations (r = 0.47 to 0.71) between absolute and relative push-up performance and maximal bench press performance (Mayhew et al., 1991;Vaara et al., 2012). Thus, it is likely that CON and ECC strength increases observed in the present study contributed to the augmented modified push-up performance. ...
Article
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The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic re-sistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to inves-tigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance in-creases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repeti-tions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear veloci-ty of 0.15 m⋅s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post train-ing. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differ-ences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women.
... Previous research has produced mixed results when determining the interchangeable nature between resistance exercises and similar calisthenic exercises. The majority of these studies have centered on comparing maximum push-up repetitions to 1RM bench press (14,17,26,27). Typically, pushup performance is only moderately correlated with 1RM bench press (r = 0.5 to 0.6), but the addition of variables such as body mass (BM), height, BM 3 push-ups, and lean body mass (LBM) 3 push-ups can increase the correlation slightly (R = 0.7 to 0.8). ...
... The equations to predict 1RM lat-pull were as follows: The addition of FM or %fat did not contribute significantly to the prediction of 1RM lat-pull. Furthermore, replacing the individual variables with the product of the 2 (i.e., BM 3 pullups or LBM 3 pull-ups), as has been done when predicting bench press with push-ups (14,26,27), was not effective for prediction of 1RM lat-pull (R 2 , 0.14). Pull-ups were significantly related to 1RM lat-pull/kg ( Table 1). ...
Article
To determine the relationship of lat-pull repetitions using a submaximal load and maximal pull-up performance to 1-RM lat-pull strength, 93 college male athletes from baseball (n=30) and football (n=63) teams were evaluated during their off-season conditioning program. The 1-RM lat-pull (LPM), repetitions-to-fatigue using 60% of 1-RM (LPR) and pull-ups were measured. LPR were performed from full-arm extension to below the chin. During the pull-up exercise, the chin was required to be above the bar on each repetition. A pronated grip was used throughout testing. Subjects performed significantly more LPR than pull-ups and the two tests were not significantly related (r=0.05). LPM averaged 110% of body mass and was significantly related to body mass (r=0.62) and LPR (r=0.46) but not to pull-ups (r=-0.01). A multiple regression equation combining LPR and repetition weight was effective in predicting LPM (R=0.99, SEE=2.0kg). Combining pull-ups and body mass was less effective for predicting LPM (R=0.73, SEE=11.6kg). LPR appeared to be more effective for predicting LPM in resistance trained college male athletes than were pull-ups, although a combination of pull-ups and body mass can be used to evaluate shoulder strength.
... Thus, height seems to be a relevant factor in motor performance in both tests analyzed, with the shorter subjects presenting a tendency to better motor performance in both tests, which seems to be related to the shorter articular distance to be reached during the execution of each sequence, resulting consequently in a lower total energy expenditure. Relatively similar results to ours were reported by Mayhew et al. 24 when analyzing the performance with push-ups of male college students. ...
... Finally, despite the great interest of the scientific community in offering alternatives that are relatively simple, of low cost, of large application in different professional environments and research involving a large number of subjects, the indiscriminate application of the MPU and FKPU tests needs to be reconsidered. Based on the results found in this investigation, the FKPU test does not seem to discriminate the levels of muscular strength, being apparently more useful for assessing muscular endurance, confirming previously published information 24 . Furthermore, although some researchers have used the MPU test to evaluate muscular endurance 29,30 , the results of this study indicate that this test, at least in young women, does not seem to discriminate muscular endurance for most of those evaluated and presents limitations for categorizing the levels of muscle strength, particularly in subjects who cannot complete even one repetition. ...
Article
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n3p315 O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o desempenho motor nos testes de flexão e extensãodos braços em suspensão na barra modificada (FEBbarra) e flexão e extensão de braços, no solo, com apoio dos joelhos (FEBlivre) em mulheres jovens. Trinta e cincomulheres aparentemente saudáveis (20,1 ± 2,2 anos) foram submetidas a cada umdos testes, em um intervalo de 48 h, de forma aleatória e balanceada. No teste FEBbarra, a maioria dos indivíduos executou entre 0 e 10 repetições (86%), sendo que, aproximadamente, 17% não executaram sequer uma repetição. Por outrolado, no teste FEBlivre a maior prevalência de resultados foi entre 16 e 35repetições (71%). O teste de Wilcoxon identificou diferenças estatisticamente significantes (P < 0,01) no desempenho motor nos testes analisados (FEBlivre > FEBbarra). Uma concordância moderada (Kappa = 0,40) foi encontrada entre o desempenho nos dois testes. Correlações negativas e de fraca magnitude (r = - 0,23-0,46) foram verificadas entre variáveis morfológicas (massa corporal, estatura, massa gorda e massa corporal magra) e o desempenho motor em ambos os testes. Os resultados sugerem que o teste FEBlivre se apresenta como um melhor indicador dos níveis de resistência muscular, enquanto que o teste FEBbarra parece discriminar melhor a força muscular em mulheres jovens.
... A unique finding of the present study was that 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased maximal modified push-up performance by 28.6% (η 2 = 0.34). Push-up tests have been used as a measure of upper-body muscle strength and endurance (Mayhew et al., 1991). Ground reaction force studies have shown that 64-75% of body weight (depending on posture and segment of the range of motion) is supported during a regular traditional push-up, and 49-61% of body weight is supported during a modified push-up which must be overcome during the ascent or "up" phase (Ebben et al., 2011;Suprak et al., 2011). ...
... Thus, a blend of strength and endurance is needed to overcome the resistance of body weight and perform a large number of push-ups. Previous studies have shown significant positive correlations (r = 0.47 to 0.71) between absolute and relative push-up performance and maximal bench press performance (Mayhew et al., 1991;Vaara et al., 2012). Thus, it is likely that CON and ECC strength increases observed in the present study contributed to the augmented modified push-up performance. ...
... Previous research has produced mixed results when determining the interchangeable nature between resistance exercises and similar calisthenic exercises. The majority of these studies have centered on comparing maximum push-up repetitions to 1RM bench press (14,17,26,27). Typically, pushup performance is only moderately correlated with 1RM bench press (r = 0.5 to 0.6), but the addition of variables such as body mass (BM), height, BM 3 push-ups, and lean body mass (LBM) 3 push-ups can increase the correlation slightly (R = 0.7 to 0.8). ...
... The equations to predict 1RM lat-pull were as follows: The addition of FM or %fat did not contribute significantly to the prediction of 1RM lat-pull. Furthermore, replacing the individual variables with the product of the 2 (i.e., BM 3 pullups or LBM 3 pull-ups), as has been done when predicting bench press with push-ups (14,26,27), was not effective for prediction of 1RM lat-pull (R 2 , 0.14). Pull-ups were significantly related to 1RM lat-pull/kg ( Table 1). ...
