Article

The Fitness-Fatigue Model Revisited: Implications for Planning Short- and Long-Term Training

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Abstract

High-level human performance requires years of diligent training. Coaches and athletes should not leave performance adaptations to chance. Proper planning and organization of training results in the desired performance outcomes, and empirical and scientific evidence is in support of modeling training after the fitness-fatigue theory. From the design of the yearly training structure to each individual training session, an athlete's training plan should account for fitness and fatigue after-effects in an effort to maximize the effects of training.

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... However, the postpriming response following comparable volume loads of resistance exercise seems to be strongly influenced by the duration separating the exercise stimulus and neuromuscular performance test. Furthermore, the literature suggests that training status will influence the manifestation of potentiation or fatigue following resistance exercise involving similar volume loads (21,22,114). Studies that have reported significant postpriming performance improvements in resistancetrained participants within 8 hours used volume loads between 560-1,190 AU (38,57,69,101). ...
... A higher percentage of these fibers strongly correlates with greater relative MHC IIa area, an indicator of the strength training history (51,52,54,142). As such, the magnitude of potentiation or fatigue following resistance priming exercise completed on the same day may be influenced by training status (21,22). Nevertheless, further research examining the relationship between these muscle adaptations and the postexercise response subsequent to resistance priming strategies with lower exercise volumes that may be effective to improve performance within this time frame is needed. ...
... Given that high-intensity resistance exercise has been shown to elicit greater repetition duration, impulse, and total work (16) and higher peak and rate of muscle activation (66,131), there is a heightened possibility of residual fatigue, which can reduce force production postexercise (94). However, resistance training improves resistance to fatigue (22,23), and there is evidence to suggest that the training status can affect the magnitude of potentiation or fatigue following resistance exercise completed on the same day (21,22). In participants with a more extensive history of resistance training, isometric RFD was recovered to a greater degree 4-6 hours after a bout of fatiguing resistance exercise (22). ...
... Taking into consideration other variables such as sleep [10] and stress [11], the rate of recovery may dictate the readiness for the subsequent workout. Although less recovery time between each resistance training session (i.e., < 24 h between sessions vs. < 48-72 h between sessions) may not necessarily cause negative outcomes in muscle growth and strength within a short period of time (i.e., 12 weeks) [12], it has been suggested that improper post-exercise recovery or sequence of training may result in an increase in accumulated fatigue [13,14]. ...
... The concept of long-term fatigue accumulation has appeared repeatedly in the literature without clear elucidation of what is accumulating and how/why this is occurring [13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. Fatigue accumulation refers to the fatigue that summates over repeated bouts of training that is believed to be additive to pre-existing fatigue. ...
... Fitness after-effect causes a positive physiological response that increases performance, whereas fatigue after-effect causes a negative physiological response that adversely influences performance. The fitness gain resulting from training is suggested to be moderate in magnitude but long-lasting (i.e., increases in muscle strength), while the fatigue effect is large in magnitude with a brief duration (i.e., reduction in forcegenerating capacity) [14,21]. Consequently, the difference between these two antagonist effects is believed to describe performance and state of preparedness (preparedness = fitness − fatigue). ...
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It has been suggested that improper post-exercise recovery or improper sequence of training may result in an ‘accumulation’ of fatigue. Despite this suggestion, there is a lack of clarity regarding which physiological mechanisms may be proposed to contribute to fatigue accumulation. The present paper explores the time course of the changes in various fatigue-related measures in order to understand how they may accumulate or lessen over time following an exercise bout or in the context of an exercise program. Regarding peripheral fatigue, the depletion of energy substrates and accumulation of metabolic byproducts has been demonstrated to occur following an acute bout of resistance training; however, peripheral accumulation and depletion appear unlikely candidates to accumulate over time. A number of mechanisms may contribute to the development of central fatigue, postulating the need for prolonged periods of recovery; however, a time course is difficult to determine and is dependent on which measurement is examined. In addition, it has not been demonstrated that central fatigue measures accumulate over time. A potential candidate that may be interpreted as accumulated fatigue is muscle damage, which shares similar characteristics (i.e., prolonged strength loss). Due to the delayed appearance of muscle damage, it may be interpreted as accumulated fatigue. Overall, evidence for the presence of fatigue accumulation with resistance training is equivocal, making it difficult to draw the conclusion that fatigue accumulates. Considerable work remains as to whether fatigue can accumulate over time. Future studies are warranted to elucidate potential mechanisms underlying the concept of fatigue accumulation.
... The acute: chronic workload ratio (ACWR) is an index of training stress an athlete experiences relative to the fitness they have accrued through their chronic exposure to training [1]. The ACWR is based on the fitness-fatigue theory of the body's response to training [2,3], and was developed to assist practitioners balance the training of athletes for competition with the risk of overtraining and increasing injury risk. Evidence has established a link between excessive training loads and increased injury risk [4,5]. ...
... This decay of both fitness and fatigue is a core aspect of the fitness-fatigue theory [2,3]. Within the design of the EWMA is a "time-decay constant", which deteriorates the magnitude of input a value has as more subsequent values are added to the equation [9,10]. ...
... When one simply applies rolling averages, this is not the case. The fitness-fatigue theory describes both fitness and fatigue as being derived from one exercise stimulus, both of which will decay over time [2,3]. As the EWMA applies a rate of decay to the exercise stimulus, or input, while rolling averages does not, it is logical that an ACWR calculated utilising the EWMA would be more effective at predicting injury risk than an ACWR calculated utilising rolling averages, as was seen in this study. ...
... It was in 1956 that Dr. Hans Selye first described a model that would be the frame work for what we consider modern day periodisation. 7 Selye's model was termed the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), and was a model meant to describe the non-specific response of the body to stress. 19 The GAS model is physiologically broken up into three phases that include: Alarm Stage, Resistance Stage, and Exhaustion Stage. ...
... 19 The GAS model is physiologically broken up into three phases that include: Alarm Stage, Resistance Stage, and Exhaustion Stage. 5,7,[19][20][21]23 The alarm stage results in a short term decrease in physiologic performance, and this response is said to be the same for all types of stress. 7,19 If the body has the adaptive capacity, then it will enter into the next stage, termed the resistance stage. ...
... 5,7,[19][20][21]23 The alarm stage results in a short term decrease in physiologic performance, and this response is said to be the same for all types of stress. 7,19 If the body has the adaptive capacity, then it will enter into the next stage, termed the resistance stage. In modern day terms, we can look at the resistance stage as the body's ability to "supercompensate". ...
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Summary: A systemised approach to developing a periodised program with the elite 100m sprinter as an example. Developing a periodised model to fit the needs analysis and athlete’s abilities is critical to the success of any training model.
... Wilson et al. (53) suggested that Banister Fitness Fatigue Model may sufficiently explain their findings as the greatest increases in batting performance were observed between 4 and 8 minutes. This model proposes that performance is a balance between fitness and fatigue, whereby changes to the former outlast those of the latter following recent contractile activity (23). This implies that maximal performance does not occur immediately following the training stimulus, thus explaining the delayed enhancement of performance following a weighted implement protocol as exhibited in the study of Wilson et al. (53). ...
... Postactivation potentiation is defined as the transient increase in short-duration contractile force capabilities of a high-velocity, short-duration competitive movement as a result of previous contractile activity of relatively higher intensity (27). This phenomenon has been suggested as the most appropriate physiological evidence of the acute effects of the fitness-fatigue model (23). Specifically, the realization of PAP is a function of the net balance between potentiation and fatigue, subsequent to the imposed conditioning activity (37). ...
... As verification of PAP requires observation of increased peak twitch force/torque and increased rate of twitch force/torque development, which are verified via electrical stimulation of single muscles/muscle groups (3,24,35), it may, however, be suggested that Banister model (23) and postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE) (35) are the most appropriate explanations of the acute effects of weighted implements based on the recommended mechanisms of the included studies. However, although these models may sufficiently explain reports of enhanced batting performance following a weighted bat warm-up in studies using a stationary target, the findings of studies assessing such effects when intercepting a dynamic target potentially diminish the efficacy of attaining such potentiated peripheral states. ...
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Jermyn, S, Neill, CO, and Coughlan, EK. The acute effects from the use of weighted implements on skill enhancement in sport: A systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 35(10): 2922–2935, 2021—Weighted implements are used before competitive performance with the aim of enhancing motor skill execution on return to the standard implement. The purpose of this review was to analyze the existing literature pertaining to the acute effects of weighted implements on respective sporting performance. Following a systematic screening process, 25 studies were identified. This review highlighted the effects of (a) weighted balls and bats on throwing and batting performance and (b) indoor weight throw implements on indoor weight throw performance. Studies reported conflicting effects on immediate performance post–warm-up with the respective implements. Notably, although overweighted bats and overweight attachments are a prominent preparatory tool in baseball, this review found consistent and repeated evidence of degraded batting performance in striking-based studies. Decreased bat velocity, altered swing patterns, subjective-objective mismatches of bat speed and weight, temporal accuracy errors, and inadequate recalibration to the standard bat were identified as acute effects. This review identified an obvious dearth of research into the acute effects of weighted implements on motor skills in other sports with equally complex perceptual motor patterns, such as football (soccer), golf, rugby, basketball, and American football. Future weighted implement research should investigate the acute effects of respective implements on motor skill performance in other sports, such as those aforementioned, with the purpose of exploring relevant implications for preparatory strategies and immediate performance on return to the standard implement.
... Towards the end of this phase, the athlete's work capacity increases and reaches pre-conditioning levels and even surpasses the pre-conditioning level and reaches a climax. At the end of the cycle, the work capacity returns to pre-conditioning levels (Chiu & Barnes, 2003). Chiu and Barnes (2003:44) describe the general adaptation syndrome as "the initial response, the alarm stage, is negative, with the physiological state of the athlete decreasing following the imposition of stress. ...
... The fitness-fatigue theory, as defined by Zatsiorsky (1995) and depicted in Figure 2.5, describes the interrelationships between fitness, fatigue and preparedness. In theory, the result of every session or training cycle creates two physiological after-effects, namely fatigue and fitness, which combine to influence the athlete's level of preparedness and performance (Chiu & Barnes, 2003). This theory is in contrast to the GAS/supercompensation theory based on a cause-and-effect relationship between these factors. ...
... However, Bompa and Haff (2009) state that "fatigue dissipates at a more rapid rate than fitness, this means that the athletes state of preparedness is allowed to evelate and along with that the performance too." The physiological after-effects from training as described by Chiu and Barnes (2003) earlier are also refered to as residual training effects, which serve as the bases for most periodisation models. Specifically, the residual-effects from one training block has the ability to enhance the level of preparedness in the following training blocks as shown in Figure 2.5, depending on the periodisation models utilised in the design of the broader training plan (Haff & Haff, 2012). ...
Research
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An investigation into the effect of a block periodisation system in an elite olympic sprinter over the duration of three competitive seasons.
... In addition, it appears that stronger individuals express their greatest PAP effect earlier after completing a heavy CA than do weaker individuals [12,15]. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is that stronger individuals may develop fatigue resistance to heavier loads [16,17], which may affect the balance between fatigue and potentiation post-CA. Ultimately, alterations in the balance between fatigue and potentiation have the ability to alter the magnitude of PAP expressed post-CA [4]. ...
... This finding is in line with previous work [12][13][14] and may be explained by the fact that stronger individuals may have a greater percentage of type II muscle fibers [28,29] and therefore a greater phosphorylation of myosin light chain [29,30], which is one of the peripheral-level factors proposed as a mechanism underpinning PAP [31]. In addition, stronger individuals may develop fatigue resistance to heavier loads after a near-maximal effort [16,17], which may affect the balance between fatigue and potentiation post-CA. Moreover, it appears that individuals with prior resistance training experience exhibit a considerably larger PAP effect (ES = 0.53 and 0.44) than those with no prior experience (ES = 0.07). ...
... This phenomenon has been evidenced by Seitz et al. [12], who found that stronger individuals expressed their greatest PAP response 6 min after a back squat CA, while their weaker counterparts required 9 min of rest [12]. The ability of stronger individuals to express their greatest PAP effect earlier may be explained by the fact that they develop fatigue resistance to heavier loads after a near-maximal effort [16,17]. Given the relationship between strength, fatigue, and potentiation, stronger individuals may be able to dissipate fatigue quicker after the CA because of their greater capacity to resist fatigue and therefore may be able to achieve their maximal PAP response earlier than weaker individuals. ...
