ArticlePDF Available
... 2020, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 13 of 24 When the figure is examined, distortions are observed at the waist angle during the movement in Rep2, Rep3, and Rep5. When we consulted our faculty member about this situation, it was seen that the support needed for movement was taken from the back which, as mentioned in [79], may cause neck and spine diseases in later stages by causing excessive cervical spine bending. Furthermore, the shoulder angles are within the acceptable distance in all repetitions (see Section 2.5), the difference in elbow angles is that the left elbow is not sufficiently open which, as stated, has been observed to cause damage and injury to the joints by distorting the shape of the movement due to the high weight used [80]. ...
... When the figure is examined, distortions are observed at the waist angle during the movement in Rep2, Rep3, and Rep5. When we consulted our faculty member about this situation, it was seen that the support needed for movement was taken from the back which, as mentioned in [79], may cause neck and spine diseases in later stages by causing excessive cervical spine bending. Furthermore, the shoulder angles are within the acceptable distance in all repetitions (see Section 2.5), the difference in elbow angles is that the left elbow is not sufficiently open which, as stated, has been observed to cause damage and injury to the joints by distorting the shape of the movement due to the high weight used [80]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In sports and rehabilitation processes where isotonic movements such as bodybuilding are performed, it is vital for individuals to be able to correct the wrong movements instantly by monitoring the trainings simultaneously, and to be able to train healthily and away from the risks of injury. For this purpose, we designed a new real-time athlete support system using Kinect V2 and Expert System. Lateral raise (LR) and dumbbell shoulder press (DSP) movements were selected as examples to be modeled in the system. Kinect V2 was used to obtain angle and distance changes in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle during movements in these movement models designed. For the rule base of Expert System developed according to these models, a 28-state rule table was designed, and 12 main rules were determined that could be used for both actions. In the sample trainings, it was observed that the decisions made by the system had 89% accuracy in DSP training and 82% accuracy in LR training. In addition, the developed system has been tested by 10 participants (25.8 ± 5.47 years; 74.69 ± 14.81 kg; 173.5 ± 9.52 cm) in DSP and LR training for four weeks. At the end of this period and according to the results of paired t-test analysis (p < 0.05) starting from the first week, it was observed that the participants trained more accurately and that they enhanced their motions by 58.08 ± 11.32% in LR training and 54.84 ± 12.72% in DSP training.
... This exercise is usually performed the first time when a person wants to shape their body into ideal or more muscular in fitness place because this exercise adds the capacity of Latissimus Dorsi muscles [3]. One of the ways for pulldown exercise is using fitness lat pull-down to get maximum result and minimalize shoulder injury during pull-down exercise, should follow proper training technique and guided by a Trainer [2] [4] [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise is an essential contributor to physical and psychological well-being. Regular exercise reduces many chronic diseases, such as heart diseases, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, etc. Pull-down is one of the Weight Training exercises. Engaging in physical activities such as Weight training, stretching exercises and aerobic exercises requires proper execution and awareness of the exercises to avoid bodily injuries and get maximal results. In this study, software that can analyse technique exercise of Pull-down. As research material, because of a degree, each human elbow is different, distribution data of Trainer elbow degree is calculated using measure standard deviation and displayed as a normal distribution graph. The method used in this study to analyse proper Pull-down exercise technique is compared to elbow angle Trainee with elbow angle Trainer . The output of this software is elbow angle, the correctness of the methods performed by the Trainee . The average percentage of accuracy from the results of testing the analysis software using the value of the angle of 56.87 ° ± 7 ° Trainer is 88%.