Article
The purposes of this study were to determine the relationships among pull-ups, lat-pull repetitions, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) lat-pull in elite women swimmers and to assess the effect of various anthropometric dimensions on each exercise. Women members (n = 28) of an elite National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II swim team were measured for their ability to perform a maximum number of free-hanging pull-ups, 1RM lat-pull, and lat-pull repetitions at 80% of 1RM. Anthropometric dimensions included selected arm lengths, percent body fat (%fat), and lean body mass (LBM) estimated from skinfold measurements. The correlations of 1RM lat-pull with body mass (r = 0.38, p = 0.04) and LBM (r = 0.41, p = 0.03) were significant, whereas that with %fat (r = 0.13, p = 0.49) was not. The same variables had a significant negative pattern with pull-ups (r = -0.48, -0.43, -0.32, respectively). Pull-ups were moderately correlated with 1RM lat-pull (r = 0.34, p = 0.08) but not with lat-pull repetitions (r = 0.07, p = 0.73). The product of pull-ups times body mass (PU x BM) was a better predictor of 1RM lat-pull (r = 0.86, standard errors of estimate [SEEs] = 4.4 kg) than either measurement alone. The addition of %fat to PU x BM in a stepwise regression analysis raised the correlation (R = 0.90) and reduced the SEE (3.9 kg) only slightly. Addition of arm or forearm lengths failed to increase the multiple R significantly. These results confirmed that the seemingly analogous exercises of pull-ups and lat-pulls were not highly related and should not be substituted for one another in a training regimen.
... Se justifican tales resultados, debido a la especificidad del gesto entre ambos (Mc Dougall et al., 2005), en el que la musculatura utilizada, el régimen de contracción isotónico y la magnitud de la resistencia a vencer, son muy similares a pesar de existir diferencias en la duración e intensidad del esfuerzo. Mayhew et al. (1991) e Invergo et al. (1991), en sus respectivas investigaciones, comprobaron la relación que existe entre dos pruebas que miden diferentes manifestaciones de fuerza de las extremidades superiores y emplean diferentes cargas esto es, el test de flexo-extensiones de brazos en un minuto y la prueba de 1 RM en press de banca; comprobaron que no son predictoras una de la otra. Bentz (2003) demostró que un entrenamiento de flexo-extensiones de brazos, suponía una ganancia de fuerza significativa (45.3%) en la prueba de máximas repeticiones de dicho gesto, y de tan sólo 12.9% en 1 RM en press de banca. ...
Article
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INTRODUCCIÓN: se comprobó la posibilidad de utilizar una plataforma de contacto para evaluar la fuerza del tren superior, desde tumbado prono. PROCEDIMIENTO: 84 varones ejecutaron flexo-extensiones de brazos (1’) y SJB adaptado; 34 de ellos, lanzamientos de balón medicinal (3Kg y 7 variantes). Se realizaron pruebas de fiabilidad (coeficiente de correlación intraclase: CCI) y de validez (Pearson). RESULTADOS: CCI del test de lanzamientos (0,98-0,83 según variante); SJB adaptado (0.90); flexo-extensiones de brazos en 1’ (0,98). “r” de Pearson del SJB adaptado con los lanzamientos (r=0,49) y con el test de flexo-extensiones de brazos (r=0.95). CONCLUSIONES: los tres test son fiables. El SJB adaptado predice el número de flexo-extensiones de brazos en 1’, pero no del test de lanzamientos. PALABRAS CLAVE: fuerza, extremidades superiores, plataforma de contacto, balón medicinal, SJB, flexo-extensione
... While bodyweight exercises such as planks, press-ups, and abdominal exercises will elicit some strength adaptations in those with lower levels of relative strength, the ability to progressively overload the muscles is restricted to approximately 75% of bodyweight 31 and may, in turn, only allow for further adaptations to muscular endurance through higher repetitions. 32 Pilates, while used widely by dancers, 33 has little reliable and comparable research that demonstrates significant improvements in muscular strength and relates more specifically to stabilization of the musculoskeletal system and maintaining alignment 34 rather than specific strength parameters. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to ascertain current perceptions of strength training (ST) in dance from the viewpoint of the professional dancer, dance teacher, and student dancers across dance genres. A total of 168 responses (149 females, 19 males) to the modified Training Information Survey (TIS) were analyzed for differences in perceptions of ST between dance students, professional dancers, and dance teachers. Some significant differences were found between professionals and teachers (p > 0.05) and between students and teachers (p > 0.001). In all instances, dance teachers were less likely to agree with the following: ST is essential to my overall development as a dancer, women should participate in ST, men should participate in ST, ST should be part of every training program regardless of dance style, ST is beneficial to women, and ST increases bodyweight. It is evident that perceptions of ST still vary across the dance sector, and it is postulated that further education for dancers on the role ST has to play on the development of a dancer would help to break down barriers to participation. From this investigation, it can also be concluded that the perception that dancers have a fear of muscle hypertrophy and a negative impact on aesthetics is no longer widely prevalent, although it still permeates throughout the dance sector.
... The primary objectives of PPE (fourth edition) are as follows: (a) screen for conditions that may be life threatening or disabling and (b) screen for conditions that may predispose to injury or illness. Functional clinical assessment tools have the possibility of predicting musculoskeletal injuries through detecting abnormal movement pattern and limb asymmetries (16,21,23,(40)(41)(42)44), range of motion (4), strength (13,32,46), power (17,18), postural control (42), core stabilization (41), and propriceptive deficits (11). More work needs to be completed to create reliable parsimonious clinical screening tools to aid clinicians in identifying individuals at risk for musculoskeletal injury. ...
Article
Onate, JA, Dewey, T, Kollock, RO, Thomas, KS, Van Lunen, BL, DeMaio, M, and Ringleb, SI. Real-time intersession and interrater reliability of the functional movement screen. J Strength Cond Res 26(2): 408–415, 2012—The purpose of this study was to examine the real-time intersession and interrater reliability of the functional movement screen (FMS). The overall study consisted of 19 volunteer civilians (12 male, 7 female). The intersession reliability consisted of 12 men and 7 women, whereas 10 men and 6 women participated in the interrater reliability test session. Two raters (A and B) were involved in the interrater reliability aspect of this study. The FMS includes 7 tests: deep squat (DS), hurdle step (HS), in-line lunge (IL), shoulder mobility (SM), active straight leg raise (ASLR), trunk stability push-up (TSPU), and rotary stability (RS). Researchers analyzed the data via intraclass correlation (ICC). To determine the reliability of the intersession scoring of the FMS and the intrasession interrater scoring of the FMS a 2-way mixed effects model intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC3,1) was used for the continuous data, whereas a weighted Cohen's kappa (κ) was used for the categorical data. The dependent variables were FMS total score (0–21 scale) and associated tests were DS, HS, IL, SM, ASLR, TSPU, and RS. Intersession reliability (ICC, SEM) and κ were as follows: FMS total score (0.92, 0.51), DS (κ = 0.69), HS (κ = 0.16), IL (κ = 0.69), SM (κ = 0.84), ASLR (κ = 0.69), TSPU (κ = 0.77), and RS (no covariance). Interrater reliability (ICC, SEM) and κ were as follows: FMS total score (0.98, 0.25), DS (κ = 1.0), HS (κ = 0.33), IL (κ = 0.88), SM (κ = 0.90), ASLR (κ = 0.88), TSPU (κ = 0.75), and RS (no covariance). The FMS total scores displayed high intersession and interrater reliabilities. Finally, with the exception of HS, all tasks displayed moderate to high intersession reliability and good to high interrater reliability.
... Push-ups have also been evaluated as an upper body strength test (14) and are often included on standardized fitness tests including those used for school children (13) and military recruits (9). Training with traditional and plyometric push-ups produces increased upper body strength and power (17). ...
