Article

A Series of Studies-The Physiological Basis for Strength Training in American Football: Fact Over Philosophy

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Abstract

The purpose of this series of investigations was to gain insight on resistance training in American football and address some of the myths. Many theories about resistance training have been proposed, yet there has been little if any research on some of these training philosophies. This series of studies represents an accumulation of data that helped to formulate a training approach. Rather than having a training philosophy, it might be more productive to have a training approach based on facts and critical monitoring of test variables representative of the physical development possible through strength and conditioning programs. It was demonstrated that football players are capable of multiple maximal efforts in resistance training and that the length of the rest period was a determining factor. In general, multiple sets and various periodized training programs were superior to single-set programs in the rate and magnitude of improvements in body composition, strength, local muscular endurance, and power. Such data indicate that for building programs in previously trained football players, multiple-set programs that provide variation are more appropriate. (C) 1997 National Strength and Conditioning Association

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... The RI length interacts with other acute program variables including intensity, volume, exercise order, repetition velocity, and it depends on an individual's training goals, fitness level, and the energy system targeted for response (24). The RI length between sets and exercises has been shown to affect the metabolic (23,31), hormonal (4,5,22), and immune cell (26) responses to an acute bout of resistance exercise, including repetition performance (volume and volume load) of subsequent sets (9,20,31,34,36), acute power output (1) and may affect the magnitude of postresistance exercise creatine kinase concentrations (26,34). Studies have shown that during sets performed near or to muscular exhaustion, repetition number, and total volume load decrease with each set in succession when 30-to 2-minute RIs were used (31,32,34,40,42). ...
... Bench press kinetic and kinematic data are presented in Table 4 and Figure 2. For average power, significant main effects were observed in 1RI (F [2,20] where reductions were seen with each set in succession with the exception of set 3 in the Low 1RM group during 3RI. No significant interactions were observed indicating a similar pattern of decline between the High and Low 1RM groups. ...
... The results of this study support previous research demonstrating a continuum of performance reductions with short RI lengths (20,31). Repetition reductions were greatest during 1RI and least during 3RI in all the subjects in this study. ...
... Lactate, an anaerobic by-product that is formed when pyruvate binds to a hydrogen ion after glycolysis (20), is often used as a proxy measure of metabolic stress during various styles of RT (21). Research on the effect of RI length on blood lactate concentration [La] is equivocal, as some studies report no difference between short and long RIs (16) while others show that [La] is higher with short RIs (17). Regardless, the effect of RI length on [La] has scarcely been studied in female lifters. ...
... It seems that the large repetition decline between sets one and two is less common with moderate-high RT intensities (16,28). Specifically, Ratamess et al. (28) reported that female participants sustained repetition performance between the first and second sets of the exercise with 1-min RIs, but repetitions in the third set were significantly lower than the first (10 vs. 7.7 repetitions). ...
... Specifically, Ratamess et al. (28) reported that female participants sustained repetition performance between the first and second sets of the exercise with 1-min RIs, but repetitions in the third set were significantly lower than the first (10 vs. 7.7 repetitions). Moreover, Kraemer et al. (16) reported that participants maintained repetition performance (i.e., 10 repetitions) at a fixed absolute intensity (i.e., 10-RM) for three sets of bench press and LP when using a 3-min RI. Differences in intensity (75% of 10-RM vs. 10-RM) and differences in the population (trained female lifters vs. power-trained male football players) may explain the disparate outcomes. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of SHORT (1 min) and LONG (3 min) rest intervals (RI) on total volume lifted (TVL), repetition performance, fatigue index (FI), and blood lactate [La] during upper body (chest press) and lower body (leg press) exercise with low-intensity (75% of a 10-RM) in trained female lifters. Fourteen females (mean ± SD, age = 22.9 ± 5.4 years, training experience = 5.2 ± 2.5 years, height = 166.1 ± 6.9 cm, weight = 61.3 ± 5.1 kg, body fat % = 21.7 ± 3.3%) participated in this randomized, repeated-measures, cross-over design study. They performed four sets to failure on chest press (CP) and leg press (LP) under two conditions (SHORT and LONG RIs) in a counterbalanced manner. Paired-samples t-tests were used to analyze mean differences for TVL in CP and LP, separately. A 2 (exercise) x 2 (rest interval) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze mean differences in FI and average [La] values. A 2 (rest interval) x 4 (sets) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze mean differences in repetitions completed for each exercise. TVL for SHORT was significantly less when compared to LONG for both exercises. There was no significant difference in average [La] between RIs despite a greater FI in SHORT compared to LONG for both exercises. Lastly, [La] was higher during LP compared to CP irrespective of RI length. These results suggest that longer RIs are better for female lifters who want to optimize TVL with low-intensity resistance training. Metabolic stress, as measured by blood lactate, was greater during lower-body exercise.
... The National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA), the governing body for collegiate athletic participation for all sports in Division I, II, and III reports that there are currently 73,063 collegiate AF players registered to compete in these divisions (49). The number of registered AF players is greater than other popular sports such as baseball (34,980), men's and women's basketball combined (35,244), and men's soccer (24,986) (49), whilst AF is also considered the most financially influential (8). Moreover, NCAA estimates that there are over 1 million high school AF participants in the United States. ...
... Collectively, the work-to-rest ratio (W:R) in AF ranges from approximately 1:5-1:7. Importantly though strength and power as athletic characteristics of an AF player has become the rule rather than the exception, with players becoming stronger and more powerful over the past several decades (9,16,32,35,57,64,65). AF is a high-impact collision sport, where the generation of greater momentum by the player prior to collisions may be a favourable quality to possess (6, 73 7, 33). ...
... The on-field players in AF are generally comprised of eight different playing positions. Each position has different very specific tasks which require different metabolic demands (17,24,35,37) (Table 1). Predominantly the primary source of energy to meet these metabolic demands is derived from the anaerobic pathways (phosphocreatine and glycolysis) for all on-field positions (16,24,35,69). ...
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Strength and conditioning for collegiate American football (AF) players follows basic principles of training, adapted within numerous contextual challenges. Some challenges include seasonal calendars, contact time restrictions, academic model and, academic requirements. The greatest expertise of the strength and conditioning coach in an academic setting is finding the most efficient way to increase the physical abilities specific to the collegiate AF player within these contexts. The purpose of this article is to orient the reader to collegiate AF player demands, define the challenges based upon the academic model of athletics in the United States, and provide programming recommendations based upon application of scientific literature within this academic model. An analysis of the current literature involving anthropometric and performance data with reference to the collegiate AF player was performed. Successful strength and conditioning programs for collegiate AF players involve an emphasis on maximal strength and power development, coupled with metabolic conditioning based on player positions, relevant to specific in-game demands and tactics. A microcycle template is provided to contextualise and further understand how to effectively integrate physical abilities such as maximal strength and power in a weekly periodisation model. An example of metabolic conditioning is shown so that the reader can increase their understanding of the physical demands placed on the AF player. Although training time is limited due to the academic model, it is possible to overcome these constraints and develop the key strength and power requirements of AF athletes. The considerations provided will aid the reader to develop a sound and evidence-based strength and conditioning program which can be individualised according to training level, maturation, and eligibility of the collegiate AF players.
... A total of 19 potentially relevant journal articles met the pre-set inclusion and exclusion criteria ( Table 2) and were further assessed for content applicability. Six studies (Kraemer, 1997;Borst et al., 2001;McBride et al., 2003;Galvão and Taaffe, 2005;Munn et al., 2005;Rønnestad et al., 2007) were rejected prior to data extraction, with Galbraith plot identifying one further article (Starkey et al., 1996) as an outlier and was omitted. Descriptions for the seven studies that were excluded are detailed in Table 3. ...
... Following appraisal and sensitivity measures 12 full-text articles (Reid et al., 1987;Kraemer, 1997;Hass et al., 2000;Schlumberger et al., 2001;Rhea et al., 2002a;Paulsen et al., 2003;Humburg et al., 2007;Kelly et al., 2007;Bottaro et al., 2009;Baker et al., 2013;Sooneste et al., 2013;Radaelli et al., 2014) met pre-set inclusion criteria ( Table 2). Journal articles included in this analysis had dates ranging from 1987 to 2014. ...