... Os resultados do presente estudo corroboram os achados de Giorgio et al. (11) que não observaram diferença na ativação muscular durante a adução horizontal de ombros em RI e RE. No entanto, exercícios que combinem a abdução horizontal de ombros em rotação externa ("high-five") são considerados "inapropriados" em decorrência do aumento do estresse estrutural no complexo articular do ombro (2,3,23,24) , o que pode resultar em um aumento da instabilidade anterior da articulação glenoumeral (2, 5) , resultando em uma disfunção do ritmo escapuloumeral (25) , além de lesões por compressão ou tensão de nervos periféricos (2, 8) e até mesmo a ruptura do peitoral maior (4) . O presente estudo possui limitações, como o fato de não ter avaliado a capacidade de produção de força nas diferentes condições experimentais. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: to compare the myoelectric activity of the pectoralis major (PM) and anterior deltoid (AD) during the pec deck exercise, in maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) in internal rotation (IR) and external (ER) rotation of the shoulder in different joint positions. Methods: ten healthy male (age: 30 ± 6.37 years, total body mass: 84.6 ± 9.43 kg, height: 178.6 ± 5.60 cm), trained in strength (time of practice: 82.8 ± 63.35 months) performed through three MIVC's for five seconds, and a 15-second interval between contractions in the pec deck exercise in both RI and ER of the shoulder joint. A 10-minute interval was provided to subjects between experimental conditions at three different joint positions: maximum shoulder adduction (0°), shoulder adduction at 45° and 90°. The myoelectric activity of the PM and anterior deltoid AD was evaluated by surface electromyography. Results: there were no significant differences between shoulder rotations for muscle activation in any of the joint positions analyzed for the AD (0°: d=0.89; Δ%=22.46; 45°: d= 0.65; Δ%=17.95 e 90°: d= 1.26; Δ%=21.16) and the PM (0°: d= 0.18; Δ%=5.42; 45°: d=0.29; Δ%=10.08 e 90°: d=0.41; Δ%=16.24). There was a significant increase in muscle activation of the PM in IR at the 90° horizontal abduction position of the shoulder when compared to 45° (P<0.05 d=1.85; Δ%=47.00). Conclusion: the performance of the pec deck exercise in IR and RE does not alter the muscular activity of the PM and the AD, independently of the joint position performed.
... Os resultados do presente estudo corroboram os achados de Giorgio et al. (11) que não observaram diferença na ativação muscular durante a adução horizontal de ombros em RI e RE. No entanto, exercícios que combinem a abdução horizontal de ombros em rotação externa ("high-five") são considerados "inapropriados" em decorrência do aumento do estresse estrutural no complexo articular do ombro (2,3,23,24) , o que pode resultar em um aumento da instabilidade anterior da articulação glenoumeral (2,5) , resultando em uma disfunção do ritmo escapuloumeral (25) , além de lesões por compressão ou tensão de nervos periféricos (2,8) e até mesmo a ruptura do peitoral maior (4) . Figura 1. Média e desvio padrão da atividade muscular (IEMG) durante CVMI de (a) deltoide anterior e (b) peitoral maior durante exercício pec deck em rotação interna e rotação externa nas posições de adução de ombro a 0°, 45°, 90°. ...
Article
Revista Brasileira de Pesquisa em Ciências da Saúde. Objective: to compare the myoelectric activity of the pectoralis major (PM) and anterior deltoid (AD) during the pec deck exercise, in maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) in internal rotation (IR) and external (ER) rotation of the shoulder in different joint positions. Methods: ten healthy male (age: 30 ± 6.37 years, total body mass: 84.6 ± 9.43 kg, height: 178.6 ± 5.60 cm), trained in strength (time of practice: 82.8 ± 63.35 months) performed through three MIVC's for five seconds, and a 15-second interval between contractions in the pec deck exercise in both RI and ER of the shoulder joint. A 10-minute interval was provided to subjects between experimental conditions at three different joint positions: maximum shoulder adduction (0°), shoulder adduction at 45° and 90°. The myoelectric activity of the PM and anterior deltoid AD was evaluated by surface electromyography. Results: there were no significant differences between shoulder rotations for muscle activation in any of the joint positions analyzed for the AD (0°: d=0.89; Δ%=22.46; 45°: d= 0.65; Δ%=17.95 e 90°: d= 1.26; Δ%=21.16) and the PM (0°: d= 0.18; Δ%=5.42; 45°: d=0.29; Δ%=10.08 e 90°: d=0.41; Δ%=16.24). There was a significant increase in muscle activation of the PM in IR at the 90° horizontal abduction position of the shoulder when compared to 45° (P<0.05 d=1.85; Δ%=47.00). Conclusion: the performance of the pec deck exercise in IR and RE does not alter the muscular activity of the PM and the AD, independently of the joint position performed.