Article
Push-ups are a common and practical exercise that is used to enhance fitness, including upper body strength or endurance. The kinetic characteristics of push-ups and its variations are yet to be quantified. Kinetic quantification is necessary to accurately evaluate the training load, and thus the nature of the training stimulus, for these exercise variations. This study assessed the peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) of push-up variations including the regular push-up and those performed with flexed knee, feet elevated on a 30.48-cm box, and a 60.96-cm box, and hands elevated on a 30.48-cm box and a 60.96-cm box. Twenty-three recreationally fit individuals (14 men, 9 women) performed each of the 6 push-up variations in a randomized order. Peak GRF and peak GRF expressed as a coefficient of subject body mass were obtained with a force platform. Push-ups with the feet elevated produced a higher GRF than all other push-up variations (p ≤ 0.05). Push-ups with hands elevated and push-ups from the flexed knee position produced a lower GRF than all other push-up variations (p ≤ 0.05). No gender differences in response to these push-up variations were found (p > 0.05). Additionally, subject height was not related to the GRF for any of the push-up conditions (p > 0.05) other than the condition where hands were elevated on a 60.96-cm box (p ≤ 0.05; r = 0.63). These data can be used to progress the intensity of push-ups in a program and to quantify the training load as a percentage of body mass.
... Recomendações metodológicas para sua aplicação: o avaliado deve se posicionar em decúbito ventral, com as mãos apoiadas no solo, com uma distância de 10 a 20 cm a partir da linha dos ombros, com os dedos voltados para frente (19). Avaliar a força/resistência dos músculos dos membros superiores e da cintura escapular no movimento de fl exão e extensão dos cotovelos sobre o solo (6) Objetivo do teste Validade Foi reportado um "r" de 0,93 (17), podendo ter sua validade aumentada quando corrigida pela massa corporal (2) Fidedignidade Apresenta valores elevados, "r" 0.93 (4) Objetividade Foi obtido um "r" de 0.99 (18) Fonte: Dados da pesquisa. ...
Article
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INTRODUCTION: The strength and muscular endurance are important components of physical fitness for health and high performance. The tests of push-up, pull-up and modified pull-up, using own body weight and evaluate motor skills related to physical fitness, health and athletic performance, to measure the strength and muscular endurance upper limbs in both sexes and a wide age range. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to search the literature methodological issues related to validity, reliability, objectivity and specific procedures used in tests: push-up, pull-up and modified pull-up, by doing so, a survey of indicators yield of these tests in elite athletes of different modalities. CONCLUSION: The tests of push-up, pull-up and modified pull-up are efficient, reliable, easy to apply and are tools that employ low cost, and require little training for evaluators. However, as we draw attention to the standardization and methodological recommendations for your applications so they can be safely used in rehabilitation and athletic performance.
... The aerobic capacity was evaluated by the 12 minute Cooper test (1968); the anaerobic capacity was evaluated by the shuttle run test; muscle strength of the upper limbs was evaluated by pushups (Mayhew, 1991); and muscle strength of the lower limbs was evaluated by the horizontal jump (Scott and Docherty, 2004); flexibility was determined by the sit and reach test (ACSM, 2010); and abdominal muscle endurance was evaluated by the sit-up test (Sarti et al., 1996). In order not to compromise the study reliability, physical tests were performed by only one researcher. ...
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The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with creatine and glutamine on physical fitness of military police officers. Therefore, an experimental double blind study was developed, with the final sample composed by 32 men randomly distributed into three groups: a group supplemented with creatine (n=10), glutamine (n=10) and a placebo group (n=12) and evaluated in three distinct moments, in an interval of three months (T1, T2 and T3). The physical training had a weekly frequency of 5 sessions x 90 min, including strength exercises, local muscular resistance, flexibility and both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. After analyzing the effect of time, group and interaction (group x time) for measures that indicated the physical capabilities of the subjects, a significant effect of time for the entire variable was identified (p<0,05). However, these differences were not observed when the univaried intragroups and intergroups analysis was performed (p>0,05). In face of the results it was concluded that supplementation with creatine and glutamine showed no ergogenic effect on physical performance in military police officers.
... In einer neueren Studie von Kemmler et al. (2005) (Dean, Foster & Thompson, 1987;Hart, Ward, Mayhew & Ball, 1990;Mayhew, Ball, Arnold & Bowen, 1991) und Dips (Ball, Mayhew & Bowen, 1995) zur Abschätzung des 1RM-Bankdrücken und Klimmzüge (Chandler et al., 2001;Chandler, West, Larkin, Crady & Mayhew, 1995) zur Abschätzung des 1RM-Latziehen in Betracht gezogen. Die Problematik der Standardisierung von Testübungen mit dem eigenen Körpergewicht (Radlinger et al., 1998) (Walsworth et al., 1998) oder xRM einer bewegungsverwandten Übung (Willardson & Bressel, 2004). ...
... Se justifican tales resultados, debido a la especificidad del gesto entre ambos (Mc Dougall et al., 2005), en el que la musculatura utilizada, el régimen de contracción isotónico y la magnitud de la resistencia a vencer, son muy similares a pesar de existir diferencias en la duración e intensidad del esfuerzo. Mayhew et al. (1991) e Invergo et al. (1991), en sus respectivas investigaciones, comprobaron la relación que existe entre dos pruebas que miden diferentes manifestaciones de fuerza de las extremidades superiores y emplean diferentes cargas esto es, el test de flexo-extensiones de brazos en un minuto y la prueba de 1 RM en press de banca; comprobaron que no son predictoras una de la otra. Bentz (2003) demostró que un entrenamiento de flexo-extensiones de brazos, suponía una ganancia de fuerza significativa (45.3%) en la prueba de máximas repeticiones de dicho gesto, y de tan sólo 12.9% en 1 RM en press de banca. ...
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INTRODUCTION: we checked the possibility of using a contact platform to assess upper body strength, from lying prone. PROCEDURE: 84 men executed flexion and extension arms (1') and adapted SJB, 34 of them, throwing medicine ball (3kg and 7 variants). We performed tests for reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: ICC) and validity (Pearson). RESULTS: ITC launches test (0.98 to 0.83 depending on variant) adapted SJB (0.90), flexion and extension arms in 1'(0.98). R Pearson SJB adapted shoots (r = 0.49) and the test arm flexion and extension (r = 0.95). CONCLUSIONS: The three tests are reliable. The SJB adapted predicts the number of flexion and extension arms in 1', but not test launches.
... The push-up is used to assess and to develop shoulder-arm and upper body strength/work-capacity. [1][2][3][4] Military personnel from Army, Navy, Coast Guard as well as numerous NATOwide armed forces 5-7 participate in a semiannual or annual physical fitness test (PFT) which includes a push-up test. Because of the physical nature of military service, U.S. Army personnel are required to successfully pass the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) as one assessment of physical capacity and to remain in the active Armed Services. ...
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The purpose of this study was to assess inter-rater reliability and intra-rater reliability of the 2-minute, 90° push-up test as utilized in the Army Physical Fitness Test. Analysis of rater assessment reliability included both total score agreement and agreement across individual push-up repetitions. This study utilized 8 Raters who assessed 15 different videotaped push-up performances over 4 iterations separated by a minimum of 1 week. The 15 push-up participants were videotaped during the semiannual Army Physical Fitness Test. Each Rater randomly viewed the 15 push-up and verbally responded with a "yes" or "no" to each push-up repetition. The data generated were analyzed using the Pearson product-moment correlation as well as the kappa, modified kappa and the intra-class correlation coefficient (3,1). An attribute agreement analysis was conducted to determine the percent of inter-rater and intra-rater agreement across individual push-ups.The results indicated that Raters varied a great deal in assessing push-ups. Over the 4 trials of 15 participants, the overall scores of the Raters varied between 3.0 and 35.7 push-ups. Post hoc comparisons found that there was significant increase in the grand mean of push-ups from trials 1-3 to trial 4 (p < 0.05). Also, there was a significant difference among raters over the 4 trials (p < 0.05). Pearson correlation coefficients for inter-rater and intra-rater reliability identified inter-rater reliability coefficients were between 0.10 and 0.97. Intra-rater coefficients were between 0.48 and 0.99. Intra-rater agreement for individual push-up repetitions ranged from 41.8% to 84.8%. The results indicated that the raters failed to assess the same push-up repetition with the same score (below 70% agreement) as well as failed to agree when viewed between raters (29%). Interestingly, as previously mentioned, scores on trial 4 increased significantly which might have been caused by rater drift or that the Raters did not maintain the push-up standard over the trials. It does appear that the final push-up scores received by each participant was a close approximation of actual performance (within 65%) but when assessing physical performance for retention in the Army, a more reliable test might be considered.