... The scientific literature on daily set-volume has been heavily contested with some suggesting that S produce similar adaptations to MS (Silvester et al., 1982;Messier and Dill, 1985;Reid et al., 1987;Pollock et al., 1993;Starkey et al., 1996;Hass et al., 2000). However, others indicate that MS produces greater strength, hypertrophy, and power adaptations (Kraemer, 1997;Hass et al., 2000;Borst et al., 2001;Marx et al., 2001;McBride et al., 2003;Paulsen et al., 2003). In the context of pre-flight conditioning, the initial physical training status of each crew member must be fully considered. ...
Article
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Background: Recommendations on resistance training (RT) set-volume protocols in preparation for spaceflight muscular strength conditioning remains equivocal. A meta-analysis was performed on the effects of single-set (S), or three-set (M3) RT on muscular strength per exercise for different body segments and joint types (multi-joint and single-joint). Methods: Computerized searches were performed on PubMed, MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus TM. Twelve studies were considered appropriate according to pre-set eligibility criteria. Outcomes analyzed were pre-to-post-muscular strength change on; multi-joint and single-joint combined; upper body only; lower body only; multi-joint exercises only; single-joint exercises only. Results: Upper body exercise analysis on combined subjects and untrained subjects only reported greater but not significant strength gains with M3 (ES 0.37; 95% CI 0.09-0.82; P = 0.11 and ES 0.35; 95% CI−0.49 to 1.19; P = 0.42). Trained only subjects reported superior strength gains with M3 (ES 0.63; 95% CI 0.34-0.92; P = <0.0001). Lower body exercise on combined subjects and untrained subjects only reported superior strength gains with M3 (ES 0.35; 95% CI 0.10-0.60; P = 0.006 and ES 0.49; 95% CI 0.14-0.83; P = 0.005). Trained subjects only observed greater but not significant strength gains with M3 (ES 0.18; 95% CI −0.23 to 0.58; P = 0.39). Multi-joint exercise on combined subjects reported greater strength gains with M3 (ES 0.83; 95% CI 0.14-1.51; P = 0.02). Trained only subjects reported greater strength gains with M3 (ES 0.52; 95% CI 0.10-0.94; P = 0.02). Single-joint exercise on combined subjects and untrained only observed greater strength gains for M3 (ES 0.49; 95% CI 0.26-0.72; P = <0.0001 and ES 0.56; 95% CI 0.21-0.91; P = 0.002). Trained only subjects reported greater but not significant strength gains with M3 (ES 0.37; 95% CI −0.01 to 0.75; P = 0.06). Ralston et al. 1-vs. 3-Sets on Strength: A Meta-Analysis Conclusion: For astronauts in space-flight preparation, the findings suggest that M3 training appears to be preferable over S for developing muscular strength. Nevertheless, depending on the physical conditioning of the crew member or tight pre-flight scheduling, S is still able to provide a positive strength training stimulus.
... Variations in training specificity, intensity and volume within a whole programme would help to manage fatigue, eliminate monotony in training routines, optimise recovery and avoid plateaus in fitness levels. These would culminate in a composite aggregation of all training stimuli from the sports practice, in which an optimal performance at a specific point in time would be obtained (Haff, 2004;Kraemer, 1997). ...
... These studies have noted that to achieve optimal adaptations, manipulation of the training intensity and volume is important. In contrast, with non-periodised training the RM load is consistent (Kraemer, 1997;O'Bryant et al., 1988;Willoughby, 1991). Specifically, a non-periodised resistance training may maintain the stimuli in a constant manner, which diminishes its efficacy to induce physiological changes ( Williams et al., 2017). ...
... For example, most studies utilised three days per week training frequency whereas Schiotz et al. (1998) used four days per week. To further complicate the issue, Kraemer (1997) made comparisons between two groups with one group trained three times while the other trained four times per week. Therefore, the ability to generalise these results is limited to the factors mentioned previously. ...
Thesis
Previous research has documented positive effects of periodised muscular endurance resistance training in untrained men and women. Therefore, the overarching objective of this thesis was to compare the efficacy of two resistance training progression models [linear periodisation (LP) vs. undulating periodisation (UP)], and to elucidate the best method to vary the exercise stimulus to develop muscular endurance in trained youth athletes. With respect to the overarching objective of this thesis, a series of studies were conducted. The first aim was to identify the reliability and sensitivity of neuromuscular function variables in trained youth athletes. Second, to investigate acute neuromuscular function, endocrine and perceptual wellbeing responses following two different muscular endurance resistance training sessions [3 sets of 25 repetition maximum (RM) and 3 sets of 15RM]. Lastly, to investigate the effects of two distinct resistance training models (LP vs. UP) on selected performance, physiological and psychological variables in trained youth team sports athletes. Also, the different physiological, neuromuscular, perceptual wellbeing responses within this process were described and implications for athlete monitoring discussed. It was found that the reliability and sensitivity of neuromuscular function variables was unique to the population in question. Specifically, only countermovement jump mean force [CMJMF; smallest worthwhile change (SWC) = 2.7%, coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.0%)], countermovement jump mean power (CMJMP; SWC = 3.2%, CV = 2.7%), countermovement jump peak power (CMJPP; SWC = 3.4%, CV = 3.0%) and plyometric push up mean force (PPMF; SWC = 2.9%, CV = 2.2%) displayed acceptable reliability (CV < 5%) and sensitivity in field hockey youth athletes. Next, neuromuscular function, endocrine and perceptual wellbeing measures, obtained from trained youth participants, maintained similar acute biological responses irrespective of muscular endurance resistance training protocols. Force and power measures (CMJMF, CMJMP, CMJPP and PPMF) improved (p ≤ 0.05) 48 hours following both muscular endurance resistance training programmes. At 72 hours, testosterone: cortisol ratio (T:C ratio) showed a moderate increase [effect size (ES) = 0.72] following the 15RM protocol whereas a small decrease (ES = 0.41) was observed after the 25RM session. Overall perceptual wellbeing, fatigue and soreness scores reflected changes in neuromuscular function, while stress, sleep and mood did not show any differences. Finally, muscular endurance tests demonstrated that UP (back squat ES = 1.62; bench press ES = 1.77) was more efficacious than LP (back squat ES = 0.69; bench press ES = 1.72) following 12 weeks of resistance training. Resting salivary testosterone concentration increased in the UP (31.47%) compared to LP (- 8.73%) group, whereas salivary cortisol concentration and T:C ratio remained unchanged. Session rating of perceived exertion (session RPE), mood and stress scores were frequently higher during training phase II (four weeks) and III (four weeks) compared to phase I (four weeks). No changes were detected in neuromuscular function. Overall, this thesis offered several practical applications from the findings. First, the reliability and sensitivity of neuromuscular function variables were population specific. As such, practitioners are encouraged to establish the reliability and determine the neuromuscular function variable/s within the group to be trained. Second, as fatigue is multifaceted, practitioners should not rely on a single monitoring approach and incorporate both physiological and psychological aspects to monitor resistance training. Lastly, practitioners working with team sports athletes and intending to develop muscular endurance, can employ UP, performed in conjunction with sport specific training. Most importantly, it is highly advantageous to integrate a suitable monitoring measure, to direct appropriate sequencing of training loads, to result in optimal athletic performance.
... Setler ve egzersizler arası dinlenme süreleri sporcunun hormonal, metabolik ve kardiyovasküler yanıtlarına bağlı olarak düzenlenmektedir (Kraemer ve Ratamess, 2004;ACSM, 2009;McGuigan ve ark., 2009). Kısa süreli dinlenme aralıkları kuvvet ve güç gelişimi antrenmanlarında oksijen açığının kapatılamaması, kas enerji depolarının yenilenemesi, laktik asitin uzaklaştırılamaması nedeniyle tercih edilmezken, kas hipertrofisi için stresin arttırılması ve kassal dayanıklılığın geliştirilmesinde kullanılabilmektedir (ACSM, 2009;Kraemer, 1997). Yapılan bir çok çalışmanın yüksek kapsamlı antrenmanlar için setler arası dinlenme aralıklarının 2 dakikadan daha uzun olması olması gerektiğini belirtmektedir (Kraemer, 1997;Willardson ve Burkett, 2005;Miranda ve ark., 2007). ...