Article
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Background Although post-activation potentiation (PAP) has been extensively examined following the completion of a conditioning activity (CA), the precise effects on subsequent jump, sprint, throw, and upper-body ballistic performances and the factors modulating these effects have yet to be determined. Moreover, weaker and stronger individuals seem to exhibit different PAP responses; however, how they respond to the different components of a strength–power–potentiation complex remains to be elucidated. Objectives This meta-analysis determined (1) the effect of performing a CA on subsequent jump, sprint, throw, and upper-body ballistic performances; (2) the influence of different types of CA, squat depths during the CA, rest intervals, volumes of CA, and loads during the CA on PAP; and (3) how individuals of different strength levels respond to these various strength–power–potentiation complex components. Methods A computerized search was conducted in ADONIS, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases up to March 2015. The analysis comprised 47 studies and 135 groups of participants for a total of 1954 participants. Results The PAP effect is small for jump (effect size [ES] = 0.29), throw (ES = 0.26), and upper-body ballistic (ES = 0.23) performance activities, and moderate for sprint (ES = 0.51) performance activity. A larger PAP effect is observed among stronger individuals and those with more experience in resistance training. Plyometric (ES = 0.47) CAs induce a slightly larger PAP effect than traditional high-intensity (ES = 0.41), traditional moderate-intensity (ES = 0.19), and maximal isometric (ES = –0.09) CAs, and a greater effect after shallower (ES = 0.58) versus deeper (ES = 0.25) squat CAs, longer (ES = 0.44 and 0.49) versus shorter (ES = 0.17) recovery intervals, multiple- (ES = 0.69) versus single- (ES = 0.24) set CAs, and repetition maximum (RM) (ES = 0.51) versus sub-maximal (ES = 0.34) loads during the CA. It is noteworthy that a greater PAP effect can be realized earlier after a plyometric CA than with traditional high- and moderate-intensity CAs. Additionally, shorter recovery intervals, single-set CAs, and RM CAs are more effective at inducing PAP in stronger individuals, while weaker individuals respond better to longer recovery intervals, multiple-set CAs, and sub-maximal CAs. Finally, both weaker and stronger individuals express greater PAP after shallower squat CAs. Conclusions Performing a CA elicits small PAP effects for jump, throw, and upper-body ballistic performance activities, and a moderate effect for sprint performance activity. The level of potentiation is dependent on the individual’s level of strength and resistance training experience, the type of CA, the depth of the squat when this exercise is employed to elicit PAP, the rest period between the CA and subsequent performance, the number of set(s) of the CA, and the type of load used during the CA. Finally, some components of the strength–power–potentiation complex modulate the PAP response of weaker and stronger individuals in a different way.
... High aerobic capacity allows for better tolerance of effort of different intensity (Astrand, Rodahl,1977). Although the ability to perform specific work in a unit of time, and thus the ability to improve better (Astrand, Rodahl, 1977;Loren, Chiu, 2003;Mac Dougall, Wenger, Green,1991), as well as VO 2 max may be the physical fitness measure. Such a demanding programme, which the gymnast has to master at the right time, puts the athlete's ability in the training process and training endurance to the forefront (Smolevsky, Gaverdovsky, 1999;Sawczyn, 2000). ...
... These results indicate that there is a high correlation and a very reliable relationship between the parameters given. The effect of greater aerobic capacity can be attributed to lower cerebral hypoxia and less central fatigue when performing gymnastic combinations (Loren, Chiu, 2003;Nybo, Rasmussen, 2007;Rasmussen et al, 2010). ...
Article
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In artistic gymnastic alteration of all component of coordination capacities may related to fatigue. So the resistance to fatigue is a specific endurance component, which has direct relation to the techniques of gymnastic exercises. We supposed that changes of motor actions precise in the process of fatigue development during training sessions might presumably have a negative impact on the quality of performing complex gymnastic elements and combinations and set the goal to determine the significance level of aerobic capacity for special endurance. Twelve young skilled gymnasts aged 15-18 years measured the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max). During the training sessions specially designed tests of specific endurance were carried out, heart rate (HR) was measured and the quality of the presentation of the combinations was evaluated (by the sum of the judges' ratings of all the elements). The interrelation between VO2 max, HR in progress of gymnastic combinations and the quality of their performance were analyzed. Results showed that a higher aerobic capacity contributes to a relatively lower HR when performing intense gymnastic combinations and a slower development. Iof “coordination fatigue” t may be of special importance for young athletes at the stage of advanced specialization when a great volume of complex combinations is learned and thus, high volume of training loads is performed. According to obtained data use of the proposed endurance tests is of great importance for control of maintenance of aerobic capacities by young athletes. Account of the factors of “coordination fatigue” development, related to aerobic capacities, may be of special importance for young gymnasts at the stage of advanced specialization when a great volume of complex combinations is learned and thus, high volume of training loads is performed.
... The resultant fatigue from these variables can take up to 5 days to return to baseline values post-competition [5], with sports that have frequent competition (i.e. often weekly in team sports) also inducing accumulative fatigue over time [9]. In addition to the significant amounts of fatigue induced by competition, many athletes experience fatigue as a result of the work required to develop the wide variety of physical qualities that contribute significantly to performance. ...
... Due to the highly complex nature of fatigue [9,20], as well as individualised responses to similar training loads [21,22], it is important to monitor global athlete fatigue levels (i.e. mental, physical and emotional) in response to prescribed training loads in order to minimise injury and illness [23]. ...
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Background Coaches, sport scientists, clinicians and medical personnel face a constant challenge to prescribe sufficient training load to produce training adaption while minimising fatigue, performance inhibition and risk of injury/illness. Objective The aim of this review was to investigate the relationship between injury and illness and longitudinal training load and fatigue markers in sporting populations. Methods Systematic searches of the Web of Science and PubMed online databases to August 2015 were conducted for articles reporting relationships between training load/fatigue measures and injury/illness in athlete populations. ResultsFrom the initial 5943 articles identified, 2863 duplicates were removed, followed by a further 2833 articles from title and abstract selection. Manual searching of the reference lists of the remaining 247 articles, together with use of the Google Scholar ?cited by? tool, yielded 205 extra articles deemed worthy of assessment. Sixty-eight studies were subsequently selected for inclusion in this study, of which 45 investigated injury only, 17 investigated illness only, and 6 investigated both injury and illness. This systematic review highlighted a number of key findings, including disparity within the literature regarding the use of various terminologies such as training load, fatigue, injury and illness. Athletes are at an increased risk of injury/illness at key stages in their training and competition, including periods of training load intensification and periods of accumulated training loads. Conclusions Further investigation of individual athlete characteristics is required due to their impact on internal training load and, therefore, susceptibility to injury/illness.
... The fitness-fatigue model (28), as illustrated in Figure 3.1, is a representation of the mechanism of how the taper is thought to improve performance. This model proposes that after a training session there are 2 resulting after-effects -1 positive, fitness, and 1 negative, fatigue. ...
... Performance within this model can be considered the sum of the positive after-effects of fitness with sum of the negative after-effects of fatigue removed. Fatigue after-effects are usually of a greater magnitude but shorter duration than fitness after-effects which tend to have a smaller magnitude but a greater duration (28). As fatigue dissipates, performance increases can be realized, as the positive performance contributions of the fitness after-effects are not overshadowed by the negative performance contributions from the fatigue after-effects. ...
Thesis
Maximal strength is a physical quality imperative to success in strength sports and can also play a role in enhancing performance within many other sports. Tapering is a reduction in training load frequently undertaken prior to competitions in order to minimise training related fatigue and thus improve athletic performance. There is currently limited research for athletes and coaches to utilise when planning tapering to maximise strength at key events. This thesis investigated how strength-trained men can best structure the taper period to improve strength performance and attempted to identify the mechanisms underlying any performance improvements. Two literature reviews (Chapters Two and Three) were performed to provide background information regarding training for maximal strength and summarise current knowledge on tapering for maximal strength. The literature revealed that maximal strength training should involve high intensity training (>80% one repetition maximum (1RM)), for multiple sets, with at least two sessions per week for each major muscle group. The current literature indicated that reductions in training volume (by 30-70%) with maintained, or slight increases, in intensity were most effective for improving maximal strength. However, optimal magnitudes of change during the taper were unclear. Short periods of training cessation (less than a week) were also found to be effective at enhancing, or maintaining, maximal strength. The first study (Chapter Four) used a qualitative approach to determine strategies currently utilised by 11 elite New Zealand powerlifters (age = 28.4 ± 7.0 years, best Wilks score = 431.9 ± 43.9 points). Athletes reduced training volume by 58.9 ± 8.4%, while maintaining (or slightly reducing) training intensity. The taper lasted 2.4 ± 0.9 weeks, with the final resistance training session 3.7 ± 1.6 days out from competition. Tapering was performed to achieve maximal recovery, and practices were largely informed through trial and error, with changes based upon ‘feel’. Athletes usually removed accessory exercises and focused primarily upon the competition lifts during the taper. The first training study (Chapter Five) involved a cross-over design to determine the effects of two durations, 3.5 or 5.5 days, of training cessation on performance following four-weeks of training. Eight resistance trained males (age = 23.8 ± 5.4 years, bodyweight (BW) = 79.6 ± 10.2 kg, relative deadlift 1RM = 1.90 ± 0.30 times BW) completed the study. Combined data showed significant performance improvements, compared to pre-training, for both countermovement jump (CMJ) height (P = 0.022) and isometric bench press (IBP) relative peak force (P = 0.011) following short term training cessation (both small effect size (ES) = 0.30). This significant improvement was not present on the final training day, showing that training cessation was an effective means of enhancing strength and power. No significant differences were observed between 3.5 and 5.5 days of training cessation for any measure. These results suggest that a short period of strength training cessation can have positive effects on maximal strength expression, perhaps due to decreased neuromuscular fatigue. The second training study (Chapter Six) also had a cross-over design to determine the effects of two variations in intensity (+5% or -10%) during a one week strength taper with volume reductions (-70%), following four-weeks of training. Eleven strength-trained males (age = 21.3 ± 3.3 years, BW = 92.3 ± 17.6 kg, relative 1RM deadlift = 1.90 ± 0.20 times BW) completed the study. Combined data for both groups showed significant improvements in CMJ height over time (P < 0.001), with significant improvements across all time points (pre- to post-training P = 0.010, ES = 0.23; pre-training to post-taper P = 0.001, ES = 0.37; and, post-training to post-taper P = 0.002, ES = 0.14). Combined data for CMJ flight time: contraction time also showed significant improvements over time (P = 0.004), with significant improvements from pre- to post-training (P = 0.012, ES = 0.27). Combined data for isometric mid-thigh pull (MTP) relative peak force showed significant improvements over time (P = 0.033), with significant increases found from pre- to post-training (P = 0.013, ES = 0.25). The higher intensity taper produced small ES improvements following the taper for CMJ height (ES = 0.43), CMJ flight time: contraction time (ES = 0.42) and MTP relative peak force (ES = 0.37). In contrast, the lower intensity taper only produced a small ES improvement for CMJ height (ES = 0.30). However, differences between groups were not significant. These results indicate that a strength taper with volume reductions can have positive effects on maximal strength and power performance, with a tendency for higher intensity tapering to be more effective. This thesis has documented current tapering practices of strength athletes and demonstrated both short term training cessation and volume reduced strength tapers as effective methods of improving maximal strength following training. When tapering, athletes should make substantial training volume reductions with little changes to training intensity. During a taper, training should focus on competition specific strength exercises, and strength training should cease a few days prior to important events.
... Stronger compared to weaker individuals required shorter rest intervals (3-7 versus 6-12 min) with the former also having a longer potentiation duration (up to 12 min). An explanation for the shorter rest period required to induce PAP among stronger individuals is likely due to their greater fatigue resistance to heavier loads, greater distribution of type 2 muscle fibers and prior resistance training experience [13,18,19]. ...
... Results from the current study showed that the implementation of KBS as a preconditioning exercise did not improve sprint time at any distance and recovery time. This finding may be attributed to the study design that was implemented (i.e., exercise prescription) and characteristics of the participants in the present study (e.g., individual strength, training experience, type 2 muscle fiber distribution) [13,[16][17][18]. ...
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Previous research has shown that kettlebell swings (KBS), utilizing the hip-hinge technique, exhibit similar lower-limb muscle activation patterns to sprint running. This study investigated whether the inclusion of KBS in the warm-up enhances sprint performance. Moderately trained males (n = 12) and females (n = 8) performed KBS and a control (CON) condition (passive rest) in random order before performing three 20-m sprint trials separated by 4 min. No condition (KBS versus CON) effects, time effects or condition by time interactions were found for sprint times at 5-m and 10-m. A significant time effect was found for sprint time at 20-m with faster sprint time at 12 min compared to 4 min (p = 0.022). No condition effect or condition by time interaction was found for sprint time at 20-m. Small to moderate correlations were found for change in sprint time (CON minus KBS) and KBS load at 4, 8, and 12 min. It appears the KBS is not effective for potentiating 20-m sprint performance; however, any potential benefit from the inclusion of KBS as a preconditioning exercise for sprinting may be influenced by individual strength capabilities with KBS.
... The stimulus-fatiguerecovery-adaptation model based on the work of Yakovlev [37] is exemplary in this regard and provides additional clarity on the functional responses linking the training stimulus to adaptation. Additionally, Banister's fitness-fatigue model is a related extension of this concept, in which the potential change in performance is plotted as the interaction between fitness and fatigue after-effects of training, and mirrors the GAS curve [38,39]. This point is borne out further by the conception of short-, medium-, long-term, and cumulative training effects. ...
... Nevertheless, notable reviews have related the GAS directly to the biological and physiological responses and adaptations to exercise [34,35], and many theorists have detailed the conceptual application of the GAS to training [40,127,128,156]. Many other models regarding the training process are complementary to, rather than incompatible with, the GAS [38]. For example, the fitnessfatigue paradigm does not consider the mechanisms of adaptation. ...
Article
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Recent reviews have attempted to refute the efficacy of applying Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS) as a conceptual framework for the training process. Furthermore, the criticisms involved are regularly used as the basis for arguments against the periodization of training. However, these perspectives fail to consider the entirety of Selye’s work, the evolution of his model, and the broad applications he proposed. While it is reasonable to critically evaluate any paradigm, critics of the GAS have yet to dismantle the link between stress and adaptation. Disturbance to the state of an organism is the driving force for biological adaptation, which is the central thesis of the GAS model and the primary basis for its application to the athlete’s training process. Despite its imprecisions, the GAS has proven to be an instructive framework for understanding the mechanistic process of providing a training stimulus to induce specific adaptations that result in functional enhancements. Pioneers of modern periodization have used the GAS as a framework for the management of stress and fatigue to direct adaptation during sports training. Updates to the periodization concept have retained its founding constructs while explicitly calling for scientifically based, evidence-driven practice suited to the individual. Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide greater clarity on how the GAS serves as an appropriate mechanistic model to conceptualize the periodization of training.