... These tests have been broadly used, in part, because they have the advantage of predicting performance on more elaborate measures of muscular strength and endurance. For example, individuals who perform well on push-ups (PU) tests also tend to perform well on criterion strength tests such as the 1-RM bench press (12). Likewise, sit-ups (SU) tests are purported to indicate strength and muscular endurance in the abdominal wall (1,7). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore whether selected anthropometric measures such as specific skinfold sites, along with weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, and waist/hip ratio (WHR) were associated with sit-ups (SU) and push-ups (PU) performance, and to build a regression model for SU and PU tests. One hundred apparently healthy adults (40 men and 60 women) served as the subjects for test validation. The subjects performed 60-second SU and PU tests. The variables analyzed via multiple regression included weight, height, BMI, hip and waist circumferences, WHR, skinfolds at the abdomen (SFAB), thigh (SFTH), and subscapularis (SFSS), and sex. An additional cohort of 40 subjects (17 men and 23 women) was used to cross-validate the regression models. Validity was confirmed by correlation and paired t-tests. The regression analysis yielded a four-variable (PU, height, SFAB, and SFTH) multiple regression equation for estimating SU (R2 = 0.64, SEE = 7.5 repetitions). For PU, only SU was loaded into the regression equation (R2 = 0.43, SEE = 9.4 repetitions). Thus, the variables in the regression models accounted for 64% and 43% of the variation in SU and PU, respectively. The cross-validation sample elicited a high correlation for SU (r = 0.87) and PU (r = 0.79) scores. Moreover, paired-samples t-tests revealed that there were no significant differences between actual and predicted SU and PU scores. Therefore, this study shows that there are a number of selected, health-related anthropometric variables that account significantly for, and are predictive of, SU and PU tests.
... We performed the tests of muscular resistance of 1minute arm pushup. the 1minute arm flexion fol lowed the protocol published by Mayhew et al. [16]. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of strength training performed with and without the supervision of a personal trainer on the anthropometric, functional, and biochemical responses of sedentary adults. Methods Overall, 38 sedentary men were divided into 3 groups: control group (n = 12), no personal trainer group (n = 14), and personal trainer group (n = 12). Participants of all groups were submitted to pre-training data collection, including anthropometric evaluation, functional and cardiometabolic tests, and blood collection for biochemical parameters. Then, the subjects were involved in strength training of 50 minutes 3 times per week for 8 weeks. After the strength training program, the participants were submitted to the same data collection. Results The personal trainer group presented a decrease in waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, sum of skinfolds, abdominal resistance, pectoral resistance, one-repetition maximum on bench and leg press compared with the no personal trainer group (p < 0.05). The no personal trainer group had an improvement only in the sum of skinfolds (p < 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that 8 weeks of strength training with a personal trainer can produce important changes in body composition and blood pressure in sedentary subjects.
... How many push-ups one can do is one simple assessment of the upper body muscle strength (for examples, Contreras et al., 2012;Suprack et al., 2011;Cogley et al., 2005;Wood et al., 2004;Baumgartner et al., 2002;Chou et al., 2002;Vossen et al., 2000;Mayhew et al. 1991;Dean et al., 1987). Dean et al., (1987) found that the push-up times body weight was a good predictor of muscle strength and Vossen et al., (2000) choose the medicine ball throwing for training of upper extremity strength. ...
Article
The upper extremities are often used to protect the head and thorax by bracing for impact, particularly in falls to the ground. The impulsive loads they impose on the hand and wrist can be substantial, exceeding one body-weight. If the upper extremity then ???gives way??? or flexion buckles at the elbow then a head injury is likely, particularly in the elderly; but if the elbows are fully extended to prevent buckling, then the risk for wrist fracture increases. A current knowledge gap includes the biomechanical factors that determine the threshold load required to flexion-buckle the elbow of an end-loaded and pretensed human upper extremity. In this thesis we use computer simulations and in vivo experiments to explore how age, gender, initial elbow angle, arm muscle strength and pre-contraction level and lumped contractile properties about a joint affect upper extremity deflection under impulsive end-loading. The experimental results show that gender and age affect the rotational stiffness and damping coefficients of muscles acting about the elbow and shoulder when estimated by dynamic optimization. The pre-contraction levels of arm and shoulder muscles significantly affected these coefficients. Computer simulations predict that advancing age, female gender and insufficient arm and shoulder muscle pre-contraction level adversely affect upper extremity buckling loads. Kinetic, kinematic and myoelectric studies suggest the speed of propagation of the impulsive load along the upper extremity is such that arm and shoulder muscles must be pretensed prior to impact: no neuromuscular reflex is rapid enough to increase arm muscle tensile stiffness to prevent flexion buckling. Pre-contraction level and gender significantly affected the rate of propagation of an impulse along the upper extremity. The findings provide a framework for better understanding how biomechanical factors determine whether or not an arm will buckle when end-loaded during a fall arrest. We conclude that in order to help safely arrest falls older women and men need to avoid using hyperextended arms when possible, use an adequate pre-contraction level in the arm muscles to prevent buckling, and maintain as much arm protraction strength as possible, perhaps most conveniently by regular push-up exercises.
... Upper body strength in women is about 50% to 60% that of men which may account for differences in push-up performance (3,12,14,18,21). However push-up performance in men and women correlates weakly (r = 0.26 to 0.56) to upper body strength measured by one repetition maximum during a bench press test (11,16,17). Thus, gender differences in push-up performance may be the result of other factors that can affect relative load, including a change in the moment arm which is determined largely by body mass distribution and its effect on whole body center of mass (5,8,15,19). ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of push-up method (standard vs modified) and gender on percentage of body weight supported. Thirty seven men and women completed five push-ups in the standard (SPU) and modified (MPU) positions, and 5-sec hold (static) in the up (elbow extension) and down (elbow flexion) positions. Vertical ground reaction forces (expressed as load relative to body weight) were measured using force platforms. From a video-captured image, a computer software distance tool measured vertical range of motion (ROM) achieved in the down position expressed as a percentage of full vertical ROM. Maximal relative load was greater in men than women (SPU: 97.7 ± 8.1% vs 80.0 ± 3.9%; MPU: 79.7 ± 7.4% vs 68.2 ± 3.0%, p < .0001) with a greater effect during SPU (p < .0001). In the static up position, relative load did not differ between men and women (SPU: 67.0 ± 3.8% vs 65.1 ± 3.1%; MPU: 52.5 ± 3.7% vs 51.5 ± 3.1%); however, relative load was greater in men during the static down position (SPU: 74.6 ± 3.6 vs 70.3 ± 3.1%; MPU: 60.1 ± 4.5 vs 56.6 ± 2.7%, p < .0001). Percentage of full vertical ROM was greater in men than women (SPU: 67.7 ± 6.1% vs 50.1 ± 11.4%; MPU: 66.6 ± 6.9% vs 60.1 ± 8.9%, p = .001). These data indicate that women perform the push-up with less relative load and ROM, likely due to gender differences in movement patterns which can be altered by fatigue. http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijes/vol7/iss2/7/
... Finally, the development of scientific understanding and increased rigour of testing can influence test selection (e.g. validity of press up testing for strength [75]). These factors could be considered to represent a research-practitioner divide, where researchers favour scientific rigour and practitioners speed and cost of assessment. ...