... Kısa süreli dinlenme aralıkları kuvvet ve güç gelişimi antrenmanlarında oksijen açığının kapatılamaması, kas enerji depolarının yenilenemesi, laktik asitin uzaklaştırılamaması nedeniyle tercih edilmezken, kas hipertrofisi için stresin arttırılması ve kassal dayanıklılığın geliştirilmesinde kullanılabilmektedir (ACSM, 2009;Kraemer, 1997). Yapılan bir çok çalışmanın yüksek kapsamlı antrenmanlar için setler arası dinlenme aralıklarının 2 dakikadan daha uzun olması olması gerektiğini belirtmektedir (Kraemer, 1997;Willardson ve Burkett, 2005;Miranda ve ark., 2007). Dinlenme süresi 5 dakikaya kadar uzatıldıkça antrenman verimi artmaktadır (Richmond ve Godard, 2004;Willardson ve Burkett, 2006). ...
... Power and speed have been extensively studied with American football at the collegiate and professional levels (4,9,16,30,32,34). However, only a few studies have examined body mass and these performance indicators in highschool football players. ...
... Overall (n = 16) Backs (n = 7) Linemen (n = 9) p Age (yr) 16 Correlations between body mass, vertical jump (VJ) height, peak anaerobic power measured in watts (PAPw), and power-to-body mass ratio (P:BM), with 0-4.57-m, 0-9.14-m, and 0-36.58-m sprint velocity (SV) and sprint momentum (SM) for high-school football players (n = 16) (r = Pearson's correlation coefficient; p = significance). ...
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Jalilvand, F, Banoocy, NK, Rumpf, MC, and Lockie, RG. Relationship between body mass, peak power, and power-to-body mass ratio on sprint velocity and momentum in high-school football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The ability to rapidly shift one's body mass horizontally or vertically is common within American football irrespective of field position, and the capacity to generate power is a favorable physical quality. This requires analysis in high-school football players, especially considering the body mass disparities that exist in this population. Sixteen high-school players (7 backs and 9 linemen) completed the vertical jump (VJ) to determine jump height, peak anaerobic power measured in watts (PAPw), and power-to-body mass ratio (P:BM), and a 36.58-m sprint (0-4.57, 0-9.14, and 0-36.58-m intervals) to determine sprint velocity and momentum. Independent-samples t-tests (p , 0.05) determined differences in these variables between the backs and linemen. Pearson's correlations (r; p , 0.05) computed relationships between body mass, VJ height, PAPw, P:BM, with 36.58-m sprint velocity and momentum on the pooled data. Linemen were heavier, and slower in the 36.58-m sprint, but had greater PAPw and sprint momentum compared with backs. Body mass exhibited negative relationships to velocity across all sprint intervals (r = 20.55 to 0.70), and positive relationships with momentum across all intervals (r = 0.95-0.96). The VJ correlated with sprint velocity across all intervals (r = 0.51-0.83), but not momentum. PAPw was positively correlated with body mass and momentum across all intervals (r = 0.77-0.85), but not velocity. There were significant correlations between P:BM with velocity (r = 0.51-0.85) and momentum (r = 20.53-0.62) across all intervals. Heavier high-school players could focus on improving P:BM to positively influence jumping ability and sprint velocity.
... Concerning maintaining the performance of repetitions in consecutive sets, some authors have demonstrated that rest intervals of less than 3 minutes can result in a significant decrease in the number of repetitions performed. A limitation of these and related studies was the evaluation of single exercise or movement (10,21,(26)(27)(28). The influence of rest intervals between sets and exercises in a training session remains a controversial issue in the literature; to the best of our knowledge, very few studies have investigated the potential acute interactions between different rest intervals and exercises for the same training sessions, especially in typical daily practice, where frequently more than one exercise and movement for the same or distinct muscle groups are used. ...
... These results indicate that during an ST session, if there is enough time, resting 3 minutes between sets allows for a greater volume of exercise to be completed compared with a shorter rest interval. These data corroborate other studies conducted to date, which also found more repetitions performed when longer rest periods were applied (10,21,(26)(27)(28). ...
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The objective of this study was to observe the ideal recovery time between sets and exercises, for both chest and back, which allowed for maintaining muscle function with the initial load previously established. Sixty young men recreationally trained in strength training (ST) were divided into 2 groups: (a) 30 subjects were included in the GC group (the group that performed ST for the chest) and (b) 30 subjects were included in the GB group (the group that performed ST for the back). Each group was submitted to 3 experimental sessions, performing an ST sequence with 3 sets of 8 repetition maximum: GC performed a chest barbell press (CBP), an inclined CBP, and a chest butterfly; GB performed a lat pull-down, a back row, and a shoulder extension on the high pulley. The experimental sessions differed in rest time between sets performed (60, 90, and 120 seconds). For both groups in each sequence, significantly higher numbers of repetitions were observed with the rest time of 120 seconds relative to the rest time of 90 seconds (p = 0.004), 120 seconds in relation to the rest time of 60 seconds (p = 0.001), and in the rest interval of 90 seconds in relation to the rest time of 60 seconds (p < 0.0001). The results showed that 120 seconds was sufficient to maintain muscle function and perform the total number of repetitions per set. The data seem to show that for the ST methodology applied, it is not appropriate to assume that a certain relative intensity will translate into a similar number of repetitions in different exercises, especially with shorter rest intervals such as 60 and 90 seconds.
... In this section, the authors discuss some studies' suggestion that the undulating model is more effective than the traditional model, with others suggesting that there is no difference (17). The citations provided for these statements are all 9-wk (32), 10-wk (33), 12-wk (28,(34)(35)(36)(37)(38), or 14-to 15-wk studies (39,40), with one study lasting 24 wk (41). If this approach can be used to suggest that one type of periodization is superior to another, it should also be adequate to suggest that a periodized approach in not superior to a nonperiodized approach. ...
... In addition, the training status is often pointed out as a shortcoming in periodization studies. For example, Souza et al. (41) utilized gold-standard measurements in recreationally trained individuals (nonresistance trained). Proponents of periodization have made the suggestion that periodization becomes more important as an individual becomes more trained, though there is a lack of evidence for this claim. ...
Article
The periodization of resistance exercise is often touted as the most effective strategy for optimizing muscle size and strength adaptations. This narrative persists despite a lack of experimental evidence to demonstrate its superiority. In addition, the general adaptation syndrome, which provides the theoretical framework underlying periodization, does not appear to provide a strong physiological rationale that periodization is necessary. Hans Selye conducted a series of rodent studies which used toxic stressors to facilitate the development of the general adaptation syndrome. To our knowledge, normal exercise in humans has never been shown to produce a general adaptation syndrome. We question whether there is any physiological rationale that a periodized training approach would facilitate greater adaptations compared with nonperiodized approaches employing progressive overload. The purpose of this article is to briefly review currently debated topics within strength and conditioning and provide some practical insight regarding the implications these reevaluations of the literature may have for resistance exercise and periodization. In addition, we provide some suggestions for the continued advancement within the field of strength and conditioning.