... A climber`s potential performance known as climbing readiness varies in time. The prevalent theory of training and adaptation is based on the Fitness-Fatigue paradigm (Chiu and Barnes, 2003;Zatsiorski and Kraemer, 2006) stating that the athlete`s readiness can be measured with the primary after-effects of training: fitness and fatigue. Physical fitness is a slow-changing motor component that remains relatively stable over several hours or even days, but fatigue or psychological overstress can quickly change a climber`s disposition toward leading a climbing route. ...
... Strategies maximizing fitness and minimizing fatigue have the greatest potential to optimize athlete`s readiness (Zatsiorski and Kraemer, 2006). The Fitness-Fatigue paradigm differentiates between the impact of various stressors that induce different neuromuscular and metabolic stress responses (Chiu and Barnes, 2003). ...
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The aim of this study was to determine changes in climbers’ hormonal, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, sleep and fatigue status, and their relationship with performance and workloads during a sport rock climbing camp. Mean difficulty of individual leading climbing routes (mean Difficulty) was calculated for six male, intermediate level sport rock climbers participating in a 2-week camp in Orpierre. Additionally, each morning climbers were tested for: cortisol (d-Cortisol) and testosterone (d-Testosterone) concentrations, testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C), heart rate and heart rate variability in supine (d-L-HR, d-L-SD1, d-L-SD2) and standing positions (d-S-HR, d-S-SD1, d-S-SD2), difference in S-HR and L-HR (HR-S-L), maximal voluntary hand grip strength (MVC), sleep duration (Sleep) and the self-perception of fatigue (M-Fatigue). Only M-Fatigue and d-Testosterone did not change significantly during the camp. Changes in other variables were large and significant, especially in the second week of the camp when the mean Difficulty was > 70%. The greatest changes were noted on the last day, when T/C, HR-S-L, and Sleep decreased and d-Cortisol, d-L-HR, and d-SD1 increased. The monitoring of the uncoupling of neuromuscular, hormonal, and cardiovascular markers can be instrumental in determining the level of athletes’ morning fatigue and readiness during a climbing camp. An increase in d-Cortisol and a decrease in T/C and HR-S-L are relevant indicators of overreaching in sport climbers.
... Thus, in settings in which athletes may take time off (e.g., summer, Christmas break, etc.) very intense (or very high volume) programs designed to get the athlete back into shape rapidly may ultimately decrease the level of attainable performance. Training programs are likely to produce rapid gains in performance, early performance plateaus, and rapid diminished returns including: 8,41,[64][65][66][67][68] • Constant high absolute or relative intensity (e.g., Bulgarian ...
... We must also realize that training has consequences extending far into recovery. 25,68 Residual, or after effects, persist even after the training stimulus is reduce or terminated. The Fitnessfatigue paradigm describes the interplay between the underlying mechanisms (fitness) and accumulated fatigue as a result of training (Fig. 3). ...
Article
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The process of strength–power training and the subsequent adaptation is a multi-factorial process. These factors range from the genetics and morphological characteristics of the athlete to how a coach selects, orders, and doses exercises and loading patterns. Consequently, adaptation from these training factors may largely relate to the mode of delivery, in other words, programming tactics. There is strong evidence that the manner and phases in which training is presented to the athlete can make a profound difference in performance outcome. This discussion deals primarily with block periodization concepts and associated methods of programming for strength–power training within track and field.
... The fitness-fatigue model has evolved to consider that there are more than one fitness and fatigue after-effects (Chiu & Barnes, 2003). Specific systems of the body such as the neuromuscular and cardiovascular system show unique fitness and fatigue after-effects from exercise training (Chiu & Barnes, 2003). ...
... The fitness-fatigue model has evolved to consider that there are more than one fitness and fatigue after-effects (Chiu & Barnes, 2003). Specific systems of the body such as the neuromuscular and cardiovascular system show unique fitness and fatigue after-effects from exercise training (Chiu & Barnes, 2003). In addition, there are inter-and intra-individual differences in the dose-response relationship of training and its associated "fitness" and "fatigue" (Morton, 1997). ...
Thesis
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Background: The popularity of endurance running events has rapidly increased in recent years with more recreational runners entering the field. How recreational runners train is not well known. Understanding this and the relationship between training and performance in this group of runners is important for prescribing appropriate training to maximise performance and decrease the risk of injury. This forms the underlying theme throughout this thesis. Aim: The broad aims of this thesis were to better understand the ad libitum training habits of well-trained competitive recreational runners and to determine the relationships between performance, training load, and submaximal heart rate (HR) in this cohort. Methods: Five inter-related studies were performed to: 1) determine relationships between 56-km race performance and pacing (n = 7,327) in competitive recreational runners; 2) determine relationships between 56-km race performance, pacing, and training load in competitive recreational runners (n = 69); 3) determine the accuracy of GPS sport watches in measuring distance (n = 255); 4) develop a feasible and reliable submaximal running test, and 5) determine relationships between performance on a submaximal running test, training load, and submaximal HR in well-trained competitive recreational runners (n = 29). Main findings: A group of well-trained competitive recreational runners performed 44  22 km/week (median  IQR) in a six-month time frame while training ad libitum. This group had a wide range of inter-individual differences in training load performed even when considering participants who had the same relative marathon performance. The same group of well-trained competitive recreational runners maintained most of their training over a six-month period in a range of 0.81 – 1.14 for the acute: chronic workload ratio (ACWR). When the ACWR values reached > 1.50, it was mainly due to participation in endurance running races (> 21-km). When looking at relative weekly changes in training load, the maximum increase was 30% with only two participants having maximum increases of < 10%. The increases in load were predominantly short term (one to two weeks). Submaximal HR had a negative linear relationship with performance in 21% of the study participants. In those participants, poor performances were associated with a higher submaximal HR. Training load was only related to changes in performance in one participant. Conclusion: This thesis confirms that no single variable can provide the necessary information on how to adjust training load to maximise performance. Athletes, coaches, and sports scientists need to have a holistic view of stress exposure and how this affects the body. Although we can only speculate, when the participants had a poor performance it may have been due to factors such as lack of motivation, fatigue, mental stress, dehydration, and/or sleep deprivation. It is important for runners, coaches, and sports scientists to approach the training load – recovery balance as being unique for each athlete. Even in a homogenous group of well-trained competitive recreational runners, their ad libitum training load is widely varied and was not associated with performance or ability level. The balance should be adjusted over time based on the athlete’s symptoms.
... Originally proposed by Banister (Banister et al., 1975;Banister & Calvert, 1980;Chiu & Barnes, 2003), the fitness-fatigue model states that the training stress placed on an athlete results in two contrasting responsesfitness and fatigue. Based on these early investigations, a novel model comparing acute workload (i.e., 1-week workload) and chronic workload (i.e., 4-week rolling average acute workload) has been used to predict performance and injury (Hulin et al., 2014(Hulin et al., , 2016aGabbett, 2016). ...
... Preparedness represents the difference between a positive function (i.e., fitness) and a negative function (i.e., fatigue), where chronic workload represents "fitness" and acute workload represents "fatigue" (Gabbett, 2016). The fitness after-effect results in a positive physiological response and in turn improved performance (Banister et al., 1975;Banister & Calvert, 1980;Chiu & Barnes, 2003), whereas the fatigue after-effect results in a negative physiological response, decreased performance, and potentially a subsequent increase in injury risk (Hulin et al., 2014;Gabbett et al., 2016;Hulin et al., 2016a, b). The difference between the positive physiological response and the negative physiological response provides either a low (chronic workload is greater than the acute workload) or high (acute workload is greater than the chronic workload) acute:chronic workload ratio (Hulin et al., 2014(Hulin et al., , 2016aGabbett, 2016). ...
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A model that takes into account the current workload, and the workload the athlete has been prepared for, as an acute:chronic workload ratio has been previously used as a novel way to monitor training load and injury risk. Fifty-nine elite Australian football players from one club participated in this 2-year study. Global Positioning System technology was used to provide information on running workloads of players. An injury was defined as any non-contact "time-loss" injury. One-week (acute), along with 4-week (chronic) workloads were calculated for a range of variables. The size of the acute workload in relation to the chronic workload was calculated as an acute:chronic workload ratio. An acute:chronic workload ratio of >2.0 for total distance during the in-season was associated with a 5 to 8-fold greater injury risk in the current [relative risk (RR) = 8.65, P = 0.001] and subsequent week (RR = 5.49, P = 0.016). Players with a high-speed distance acute:chronic workload ratio of >2.0 were 5-11 times more likely to sustain an injury in the current (RR = 11.62, P = 0.006) and subsequent week (RR = 5.10, P = 0.014). These findings demonstrate that sharp increases in running workload increase the likelihood of injury in both the week the workload is performed, and the subsequent week.
... The fitness-fatigue relationship demonstrates complexity that goes beyond general adaptation syndrome theory and this is a major reason to implement athlete monitoring on a consistent basis (29,31). There may be a more complex interaction between fitness and fatigue than first theorized and their cumulative effect may limit adaptation beyond what practitioners may account for in planning training loads (23,30,31). ...
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BLUF Reactive Strength Index, Reactive Strength Index Modified, and Flight Time: Contraction Time are valid and sensitive to worthwhile change and serve as indicators of neuromuscular status. These jump measures can be effective monitoring tools with team sport and individual athletes. ABSTRACT The purpose of this article was to provide practitioners with an improved understanding of the reactive strength index (RSI), reactive strength index modified (RSImod), and the ratio of flight time to contraction time (FT:CT) as they pertain to athlete monitoring and sports performance. Effective athlete monitoring should inform and impact decision making, regarding the status of athletes at the individual level, in a time-sensitive manner specific to their current training phase. Athlete monitoring should be valid, reliable, and sensitive to typical error value that allows for real changes in status to be reflected in outcomes that accurately distinguish " signal from noise ". Vertical jump monitoring is considered to be a key indicator and as such is included in many strength and conditioning programs. The reactive strength index (RSI), reactive strength index modified (RSImod), and the ratio of flight time to contraction time (FT:CT) are jump tests being increasingly used to monitor readiness through the use of either a contact mat or a force plate. The RSI is measured utilizing drop jumps (DJ) and is specific to fast stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) activity while RSImod and FT:CT are measured using a countermovement jump (CMJ) and are specific to slow SSC. Because of the complex nature of neuromuscular fatigue RSImod and FT:CT may provide information that typical CMJ tests of jump height and power cannot accurately reflect. Therefore RSI, RSImod, and FT:CT may provide additional insight into neuromuscular status, reflecting alterations in neuromuscular strategy, beyond jump height.
... Our results indicate the possibility that the athlete did not take full advantage of the tapering period. According to the fitness-fatigue model, performance is the sum of positive fitness adaptions and the negative fatigue aspects of training (Chiu & Barnes, 2003). It may be that accumulated fatigue effects from the intense 10-week training period were still present at the time of the bout, thus potentially masking the athlete's peak performance in competition. ...
Article
This study aimed to (1) profile a professional boxer (23 years and 80 kg) with boxing-specific, muscle function, aerobic capacity and body composition tests, and (2) quantify how these measures varied during an 8-week preparation phase leading to, and post a state-Title Bout fought in the 76.2-kg class. A series of boxing-specific and muscle function tests were completed on 11 occasions: 9 prior and twice after the bout, each separated by approximately 2 weeks. The boxing test included 36 maximal punches (9 of each: lead and rear straights, lead and rear hooks) to a punching integrator measuring forces and velocity. Muscle function tests included countermovement jump, drop-jumps, isometric mid-thigh pull and isometric bench-press. Body composition was assessed using skin-fold measurements on three occasions and one dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Aerobic capacity was assessed using 2 VO2 max tests. Leading up to the bout, performance decreased in isometric mid-thigh pull (8%), isometric bench-press (5%), countermovement jump (15%) and impact forces in 3 of 4 punches (4%-7%). Whereas measures of dynamic and isometric muscle function remained depressed or unchanged post competition, punching forces (6%-15%) and aerobic power (6%) increased. Data suggest the athlete may have super-compensated following rest as fatigue dissipated and further adaptation occurred.
... To adhere to the recommended ;3-4 minutes intracomplex recovery, it is recommended to implement complex training in training cycles of moderately highly trained athletes with high relative 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength levels (training status 5 club, professional and elite athletes; resistance training experience $2 years; lower body strength levels $1.8 relative 1RM; upper body strength levels $1.4 relative 1RM) (15,(18)(19)(20). The ability of stronger individuals to express their greatest PAP effect earlier may be explained by the fact that they develop fatigue resistance to heavier loads after a near-maximal effort (1). Given the interplay between strength, fatigue, and potentiation, stronger and experienced individuals may be able to dissipate fatigue quicker after the maximal or highintensity dynamic exercise because of their greater capacity to resist fatigue and therefore may be able to achieve their maximal PAP response earlier than weaker individuals (1). ...