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Background Rugby union match demands are complex, requiring the development of multiple physical qualities concurrently. Quantifying the physical qualities of age grade rugby union players is vital for practitioners to support athlete preparation and long-term development. Aim This systematic review aimed to identify the methods used to quantify the physical qualities of male age grade (≤ Under-20) rugby union players, present the normative values for physical qualities, and compare physical qualities between age grades and positions. Methods Electronic databases were systematically reviewed from the earliest record to November 2019 using key words relating to sex, age, sport and physical testing. Results Forty-two studies evaluated the physical qualities of age grade rugby union players. Seventy-five tests were used to quantify body composition, muscular strength, muscular power, linear speed, change of direction ability, aerobic capacity and anaerobic endurance. Thirty-one studies met the eligibility criteria to present the physical qualities. Physical qualities differentiate between age groups below Under-16, while differences in older age groups (Under-16 to Under-20) are not clear. Positional differences are present with forwards possessing greater height, body mass, body fat percentage and strength while backs are faster and have greater aerobic capacities. Conclusions A wide variety of tests are used to assess physical qualities limiting between study comparisons. Although differences in older age grades are unclear, older age groups (Under-19-20) generally performed better in physical tests. Positional differences are associated with match demands where forwards are exposed to less running but a greater number of collisions. Practitioners can use the results from this review to evaluate the physical qualities of age grade rugby union players to enhance training prescription, goal setting and player development. Future research should consider the use of national standardised testing batteries due to the inconsistency in testing methods and small samples limiting the reporting of positional differences.
... Thus, the push-up test provides better face validity for dancers (10,14,19,22,25,33). Furthermore, the push-up test allows for efficient testing without the need for equipment, excess manpower, and adequate mental and physical preparation that the 1RM bench press necessitates (24,33). Therefore, dance programs looking to incorporate a simple field test to assess UB strength endurance should consider the push-up and modified push-up tests. ...
Article
Coogan, SM, Hansen-Honeycutt, J, Fauntroy, V, and Ambegaonkar, JP. Upper-body strength endurance and power norms in healthy collegiate dancers: A 10-year prospective study. J Strength Cond Res 35(6): 1599-1603, 2021-Dance is physically demanding and requires dancers to have adequate upper body (UB), core, and lower-body fitness to perform successfully. 50-85% of dancers suffer injury during a performance season. Although a large number of dancer's injuries are to the lower body, several dance genres (e.g., modern, hip hop, and salsa) use UB motions such as partner lifts and holds, which may result in a higher risk for UB injury. Health care practitioners often use baseline physical performance normative values to determine their clients' fitness levels and when planning training programs to prevent or rehabilitate postinjury. Still, little information exists regarding UB fitness norms among collegiate dancers. Thus, our purpose was to determine UB strength endurance and power norms in healthy collegiate dancers. We recorded UB muscular fitness in 214 healthy collegiate dancers (males: n = 26, 174.0 ± 6.7 cm, 71.3 ± 9.2 kg and females: n = 188, 163.0 ± 6.1 cm, 59.3 ± 6.8 kg) prospectively over a 10-year period (2008-2018) in a dance program that emphasizes modern and ballet dance. For UB strength endurance, we recorded the number of push-ups a dancer was able to perform without forcibly straining or losing form for 2 consecutive repetitions. For UB power, dancers sat with legs outstretched, backs flat against a wall, and threw a 3-kg ball horizontally from their chest as far as possible (distance thrown normalized to body height, *BH). The best attempt of 3 trials was used for statistical analyses. We report descriptive statistics, interquartile ranges (IQRs), and percentiles for both outcome measures. Dancers performed 20.4 ± 10.6 (range: 2-70, IQR: 12-24; males: 32.5 ± 14.4; females: 18.4 ± 8.4) push-ups and threw the medicine ball 1.8 ± 0.5 *BH (range: 45-3.9, IQR: 1.4-2.1; females: 1.7 ± 0.5; males: 2.3 ± 0.7). Overall, in this long-term prospective study, we developed UB fitness norms for dancers. The push-up test and medicine ball throw test are simple, low-tech, and inexpensive to test dancers UB fitness. Although dancers' UB muscular fitness was lower than previous reports among traditional sport athletes, these values may not necessarily indicate problems, as subjects were all healthy collegiate-level dancers. Rather, our findings reinforce the need to develop dance-specific norms so that practitioners can use these values to assess dancers' UB fitness and devise interventions appropriately. These results provide baseline UB muscular fitness norms among collegiate modern and ballet dancers, and further support the notion that differing norms are needed for different sports and dance genres. Specifically, future researchers should similarly develop norms across different dance genres for preprofessional and professional dancers and also examine whether these norms can predict dancers' injury risk or performance.
... While bodyweight exercises such as planks, press-ups, and abdominal exercises will elicit some strength adaptations in those with lower levels of relative strength, the ability to progressively overload the muscles is restricted to approximately 75% of bodyweight 31 and may, in turn, only allow for further adaptations to muscular endurance through higher repetitions. 32 Pilates, while used widely by dancers, 33 has little reliable and comparable research that demonstrates significant improvements in muscular strength and relates more specifically to stabilization of the musculoskeletal system and maintaining alignment 34 rather than specific strength parameters. ...
Presentation
The aim of this study was to ascertain perceptions of strength training in dance from the viewpoint of the professional dancer, dance teacher and student dancers across dance genres. A total of 168 responses (149=F, 19=M) to the modified Training Information Survey (TIS) were analysed for differences in perceptions of strength training. Some significant differences were found between professionals and teachers (p>0.05), and between students and teachers (p>0.001). It is evident that perceptions of strength training still vary across the dance sector and it is postulated that further education for dancers on strength training would break down barriers to participation.
... Push-ups, as part of the APFT test, are used to assess and to build upper body strength [4][5][6][7]. In the push-up test, an examinee performs as many push-ups as possible in two minutes, while an inspector counts the number of repetitions. ...
... 6,14 In this sense, some studies have reported a good association between the flexo-extension test of elbows and the press-bench test of a maximum repetition (1RM). 15 Also, some investigations have concluded that an adequate level of S-R, evaluated through the flexo-extension test of elbows, is associated with better metabolic health. 16 On the other hand, it has been shown that an increase in the Body Mass Index (BMI) has a negative influence on S-R levels. ...
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Introduction In periods of confinement, people cannot be assessed in training centers. Therefore, it is essential to have valid and reliable tests to evaluate physical capacities remotely and with their respective valuation tables. Objective To determine the validity and reliability of the Muscular Fitness Test (MFT) to evaluate the body strength-resistance with self-loading in healthy young adults. Secondly, to create qualitative scales to evaluate the different levels of this physical capacity. Material and methods 489 participants performed the MFT (test), and 77 performed it twice (re-test). The MFT included 60 seconds (s) of sit-ups, push-ups, deep squats, and burpees, always in that order, with a micropause of 10 s. The validity of the MFT was evaluated with the final heart rate (FHR), % of the reserve HR (%) and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE); the reliability included the Coefficient of Variation (CV), Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and the standard error of the mean (SEM) (p < 0.05). The qualitative scales were constructed with the percentiles ≤25: poor, ≤50: fair, ≤75: good, ≤90: very good, and >90: excellent. Results Participants performed 91.7 ± 26.5 total repetitions, with a FHR of 172.7 bpm (81.7%) and RPE of 8.1; CV = 2.81%, ICC = 0.97 and SEM = 0.77 (p < 0.001). Conclusion MFT proved to be valid and reliable to assess self-loaded body strength-resistance in healthy young adults. The creation of the MFT qualitative scales allows evaluating the level of body strength-resistance in this population.