... Insgesamt wurden 19 Studien zur Datenextraktion herangezogen. In 4 Studien (Franchini et al., 2015;Gavanda et al., 2018;Hoffman et al., 2009;Painter et al., 2012) wurde die Effektivität der Periodisierungsmodelle im Vergleich analysiert, in 10 jeweils die Blockperiodisierung (Bartolomei et al., 2014;Hoffman et al., 2004;Hoffman et al., 2006Hoffman et al., , 2007Kotzamanidis et al., 2005;Kraemer, 1997;Manchado et al., 2018;Ratamess et al., 2007;Wilder et al., 2002;Zaras et al., 2016) und in 5 die kontinuierliche Wellenperiodisierung (Anderson et al., 2008;Bemben et al., 2001;Hoffman et al., 2003;Smith et al., 2014;Zourdos et al., 2016) die Interventionsgruppen, welche nach einer Block-Periodisierung trainierten, berechnet sich eine mittlere Effektstärken von d= 0,52 (95% CI= 0,41-0,62). Für die Interventionsgruppen, welche nach der kontinuierlichen Wellenperiodisierung gearbeitet haben, ergibt sich eine mittlere Effektstärke von d= 0,34 (95% CI= 0,21-0,46). ...
... Die Tabellen 4-6 zeigen, dass von den selektierten Studien 7 Studien mit einer Blockperiodisierung (Bartolomei et al., 2014;Hoffman et al., 2004;Hoffman et al., 2007;Kotzamanidis et al., 2005;Kraemer, 1997;Manchado et al., 2018;Zaras et al., 2016), 3 Studien mit einer wellenförmigen Periodisierung (Anderson et al., 2008;Bemben et al., 2001;Smith et al., 2014) und 4 Studien mit einem Effizienzvergleich (Blockperiodisierung vs. DUP) (Franchini et al., 2015;Gavanda et al., 2018;Hoffman et al., 2009;Painter et al., 2012) Schnellkraftleistungen erhoben haben. Die Schnellkraftvariablen, die in den Studien erfasst wurden, umfassen diverse unterschiedliche Testung, wie Sprung-(SJ und CMJ) oder Wurfleistungen (Medizinballstoß) oder Kraftzeitmessungen unter isometrischen Bedingungen. ...
... The degree of load increase per week was dependent on the individual, and whether they could attain the target repetitions. Three working sets are allocated for each exercise because this has been shown to be suitable for eliciting gains in maximal strength (42). ...
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THIS ARTICLE DETAILS A 6-WEEK RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAM THAT CAN BE USED TO IMPROVE SPRINT ACCELERATION IN AMATEUR ATHLETES. THIS PROGRAM CAN CONCURRENTLY ENHANCE BASE LOWER-BODY STRENGTH AND 10-M SPEED AND INCORPORATES THE BACK SQUAT, STEPUP, CABLE HIP FLEXION, AND SMITH MACHINE CALF RAISE. LOADS CAN BE INCREASED FROM APPROXIMATELY 75-90% OF ONE REPETITION-MAXIMUM OVER THE COURSE OF THE PROGRAM. THE EXERCISES ARE DESCRIBED WITH SUPPORTING SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR THEIR USE. ADDITIONALLY, SUGGESTIONS ARE PROVIDED AS TO HOW THE PROGRAM COULD BE MODIFIED AND PROGRESSED WITH DIFFERENT EXERCISES TO FURTHER ENHANCE THE FORCE-VELOCITY PROFILE.
... As such, the primary focus for most collegiate strength and conditioning programs is directed at improving these performance variables to maximize the ability of each athlete to contribute to the success of the team. Although there have been a number of studies directed at the efficacy of various exercise programs used to train competitive athletes (12,15,18,23,28), much of this research does not account for training experience as a factor determining program efficacy. In fact, our basic understanding on the ability of collegiate athletes to make performance changes throughout their career is limited. ...
... This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited performed during multiple sets of isolated exercises (5,(17)(18)(19)(20). ...
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Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of different rest interval durations between sets during full-body resistance exercise sessions on total load lifted and blood lactate concentrations in resistance-trained individuals. Methods: Ten healthy young men (age: 23 ± 6.5 years; total body mass: 82.8 ± 10.6 kg, height: 177.3 ± 0.1 cm) randomly performed 3 resistance exercise sessions with different rest intervals between sets (30 seconds, 60 seconds and 120 seconds). The resistance exercise sessions consisted of 6 full-body exercises (bench press; seated low row; shoulder press; back squat; leg press 45° and seated calf raise) performed with 4 sets of 10 repetitions maximum (RM). Total load lifted (sets × repetitions × load (Kgf)) and lactate blood concentration were determined for each exercise session. One way, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni’s post-hoc test were used for multiple comparisons. Results: The total load lifted was significantly (P < 0.001) lower for 30 seconds (26382.0 ± 4100.3 kg) rest interval compared with 60 seconds (28864.5 ± 4139.7 kg) and 120 seconds (30064.4 ± 3966.4 kg). The blood lactate response was not different among the 3 rest interval conditions investigated, with mean peak values of 7.05 ± 1.69, 7.26 ± 2.77 and 6.90 ± 3.79 mM for 30 seconds, 60 seconds and 120 seconds, respectively. Conclusions: In conclusion, rest interval durations of 60 seconds and 120 seconds between sets favored a higher total load lifted in the exercise session when compared to the 30 seconds rest interval. The rest protocols implemented in the present study promoted a similar metabolic response (e.g. blood lactate concentration) to a full-body resistance exercise session in trained subjects. Keywords: Resistance Training; Rest Period; Volume Load; Metabolic Stress; Acute Response
... However; performance improvements about 4% were reported in bench press 1RM values after a periodized 12-week training cycle in eleven elite male kayakers (Garcia-Pallares et al., 2010). Besides, the improvement about 3-4% is similar to those observed in response to a long-term strength training in strength-trained individuals (Kraemer, 1997). ...
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In order to investigate the effects of different warm-up protocols on one repetition maximum (1RM) leg press performance, 23 rowers (age 21.48±3.12 years, height 185.17±8.22 cm, body mass 83.86 ±8.7 kg.) completed 1RM leg press tests after four different general warm-up conditions with a standardized specific warm-up. The workloads of the warm-up protocols were individually designed according to the results of the incremental maximal rowing ergometer test that applied initially. The duration of the protocols were fixed as 15 minutes (min.) for each participant, but there were differences in the intensity of the warm-up. In statistical analysis, warm-up conditions were set as fixed factor while participants as a random factor. Tukey post hoc test was employed whenever a significant difference was found. A probability level of 0.05 was established to determine statistical significance. All statistical analyses were conducted using SPPS version 20. As a conclusion, approximately 4% higher 1 RM results were obtained after low intensity (40% of VO 2Max) protocols which contain two intermittent sprints that last 15 seconds in the last 5 min. of the protocol. Thus, the results of the present study are important for both practical and research environments.
... The ability to sustain repetitions throughout sets increases the maximum number of repetitions performed during a bout of exercise (Willardson and Burkett, 2005). Greater sums of repetitions acutely increase training volume (repetitions × sets × load) and chronically increase muscular strength (Kraemer, 1997). Heavy training loads place a greater metabolic demand on the body and negatively affect repetition performance (Mirzaei et al., 2008;Willardson & Burkett, 2008). ...
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The rest duration between sets is one of the most essential resistance training variables; however, research on the effects of rest intervals between sets has shown inconsistencies on whether short or long rest intervals significantly increase overall performance during resistance training. This literature review aimed to investigate how different rest intervals between sets affect the maintenance of repetitions, training volume, and overall strength gains from resistance exercises in both trained and non-trained individuals. Fifteen original investigations and three textbooks involving the effect of between set rest intervals during resistance training are summarized in this review. The results for the studies interested in repetition maintenance suggested longer rest intervals significantly increased the number of repetitions and helped repetitions stay more consistent throughout sets. Longer rest intervals were also determined to increase training volume but had no significant effect on overall strength gains. Biochemical substrates that provide the catalyst for energy creation can take up to eight minutes to fully resynthesize; therefore, more research is needed on longer rest intervals to see if there are further increases in resistance training performance.
... If this trend were to prove meaningful, it could indicate that multi-joint, high velocity, highly technical movements such as the PC will stress the ANS more so than simpler, lower-velocity exercises, and thus performance on these exercises could prove more sensitive to an athlete's state of fatigue. 21 The present study is the first to employ individualized programming via HRV in resistance training. Previously, Kiviniemi 4,5 and Vesterinin et al. 6 prescribed individualized training in endurance athletes. ...