Article
A significant number of resistance training injuries occur at the shoulder complex. However, there is a lack of research may increase the risk of these injuries. Certain exercises, such as those requiring the apprehension position (glenohumeral abduction with external rotation), have been investigated and found to be associated with shoulder pain and injury. However, there are additional exercises or positions that may also be associated with increased injury risk. The position of end-range glenohumeral extension, particularly as it pertains to a dip, is a vulnerable position that may have previously been overlooked.
Article
Background: Muscular strength and endurance are important attributes for structural firefighting. Matching resistance exercises to firefighter job demands is not well-established. Objective: This study compared the electromyographic (EMG) activity of major muscles during the Candidate Physical Ability Test (CPAT) and weight lifting exercises in firefighters. Methods: A repeated measures study was conducted in 13 full-duty career firefighters (1 F, 12 M; age 18-44 years). Participants completed seven weight lifting exercises at a university laboratory. They separately completed the CPAT at a firefighting training grounds. During each activity, surface EMG (% maximum voluntary isometric contraction - MVIC) of major muscle groups was recorded and compared between exercises and CPAT. Results: No difference in EMG activity was observed between exercises and CPAT for the deltoid, trapezius, lumbar multifidus, gluteal, and biceps femoris muscles. EMG activity was significantly greater during the CPAT for the abdominal obliques (32.3% ±27.7% vs. 12.1% ±8.3%, p < 0.001) and for the latissimus dorsi (21.8% ±25.1% vs. 11.4% ±7.7%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Standard weight lifting and abdominal oblique exercises should be incorporated into resistance training programs for firefighters.
Article
In brief: This case report describes a 26-year-old female fitness instructor in excellent health who suffered the acute onset of permanent quadriplegia only a few minutes after using progressive resistance exercise devices. She began her workday as she usually did-with a light workout of low-resistance exercise that lasted about 20 minutes. The onset of quadriplegia may have been a tragic coincidence or may have been related to her workout in a way that remains unexplained. Several possible causes of her condition, which was diagnosed as spinal apoplexy of an unknown cause, are discussed.
Article
Impingement on the tendinous portion of the rotator cuff by the coracoacromial ligament and the anterior third of the acromion is responsible for a characteristic syndrome of disability of the shoulder. A characteristic proliferative spur and ridge has been noted on the anterior lip and undersurface of the anterior process of the acromion and this area may also show erosion and eburnation. The treatment of the impingement is to remove the anterior edge and undersurface of the anterior part of the acromion with the attached coracoacromial ligament. The impingement may also involve the tendon of the long head of the biceps and if it does, it is best to decompress the tendon and remove any osteophytes which may be in its groove, but to avoid transplanting the biceps tendon if possible. Hypertrophic lipping at the acromio-clavicular joint may impinge on the supraspinatus tendon when the arm is in abduction and, if the lip is prominent, this joint should be resected. These are the principles of anterior acromioplasty.
Article
The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.