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THE SHORT-TERM GAINS IN POWER AND RATE OF FORCE DEVELOPMENT AFTER MAXIMAL OR HIGH-INTENSITY DYNAMIC EXERCISES ARE THOUGHT TO RESULT FROM POSTACTIVATION POTENTIATION (PAP). THE MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING PAP UTILIZATION ARE THE OPTIMAL INTRACOMPLEX RECOVERY, TRAINING STATUS, AND STRENGTH LEVELS OF THE ATHLETES. STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT WITH THE IDEAL COMBINATION OF MODERATELY HIGHLY TRAINED ATHLETES AND ADEQUATE INTRACOMPLEX RECOVERY, IT IS POSSIBLE TO EFFECTIVELY IMPLEMENT COMPLEX TRAINING FOR POWER DEVELOPMENT. THIS PAPER LOOKS TO REVIEW THE CURRENT LITERATURE OF STUDIES INVESTIGATING THE CHRONIC ADAPTATIONS OF PAP IN A TRAINING CYCLE AND RECOMMEND AN EFFECTIVE AND PRACTICAL COMPLEX TRAINING PROGRAM.
... The fitness-fatigue model has been used for decades primarily as a conceptual framework that describes the training process. 1 In its most basic form, the model posits that a single bout of training creates two antagonistic after-effects including a positive longlasting and low-magnitude fitness effect, and a negative short-lasting and high-magnitude fatigue effect. These antagonist components then combine to describe an athlete's performance and state of preparedness. ...
Poster
Identifying the effects of measurement error and testing frequency on the accuracy of parameters estimates when applying a fitness fatigue model in resistance training.
... Decrements are generally attributed to muscle damage (Takarada, 2003), alterations in mood (West et al., 2014) and neuromuscular function (Gill et al., 2006). Fatigue from these variables takes up to 5 days to return to baseline (McLellan et al., 2011) and with frequent training and competition accumulative fatigue can occur over time (Chiu and Barnes, 2003). ...
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From the available literature regarding training studies, it appears traditional periodisation models may work regarding the underpinning physical qualities of CODS proposed by empirical models (Sheppard and Young, 2006), however a majority of the literature using traditional strength and power methods (strength training, Olympic weightlifting etc.) to improve CODS performance have failed. It appears training programmes that are inclusive of CODS tasks and sport specific CODS tasks are superior to traditional resistance training methods alone, therefore, training programmes specifically targeting CODS should include CODS tasks along with relevant traditional strength and power exercises to improve underpinning physiological CODS performance qualities. There is currently a lack of periodisation literature regarding volume and intensity manipulation of CODS tasks, many of the training studies utilise a linear increase in intensity with gradual linear decreases in volume. Focus on mastering underpinning movement patterns, CODS task specific force qualities and technical application of strength appear to be the most important factors in improving CODS performance. There are vast amounts of CODS tests available, the CODS test selected must be sports specific and relevant to the CODS task performed in the sport, the appropriate test can then be monitored to determine changes in performance. Training load quantification can vary according to a strength and conditioning coaches preferred method, practitioners can then, with both subjective (questionnaire/ RPE based) and objective (jump/CODS test data), judge whether training volume/intensity needs to be modified according to an athletes results.
... Several studies have been published to review the model and study its parameters (e.g. Chiu, L. Z., & Barnes, J. L., 2003;Clarke, D. C., & Skiba, P. F., 2013;Hellard, P., Avalos, M., Lacoste, L., Barale, F., Chatard, J. C., & Millet, G. P., 2006;Jobson, S. A., Passfield, L., Atkinson, G., Barton, G., & Scarf, P., 2009;Taha, T., & Thomas, S. G., 2003) and to compare different training loads and psychological markers as input and output variables (e.g. Millet, G. P., Groslambert, A., Barbier, B., Rouillon, J. D., & Candau, R. B., 2005;Wallace, L. K., Slattery, K. M., & Coutts, A. J., 2014). ...
Article
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Tracking and predicting the performance of athletes is of great interest, not only in training science but also, increasingly, for serious hobbyists. The increasing availability and use of smart watches and fitness trackers means that abundant data is becoming available, and the interest to optimally use this data for performance tracking and training optimization is great. One competitive model in this domain is the 3-time-constant fitness-fatigue model by Busso based on the model by Banister and colleagues. In the following, we will show that this model can be written equivalently as a linear, time-variant state-space model. With this understanding, it becomes clear that all methods for optimum tracking in statespace models are also directly applicable here. As an example, we show how a Kalman filter can be combined with the fitness-fatigue model in a mathematically consistent fashion. This gives us the opportunity to optimally consider measurements of performance to adapt the fitness and fatigue estimates in a datadriven manner. Results show that this approach is capable of clearly improving performance tracking and prediction over a range of different scenarios.
... The authors noted that optimal performance is achieved when strength qualities are executed in the following manner within one session and over the course of a week: Maximal Intensity-Maximal Strength-Maximal Work. 6 From an application standpoint this will allow you to induce greater levels of mechanical stress earlier in the workout and greater levels of metabolic fatigue later in the workout, resulting in variation and a strong stimulus for functional hypertrophy. ...
Article
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The ability to help athletes achieve supreme levels of strength, power and muscle hypertrophy represents an important element in the work of strength and conditioning coaches. Specifically, the development of muscle hypertrophy, or an increase in muscle cross- sectional area (CSA), is often considered one of the most important physiological adaptations for both elite and recreational athletes. An increase in muscle hypertrophy, will not only result in an increase in lean muscle mass (i.e. sarcomeres in parallel), but will ideally result in an increase in strength.28,31,38 It should be noted that an increase in hypertrophy does not always result in equivalent strength gains, and strength gains do not always result in equivalent hypertrophy. This is seen in the comparable hypertrophy of Type I and II fibers in elite Bodybuilders and preferential hypertrophy of Type II fibers in elite Power and Olympic Lifters.7 Within the elite athlete population, increased strength will ideally accompany increased muscle hypertrophy, unless of course an athlete plays a sport that requires non-functional (i.e. increased CSA without sustained or increased levels of relative strength) hypertrophy, (eg. American Football Lineman, Sumo Wrestlers, and Bodybuilding).28 Therefore, when developing elite athletes, the optimal training protocols and periodization strategies should be used to enhance functional hypertrophy, or an increase in relative strength with an increase in muscle CSA.26 The goal of this brief review, is to examine the physiological mechanisms behind muscle growth, differentiate between functional and non-functional hypertrophy, and present a model for the development of optimal muscle hypertrophy in the off- season of an elite athlete.
... Fatigue that accumulates over the course of a training cycle "masks" the fitness gains. However, fitness persists about three times longer than fatigue and, thus, in the long term an improvement can be seen [30]. Whatever the right model is, in a research setting, the temporal responses of anabolic signaling to resistance exercise and their summation have been demonstrated in humans [31]. ...
Article
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Increases in strength and muscle mass can be achieved with weight training and adequate recovery (including nutrition and sleep). The time course of recovery and adaptation (super-compensation) for different number of sets has not been adequately investigated in the literature. A 40-year-old well-trained male exercised the chest with (a) 3 sets of bench press, (b) 5 sets of bench press, (c) 5 sets of bench press and 4 sets of dips, all to momentary concentric muscular failure during a 6 months body split program. The recovery was assessed by comparing the number of repetitions of the first bench press set to the previous training session. The results showed that with 3 and 5 sets to failure adaptation (+1 repetition) took place after 5 days. 9 sets needed 7 days for recovery and no adaptation took place. The adaptation was faster when exercising the chest without training the back and/or legs, indicating that Selye's adaptation energy (resources potential) might be applicable to weight training as well. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and motivation (mood) were found to be useful indexes of recovery. Implications on training volume and frequency and how the findings can be applied in practice are discussed.
... However, previous authors (Mangine, Ratamess, Hoffman, Faigenbaum, Kang & Chilakos, 2008; Rippetoe & Kilgore, 2009PAP, defined as the 'phenomenon where previous muscular contractions enhance subsequent explosive force-generation' (Gilbert & Lees, 2005; p.1576), arises from elevated neural-activation. This includes greater motor-unit recruitment (Hrysomallis & Kidgell, 2001) and light-chain phosphorylation (Chiu & Barnes, 2003), resulting from high-intensity (>87% 1-RM) strength training (Farup & Sorensen, 2010). This subsequently initiates the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca 2+ molecules and bind to calmodulin (Jones, Bampouras & Comfort, 2013). ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 4-week contrast and maximal strength training programmes on punch force in 20-30 year male amateur boxers. Twenty amateur boxers (mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 yr.) took part in the study and were randomly allocated into two groups. A contrast training group (n = 10) performed three sets of back squats interspersed with jump-squats and bench presses rotated with bench press throws. Exercises were alternated on a set-by-set basis and completed for three sets of three repetitions, twice weekly for four-weeks in place of two regular training sessions. A maximal strength training group (n = 10) performed back squats and bench presses for six sets of three repetitions, twice per week during the same time period. Punch force measurements analysed jab and rear-hand cross punches, utilising a Herman Digital Trainer. Additionally, muscular strength was assessed using 1-repetition maximum on 2 resistance exercises (back squat and bench press). All subjects were tested pre- and post-intervention. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures and Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc statistical analyses were adopted. It was found that the group x trials interaction was significant (p< 0.0005) for each punch type, with mean force values in the contrast training group (jab: 17 g, rear-hand cross: 19.7 g) increasing greater than the maximal strength training group (jab: 15.5 g, rear-hand cross: 17 g) at the study’s conclusion. Similarly, significant improvements in muscular strength variables were observed in both groups for back squat (CT: 27.5%, MST: 18.8%) and bench press (CT: 26.9%, MST: 15.1%) exercises. It was concluded that contrast training is superior to maximal strength training at enhancing straight punching force and increasing muscular strength in male amateur boxers.
... Periodization has traditionally been defined as the implementation of planned changes in acute training variables with the aim of optimizing and/or maintaining gains in athletic performance (Fleck, 2011). The classical theory of training considers this process as a progressive sequence of targets (from general to specific) and low to high-intensity phases (Bompa, 1999;Harre, 1982;Matveiev, 1981), what has determined strategies of periodization termed as 'traditional models' (Chiu and Barnes, 2003). However, the traditional models have shown several limits when applied to team sports, where the specificity of game demands requires a simultaneous development of the different abilities and skills involved (Issurin, 2010). ...
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This study is focused on the strategies adopted by Italian ‘Serie A’ soccer clubs during the non-competitive period. Thus, duration (i.e., number of days) of the specific non-competitive periods (i.e., off- plus pre-season, off-season, pre-season, summer camp), the number of games (i.e., friendly, official and polled games) and days between games (i.e., ≤ 3, 4-5, or ≥ 6 days between two consecutive games) of the entire non-competitive period were recorded and compared by clubs participating in the European Championships (EU), only ‘Serie A’ (A) and promoted from ‘Serie B’ (B) during five and single seasons (i.e., 2009/10-2013/14). Due to the short B off-season duration (2009/10-2013/14, 2010/11, 2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14, p≤.001), effects between clubs emerged also for the off- plus preseason (2009/10-2013/14, EU vs A, p≤.01, EU vs B, p≤.01, A vs B, p≤.001; 2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14, p≤.001). Nevertheless, no difference between clubs resulted for the pre-season. Reduced duration of summer camps was reported by the EU (i.e., 2009/10- 2013/14, 2009/10, 2013/14, p≤.001). A higher number of official games were played by EU than A (i.e., 2009/10- 2013/14, p≤.001; 2010/11, p≤.01). No effect emerged for the days between games. Therefore, despite the longer ‘Serie B’ schedule and EU preliminary UEFA games that determined the off-season restriction, clubs demonstrated the tendency to guarantee satisfactory pre-season duration.
... Periodization modulates training loads via daily, weekly, or monthly alterations in training load, frequency, repetition scheme, and/ or exercise variation to potentially enhance strength adaptation [2], [3]. The two main guiding principles of training prescription have been developed utilizing two theories of adaptation and performance: the Selye general adaptation syndrome [4] and the fitness-fatigue theory [5]. The final block of training is considered the peaking block and is comprised of two phases: (a) overreaching and (b) taper. ...
Article
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Powerlifting competition is comprised of three barbell lifts: squat, bench press, and deadlift that are all completed in a single day and summed together, ultimately normalized to the lifter’s body weight via the Wilks Coefficient. This figure is then subsequently employed to determine the “best” athlete in that meet. During the competition preparation, powerlifters often undergo peaking protocols which include physiologically taxing overreach and low-volume, recovery-focused taper phases to collectively induce super-compensatory strength adaptations. Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as an easily accessible, user-friendly biomarker for autonomic nervous system-associated fatigue and readiness. Therefore, the purpose of this observational study was to investigate the potential impact of a peaking protocol on fatigue/readiness via HRV measurements and its possible relationship with competitive powerlifting performance. Daily measurements of HRV were taken, each morning, using the HRV4Trainning smartphone application by nineteen competitive powerlifters (26.16±4.56 years) from 14-days prior to a peaking protocol, throughout individual peaking phases, on meet day, and 14- days following competition. A quadratic regression was used to determine the predictability of HRV measurements and powerlifting performance. The change in HRV from competition day to baseline was found to be a significant predictor of Wilks coefficient (p=0.038, R2=0.336; mean±SE log- transformed root mean square of successive R-R intervals [lnRMSSD] = -51.98±22.23). Although extrapolations of the present study are limited by inherent subject peaking protocol variability, these data suggest HRV may nonetheless represent a viable means to modulate individual athlete training programs to promote recovery.