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Objectives: We sought to determine if individualized programming by heart rate variability (HRV), improves resistance training outcomes in American football players. Design and Methods: Twenty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCCA) Division II American football players (age 19.03 ± .98 y, height 185.50 ± 5.30 cm, body mass 100.59 ± 18.57 kg) were divided into an experimental (HVG) group (n = 11), and a control (CON, n = 16). Subjects completed 5-weeks of 3 d·wk ‒1 periodized resistance training during the offseason. The HVG monitored HRV on mornings before training, and their training volume was adjusted by their HRV. Specifically, on training days when HRV indicated that a subject was fatigued, the subject performed half of the originally planned repetitions for the training day. CON performed assigned workouts with no alterations. Performance was assessed via 1RM bench press (BP), power clean (PC), back squat (BS), and vertical jump (VJ) between groups using a 2 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The HVG had an average of 4 ± 1.51 days modified over the 5 wks, but volume load lifted was similar (p = 0.955) between groups. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant increases in BP (time effect p < .001), BS (time effect p < 0.001), PC (time effect p = 0.002), and VJ (time effect p = 0.042) for both HVG and CON. There were no significant betweengroup differences in performance variables. The group × time interaction for PC (p = 0.087) trended towards a significantly greater increase in HVG (+ 8.6%) vs. CON (+ 2.6%). Conclusions: Periodized training can improve performance without monitoring HRV, but it may have an advantageous effect for highly technical movements such as the PC.
... Flight time (59) Lower limb muscle activity (17,60) Eccentric muscle action (8,9) Isometric muscle action (8,9) Concentric muscle action (8,9) Kinetics Vertical leg stiffness applied (64). Appropriate variation is important to stimulate continued adaptations over multiple training phases (28) and is concerned with appropriate manipulation in exercise selection, speed, volume, and intensity (52). Similarly, when an athlete is learning a new skill, there needs to be a sequence of progressions that allow them to become habituated with the movement and master the basics at lower intensities before advancing to higher intensity or more complex movements (40). ...
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BACKWARD RUNNING (BR) IS A COMMON LOCOMOTIVE TECHNIQUE BY MOST OVERGROUND ATHLETES DURING BOTH COMPETITION AND TRAINING, YET THERE ARE LIMITED EMPIRICALLY BASED RECOMMENDATIONS FOR USING BR TRAINING FOR ATHLETES. THIS ARTICLE HIGHLIGHTS THE ROLE OF BR IN SPORTS CONTEXT, PROVIDES INSIGHTS INTO WHY BR MAY BENEFIT ATHLETES, AND RECOMMENDS HOW TO INTEGRATE BR INTO STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING PROGRAMS. INFORMED GUIDANCE IS PROVIDED ON THE PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS FOR ATHLETES, WHICH SHOULD HELP SPEED AND STRENGTH COACHES DESIGN AND FACILITATE BR IN A SAFE AND PROGRESSIVELY OVERLOADED FASHION FOR YOUTH AND ADULT ATHLETES ALIKE.
... En dépit de la popularité du sport du football en Amérique du Nord, il existe un nombre limité d'études examinant les exigences physiologiques en situation de jeu en football comparativement à d'autres sports similaires (Hoffman, 2008). Tel que mentionné par Kraemer (1997), le football américain était, à une certaine époque, le sport le moins étudié aux États-Unis. Bien que les raisons pour ce manque de recherches scientifiques demeurent obscures, la volonté et la nécessité d'obtenir des résultats dans l'immédiat ou à court terme ont pu contribuer à cette réalité selon l'auteur. ...
Thesis
Planifier et réguler quotidiennement l’entrainement sont deux opérations importantes du savoir pratique des entraineurs. Dans la pratique du sport de manière compétitive, l’atteinte d’une performance optimale requiert l’intégration, l’optimisation et la synchronisation de nombreux éléments qui composent la performance sportive. L’entraineur sportif agit comme le « chef de projet performance » autour de qui s’articule le processus d’entrainement d’athlètes dans des sports individuels et dans des sports collectifs. Pour prendre en compte la variabilité des réponses interindividuelles des athlètes, il est recommandé que l’entraineur entreprenne une démarche de régulation de l’entrainement en quantifiant notamment la charge d’entrainement, un construit qui comprend, entre autres, les stimuli d’entrainement (charge externe) et la réponse de l’organisme à ces dits stimuli (charge interne). Les outils à la disposition de l’entraineur se regroupent en trois principales catégories, chacune possédant ses avantages et ses limites. L’intérêt et la pertinence de ce projet doctoral résident toutefois dans l’utilisation de la part de l’entraineur de ces données de la charge d’entrainement afin de faciliter la pratique réflexive. En récoltant a priori les données de la charge d’entrainement auprès d’étudiants-athlètes en football universitaire québécois, il sera possible d’étudier le processus réflexif et décisionnel de l’entraineur au cours de ses actions de programmation et de régulation des activités technico-tactiques et à la suite des matchs pendant une saison de compétition. Grâce à des techniques fortement influencées par la recherche dans le domaine de l’éducation, cette recherche s’intéresse non seulement aux actions des entraineurs, mais également à leurs réflexions. Ainsi, les techniques du rappel stimulé, de la réflexion partagée et de la verbalisation concourante, triangulées avec des d’autres données obtenues via l’utilisation de cartes réflexives et d’observations sur le terrain, permettront de recueillir, au cours d’entretiens semi-dirigés, de l’information de nature qualitative qui facilitera la compréhension d’un phénomène d’intérêt, soit le processus dynamique, interactionniste et complexe qu’est le coaching sportif dans le contexte d’un sport d’équipe, soit le football universitaire québécois. Les résultats témoignent de l’utilité d’un outil subjectif de quantification de la charge d’entrainement pour gérer de nouvelles « informations émergentes » et susciter des réflexions diverses de la part des participants-entraineurs. Cette étude démontre que l’utilisation d’une méthode subjective de quantification de la charge d’entrainement permet de récolter de manière systématique des informations pertinentes sur le dosage et la réponse de l’organisme aux diverses activités d’entrainement de la part des étudiants-athlètes, permettant ensuite aux entraineurs sportifs de démontrer des caractéristiques d’une pratique réflexive contextualisée aux exigences particulières du contexte du football universitaire.
... Both emphasize technical exercises, with American footballers additionally undergoing aerobic training. 3 The competition periods are also much the same. In both sports, the volumes of general conditioning exercises are then reduced in favor of targeted and specialist exercises and high-intensity aerobic and speed/speed-endurance exercises. ...
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Background: The effectiveness of sport training programs should be assessed regularly against biochemical indices. This study assesses changes in the antioxidant status indices in American football players (AF) and soccer players (SP) over a training macrocycle. Methods: The study was carried out with Poland's American Football League players (AF, n = 11, age 24.0 ± 3.7 years) and first-league soccer players (SP, n = 11, age 26.5 ± 3.8 years). Resting venous blood samples were collected from the players at the beginning of the three periods (preparatory, competition, and transition) making up the training macrocycle to determine the activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as the concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid-UA and glutathione-GSH) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). Results: The period effect on SOD (p < 0.001), CAT (p < 0.05), GPx (p < 0.05), GSH (p < 0.0001) and UA (p < 0.0001), and the group × period interaction effect on SOD, CAT and GPx (p < 0.05), GSH (p < 0.001), and UA (p < 0.01) proved to be significant. Also significant were the group effect on MDA (p < 0.001) and LDH (p < 0.0001) and the period effect on MDA (p < 0.01) and LDH (p < 0.001). The activity of SOD and CAT and the concentration of GSH were higher in both AF (12%, 2%, and 15%, respectively) and SP (33%, 10%, and 42%) at the start of the competition period than in the preparatory period, but the concentration of MDA and the activity of CK and LDH was lower (0.8%, 29%, 5% (AF) and 2%, 11%, 5% (SP). The highest activity of GPx and LDH and the greatest concentrations of UA and MDA occurred in the early transition period. Conclusion: The study revealed an association between American footballers' and soccer players' training loads in the preparatory period and moderate improvements in their blood antioxidant status at the beginning of the competition period.