... In addition to the previously discussed 1RM testing and isokinetic dynamometry to measure dynamic muscle strength, push up tests have been used broadly to asses muscular endurance of the upper body. The use of press ups in fitness test batteries is based upon the ability of this measure to predict performance on more elaborate measures of strength such as the 1RM bench press (Mayhew 1991 test battery. The limitations regarding the standardisation of this measure were accepted, the selection of this press ups to asses upper body strength was based upon its application to testing of athletes in a field based setting, the ability of the test to predict 1RM and additionally to compare to research of Meyers and Sterling (2000) who used press ups to asses upper body strength in collegiate equestrians. ...
... Upper-body muscular endurance was quantified through separately measuring the maximal number of push-ups (pushups 1 min ) and chin-ups (chin-ups 1 min ) each participant was able to complete in 1 min. For a push-up to be deemed successful, the hands were placed in a straight line underneath the shoulders, and the participant lowered themselves to a point where the elbows were flexed to at least 90°before returning to the full elbow extension at the starting position (Mayhew, Ball, Arnold, & Bowen, 1991). The back and legs also had to remain straight at all times. ...
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This study aimed to identify attributes that discriminate selected from non-selected players and predict selection into a rugby league development programme in older adolescent players. Anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes were measured in under-16 (N = 100) and under-18 (N = 60) rugby league players trialling for selection into a development programme with a professional Australian club. Sprint times (P < 0.001), predicted VO2max (P = 0.002) and push-ups1 min (P = 0.004) were superior in selected under-16 players, and sprint times (P ≤ 0.045), push-ups1 min (P < 0.001) and chin-ups1 min (P = 0.013) were superior in selected under-18 players. Further, 10-m sprint (β = −7.706, standard error [SE] = 2.412), VO2max (β = 0.168, SE = 0.052) and body mass (β = 0.071, SE = 0.023) significantly predicted selection (R2 = 0.339) in under-16 players, while push-ups1 min (β = 0.564, SE = 0.250), 10-m sprint (β = −68.477, SE = 28.107), body mass (β = 0.360, SE = 0.155) and chronological age (β = −3.577, SE = 1.720) significantly predicted selection (R2 = 0.894) in under-18 players. These findings emphasise the importance of performance attributes in junior rugby league and indicate talent identification test batteries should be age-specific in older adolescent players.
... The push-up test was set up as previously suggested. 26,27 The hands were positioned approximately 10 to 20 cm away from the shoulder joint. Participants flexed their elbows until the chest touched the evaluator's fist positioned on the floor and returned to the initial position. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in 163 C>A CYP1A2 genotypes (rs 762551) (AA, AC and CC) modify the ergogenic effects of caffeine (CAF) on strength, power, muscular endurance, agility and endurance in adolescent athletes. Methods One hundred adolescents (age = 15 ± 2 years) were recruited. Participants ingested CAF (6 mg.kg‐1) or placebo (PLA, 300 mg of cellulose) one hour before performing a sequence of physical tests: handgrip strength, vertical jumps, agility test, sit‐ups, push‐ups and the Yo‐Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo‐Yo IR1). Results Compared to PLA, CAF enhanced (p < 0.05) sit‐up (CAF = 37 ± 9; PLA = 35 ± 8 repetitions) and push‐up repetitions (CAF = 26 ± 11; PLA = 24 ± 11 repetitions), and increased distance covered in Yo‐Yo IR1 test (CAF = 1010.4 ± 378.9; PLA = 903.2 ± 325.7 m). There was no influence of CAF on handgrip strength (CAF = 35.1 ± 8.9; PLA = 33.7 ± 8.7 kgf), countermovement jump height (CAF = 49.3 ± 12.6; PLA = 47.9 ± 13.8 cm), spike jump height (CAF = 54.2 ± 13.6; PLA = 52.9 ± 14.5 cm), and time in agility test (CAF = 15.8 ± 1.1; PLA = 15.9 ± 1.3 s, p > 0.05). When present, the ergogenic effect of CAF was not dependent of genotype. Conclusion CAF improves muscular endurance and aerobic performance in adolescent athletes, regardless of their 163 C>A CYP1A2 genotype.
... Literature regarding maximal muscular strength as related to relative muscular endurance has been mixed. Dean et al. (1987) concluded that bench press strength accounted for ~50% of the variance in push-up performance, whereas Invergo et al. (1991) and Mayher et al. (1991) concluded that there was no significant relationship between push-up performance and 1RM bench press [23][24][25]. Our finding of a lack of relationship between absolute and relative strength using bench press and lift performance during the Murph challenge highlights the importance of specificity, even if theoretically training the same physiological system (i.e., muscular endurance). ...
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We examined physiological predictors of performance on the CrossFit Murph challenge (1-mile run, 100 pullups, 200 pushups, 300 air squats, 1-mile run). Male CrossFit athletes (n = 11, 27 ± 3 years) performed a battery of physical assessments including: (1) body composition, (2) upper and lower body strength, (3) upper body endurance, (4) anaerobic power, and (5) maximal oxygen consumption. No less than 72 h later, participants completed the Murph challenge, heart rate was monitored throughout, and blood lactate was obtained pre-post. Correlations between physiological parameters and total Murph time, and Murph subcomponents, were assessed using Pearson's correlations. Murph completion time was 43.43 ± 4.63 min, and maximum and average heart rate values were 185.63 ± 7.64 bpm and 168.81 ± 6.41 bpm, respectively, and post-Murph blood lactate was 10.01 ± 3.04 mmol/L. Body fat percentage was the only physiological parameter significantly related to total Murph time (r = 0.718; p = 0.013). Total lift time (25.49 ± 3.65 min) was more strongly related (r = 0.88) to Murph time than total run time (17.60 ± 1.97 min; r = 0.65). Greater relative anaerobic power (r = −0.634) and less anaerobic fatigue (r = 0.649) were related to total run time (p < 0.05). Individuals wanting to enhance overall Murph performance are advised to focus on minimizing body fat percentage and improving lift performance. Meanwhile, performance on the run subcomponent may be optimized through improvements in anaerobic power.
... The push-up and bench press are two popular exercises used to train upper body strength [3,16]. The selection of which exercise to use is largely dependent on movement capabilities, the athlete's goal, relative strength levels, and the availability of equipment [10]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to compare the similarity in kinematics and upper-body muscle activation between push-up and bench press exercises over a range of loads. Twenty resistance-trained subjects (age 22.5±5.24 yrs, body mass 83.7±10.7 kg, height 1.80±0.06 m) executed bench presses and push-ups with 4 different loads. Bench press was executed at 50–80% of their assumed 1 repetition max in steps of 10 kg, while push-ups were executed without a weight vest and with a 10–20–30 kg weight vest. A linear encoder measured kinematics (displacement, time, average and peak velocity) during the exercises at each load, together with mean and maximal muscle activation of 8 upper body muscles and their timing for each exercise and each load. The main findings of this study demonstrate no differences in kinematics and muscle activation between the two exercises and that the different loads had the same effect upon both push-up and bench press in experienced resistance-trained men. For coaches and athletes, push-ups and bench presses for strength training can be used interchangeably. By using a weight vest, push-ups can mimic different loads that are similar to different intensities in the bench press that can be used to train strength demands.