... However, the female athlete achieved her best SJ performances during or after higher VL weeks throughout the study, indicating a quick recoverability and supercompensation. This agrees with previous findings demonstrating that relatively stronger athletes have superior fatigue resistance as an adaptation to repetitive high-load training (5,6,24,43,46). The different responses between the 2 athletes may be attributed to the female athlete competing at a higher level (i.e., international vs. national), having a longer training history in weightlifting, and achieving a higher degree of training status. ...
... Prior research has suggested non-caffeine consumers display heightened physiological and psychological responses to caffeine 26 . Furthermore, the non-caffeine consumers in this study reported high physical activity participation (Table 1), suggesting tolerance of a single-bout of aerobic exercise with little fatigue and discomfort 27 . Previous studies have identified that exercise tolerance is implicated in exercise-cognition investigations as individuals who do not regularly exercise are more likely to experience fatigue, which has been associated with impaired cognitive performance 28 . ...
Article
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Studies show that a single bout of exercise confers cognitive benefits. However, many individuals use psychoactive substances such as caffeine to enhance cognitive performance. The effects of acute exercise in comparison to caffeine on cognition remain unknown. Furthermore, caffeine use is associated with withdrawal symptoms upon cessation. Whether acute exercise can reduce withdrawal symptoms also remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of acute moderate intensity aerobic exercise to caffeine on working memory (WM) and caffeine withdrawal symptoms (CWS). In Phase I, non-caffeine (n = 29) and caffeine consumers (n = 30) completed a WM assessment, followed by acute exercise and caffeine. In Phase II, caffeine consumers (n = 25) from Phase I underwent the WM assessment and reported CWS following a 12-hour deprivation period. Acute moderate intensity aerobic exercise and caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) significantly improved WM accuracy and reduced CWS comparably. WM performance was not reduced following caffeine deprivation.
... The enhancement of muscular strength, muscular power and performance variables associated with these physical traits are suggested to occur as a result of CT taking advantage of a physiological event known as post-activation potentiation (PAP) (Jones et al., 2013). PAP is classified as a 'phenomenon' whereby a strong muscular contraction (usually resulting from ST using loads >87% 1RM) augments subsequent force-generation capabilities via elevated neural stimulation, enhanced motor-unit recruitment and myosin light-chain phosphorylation (Chiu & Barnes, 2003;Farup & Sørensen, 2010;Gilbert & Lees, 2005;Hrysomallis & Kidgell, 2001). As a result, CT can enhance force potential due to superior motor-unit availability in subsequent muscular contractions (Crewther et al., 2011), making this method of RT potentially useful to boxing where RFD is critical to success (Aagaard et al., 2002;Olsen & Hopkins, 2003;Loturco et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
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Punches in boxing are intricate actions requiring the coordinated and synergistic recruitment of leg, trunk and arm musculature. Maximal punches can have a marked impact on the outcomes of boxing contests. Currently, there is an absence of research appraising the biomechanics and physical performance-related qualities associated with boxing punches, and as such, there are no practical guidelines pertaining to resistance training and its impact upon these important characteristics. In this respect, coaches and boxers are reliant consequently upon non-scientific approaches to training and contest preparation. Thus, the purpose of this thesis was to quantify the biomechanics and physical performance-related qualities associated with maximal punching techniques common to amateur boxing, and investigate the extent to which resistance training enhances such features. Study 1 quantified the three-dimensional kinetics and kinematics of maximal punches common to boxing competition to identify the differences between punch types (straights, hooks, and uppercuts), whilst Study 2 investigated the movement variability of these measures across punch types. These studies revealed significant differences for the majority of kinetic and kinematic variables between punch types. High within-subject, between-subject, and biological variability were recorded for the same variables across punch types, independent of the amount of boxing experience. These findings confirm that kinetic and kinematic characteristics vary from punch to punch, with boxers appearing to manipulate kinematic variables in order to achieve a consistent intensity and end-product. Study 3 quantified the relationships between physical performance-related traits and kinetic and kinematic qualities of maximal punches, and revealed moderate-to-large associations with muscular strength and power. From this, Study 4 appraised the extent to which strength and contrast resistance training enhanced maximal punch biomechanics and physical performance-related qualities. The findings highlighted that contrast training was superior among male amateur boxers over a six-week intervention, though strength training alone also brought about improvements. This current research has advanced our understanding of maximal punching and the influence of resistance training on a variety of its determinants. Nonetheless, future research is required to identify if the same findings can be generalised to higher standards of boxing and whether alternative strength and conditioning strategies are equally, or more effective.
... Fitness-Fatigue model suffers from its univariate configuration in modelling athletic performances. While it is known that athletic performance is multifactorial (Avalos, Hellard, and Chatard 2003;Bazyler, Abbott, Bellon, et al. 2015;Mujika, Busso, Lacoste, et al. 1996;Stone, Stone, and Sands 2007), variations in performances may not be fully explained by the dynamics of training loads only, resulting in poor predictive capability (Chiu and Barnes 2003;Pfeiffer 2008;Taha and Thomas 2003). Recently, Piatrikova, Willsmer, Altini, et al. 2021 provided a multivariate alternative to the original FFM. ...
Thesis
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The first models of training effects on athletic performance emerged with the work of Banister and Calvert through the so-called Fitness-Fatigue model (FFM). One major drawback of FFMs is that the features stem from a single source of data. That is not in line with the existing consensus about a multifactorial aspect of athletic performance. Hence, multivariate modelling approaches from statistics and machine-learning (ML) emerged. A research issue arises from the quantification of training Loads (TL) in resistance training (RT) which lack of physiological evidence. In the first study, we provided a new method of TL quantification in RT based on physiological observations. To achieve that, we initially modelled the torque-velocity profiles of fifteen participants during an isokinetic leg extension task and assessed a set of physiological responses to various resistance exercises intensities. Each session was volume-equated according to the formulation of volume load (i.e. the product of the number of repetitions and the relative intensity). Higher led to greater muscular fatigue described by neuromuscular impairments. Conversely, systemic and local pulmonary responses (measured through oxygen uptake) and metabolic changes (according to blood lactate concentrations) were more significant at low intensities, suggesting different contributions of metabolic pathways. From these results, we provided a new index of TL based on the neuromuscu- lar impairments observed at exercise. We showed that to exponentially weight TL by the average rate decay of force development rate yielded better correla- tions with any of the significant physiological responses to exercise. In addition, information compressed within a principal component could be a valuable TL index. In the second study, we provided a robust modelling methodology that relies on model generalisation. Using data from elite speed skaters, we compared a dose-response model to regularisation methods and machine-learning models. Regularisation procedures provided the greatest performances in both generalisa- tion and accuracy. Also, we highlighted the pertinence of computing one model over the group of athletes instead of a model per athlete in a context of a small sample size. Finally, ML approaches could be a way of improving FFMs through ensemble learning methods. In the third study, we modelled acceleration-velocity directly from global posi- tioning system (GPS) measurements and attempted to predict the coefficients of the relationship between acceleration and velocity. First, a baseline model was defined by time-series forecasting using game data only. Then, we proceeded to multivariate modelling using commercial features. A regularised linear regression and a long short term memory neural network were compared. Finally, we extracted features directly from raw GPS data and compared these features to the commercial ones for prediction purposes. The results showed only slight differences between model accuracy, and no models significantly outperformed the baseline in the prediction task. Given the multi- factorial nature of athletic performance, using only GPS data for predicting such athletic performance criterion provided an acceptable accuracy. Using time-domain and frequency-domain features extracted from raw data led to similar performances compared to the commercial ones, despite being evidence-based. It suggests that raw data should be considered for future athletic performance and injury occurrence analysis. Lastly, we developed an athlete management system for long-distance runners. This application provided an athlete monitoring module and a predictive module based on a physiological model of running performance. A second development was realised under the SAP analytics cloud solution. Team management and automated dashboards were provided herein, in close collaboration with a professional Rugby team.
... However, the top down approach proposed by Gorban et al. [11,12] may allow for new incorporations and evolutions of the concept of AE within exercise science. For example, the fitness fatigue model of adaption suggests that individuals accumulate both fitness and fatigue over time [13]. Although not completely understood, exercise science provides several mechanisms which may explain fatigue and others that may explain increases in "fitness". ...
... Provided enough time is given for the negative effect of fatigue to subside between exercise bouts, the cumulative fitness effects of long term training will lead to improved physical capacity (Bompa & Haff, 1999). It has also been proposed that there are fitness and fatigue effects on more than one system of the body (Chiu & Barnes, 2003). Specific stimuli will have different fatigue responses (e.g. ...
... Fitness-fatigue models (FFMs) underpin concepts guiding the theory and practice of physical training in exercise science 1 . In general, FFMs posit that a single bout of training creates two antagonistic after-effects including a positive long-lasting and low magnitude fitness effect, and a negative short-lasting and high-magnitude fatigue effect 2 . ...
Preprint
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The standard fitness-fatigue model (FFM) was developed more than 40 years ago and remains a prominent conceptual model within exercise science. Translation from a conceptual form into a mathematical structure reveals a collection of models (FFMs) with common properties linking training inputs to performance outcomes. The greatest potential use of FFMs is to predict future performance of athletes with sufficient accuracy to assist with training program design and planning key tapering periods. However, despite a long history and consistent study, there has been limited uptake in practice. This is most likely due to a lack of accessible resources explaining key concepts and processes required to fit models, and uncertainty regarding overall predictive validity. Part I of this review series provides a comprehensive overview of FFMs and discusses three key aspects of fitting models including: 1) training load quantification; 2) criterion performance selection; and 3) parameter estimation. As the majority of athletes engage in sports where performance is complex and determined by a range of physical, psychological and technical factors, it is argued that FFMs may be best placed to quantify components of fitness (e.g., strength, power) targeted by an athlete’s training, rather than competitive outcomes. Additionally, contemporary approaches to training monitoring (e.g., measurement of barbell velocity and repetitions in reserve) are recommended as tools to generate high frequency “performance” measures to better fit FFMs. Essential further developments require collaboration between researchers and practitioners with larger data sets to establish conditions where accurate predictions to future training could be obtained. A set of code-based resources in the R programming language are included with the review series to assist in fitting and evaluating models, and to enhance understanding of concepts described.
... Therefore, the previous descriptions of autoregulation can be seen as adjustments that are made on the basis of measuring performance, where deviations may be disproportionately affected by one or more of the constituents. For example, with an untrained individual engaging in an intense strength training programme, it is probable that rapid increases in performance will occur [57]. In such a case, adjustments made to training through measurement of performance will be influenced primarily by fitness. ...
Article
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Autoregulation is a process that is used to manipulate training based primarily on the measurement of an individual's performance or their perceived capability to perform. Despite being established as a training framework since the 1940s, there has been limited systematic research investigating its broad utility. Instead, researchers have focused on disparate practices that can be considered specific examples of the broader autoregulation training framework. A primary limitation of previous research includes inconsistent use of key terminology (e.g., adaptation, readiness, fatigue, and response) and associated ambiguity of how to implement different autoregulation strategies. Crucially, this ambiguity in terminology and failure to provide a holistic overview of autoregulation limits the synthesis of existing research findings and their dissemination to practitioners working in both performance and health contexts. Therefore, the purpose of the current review was threefold: first, we provide a broad overview of various autoregulation strategies and their development in both research and practice whilst highlighting the inconsistencies in definitions and terminology that currently exist. Second, we present an overarching conceptual framework that can be used to generate operational definitions and contextualise autoregulation within broader training theory. Finally, we show how previous definitions of autoregulation fit within the proposed framework and provide specific examples of how common practices may be viewed, highlighting their individual subtleties.
... Thus it is suggested that the partcipants in the fatigued condition were suffering from some degree of EIMD and were not fully recovered from the eccentric squat protocol (Fig 2). As previously indicated subsequent muscular performance is suggested to be the result of the balance between fatigue and potentiation with Chiu & Barnes (16) suggesting that fatigue will result in a decrease in performance. The results of this current study indicate that CMJ scores in the fatigued condition were only signifcantly reduced from baseline 20mins post CC. ...
Conference Paper
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Sporting competition is characterised by a series of explosive movements such as jumping and sprinting over the course of a prolonged period. These repeated high intensity efforts are likely to cause exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD). Of particular concern to a competing athlete may be the loss in strength associated with EIMD which has been reported to be as high as 50-65% and may still be attenuated 12-72hrs after exercise before returning to normal within 5-7 days. In addition, peak power is also reported to be reduced in the days after a fatiguing protocol. Currently, to the authors knowledge, no studies have investigated the effects of EIMD and fatigue on an athlete’s ability to elicit a PAP response and subsequently an improvement in performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold; firstly to establish whether a heavy load squat protocol would acutely enhance CMJ performance and secondly to investigate the effects of prior fatigue on the ability of participants to elicit a PAP response.
... The fitness-fatigue model has been used for decades primarily as a conceptual framework that describes the training process. 1 In its most basic form, the model posits that a single bout of training creates two antagonistic after-effects including a positive longlasting and low-magnitude fitness effect, and a negative short-lasting and high-magnitude fatigue effect. These antagonist components then combine to describe an athlete's performance and state of preparedness. ...