... O estudo mais recente deMonteiro et al. (2016) avaliou os intervalos de 1, 3 e 5 minutos nos exercícios de supino reto e pulley alto. O estudo aponta que IR inferiores a 3 minutos são ineficientes para manutenção do número de repetições com cargas máximas para 10 RM.Em um estudo realizado com jogadores de futebol americano,Kraemer (1997) verificou que IR de 3 minutos entre as séries foi suficiente para que realizassem 10RM em 3 séries consecutivas. Quando o IR foi reduzido a 1 minuto, os voluntários realizaram 10, 8 e 7 repetições nas 3 séries. ...
... The resistance in these exercises can be applied in form of manual or mechanical resistance. Resistance training exercises can be performed isometrically, isotonically, and isokinetically to increase strength and endurance, other forms include plyometric training and circuit training for gains in muscular strength and endurance (Kraemer, W. J. (1997). Training variation requires that alterations in one or more program variables be made over time to allow for the training stimulus to remain optimal. ...
... Hunter 15 esclarece que as mulheres parecem resistir melhor a fadiga que os homens, fatores esses que veem sendo estudados pela comunidade científica. Na literatura encontram-se variados estudos que investigaram o comportamento de diferentes intervalos de recuperação (IRs) no número de repetições das séries subsequentes 5,6,[16][17][18] , outros avaliaram aspectos como a resposta metabólica, a concentração de GH e de cortisol 7,19 , mas todos esses estudos avaliaram uma única população, exclusivamente homens, assim, na literatura ainda faltam estudos que comparem os gêneros utilizando ações musculares dinâmicas, o volume de repetições e a PSE. ...
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O tempo de intervalo entre as séries no exercício físico é uma variável que vem sendo utilizada como um meio de controle da intensidade e densidade do treinamento. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi verificar a Percepção Subjetiva Esforço (PSE) em intervalos de recuperação (IRs) de 1 e 3 minutos durante 3 séries consecutivas no aparelho Leg Press 45° até a falha concêntrica momentânea entre homens e mulheres, utilizando-se da escala de OMNI-RES. Fizeram parte do estudo 14 voluntários, sendo 7 homens (22 anos ±3,14; 78 ±11,42Kg; 1,74m ±0,05) e 7 mulheres (23 anos ±3,76; 56,4Kg ±6,88; 1,63m ±0,07), ambos fisicamente ativos. Os dados foram coletados em dias alternados e de forma aleatorizada, respeitando um intervalo de 48 horas para realização da coleta da PSE. Para comprovar a distribuição da amostra foi utilizado o teste de Shapiro Wilk. Para identificar as diferenças entre o número de repetições e a PSE entre os gêneros foi adotado o teste de Mann-Whitney. Os resultados mostraram que na comparação entre os gêneros nas variáveis PSE, número de repetições e a soma do número de repetições nos dois intervalos estudados, não foi possível identificar diferença significativa entre os gêneros. Houve uma diminuição no número de repetições nos dois IRs, porém, não houve diferença significativa na PSE entre as séries em ambos os intervalos. A utilização da mesma para controle de intensidade para homens e mulheres, ainda é questionável, necessitando de mais estudos acerca do tema.
... As such, it is possible that these potentially less-trained players' results could have attenuated mean improvements in the overall sample. However, a number of studies have reported $20% improvements in strength with ,6 months training even among already trained subjects, which makes this hypothesis seem less likely (22,25,(30)(31)(32). Moreover, several studies of D1 and D3 players have reported that the largest magnitude strength improvements occur within the first 1-2 years of training (17,19,23), which would presumably capture most PR data from less-trained players and thus not substantially attenuate mean strength for the sample. ...
Article
Baur, DA, Johnson, JB, Giron-Molina, LG, Caterisano, M, Shaner, C, Caterisano, A, and Gentry, M. Career-best changes in body mass and physical fitness test performance among Division 1 college football players encompassing 28 years at the same institution. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-Understanding typical changes induced by collegiate American football strength and conditioning programs is essential for optimizing program design and athletic development. The purpose of the study was to evaluate body mass and physical fitness test performance changes at a Division 1 program with 28 years of coaching stability. Initial and personal record results were collected from 1,102 players who were subdivided into 3 position groups: combination players (COMBO), skill players (SKILL), and line of scrimmage players. Players followed a linear periodized training program with biannual body mass and performance testing. Tested variables included body mass, strength (bench press, back squat, and front squat), impulse (power clean, push jerk, and vertical jump [VJ]), and speed/agility (10-yard dash [10YD], 40-yard dash, and 20-yard shuttle). The fixed effect of time and position group on the dependent variables was assessed using linear mixed models. If appropriate, post hoc tests using the estimated marginal means were used to evaluate the source of any significant effects. Significance was accepted as p < 0.05. Normative values were produced by descriptive statistics (i.e., weighted means). All players and position groups increased/improved across all tested variables (p < 0.05). Improvements were 8.2%, 11.9-18.3%, 13.5-17.5%, and 3.6-6.0% for body mass, strength, impulse, and speed/agility, respectively. Line of scrimmage improvements were absolutely larger across most tested variables and relatively larger for back squat, VJ, and 10YD vs. SKILL and with VJ vs. COMBO/SKILL (p < 0.05). These results reveal typical expectations for 4-5 years performance improvements and that position group differences in trainability may influence game readiness and training needs.
... The general recommendation of high-volume, moderate-to-high intensity programs utilizing short rest intervals was based on empirical evidence suggesting that this training paradigm is typically used by bodybuilders (Hackett et al. 2013) during hypertrophy phases of periodized training for athletes , and by studies reporting greater increases in muscle hypertrophy as training volume (i.e., number of sets performed) increases (Kraemer 1997;Kraemer et al. 2000;Marx et al. 2001;Goto et al. 2004). Although major health organizations such as the American College of Sports Medicine have recommended a multitude of loading and volume strategies in a periodized manner for advanced hypertrophy training, the moderate-to-high intensity range (6-12 RM) has been regarded as an effective hypertrophy training zone that thought to provide a sufficient balance of mechanical and metabolic stress to the trainee . ...
... Em recente artigo de revisão, Willardson [20] cita alguns estudos [21][22][23] que pesquisaram a influência do intervalo de recuperação sobre o desempenho da força muscular, sendo advinda da maior utilização da fonte de energia por parte dos fosfagênios de alta energia (CP). b) FNP X Força Máxima: FNP exerce influência sobre a força máxima? ...
Article
Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi verificar os efeitos agudos da facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva (FNP) na força dinâmica máxima e se ocorre tendência de aumento da força com repetição dos testes. Método: Vinte indivíduos foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupo 1 (G1) e grupo 2 (G2). O G1 e o G2 realizaram as tarefas, de maneira inversa, em dois dias distintos da seguinte forma: 1º dia - realizaram um teste de uma repetição máxima para verificação da carga máxima. Após 5 minutos de descanso foi aplicada uma intervenção de técnicas de facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva e imediatamente após a aplicação um novo teste de 1RM era aplicado (FNP 1RM). Após um intervalo de 10 minutos, foi realizado um reteste de 1RM (FNP 1RM 10 min). 2º dia - após um período de 48 horas de descanso, foram realizados os mesmos procedimentos sem que houvesse a intervenção da FNP. Resultados: Os resultados demonstram que a FNP afetou negativamente a força (p < 0,05) e que os testes de 1RM possuem alto coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, tanto no mesmo dia (R = 0,998886) quanto 48 horas após (R = 0,996746). Conclusão: Conclui-se que a FNP afeta negativamente a força quando imediatamente após sua aplicação e a reprodutibilidade dos testes de 1RM é alta quando aplicados no mesmo dia e 48 horas após.Palavras-chave: força muscular, flexibilidade.
... Outro grande questionamento sobre o uso do teste de 1RM é sobre as alterações da carga provocadas com diferentes populações [4], diferentes idades [6], grupamento muscular utilizado [1] e a confi abilidade inter e intra-avaliadores [4]. O intervalo de recuperação é outra importante variável podendo-se comprometer o desenvolvimento da força [7]. Em condições de intervalos mais longos permitiram-se volumes de repetições mais elevadas [8]. ...