Article
Pediatric and Adolescent Sports Medicine, edited by Carl L. Stanitski, Jesse C. DeLee, and David Drez, Jr, 410 pp, with illus, $125, ISBN 07-216-32615, Philadelphia, Pa, WB Saunders Co, 1994. The two-volume set edited by DeLee and Drez and the companion volume on pediatric sports medicine, primarily edited by Stanitski, are targeted at orthopedic surgeons, who will appreciate the specific details regarding surgical indications and techniques, but they are likely to be consulted often by all physicians who provide musculoskeletal care for athletes—for both excellent practical clinical tips and heavily referenced discussions of basic science topics. The richly detailed chapters on musculoskeletal injuries include discussions of injury prevention, rehabilitation, and criteria for return to play. The sections on medical problems of athletes also recommend specific criteria for sports participation. Roughly a quarter of the adult sports medicine text covers basic science and medical topics. The basic science authors are well
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine which exercises most effectively use the scapular muscles. Eight muscles in 9 healthy subjects were studied with indwelling electromyographic electrodes and cinematography while performing 16 exercises. The 8 muscles studied were the upper, middle, and lower trapezius; levator scapula; rhomboids; pectoralis minor; and the middle and lower serratus anterior. Each exercise was divided into arcs of motion and the electromyographic activity was quantified as a percentage of the maximal manual muscle test. The optimal exercises for each muscle were identified based on intensity (greater than 50% maximal manual muscle test) and duration (over at least 3 consecutive arcs of motion) of the muscle activity. Twelve of the exercises qualified as top exercises for all of the muscles. On further analysis, a group of 4 exercises was shown to make up the core of a scapular muscle strengthening program. Those 4 exercises include scaption (scapular plane elevation), rowing, push-up with a plus, and press-up.
Article
Glenohumeral arthritis may result from abnormal articular mechanics, and shoulder reconstructive procedures often rely implicitly on the belief that the restoration of normal articular mechanics is required to obtain satisfactory clinical results. Despite this, limited knowledge of normal or pathologic glenohumeral joint articular mechanics and contact is available. This study uses a stereophotogrammetry technique to determine contact areas in normal cadaver glenohumeral joints with intact ligaments and capsule through a large range of motion using simulated forces of the four rotator cuff muscles and three deltoid heads. All shoulders were first elevated to their maximum elevation in the scapular plane at an external rotation (starting rotation = 40 +/- 8 degrees), which allowed each shoulder to attain its maximal elevation in the scapular plane, and then repeated at 20 degrees internal to this rotation. Contact areas consistently increased with increasing elevation until 120 degrees to an average of 5.07 cm2 before decreasing with further increased elevation to an average of 2.59 cm2 at 180 degrees of total arm elevation. At 20 degrees internal to the starting rotation, contact areas reached high values 60 degrees earlier (averaged 4.56 cm2 at 60 degrees of total arm elevation) and then remained fairly constant through 120 degrees before decreasing with further increased elevation to 2.51 cm2 at 180 degrees total arm elevation. With increasing elevation in the external starting rotation, humeral head contact dramatically migrates from an inferior region to a superocentral-posterior region while glenoid contact shifts posteriorly. When the humeral shaft is positioned 20 degrees internal to the starting rotation, humeral head contact shifts from inferocentral-anterior to superocentral-posterior regions. Simultaneously, a similar posterior shift in glenoid contact is observed. Furthermore, whereas only a small portion of the humeral head surface area is in contact in any given position, contact on the glenoid surface is much more uniformly distributed over its entire articulating surface.
Article
Many exercises are used to strengthen the glenohumeral muscles, but there have been limited studies to evaluate the exercises. Thus, the purpose of this study was to decide how the muscles responsible for humeral motion can best be exercised in a rehabilitation program for the throwing athlete. Dynamic, fine wire, intramuscular electromyography was carried out in 15 normal male volunteers performing 17 shoulder exercises derived from a shoulder rehabilitation program used by professional baseball clubs. The four rotator cuff muscles were studied, as well as other positioners of the humerus, including the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and three portions of the deltoid. The electromyographic activity was synchronized with cinematography and averaged over 30 degrees arcs of motion. An exercise was considered to be a significant challenge for a muscle if it generated at least 50% of its predetermined maximum contraction over three consecutive arcs (i.e., a 90 degrees range). Four exercises were consistently found to be among the most challenging exercises for every muscle. These shoulder exercises consisted of 1) elevation in the scapular plane with thumbs down, 2) flexion, 3) horizontal abduction with arms externally rotated, and 4) press-up. This study documents that the minimum for an effective and succinct rehabilitation protocol for the glenohumeral muscles would include these exercises.