Article
This study investigated the effects of measurement error and testing frequency on prediction accuracy of the standard fitness-fatigue model. A simulation-based approach was used to systematically assess measurement error and frequency inputs commonly used when monitoring the training of athletes. Two hypothetical athletes (intermediate and advanced) were developed and realistic training loads and daily ‘true’ power values were generated using the fitness-fatigue model across 16 weeks. Simulations were then completed by adding Gaussian measurement errors to true values with mean 0 and set standard deviations to recreate more and less reliable measurement practices used in real-world settings. Errors were added to the model training phase (weeks 1–8) and sampling of data was used to recreate different testing frequencies (every day to once per week) when obtaining parameter estimates. In total, 210 sets of simulations (N = 10⁴ iterations) were completed using an iterative hill-climbing optimisation technique. Parameter estimates were then combined with training loads in the model testing phase (weeks 9–16) to quantify prediction errors. Regression analyses identified positive associations between prediction errors and the linear combination of measurement error and testing frequency (Radj2=0.87–0.94). Significant model improvements (P < 0.001) were obtained across all scenarios by including an interaction term demonstrating greater deleterious effects of measurement error at low testing frequencies.The findings of this simulation study represent a lower-bound case and indicate that in real-world settings, where a fitness-fatigue model is used to predict training response, measurement practices that generate coefficients of variation greater than ≈4% will not provide satisfactory results.
... Thus, it would appear a typical training week has minimal detrimental effects on the training status of individual players. This may be due to the players being Due to the physically demanding nature of high-intensity training drills in which the aim is to disrupt homeostasis to promote physiological adaptation, it may be possible players experience a period of residual fatigue (Chiu & Barnes, 2003;Twomey et al., 2017). It is therefore of interest to establish the effect of high-intensity training drills on neuromuscular function and investigate the associated time-course of recovery. ...
Thesis
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The physical demands of soccer match play have significantly increased in recent years. As such, training methods must evolve to ensure players are able to cope with these demands over the course of a season. Speed endurance training is recommended to improve physical performance in elite soccer players, however scientific investigations into different protocols and modalities are sparse. The aim of Study 1 was to determine the exposure to speed endurance training over a season relative to all other conditioning drills. Secondary data was quantified over a 42-week season in an elite youth soccer team using five different conditioning drill categorisations. Speed endurance maintenance and extensive endurance where the most prominent conditioning drills whilst speed endurance production was the least frequent. Nonetheless, the relative distribution of running drills and small-sided games were almost equal for both speed endurance protocols. An investigation into different speed endurance modes and protocols in Study 2 revealed running drills elicit greater heart rate, blood lactate concentration and subjective ratings of perceived exertion than respective small- sided games. Players covered less total distance and high-intensity running distance in the small-sided games, but greater high-intensity acceleration/deceleration distance than in the respective running drills. Additionally, the speed endurance production drills produced greater blood lactate concentrations and high speed running demands than the respective maintenance protocols. These findings suggest speed endurance small-sided games could be used to train the anaerobic energy system, however a greater physiological response may be possible with soccer drills that expose players to greater high speed running demands. The aim of study 3 was to quantify movement patterns, technical skills and tactical actions associated with high speed running efforts during elite match play to provide information for position-specific speed endurance drills. Twenty individual English Premier League players high-intensity running profiles were observed multiple times using a computerised tracking system. Data was coded using a novel ‘High-intensity Movement Programme’ and revealed position-specific trends in and out of possession. This investigation was the first study to contextualise why playing positions perform high- intensity running efforts rather than simply reporting distances covered. In possession, wide midfielders executed more tricks post effort than centre backs and central midfielders whilst fullbacks and wide midfielders performed more crosses post effort than other positions. Out of possession, forwards completed more efforts closing down the opposition but less efforts tracking opposition runners than other positions. Distinct movement patterns were also evident out of possession with forwards performing more arc runs before efforts compared to centre backs, fullbacks and wide midfielders, however centre backs completed more 0-90° turns compared to fullbacks, central and wide midfielders. The data from Study 3 was used to design five individual position-specific speed endurance drills with the aim of exposing players to high speed running and the associated technical and tactical actions performed during a match. An investigation into the position- specific speed endurance drills in Study 4 revealed players covered greater distances across all speed thresholds attaining greater peak and average running speeds during the speed endurance production protocol compared to the maintenance drill. Mean and peak heart rate responses were greater in the maintenance protocol whilst blood lactate concentrations were higher following the production protocol. Minimal differences in neuromuscular function and ratings of perceived recovery were evident following either protocol up to 24 h post drill. The findings suggest position-specific speed endurance production drills should be prescribed to achieve a greater anaerobic stimulus and expose players to high running speeds whilst the maintenance protocol should be administered when a greater cardiovascular load is desirable with a concomitant reduction in high speed running. This research programme provides novel information comparing the physiological response and physical demands of various speed endurance drills in soccer. These studies were the first to report seasonal speed endurance practice and detail generic and position-specific speed endurance soccer drills based on contextualised match data. It is hoped the data from this research project can help applied staff understand the most appropriate speed endurance practices for elite youth players.
... General limitations of the FF-Model such as parameter stability, parameter interpretability and ill-conditioning, and model accuracy especially for future performance prediction have already been discussed by, e.g., Chiu and Barnes (2003); Hellard et al. (2006); Pfeiffer (2008); Taha and Thomas (2003). While Hellard et al. (2006) criticized the parameter stability, they assumed the small sample size and inter-dependent parameters to be reasons for this instability among other reasons. ...
Article
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In mathematical modeling by means of performance models, the Fitness-Fatigue Model (FF-Model) is a common approach in sport and exercise science to study the training performance relationship. The FF-Model uses an initial basic level of performance and two antagonistic terms (for fitness and fatigue). By model calibration, parameters are adapted to the subject’s individual physical response to training load. Although the simulation of the recorded training data in most cases shows useful results when the model is calibrated and all parameters are adjusted, this method has two major difficulties. First, a fitted value as basic performance will usually be too high. Second, without modification, the model cannot be simply used for prediction. By rewriting the FF-Model such that effects of former training history can be analyzed separately – we call those terms preload – it is possible to close the gap between a more realistic initial performance level and an athlete's actual performance level without distorting other model parameters and increase model accuracy substantially. Fitting error of the preload-extended FF-Model is less than 32% compared to the error of the FF-Model without preloads. Prediction error of the preload-extended FF-Model is around 54% of the error of the FF-Model without preloads.
... However, the female athlete achieved her best SJ performances during or after higher VL weeks throughout the study, indicating a quick recoverability and supercompensation. This agrees with previous findings demonstrating that relatively stronger athletes have superior fatigue resistance as an adaptation to repetitive high-load training (5,6,24,43,46). The different responses between the 2 athletes may be attributed to the female athlete competing at a higher level (i.e., international vs. national), having a longer training history in weightlifting, and achieving a higher degree of training status. ...
Article
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Travis, SK, Mizuguchi, S, Stone, MH, Sands, WA, and Bazyler, CD. Preparing for a national weightlifting championship: A case series. J Strength Cond Res xx(x): 000-000, 2019 - This study aimed to characterize psychological, physiological, and performance changes of a high-level female (24.5 years; 53.8 6 0.3 kg; 155.4 cm) and male (25.8 years; 92.7 6 1.2 kg; 189 cm) weightlifter over 28 weeks while preparing for a national championship. Body mass, hydration, psychological inventories, serum biomarkers, vastus lateralis muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), and squat jump (SJ) performance were assessed weekly beginning 11 weeks from the competition date. Weightlifting performance goals were met for the female athlete (actual total 5 159 kg) but not for the male athlete (actual total 5 292 kg). Reductions in vastus lateralis CSA possibly took place the week leading into competition for both athletes. Both athletes reported positive recovery-stress states on the day of competition relative to baseline values. Fluctuations between steroid hormone concentrations and inflammatory markers were unpredictable and inconsistent for both athletes throughout the training program. Unloaded SJ height and rate of force development were the highest on competition day for both athletes. Based on these findings, it is possible for high-level male and female weightlifters to achieve and maintain peak preparedness 3-4 days before competition following a 1-week overreach and 3-week exponential taper, where training volume-load is reduced by half and intensity maintained or slightly increased relative to pretaper values. Furthermore, the short recovery and stress scale and SJ testing seem to be useful tools for sport scientists and coaches when monitoring high-level weightlifters preparing for competition.
Thesis
The basis of traditional periodization was founded five decades ago and was studied of many researchers. Periodization in swimming same than other sports requires modulation and variations of volume, intensity and frequency of training. The aim of this research, was study effects of two different macrocycles of periodization. Took part in this study 25 swimmers national and regional level of training from Castilla-La Mancha Region (16.1±1.0 years 1.72±9.3 cm of height; 64.1±9.3 kg) divided in two groups as traditional periodization (GPT) and group of reverse periodization (GPI). participants trained 14 weeks to compete in 100m crawl style. Was analyzed in five times outputs in the dependent variables of time maximum effort in 100m crawl (t100c), average speed (VN), stroke frequency (BR) distance per stroke (DB) specific swim power measured with external loads (PENGCE), maxim drag charge (CMA), body weight (PC), muscle-skeletal mass (MME) and fat mass (MG). Statistic analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that after 14 weeks of preparation, improved in the t100c GPI, VN, PENGCE and CMA significantly (p <0.05) compared to GPT, both groups increased MME without significant differences between groups, and the GPT decreased significantly (p <0.05) MG compared to GPI. From the results found in this investigation we can conclude that a swimming program for 14 weeks sprinters in the 100 meters freestyle specialty, based on a reverse periodization model was more effective for improving performance the 100m freestyle, the preparation program based on the traditional periodization.
Article
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Planning training is an important sport coaching topic. It is frequently taught in large-scale education programs targeting coaches with various profiles and experience. However, there are different ways of delivering planning training, and there is a need to question the content and teaching methods used in workshops that offer education on this topic. The objectives of this article are (a) to present definitions and models related to planning and monitoring training, (b) to present the results of a case study on coaches‟ experience while participating in workshops that teach planning training, and (c) to reflect on an approach to teaching planning training that is based on reflective practice and critical thinking. The participants were thirteen coaches who attended workshops on planning training. Interviews were conducted with each coach before and after their respective workshops. These coaches also created training plans before and after their workshops, and these were analysed to understand what coaches had learned and what modifications have been brought to their plan. Overall, the workshops were evaluated as being useful, for various reasons. It was difficult to determine precisely what the coaches have learned during the workshops. Results confirmed the conclusions of many authors about the impact of large-scale coach education programs: education on planning training should be tailored on the coaches‟ profiles and needs, and this education should follow a socioconstructivist approach, emphasizing an experiential and reflective approach.
Article
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This study investigated the changes in measures of neuromuscular fatigue and physical performance in young professional rugby union players during a preseason training period. Fourteen young (age: 19.1 ± 1.2 years) professional rugby union players participated in the study. Changes in measures of lower body neuromuscular fatigue (countermovement jump (CMJ) mean power, mean force, flight-time) and physical performance (lower body strength, 40 m sprint velocity) were assessed during an 11-week preseason period using magnitude-based inferences. CMJ mean power was likely to very likely decreased during week 2 (-8.1 ± 5.5% to -12.5 ± 6.8%), and likely to almost certainly decreased from weeks 5 to 11 (-10 ± 4.3% to -14.7 ± 6.9%), while CMJ flight-time demonstrated likely to very likely decreases during weeks 2, and weeks 4-6 (-2.41 ± 1% to -3.3 ± 1.3%), and weeks 9-10 (-1.9 ± 0.9% to -2.2 ± 1.5%). Despite this, possible improvements in lower body strength (5.8 ± 2.7%) and very likely improvements in 40 m velocity (5.5 ± 3.6%) were made. Relationships between changes in CMJ metrics and lower body strength or 40 m sprint velocity were trivial or small (<0.22). Increases in lower body strength and 40 m velocity occurred over the course of an 11-week preseason despite the presence of neuromuscular fatigue (as measured by CMJ). The findings of this study question the usefulness of CMJ for monitoring fatigue in the context of strength and sprint velocity development. Future research is needed to ascertain the consequences of negative changes in CMJ in the context of rugby-specific activities to determine the usefulness of this test as a measure of fatigue in this population.
Article
In 1987, we analyzed the changes in correlation graphs between various features of the organism during stress and adaptation. After 33 years of research of many authors, discoveries and rediscoveries, we can say with complete confidence: It is useful to analyze correlation graphs. In addition, we should add that the concept of adaptability (‘adaptation energy’) introduced by Selye is useful, especially if it is supplemented by ‘adaptation entropy’ and free energy, as well as an analysis of limiting factors. Our review of these topics, “Dynamic and Thermodynamic Adaptation Models”, attracted many comments from leading experts, with new ideas and new problems, from the dynamics of aging and the training of athletes to single-cell omics. Methodological backgrounds, like free energy analysis, were also discussed in depth. In this article, we provide an analytical overview of twelve commenting papers.
Chapter
Training load is one of multiple risk factors for sustaining an injury in football. Training workloads are applied to athletes with the goal of inducing positive physiological changes and maximizing performance. The various biological adaptations induced by (appropriate) training increase athletes’ capacity to accept and withstand load and may thus provide protection from injuries. The aim of load management is thus to optimally configure training, competition, and other loads to maximize adaptation and performance with a minimal risk of injury. This chapter will focus on the established evidence of training load and injury risk in football and how monitoring training load may help to prevent injuries.