Article
O presente estudo verifi cou se 10 minutos de intervalo no teste de 1RM foram sufi cientes para a recuperação total de força e fidedignidade de seu re-teste 10 minutos após sua aplicação. A amostra foi composta de 20 homens saudáveis e treinados, sem histórico de lesão, com média de idade (23,5 ± 3,69), peso (73,1 kg ± 9,93) e estatura (1,76 m ± 0,05). Para analisar o intervalo de recuperação entre os testes de 1RM utilizou-se um teste t pareado, já para a análise da fidedignidade utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação intra-classe (CCI) para determinar a consistência interna. Somente foi verifi cado um alto índice de CCI, atingindo a fidedignidade (p = 0,000). Conclui-se que o teste de 1RM realizado em um mesmo dia e 10 minutos após apresenta um alto índice de CCI para o exercício de supino em homens familiarizados ao teste, mostrando-se sufi ciente para o intervalo de recuperação para restabelecimento total da força.Palavras-chave: intervalo de recuperação, consistência interna, força, 1RM.
... Une multitude d'études ont démontré qu'un entrainement comprenant plusieurs séries entraine un meilleur gain en force qu'un entrainement à une seule série (Fleck et Kraemer, 2014 ;Kraemer, 1997 ;Rhea et coll., 2002). Néanmoins, ces divers travaux ne quantifient pas le nombre de séries nécessaires pour un gain optimal. ...
Thesis
Une nouvelle méthode de musculation, appelée méthode 3/7, consistant à réaliser 5 séries en escalier (de 3 à 7 répétitions) avec une charge de 70 % d’une répétition maximale (1RM) espacées d’un temps de récupération court (15 secondes) s’avère plus efficace pour augmenter la force musculaire qu’une méthode classique (à nombre de répétitions constant) avec un temps de récupération long (150 secondes ; Laurent et coll., 2016). L’intérêt de cette méthode est de combiner l’utilisation de charges modérées tout en induisant une réponse métabolique importante (Penzer et coll., 2016). Au regard du gain de temps que procure cette méthode, elle pourrait être intégrée dans la préparation physique de sportifs, mais également de personnes prises en charge dans le cadre d’une revalidation.Dès lors, l’objectif général de ce travail de thèse a été d’étudier l’efficacité de la méthode 3/7 sur les gains de force et sur les adaptations musculaires et plus spécifiquement de mieux comprendre les facteurs responsables de celle-ci. A cet effet, trois principaux projets ont été élaborés. Le premier avait pour objectif d’optimiser l’efficacité de la méthode 3/7 en investiguant les gains de force maximale, ainsi que les adaptations neurophysiologiques et musculaires sous-jacentes suite à 12 semaines d’entrainement des muscles fléchisseurs du coude. Lors du deuxième projet, l’effet aigu de la méthode 3/7 sur les dommages musculaires, les réponses inflammatoires, hormonales, et métaboliques y compris celles sur le stress oxydant a été évalué à la suite d’une séance de renforcement musculaire composée de quatre exercices (le développé couché, l’extension de jambes à la presse inclinée, le tirage horizontal et la flexion plantaire). Enfin, le troisième projet a permis de suivre l’évolution des réponses biochimiques aigües, des adaptations musculaires et des adaptations nerveuses, ainsi que de la force suite à cette méthode au cours de 22 séances d’entrainement composées des mêmes exercices que ceux du projet 2. Lors de nos 3 projets, la méthode 3/7 a toujours été comparée à une méthode dite classique à charge constante et de volume de travail total similaire mais avec une récupération plus longue (méthode 8x6).Les gains de force maximale ont été déterminés par des contractions volontaires maximales isométriques (CVMI) et la charge maximale mobilisée, lors de 1RM ou de 3RM. L’évolution des paramètres neurophysiologiques a principalement été étudiée par l’activité électromyographique (EMG), l’onde motrice maximale (Mmax) ainsi que le niveau d’activation volontaire maximale (AV). Pour les paramètres biochimiques, nous avons réalisé des analyses des marqueurs sanguins du stress oxydant, du stress métabolique, des dommages musculaires, de la réponse inflammatoire et de la réponse hormonale. Enfin, pour les paramètres musculaires, des mesures échographiques ont été effectuées, et l’évaluation de la masse maigre et de la masse grasse a été déterminée par absorption bi-photonique à rayons X. De plus, le niveau d’oxygénation tissulaire a été mesuré via spectrométrie proche de l’infrarouge.La méthode 3/7 a induit un déficit d’oxygénation plus important que la méthode 8x6 (Projet 1) entrainant une augmentation de lactate et de testostérone dans le sang immédiatement après la séance tandis que les témoins des dommages musculaires (créatine kinase et myoglobine) ont augmenté de manière similaire suite aux 2 méthodes (Projet 2 et 3). Le lactate agirait sur la production d’espèces oxygénées activées (EOA), d’interleukine-6, de cortisol et de l’hormone de croissance qui induiraient à leur tour une augmentation des leucocytes (Projets 2 et 3). La méthode 3/7 a amélioré l’AV sans différence avec la méthode 8x6 (Projet 3) mais a aussi entrainé des adaptations musculaires et amélioré la force maximale (Projet 1 et 3) même si cette méthode n’est pas systématiquement plus efficace que la méthode 8x6 (Projet 3). Il est également à noter que la capacité du sujet à pouvoir réaliser seul le volume de travail imposé par la méthode 3/7 influencerait les adaptations à l’entrainement (Projet 3).Il convient de souligner que l’évolution des paramètres biochimiques n’implique pas une relation directe de cause à effet sur les adaptations musculaires. De plus, le stress métabolique lors de la méthode 3/7 ne semble pas induire systématiquement un effet supplémentaire à la signalisation intramusculaire d’origine mécanique. La synthèse protéique myofibrillaire pourrait atteindre un niveau de saturation de la réponse anabolique suite à la signalisation intramusculaire d’origine mécanique. D’autre part, les divergences des résultats entre nos différents projets pourraient provenir des variabilités inter-individuelles. Les facteurs individuels intrinsèques seraient des déterminants plus importants pour développer la masse musculaire que les paramètres extrinsèques d’un programme d’entrainement. En conclusion, la méthode 3/7 induit des adaptations similaires ou plus importantes qu’une méthode classique (méthode 8x6) mais avec une durée d’entrainement 3 à 4 fois moindre.
... In addition, a study by Schwendner et al. (1995) indicated that the ability to recover neuromuscular actions, active muscle tension, and hemostatic metabolic processes are a time-related procedure. These data corroborate with other studies conducted to date, which also found more repetitions performed when the rests applied were longer (Kraemer, 1997;Richmond & Godard,2004;Willardson & Burkett, 2005;Willardson & Burkett, 2006;Willardson & Burkett, 2006b). ...
Conference Paper
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Proceedings of the 7th and 8th International Symposium on Strength & Conditioning (2018). Motricidade, 15(2-3), 1-48.
... En la actualidad, los entrenamientos para el desarrollo de la fuerza son tema de debate debido a la gran variedad de metodologías que se aplican en busca de mejores resultados en el ámbito deportivo. Tradicionalmente, se ha considerado para el desarrollo de la fuerza el control de la intensidad del esfuerzo a partir de la carga desplazada (modelo tradicional, Repetición máxima) (Kraemer, 1997). Esta metodología consiste en alcanzar el máximo nivel de fuerza y potencia posible en un tiempo concreto y determinado por una competición importante. ...