... Evidentemente, en virtud del porcentaje de peso corporal que recae sobre las manos en el gesto según Gouvali et al. (2005) (13), que es de un 66.4% en la posición normal, mientras que con apoyo de rodillas es de un 52.9%, entendemos que la máxima capacidad de realizar repeticiones no es reflejo de la fuerza absoluta de las extremidades superiores de un individuo dado que la carga no es máxima. Mayhew et al. (1991) (5), constataron cómo el gesto de flexo-extensión de brazos no es predictor de 1 RM en press de banca, y por tanto muestran que el gesto objeto de estudio no son un reflejo de la fuerza máxima de las extremidades superiores. Contrariamente, Invergo et al. (1991) (7), hallaron que el gesto en cuestión, en algunos casos puede ser una alternativa viable a la clásica 1RM en press de banca, para la determinación de la máxima capacidad de levantamiento de peso de un individuo. ...
Article
El propósito del estudio fue comprobar si la Plataforma de contacto Ergojump, utilizada para medir la capacidad de impulsión de las extremidades inferiores a través de saltos, era válida para hacerlo sobre las extremidades superiores realizando desde tumbado prono una extensión de codos partiendo de la posición clásica de flexo-extensión de brazos y antebrazos de 90 grados. Se realizó un estudio de correlación entre los registros de la plataforma (Φ=1) y un electromiógrafo. También se ha realizado análisis de la fiabilidad (e) experimental de los distintos planes de medida que conformaban las distintas variables de estudio, obteniendo óptimos resultados.
... The author concluded that a strong person had a greater ability to carry out a physical task for a longer period of time. Mayhew, Ball, Arnold, and Bowen (1991) and Invergo, Ball, and Looney (1991) have tried to understand if it was possible to estimate the 1RM on a bench press through the number of push-ups to exhaustion and both however concluded that this latter could not be a precise measure of the weighted exercise. Other authors have also tried to relate the results achieved through a 1RM and the repetitions to exhaustion achieved with a relative percentage of that same 1RM. ...
Article
Strength, power and muscular endurance tests have been developed as means of assessing people's physical abilities. However, testing may be expensive or time consuming. A method to reduce the time of physical assessment could be to use predictive algorithms for indirect assessment. The aim of this study will be to determine a relationship between strength, power and muscular endurance in order to identify predictors for an easier and faster assessment. 33 male strength-trained participants (22.8 ± 4.6 years, 172.5 ± 6.7 cm, 68.0 ± 10.6 kg) performed a single pull-up (SPU) and a single push-up (SPH) and a set of pull-ups (EPU) and push-ups (EPH) to exhaustion. The participants were divided into three sub-groups according to their training experience. Force(F), Power(P), Velocity(V) and relative power(R-P), extracted from an accelerometer (500 Hz), were compared between groups (ANOVA) and a subsequent linear regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of the performance measures. The regression models were able to explain 61% of the variance with the EPU as dependent variable and the V of the SPU as independent variable and 68% of the variance with the EPH as dependent variable and EPU as independent variable. In addition, increased performance measures were found according to training experience, in particular regarding muscular endurance of both the EPU and EPH (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). A significant effect of training experience was also present for the V of the SPU (p < 0.001). The results indicate that a relation between muscular endurance and velocity is present. The generated equations allow to estimate both the number of EPH and EPU from a SPU. The equations may be helpful to reduce the time of assessment for upper body physical evaluation.
... On the other hand, among college-aged women that performed the modified push-up, a weak relationship (r = 0.26) to bench-press maximal strength was observed. (Mayhew, Ball, Bowen, & Arnold, 1990) Thus, while the push-up and benchpress have biomechanical similarities, push-up performance is a weak predictor of bench-press maximal strength in women. It is likely that muscle co-activation is more prominent during the push-up exercise by nature of its closed-kinetic chain characteristics. ...
... Eighty-four recreationally active men who had a mixed athletic background (weightlifting, basketball, soccer, etc.) and were familiar with resistance training volunteered to participate in this investigation. Sixty participants (age: 24.5 6 4.3 years [range: [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]; height: 1.75 6 0.07 m; body mass: 80.8 6 13.5 kg) completed all testing and their data were included in the final data analysis. The study was approved by the University's Institutional Review Board. ...
... Eighty-four recreationally active men who had a mixed athletic background (weightlifting, basketball, soccer, etc.) and were familiar with resistance training volunteered to participate in this investigation. Sixty participants (age: 24.5 6 4.3 years [range: [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]; height: 1.75 6 0.07 m; body mass: 80.8 6 13.5 kg) completed all testing and their data were included in the final data analysis. The study was approved by the University's Institutional Review Board. ...
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of the ballistic push-up (BPU) exercise, and to develop a prediction model for both maximal strength (1RM) in the bench press exercise and upper body power. Methods: Sixty recreationally-active men completed a 1RM bench press and two BPU assessments in three separate testing sessions. Peak and mean force, peak and mean rate of force development, net impulse, peak velocity, flight time, and peak and mean power were determined. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to examine the reliability of the BPU. Stepwise linear regression was used to develop 1RM bench press and power prediction equations. S results: ICC's ranged from 0.849-0.971 for the BPU measurements. Multiple regression analysis provided the following 1RM bench press prediction equation: 1RM=0.31×Mean Force-1.64×Body mass+0.70 (R=0.837, SEE=11 kg); time-based power prediction equation: Peak Power=11.0×Body Mass+2012.3×Flight Time-338.0 (R=0.658, SEE=150 W), Mean Power=6.7×Body Mass+1004.4×Flight Time-224.6 (R=0.664, SEE=82 W); and velocity-based power prediction equation: Peak Power=8.1×Body Mass+818.6×Peak Velocity-762.0 (R=0.797, SEE=115 W); Mean Power=5.2×Body Mass+435.9×Peak Velocity-467.7 (R=0.838, SEE=57 W). Conclusions: The BPU is a reliable test for both upper-body strength and power. Results indicate that the mean force generated from the BPU can be used to predict 1RM bench press, while peak velocity and flight time measured during the BPU can be used to predict upper-body power. These findings support the potential use of the BPU as a valid method to evaluate upper-body strength and power.
... On the other hand, among college-aged women that performed the modified push-up, a weak relationship (r = 0.26) to bench-press maximal strength was observed. (Mayhew, Ball, Bowen, & Arnold, 1990) Thus, while the push-up and benchpress have biomechanical similarities, push-up performance is a weak predictor of bench-press maximal strength in women. It is likely that muscle co-activation is more prominent during the push-up exercise by nature of its closed-kinetic chain characteristics. ...