Article
Introduction: As athletes train for competition, volume load and training intensity are specifically manipulated in an attempt to elicit gains in performance. The Theory of Periodization states that the planned manipulation of training variables over time can "peak" an athlete for competition while minimizing fatigue and preventing accommodation to training and/or overtraining. Overtraining can be defined as any increase in volume load and/or training intensity in which adaptation does not occur and results in long-term performance decrements. A milder form of overtraining, known as overreaching, can occur on a short-term basis in which athletes can easily recover over the course of a few days of reduced training. Daily manipulation of training variables can elicit changes either toward or away from a state of overtraining. If training and recovery periods have been planned correctly, a delayed increase in performance can occur upon the resumption of normal training. This delayed training effect should occur within approximately 2-5 weeks following the resumption of normal training. Purpose: To determine the effects of a short-term planned period of overreaching on weightlifting performance and compare the training variables (volume load, total sets, total repetitions) performed during the overreaching stimulus and the taper week immediately following the stimulus to normal training. Methods: Members of a weightlifting team participated in a week-long training camp, in which volume load was double that which the athletes typically experience during normal training. At the completion of the training camp, athletes took part in a weightlifting competition. The results of the competition were compared to the athletes' self-reported best snatch and clean-and-jerk using a paired t-test, to determine the effects on weightlifting performance. Results: Seven members of the weightlifting team were used in final analyses (age: 21y; height: 173.8cm; weight: 88.5kg; bodyfat: 15.2%; lean body mass: 74.7kg; systolic BP: 130.9mmHg; diastolic BP: 71.4mmHg; resting heart rate: 76.6bpm; weightlifting experience: 3.1y). Snatch performance following the overreaching stimulus was not significantly altered (Pre-camp = 103.9kg; Post-camp=99.6kg; -4.1%; p=0.27). A trend was noted in the clean-and-jerk following the overreaching stimulus, such that performance was reduced 5.25% (Pre-camp: 135kg; Post-camp=127.9kg; -5.25%; p=0.08). Training variables were also reduced 50%-80% during the taper week immediately following the week of overreaching. Discussion: The results of this study indicate that weightlifting performance during a competition is not affected immediately following an overreaching stimulus. This work supports previous studies in which performance of a weightlifting-specific test battery in a group of junior weightlifters was not significantly affected by an overreaching stimulus. However, this study extends previous studies on the effects of short-term overreaching by analyzing the effects of the stimulus during an actual weightlifting competition.
Article
Fatigue is a phenomenon associated with decreases in both physical and cognitive performances and increases in injury occurrence. Competitive athletes are required to complete demanding training programmes with high workloads to elicit the physiological and musculoskeletal adaptations plus skill acquisition necessary for performance. High workloads, especially sudden rapid increases in training loads, are associated with the occurrence of fatigue. At present, there is limited evidence elucidating the underlying mechanisms associating the fatigue generated by higher workloads and with an increase in injury risk. The multidimensional nature and manifestation of fatigue have led to differing definitions and dichotomies of the term. Consequently, a plethora of physiological, biochemical, psychological and performance markers have been proposed to measure fatigue and recovery. Those include self-reported scales, countermovement jump performance, heart rate variability, and saliva and serum biomarker analyses. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the fatigue and recovery plus methods of assessments.
Chapter
Engaging in team handball at a young age has important physical health benefits but also involves risk of injury. Youth handball players may be particularly vulnerable to injury due to growth-related factors such as the growth spurt, susceptibility of the growth plate, and differing physiological response after training and match load. The more frequent and intensive training and competition of young elite handball players may create conditions under which these potential risks can more readily exert their influence. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a current overview of risks related to physical and psychological injury that may be encountered by youth handball players, especially in the elite youth setting.
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PQ] © by IAAF 11:4:67-81,1996 % ^ /n numerous sports and sport events performance is, to a great extent, determined by the level of speed-strength. An optimal preparation (worm-up) is necessary to achieve the highest possible realization of speed-strength in training and competition. Some top international athletes ore said to have produced the highest speed and speed-strength performances immediately after having performed a few Maximal Voluntary Contractions (MVCs). However, os yet no target-oriented and systematic studies of MVCs. as an element of warm-up programmes, have been conducted. Therefore the focus of the following study is on the following questions: (1) To what extent can the short-term potentia-tion of speed-strength induced by MVCs be considered us a general effect? (2) Can effects of post-tetanic potentiation be triggered in human beings by MVCs? (3) To what extent Is there a connection between possible short-term increases in speed-strength and neuronal effects of post-tetanic potentiation? The results of two complex training experiments show that MVCs carried out during the warm-up can really lead to a considerable increase In speed-strength performances of the lower extremities in alt athletics sprint and jumping events and of the upper extremities in the shot put and the throws, m ^ Dr Arne Gütlich was. from 1992 to 1996.
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The concentrations of serum testosterone, sex-hormone-binding-globulin (SHBG) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were examined throughout 1-year of training in six elite weightlifters. A systems model, providing an estimation of fatigue and fitness, was applied to records of training volume and performance levels in clean and jerk. The analysis focused on a 6-week training period during which blood samples were taken at 2-week intervals. A 4-week period of intensive training (period I) could be distinguished from the following 2-week period of reduced training (period II). During period I, decreases in serum testosterone (P less than 0.05) and increases in serum LH concentrations (P less than 0.01) were observed; a significant correlation (r = 0.90, P less than 0.05) was also observed between the changes in serum LH concentration and in estimated fitness. The magnitude of LH response was not related to the change in serum androgens. On the other hand, the change in testosterone:SHBG ratio during period II was significantly correlated (r = 0.97, P less than 0.01) to the LH variations during period I. These finding suggested that the LH response indicated that the decrease in testosterone concentration was not primarily due to a dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary system control, and that the fatigue/fitness status of an athlete could have influenced the LH response to the decreased testosterone concentration. The negative effect of training on hormonal balance could have been amplified by its influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. A decrease in physiological stress would thus have been necessary for the completion of the effect of LH release on androgenic activity.
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To examine endogenous anabolic hormonal responses to two different types of heavy resistance exercise protocols (HREPs), eight male and eight female subjects performed two randomly assigned protocols (i.e. P-1 and P-2) on separate days. Each protocol consisted of eight identically ordered exercises carefully designed to control for load, rest period length, and total work (J) effects. P-1 utilized a 5 RM load, 3-min rest periods and had lower total work than P-2. P-2 utilized a 10 RM load, 1-min rest periods and had a higher total work than P-1. Whole blood lactate and serum glucose, human growth hormone (hGH), testosterone (T), and somatomedin-C [SM-C] (i.e. insulin-like growth factor 1, IGF-1) were determined pre-exercise, mid-exercise (i.e. after 4 of the 8 exercises), and at 0, 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post-exercise. Males demonstrated significant (p less than 0.05) increases above rest in serum T values, and all serum concentrations were greater than corresponding female values. Growth hormone increases in both males and females following the P-2 HREP were significantly greater at all time points than corresponding P-1 values. Females exhibited significantly higher pre-exercise hGH levels compared to males. The P-1 exercise protocol did not result in any hGH increases in females. SM-C demonstrated random significant increases above rest in both males and females in response to both HREPs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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To examine endogenous anabolic hormone and growth factor responses to various heavy resistance exercise protocols (HREPs), nine male subjects performed each of six randomly assigned HREPs, which consisted of identically ordered exercises carefully designed to control for load [5 vs. 10 repetitions maximum (RM)], rest period length (1 vs. 3 min), and total work effects. Serum human growth hormone (hGH), testosterone (T), somatomedin-C (SM-C), glucose, and whole blood lactate (HLa) concentrations were determined preexercise, midexercise (i.e., after 4 of 8 exercises), and at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min postexercise. All HREPs produced significant (P less than 0.05) temporal increases in serum T concentrations, although the magnitude and time point of occurrence above resting values varied across HREPs. No differences were observed for T when integrated areas under the curve (AUCs) were compared. Although not all HREPs produced increases in serum hGH, the highest responses were observed consequent to the H10/1 exercise protocol (high total work, 1 min rest, 10-RM load) for both temporal and time integrated (AUC) responses. The pattern of SM-C increases varied among HREPs and did not consistently follow hGH changes. Whereas temporal changes were observed, no integrated time (AUC) differences between exercise protocols occurred. These data indicate that the release patterns (temporal or time integrated) observed are complex functions of the type of HREPs utilized and the physiological mechanisms involved with determining peripheral circulatory concentrations (e.g., clearance rates, transport, receptor binding). All HREPs may not affect muscle and connective tissue growth in the same manner because of possible differences in hormonal and growth factor release.
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The purpose of this study was to compare two ways of estimating both fatigue and fitness indicators from a systems model of the effects of training on performance. The model was applied to data concerning the training of a hammer thrower. The variations in performance were mathematically related to the successive amounts of training. The model equation was composed of negative (NF) and positive (PF) functions. The NF and PF were associated with the fatigue and fitness estimated in previous studies. Using another method, fatigue and fitness indicators were estimated from a combination of NF and PF. The influence of training on performance was negatively associated with fatigue (NI), and positively to fitness (PI). The changes in performance were well described by the model in the present study (r = 0.96, N = 19, P < 0.001). Significant correlations were observed between PF and PI (r = 0.90, P < 0.001) on the other. The absolute values and the time variations of PI and NI were closer to the change in performance than NF and PF. The NF and PF were accounted for mainly by the accumulation of amounts of training. On the other hand, NI and PI were accounted for rather by the impact of these amounts of training on performance.
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The purpose of this study was to determine if 3 weeks of high relative intensity (percent one repetition maximum [1RM]) free-weight resistance training using the parallel barbell squat results in overtraining and to determine what types of performance would be affected. Six weight-trained males (X̄ ± SD; age = 27.5 ± 5.4 year) trained 2 d·wk-1 for 4 weeks with a normal protocol (Monday, 3 X 10 repetition maximum [RM]; Thursday, 3 X 5 RM), followed by 3 weeks of high-intensity training 3 d·wk-1 (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) using 2 X 1 95% 1RM and 3 X 1 90% 1RM. A time-series study design was utilized, with each subject serving as his own control (pretest [Pre] - test 1 = normal training; tests 1-4 = high-intensity training; test 4 - posttest [Post] = recovery). One repetition maximum increased (p < 0.05) during normal training but did not change during high-intensity or recovery training (Pre = 139.5 ± 29.9 kg; test 1 = 154.6 ± 27.7 kg; test 2 = 160.3 ± 26.9 kg; test 3 = 163.7 ± 27.9 kg; test 4 = 161.0 ± 27.2 kg; Post = 161.7 ± 33.3 kg). Muscular and joint pain and soreness were not evident according to self-report training questionnaires. Also during the high-intensity phase, sprint times for 9.1 m increased (test 1 = 1.75 ± 0.12 seconds; test 4 = 1.86 ± 0.12 seconds) and peak isokinetic squat force at 0.20 m·s-1 decreased (test 1 = 2,473.2 ± 685.6 N; test 4 = 2,193.3 ± 534.5 N). In general, no changes were observed for body composition, flexibility, lower body reaction time, vertical jumps, 36.6-m sprints, lateral agility, isokinetic squat force at 0.82 and 1.43 m·s-1, or isokinetic back extension at 0.17 and 1.05 rad·s-1. Although use of single repetitions at a high relative intensity is often used to increase 1RM, this was not observed in the present study. While 1RM performance did not decrease, other performance measures were adversely affected, suggestive of an excessive use of high relative intensity resistance exercise.
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To examine the efficacy of a 3-week, high-intensity, resistance exercise protocol for inducing overtraining, 9 subjects trained their lower body on a squat-simulating resistance exercise machine. Five subjects performed a training (Trn) protocol 5 days a week to elicit an overtraining response. Four subjects performed a control (Con) protocol 2 days a week. Test batteries of sprints, jumps, and strength tests were performed four times during the study at l-week intervals (Tl, T2, T3, T4). One-RM performances increased for the Trn group by T2 and remained augmented through T4. Overtraining did not occur, but other performances were attenuated for the Trn group. Increased sprint times for 9.1 m and 36.6 m were evident by T2 for the Trn group and remained slower through T4. Leg extension torque decreased for the Trn group by T4. Future attempts to induce intensity-dependent overtraining for study should use greater training intensities or different training modalities and should monitor physiological factors that may contribute to this phenomenon. (C) 1994 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
Various resistance activities are used today to increase the force-generating capacity of specific skeletal muscles. Many interdependent factors influence the magnitude of improvement, but great muscular tension during training appears necessary to elicit the desired changes in muscle function. If adequate tension is to be manifested in specific muscles, they must not be excessively fatigued. Consequently, sufficient rest should be provided during and between strength-training sessions in order for recovery to occur. In addition, when other components of motor or physical fitness are concurrently being developed, precautions should be taken so that fatigue does not adversely affect strength development. In many cases, this requires the conduction of strength training and other conditioning activities during dedicated times within a session or at different times of the day. Rest may be categorized as occurring during a training session (intratraining-session rest), between training sessions (intertraining session rest) and just before a performance or test (pre-performance rest). In order to enhance muscular tension during strength training, the phosphagen system should serve as the primary catabolic vehicle for the resynthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Five or fewer repetitions of each lift should be completed per set, and exercises involving some of the same muscle groups should be separated by about three or four minutes, depending on the trainee's recovery capacity. Specific guidelines currently are unavailable concerning intertraining-session rest due to methodological dilemmas in experiments designed to test them. The primary problems to be resolved are to identify a physiological marker indicating the point of maximal overcompensation consequent to each training session, and whether training volume should be standardized per session or per week. Evidence relating strength to pre-performance rest is meager at best. However, some preliminary work appears to indicate that 96 hours of rest may enhance strength performance as measured against a constant external load, while 48, 72 and 120 hours of rest appear to have no significant effect on moderately trained men. Although these findings are preliminary, they do seem to coincide with the effects of tapering during training for competitive swimmers. (C) 1991 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Conference Paper
To determine if training status directly impacted the response to postactivation potentiation, athletes in sports requiring explosive strength (ATH; n = 7) were compared to recreationally trained (RT; n = 17) individuals. Over the course of 4 sessions, subjects performed rebound and concentric-only jump squats with 30%, 50%, and 70% 1 RM loads. Jump squats were performed 5 minutes and 18.5 minutes following control or heavy load warm-ups. Heavy load warm-up consisted of 5 sets of 1 repetition at 90% 1 RM back squat. Jump squat performance was assessed with a force platform and position transducer. Heavy load warm-up did not have an effect on the subjects as a single sample. However, when percent potentiation was compared between ATH and RT groups, force and power parameters were significantly greater for ATH (p < 0.05). Postactivation potentiation may be a viable method of acutely enhancing explosive strength performance in athletic but not recreationally trained individuals. (C) 2003 National Strength and Conditioning Association
The effects of a 1 year training period on 13 elite weight-lifters were investigated by periodical tests of electromyographic, muscle fibre and force production characteristics. A statistically non-significant increase of 3.5% in maximal isometric strength of the leg extensors, from 48411104 to 50101012 N, occured over the year. Individual changes in the high force portions of the force-velocity curve correlated (p<0.05–0.01) with changes in weight-lifting performance. Training months 5–8 were characterized by the lowest average training intensity (77.1+2.0%), and this resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in maximal neural activation (IEMG) of the muscles, while the last four month period, with only a slightly higher average training intensity (79.13.0%), led to a significant (p<0.01) increase in maximum IEMG. Individual increases in training intensity between these two training periods correlated with individual increases both in muscular strength (p<0.05) and in the weight lifted in the clean & jerk (p<0.05). A non-significant increase of 3.9% in total mean muscle fibre area occurred over the year. The present findings demonstrate the limited potential for strength development in elite strength athletes, and suggest that the magnitudes and time courses of neural and hypertrophic adaptations in the neuromuscular system during their training may differ from those reported for previously untrained subjects. The findings additionally indicate the importance of training intensity for modifying training responses in elite strength athletes.