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Push-up and the bench-press are common exercises to develop upper-body strength and muscle endurance. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle endurance performance of matched load push-up and bench-press between men and women, where women perform modified push-up and men standard push-up. Thirty-two young healthy men and women (16 men and 16 women) participated in the study. Participants completed three tests, push-ups to failure, one repetition maximum (1RM) bench-press, and a bench-press test to failure performed with a load equivalent to percent body mass during the push-up. On average men performed 17.5 more repetitions than women in the bench-press test (men 25.3 (5.7), women 5.9 (4.2), p < 0.001). No difference (p = 0.25) was found between women and men in the number of push-ups performed (men 32.8 (8.3), women 29.6 (7.1)). However, within subjects differences were observed between bench-press and push-up exercises, p < 0.001. 1RM bench-press load was greater in men, in absolute values, men lifted 77.7 kg more than women (p < 0.001), and relative to body mass, men lifted 2.4 times more mass than women (p < 0.001). These results suggest that bench-press and push-up muscle endurance exercises differ greatly in women but not in men, likely due to gender differences in upper-body strength. This is an important consideration for upper-body strength training prescriptions.
... It is not clear, however, whether the bench press and push-up are equivalent exercises from a biomechanical standpoint. Studies by Mayhew et al. (14) and Invergo et al. (9), in fact, show that push-up performance is only moderately predictive of performance in the bench press. In contrast, Blackard et al. (3) analyzed EMG activation in the pectoralis major and triceps brachii during equivalently loaded push-ups and bench presses and reported that EMG activity did not significantly differ be-tween the exercises. ...
Article
Popular fitness literature suggests that varied hand placements during push-ups may isolate different muscles. Scientific literature, however, offers scant evidence that varied hand placements elicit different muscle responses. This study examined whether different levels of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles are required to perform push-ups from each of 3 different hand positions: shoulder width base, wide base, and narrow base hand placements. Forty subjects, 11 men and 29 women, performed 1 repetition of each push-up. The EMG activity for subjects' dominant arm pectoralis major and triceps brachii was recorded using surface electrodes. The EMG activity was greater in both muscle groups during push-ups performed from the narrow base hand position compared with the wide base position (p < 0.05). This study suggests that, if a goal is to induce greater muscle activation during exercise, then push-ups should be performed with hands in a narrow base position compared with a wide base position.
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Background Exercise is an effective non-pharmacological intervention for the enhancement of neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory health. In particular, High-Intense Intermittent Training (HIIT) has been implicated in health management; however, in specific populations such as the elderly, is needed more investigations. Objective The aim is to determine the impact of HIIT in the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory fitness of the elderly. Methods Thirty-two elderly volunteers, 71.0 ± 2.1 years, were randomly divided into two groups, control (CG) (n = 16), that did not participate in any interventions, and experimental (EG) (n = 16) that participated in a 12-week exercise program based on HIIT 3 times a week, and 40 minutes by a meeting. Both groups were subjected before and after the intervention period to neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory testing, and monthly were clinically evaluated by a Physician. Results No orthopaedic events were reported to both groups, and the CG showed no enhancement to all variables. The EG, muscular endurance of the upper limbs was enhanced ( p <0.0001), as was muscular endurance of the lower limbs ( p <0.0001), localized muscular endurance of abdominal muscles ( p <0.0001), lower limb muscle power ( p <0.0001) and aerobic power ( p <0.0001). There were no adverse events during or after the intervention period. Conclusion HIIT is an effective strategy to promote enhancement of neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory fitness in the elderly and showed safe because no orthopaedic and cardiovascular events were reported.
The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of predicting maximal bench press lifting strength from submaximal bench press repetitions before and after a training program. College students (70 men; 101 women) were tested to determine their one repetition maximum (1‐RM) bench press lifting strength before and after 14 weeks of training. Several days after an initial maximum lift determination, each subject was randomly assigned a submaximal load corresponding to 55 to 95% of the 1‐RM and required to perform as many bench press repetitions as possible in 1 minute. The same percent 1‐RM was used following training, as was used before training, to test lifting capacity at a defined percent of the initial 1‐RM for a given individual. Men had a significantly greater 1‐RM bench press strength and absolute integrated submaximal weightlifting ability than women but were not significantly different in percent 1‐RM and repetitions. The exponential relationship between percent 1‐RM and repetitions before and after training did not differ significantly between men and women. Using this relationship, 1‐RM bench press lifting strength could be estimated with a validity coefficient of r >0.90 and a standard error of 2.9 to 3.5 kg for women and 5.7 to 6.6 kg for men regardless of the training state of each group. It was concluded that the number of repetitions completed in 1 minute of lifting a submaximal load can provide an accurate estimate of maximal bench press lifting strength regardless of training status.
Article
Although manual muscle testing is undoubtedly the method used most frequently to quantify the muscle strength of older individuals, it lacks sensitivity and responsiveness. These limitations can be overcome through the use of quantitative methods. This review presents basic information on three quantitative alternatives: hand-grip dynamometry, hand-held dynamometry, and functional tests.
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To determine the relationships among selected shoulder pulling strength and endurance maneuvers, college men (n = 35) and women (n = 23) were evaluated for 1-repetition maximum (1RM) lat-pull (LPmax), 1RM pull-up (PUmax), lat-pull repetitions-to-fatigue using 80% of 1RM (LPreps), and pull-up repetitions at 80% of 1RM (PUreps). PUmax was determined by adding to or counter-weighting the body mass to achieve one repetition. Men and women performed the 1RM with significantly more weight relative to body mass in the PUmax (1.16 +/- 0.15 and 0.73 +/- 0.09, respectively) than in the LPmax (0.93 +/- 0.17 and 0.55 +/- 0.11, respectively). The correlation between LPmax and PUmax was higher in men (r = 0.78; p < 0.01) than in women (r = 0.44; p > 0.05). Women performed significantly more PUreps (10.5 +/- 2.2) than men (8.1 +/- 1.9) but were equivalent to men in the LPreps (10.0 +/- 2.4 and 9.9 +/- 2.5, respectively). Men performed significantly more LPreps than PUreps, whereas the women were equivalent. Body composition components (lean body mass [LBM] and %fat) affected LPmax and PUmax to a greater degree in men than in women. Maximal strength performance in each lift in each sex could be predicted using the analogous muscular endurance exercise or body composition components.
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Profissionais militares buscam, de maneira contínua, o aperfeiçoamento de suas performances, de modo a atender melhor às necessidades da sociedade. A realização das atividades que os profissionais exercem demanda requisitos que viabilizam a execução eficiente das atividades relacionadas à essa profissão. Destarte, policiais militares devem, em sua rotina, preparar-se fisicamente para que o desempenho de suas tarefas seja eficaz, havendo, portanto, responsabilidade perante as situações que lhe são apresentadas. Para se avaliar o condicionamento físico dos profissionais militares do contexto paranaense, é aplicado o Teste de Aptidão Física (TAF), em que vários testes são aplicados aos profissionais militares, dentro e fora dos batalhões, objetivando verificar os índices de aptidão física dos militares, mostrando se estão aptos ou não para o trabalho. Portanto, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi revisar alguns aspectos voltados à esse condicionamento a partir do TAF, e, para tanto, a amostra contemplou 23 policiais do 16° Batalhão da Polícia Militar (BPM), todos do sexo masculino, com idade entre 29 e 52 anos e que possuem no mínimo 10 anos de serviço operacional. Os policiais foram submetidos aos testes de flexão na barra fixa, flexão de braço, Teste de Cooper e Shuttle Run. A média de idade da população avaliada foi de 40,56 anos. Os policiais obtiveram média de 11 flexões na barra to tipo fixa, 28,5 flexões com o braço, 2,368m de distância percorrida no Teste de Cooper e 10,48 segundos para realizar o Shuttle Run. Concluiu-se que os policiais avaliados apresentaram níveis desejáveis de força e condicionamento aeróbio, uma vez que as médias apontam que houve a superação do mínimo exigido em conformidade com a normatização da aplicação do TAF da PMPR.
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