Effects of fatigue produced by a maintained 60% isometric loading on electromyographic and isometric force-time and relaxation-time characteristics of human skeletal muscle were studied in 21 males accustomed to strength training. Fatigue loading resulted in a slight but not significant change in the maximal integrated EMG of a maximal isometric contraction, and a large decrease (20.46.3%, p<0.001) in maximal force. Fatigue loading increased (p<0.05–0.01) neural activation of the muscles during rapidly produced submaximal isometric forces, but had a considerable adverse effect (p<0.001) on the corresponding force-time characteristics. Correlations between the relative changes after fatigue in the IEMG/force ratio at the maximal force level, and in the IEMG/force ratios of the early phases of the force-time curve were not significant, but gradually became significant (p<0.01) at higher force levels. The average IEMG of the muscles in the relaxation phase of contraction remained unaltered by fatigue, while a marked deleterious change in the relaxation-time variables (p<0.001) occurred concomitantly. During the subsequent 3 min rest period considerable (12.17.0%, p<0.001) recovery was noted in the maximal force, with smaller (insignificant or p<0.05–0.01) changes in the force-time and relaxation-time variables, while the average IEMG of force production decreased (p<0.01–0.001). The present findings suggest that fatigue leading to a worsening in force-time, in maximal force and in the relaxation-time parts of a maximal isometric contraction might take place primarily in the contractile processes.
Effects of fatigue produced by a maintained 50% isometric loading on electromyographic (EMG) and mechanical characteristics of voluntary and reflex contractions of human skeletal muscles were studied in 14 males. A continuous isometric loading of the knee extensors caused significant (P < 0.001) increase in integrated EMG (IEMG) and decrease (P < 0.001) in mean power frequency (MPF) of the EMG spectrum. The decrease in MPF was related (P < 0.05) to percentage fast twitch (FT) fibre area of the vastus lateralis muscle. In reflexly induced contractions no changes were observed during fatigue in reflex latency (LAT) but electromechanical delay (EMD) increased significantly (P < 0.01). The decrease in voluntary MPF and increase in reflex EMD were interrelated (P < 0.05). Fatigue loading increased (P < 0.05) the peak-to-peak amplitude of EMG of the reflex contraction but decreased (P < 0.01) the corresponding force amplitude. The increase (P < 0.01) in this reflex EMG/force ratio was related (P < 0.05) to the corresponding increase observed in IEMG/force ratio of the voluntary contraction. The present findings support the differential fatiguing properties of fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibres. In addition the fatigue effects on reflexly induced contractions show that fatigue took place primarily in the contractile processes and that muscle spindle sensitivity was increased during fatigue loading.
The effects were investigated in ten women of intensive heavy resistance strength training lasting for 3 weeks on electromyographic (EMG) activity, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and voluntary force production characteristics of leg extensor muscles. Blood samples for the determinations of serum hormones were taken from five of the subjects. Significant increases occurred in the higher force portions of the isometric force-time curve with an increase of 9.7 (SD 8.4)% (P less than 0.01) in maximal peak force. An increase of 15.8 (SD 20.9)% (P less than 0.05) took place also in the maximal neural activation (integrated EMG) of the trained muscles, while an enlargement of 4.6 (SD 7.4)% (P less than 0.05) occurred in the CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Maximal force per muscle CSA increased significantly (P less than 0.05). No statistically significant changes were observed during the training in the mean concentrations of serum testosterone, free testosterone, cortisol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). The individual concentrations of serum testosterone:SHBG ratio correlated with the individual changes obtained during the training in the muscle CSA (r = 0.99; P less than 0.01). The present findings in women indicated that the increases in maximal strength during short-term but intensive strength training were primarily due to the increased voluntary activation of the trained muscles, while muscle hypertrophy remained limited in magnitude. Large interindividual differences in women in serum testosterone concentrations could indicate corresponding differences in muscle hypertrophy and strength development even during a short-term but intensive strength training period.
Article
This study examined some of the physiological and performance effects of three different tapers in highly trained athletes. After 8 wk of training, nine male middle-distance runners were randomly assigned to one of three different 7-day tapers: a high-intensity low-volume taper (HIT), a low-intensity moderate-volume taper (LIT), or a rest-only taper (ROT). After the first taper, subjects resumed training for 4 wk and performed a second taper and then resumed training for 4 wk and completed the remaining taper, so that each subject underwent all three tapers. Performance was measured before and after each taper by a treadmill run to fatigue at a velocity equivalent each subject's best 1,500-m time. Voluntary isometric strength and evoked contractile properties of the quadriceps were measured before and after each taper, as were muscle glycogen concentration and citrate synthase activity (from needle biopsies) and total blood and red cell volume by 125I and 51Cr tagging. Maximal O2 consumption was unaffected by all three tapers, but running time to fatigue increased significantly after HIT (+22%). It was unaffected by LIT (+6%) and ROT (-3%) procedure. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly with HIT and decreased significantly with ROT. Muscle glycogen concentration increased significantly after ROT and HIT, and strength increased after all three tapers. Total blood volume increased significantly after HIT and decreased after ROT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Overtraining may be one frequent cause of stagnation or decrease in performance capacity of athletes. Israel (19) differentiates between addisonoid (parasympathetic) and basedowoid (sympathetic) overtraining, characterized by inhibition or excitation. We tried to induce an overtraining syndrome in 8 experienced middle- and long-distance runners, based on an increase in training volume from an average 85.9 km (week 1) to 115.1 km (week 2) and 143.1 km (week 3) to 174.6 km per week (week 4). The influence of this training on cardiovascular, metabolic and hormonal parameters was examined with special respect to plasma and urinary catecholamines. Laboratory testing including graded treadmill running was performed on the days 0, 14 and 28. Training was held six days each week, with nearly 30 km per day in the fourth week. A stagnation in endurance performance capacity (running velocity at the aerobic-anaerobic transition range) and a decrease in maximum working capacity were observed in 6 and a stagnation in 2 of the 8 sportsmen, indicated by a decrease in total running distance from 4719 + 912 m to 4361 + 788 m during incremental treadmill ergometry. The sportsmen could neither improve nor could they even approximately reach their personal records during the subsequent competitive season. Subjective complaints, classified on a four-point scale, increased from 1.2 (week 1) to 3.2 in week 4. Glucose, lactate, ammonia, glycerol, free fatty acids, albumin, LDL, VLDL cholesterol, hemoglobin level (transient), leukocytes, and heart rate (before and during exercise) decreased significantly. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, GOT, GPT, gamma-GT, serum electrolytes (except phosphate and calcium) remained constant at the measuring times, CPK was elevated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Training-induced adaptations in the endocrine system and strength development were investigated in nine male strength athletes during two separate 3-week intensive strength training periods. The overall amount of training in the periods was maintained at the same level. In both cases the training in the first 2 weeks was very intensive: this was followed by a 3rd week when the overall amount of training was greatly decreased. The two training periods differed only in that training period I included one daily session, while during the first 2 weeks of period II the same amount of training was divided between two daily sessions. In general, only slight and statistically insignificant changes occurred during training period I in mean concentrations of serum hormones examined or sex hormone-binding globulin as well as in maximal isometric leg extensor force. However, during training period II after 2 weeks of intensive strength training a significant decrease (P less than 0.05) was observed in serum free testosterone concentration [from 98.4 (SD 24.5) to 83.8 (SD 14.7) pmol.l-1] during the subsequent week of reduced training. No change in the concentration of total testosterone was observed. This training phase was also accompanied by significant increases (P less than 0.05) in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and cortisol concentrations. After 2 successive days of rest serum free testosterone and LH returned to (P less than 0.05) their basal concentrations. Training period II led also to a significant increase (P less than 0.05) [from 3942 (SD 767) to 4151 (SD 926) N] in maximal force.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Neuromuscular adaptations during a 2-week "normal" strength training period followed by a 1-week reduced training period were investigated in ten strength athletes. No systematic changes were observed in the maximal voluntary neural activation (averaged integrated EMG) of leg extensor muscles, in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the QF muscle or in maximal voluntary isometric force production characteristics of the leg extensor muscles in the whole subject sample over the entire strength training period of 3 weeks. However, significant increases were observed both in the maximal neural activation (p less than 0.05) and maximal force (from 4547 +/- 613 to 4923 +/- 901 N; p less than 0.05) of the muscles at the very end of the 1-week reduced training period in group A which consisted of five best strength athletes within the whole subject group. In group B consisting of five other athletes at a lower level no systematic changes were observed during the reduced training period. The present findings suggest that neuromuscular adaptations in strength athletes are very limited in magnitude at least during short term strength training. Maximal strength performance in highly trained strength athletes may be brought to the peak level not necessarily during "normal" strength training but more likely after some period of time with a reduced volume of training. The present observations support the concept of the periodization of training in highly trained strength athletes and indicate the important role of the nervous system in leading to the peak in their maximal strength.
Article
Acute effects of fatigue produced by a maintained 60% isometric loading on force production and relaxation characteristics of the leg extensor muscles were studied in male endurance (n = 9), power (n = 6) and strength athletes (n = 9). The initial non-fatigued isometric force-time curves differed considerably (p less than 0.05-0.001) between the groups so that the times of force production were the shortest and correspondingly the maximal rate of force production the greatest in the power athletes but the longest and the smallest in the endurance athletes. The endurance time of 70.7 +/- 32.9 s at the 60% fatiguing loading was in the endurance athletes longer (p less than 0.01) than in the power (30.6 +/- 7.1 s) and strength groups (31.7 +/- 5.5 s). The present fatiguing loading resulted in all athlete groups in significant (p less than 0.05-0.001) worsening in maximal force, in the times of force production and in the maximal rates of force production and relaxation. However, this worsening in the endurance athletes in maximal force (to 92.9 +/- 7.1%) as well as in the maximal rates of force production (to 79.2 +/- 20.8%) and relaxation (to 73.1 +/- 29.2%) were significantly (p less than 0.05-0.01) smaller than the corresponding decreases in the power athletes (to 64.3 +/- 8.0%, 74.8 +/- 7.4% and to 40.9 +/- 12%, respectively) and in the strength athletes (to 65.7 +/- 7.0%, 56.7 +/- 16.0% and to 34.8 +/- 6.7%, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
A systems model, providing an estimation of fatigue and fitness levels was applied to a 1-year training period of six elite weight-lifters. The model parameters were individually determined by fitting the predicted performance (calculated as the difference between fitness and fatigue) to the actual one. The purpose of this study was to validate the systems model by comparing the estimated levels of fatigue and fitness with biological parameters external to the model calculation. The predicted and the actual performances were significantly correlated in each subject. The calculated fitness and fatigue levels were related to serum testosterone concentration, testosterone: cortisol and testosterone: sex hormone binding globulin ratios. The best results were obtained by the comparison between fitness and testosterone levels, which varied in parallel in each subject. In two subjects this correlation was significant (r = 0.91, P less than 0.05, and r = 0.92, P less than 0.01). The fitness changes calculated in each subject between the 15th and the 51st weeks of training were significantly correlated with the changes in serum testosterone concentration measured in the same period (r = 0.99, P less than 0.001). For the whole group testosterone and fitness variations were also significantly intercorrelated (r = 0.73, P less than 0.001). Correlations, less homogeneous and less significant, were calculated also for other hormones and ratios. These results suggest that (1) the relationships between training and performance can be described by the systems model, (2) the estimated index of fitness has a physiological meaning. The fatigue index remains to be clarified.