Article
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Objetivo: identificar los efectos en el aumento de una repetición máxima en el ejercicio de press banca plana. Metodología: el estudio se realizó con universitarios, jugadores de futbol sala, con quienes se aplicaron dos metodologías de entrenamiento, una enfocada en el control de la intensidad por la carga desplazada, y otra controlando la intensidad a partir de la velocidad de ejecución, durante un periodo de 8 semanas de entrenamiento. Para la estimación de la repetición máxima se usó el T Force como herramienta de medición de la fuerza de cada jugador. Resultados: los deportistas del grupo experimental (control de la intensidad a partir de velocidad de ejecución) lograron cambios significativos en la fuerza, específicamente en sus miembros superiores (brazos, pectoral, espalda, etc.) indicando que el entrenamiento controlando la velocidad manifiesta diferencias en la repetición máxima.
... Once the (raw) EMG signal was recorded for each evaluated muscle, it was normalized through root mean square (RMS) transformation for further treatment and calculation of the variables [45]. To determine the MVIC of each muscle, the maximum peak was calculated in microvolts (mV), which were recorded at intervals of 1 second, in the 2 repetitions of the maximum isometric contractions that were performed [46]. To determine and extract the values of the sEMG signal from each repetition per muscle, the knee flexion-extension values of the dominant limb were used as the starting and ending reference for each repetition and were recorded by an electrogoniometer (Biometrics Ltd., Newport, United Kingdom) that was connected and synchronized to the Mega WBA EMG console (Mega Electronics; Kuopia, Finland). ...
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The Monopodal Squat, Forward Lunge and Lateral Step-Up exercises are commonly performed with one's own body weight for rehabilitation purposes. However, muscle activity evaluated using surface electromyography has never been analyzed among these three exercises. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate the amplitude of the EMG activity of the gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscles in participants performing the Lateral Step-Up, Forward Lunge and Monopodal Squat exercises. A total of 20 physically active participants (10 men and 10 women) performed 5 repetitions at 60% (5 repetition maximum) in each of the evaluated exercises. The EMG amplitude was calculated in percentage of the maximum voluntary contraction. The Monopodal Squat exercise showed a higher EMG activity (p ≤ 0.001) in relation to the Lateral Step-Up and Forward Lunge exercises in all of the evaluated muscles (d > 0.6) except for the rectus femoris. The three exercises showed significantly higher EMG activity in all of the muscles that were evaluated in the concentric phase in relation to the eccentric one. In the three evaluated exercises, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis showed the highest EMG activity, followed by gluteus medius and gluteus maximus. The Monopodal Squat, Forward Lunge and Lateral Step-Up exercises not only are recommended for their rehabilitation purposes but also should be recommended for performance objectives and strength improvement in the lower limbs.
... While some literature indicated that single exercise sets produce similar adaptations to multiple sets [195][196][197][198][199][200], a larger body of literature indicates that multiple sets produce greater hypertrophy, strength, and power adaptations [189,[201][202][203][204][205][206][207][208][209][210][211][212][213][214][215][216]. It should be noted, however, that an athlete's training status, as well as the dose-response relationship for muscular strength development, must be taken into consideration [183,217]. ...
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This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete’s training status and the dose–response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete’s training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should investigate how best to implement accentuated eccentric loading and variable resistance training and examine how initial strength affects an athlete’s ability to improve their performance following various training methods.
... Increased testosterone after RE plays an important role in adaptation and muscle growth of skeletal muscle. Previous studies related to various exercise training methods have shown that changes in resting concentration related to the acute response of growth hormone or the ratio of testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone / cortisol are closely related to changes in muscle size and muscle strength [11,33,34]. ...
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Background and Study Aim: Taekwondo, including martial art competitions, involve explosive and quick movements of the lower extremities and thus, require a high contribution of the anaerobic energy system. Previous findings indicate preferential use of anaerobic or lactic acid system in taekwondo including martial art competitions. The aim of this study was the knowledge about hormonal such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), testosterone and cortisol responses between taekwondo fighting simulation (TFS) and traditional resistance exercise (RE) in elite taekwondo athletes. Material and Methods: Eight Korea Armed Forces Athletic Corps taekwondo athletes participated in our randomized cross-over study, during three separate visits by a period of 7 days. Visit 1: measured of 1 repetition-maximum and given informed; visit 2 and visit 3: 1) 2 sets of 8-reptition maximum each of squat, hip-abduction and leg-extension exercises or 2) a TFS similar to a real taekwondo match consisting of 3 rounds of 2 minutes were undertaken by the participants. Blood samples were taken to determine insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), testosterone and cortisol concentrations during pre exercise, immediate post exercise, and 15 minutes post exercise. Results: IGF-1 concentration was greater at immediate post-exercise than pre exercise (p = 0.02) and post-15m (p = 0.003) after TFS, but any significant change was not detected after RE. Cortisol concentration was lower at immediate post-exercise than pre- (p = 0.006) and at post-15m than pre- (p = 0.014) after RE, but any significant change was not detected after TFS. Testosterone concentration was greater at immediate post exercise than pre- (p = 0.003) and reduced at post-15 minutes than immediate post exercise (p = 0.002) in the both type of exercise. Conclusion: Taekwondo competition affects hormonal response is similar to after resistance training in elite taekwondo athletes. Future studies are required to compare the hormonal responses by setting the same energy consumption of TFS and RE. It is also important to study the differences in hormone changes with respect to physical abilities of individuals.
... In comparison to linear and non-periodised training models, DUP has been proposed to offer equal, if not greater, improvements in physical performance. 20,21,22,33,54 The progressive overload of a given motor attribute during DUP is not achieved on a day-to-day basis as the training stimulus is too varied. As such, progressive overload is achieved during a subsequent training session with a similar focus. ...
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Modern military operations place unique and intense physiological and psychological demands upon the soldier. In order to help adapt to and cope with such demands, a high level of physical preparedness must be seen as a fundamental requirement of all military personnel. Indeed, the modern soldier needs to be more agile, more capable, more able to survive and more resilient than the enemy in order to ensure victory on the battlefield. Soldiers who are physically fit can be seen as a critical force multiplier. Not only do they demonstrate improved mission performance, but they may also be more resilient for both the physical and psychological demands of sustained military operations. Furthermore, physically fit soldiers may be less susceptible to injury and demonstrate better physical and mental health over the long term than less fit individuals.
... That is, very little research has studied the effect of different rest intervals on the development of maximal strength and power. However, there is a general consensus when using traditional, or continuous, type loading schemes that reduced rest periods increase the metabolic demands and reduce the muscle's force production capability (14,15). ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the acute kinematic, kinetic, and blood lactate responses to continuous and intraset rest loading schemes that differed in terms of rest frequency but not total rest duration. Nine male subjects performed an isoinertial bench press task (6 repetition maximum load) with a continuous, an intraset rest equated by total rest time, volume, and load (ISRV), and an intraset rest equated by total rest time and load (ISRR) loading scheme. The scheme order was assigned in a block-randomized order with a minimum of 48 hours of recovery between testing sessions. Attached to the bar of the Smith machine was a linear position transducer that measured vertical displacement with an accuracy of 0.01 cm. Displacement data was sampled at 1,000 Hz and collected by a laptop computer running custom-built data acquisition software. Finger prick blood lactate samples were taken from the nondominant hand before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 5, 15 and 30 minutes after exercise. Blood glucose samples were taken before exercise only. It was observed that manipulating the rest period, by increasing the frequency but decreasing the length of each rest period, did not significantly influence the kinematics and kinetics associated with resistance training, but did have an effect on the postexercise blood lactate response when the load, rest duration, and training volume were equated (ISRV). This finding may be of practical significance if fatigue is important in strength development or conversely if power training requires minimal fatigue. It was also observed that increasing the frequency of the rest period enabled the subjects to perform a greater number of repetitions (ISRR), resulting in significantly greater kinematics, kinetics, and blood lactate accumulation.
... Hierzu wurden Gleichungen konzipiert, die aus der Wiederholungszahl eine Ableitung des 1-RM ermöglichen sollen (vgl. KRAVITZ et al. 2003;LANDER 1985;LESUER et al. 1997;WARE et al. 1995 KIESER 1998;KRAEMER 1997;PHILIPP 1999a;SANBORN et al. 1998 Einsatztraining. KRAEMER (1997) Innerhalb von drei Monaten kam es zu einer Steigerung des 1-RM beim Bankdrücken in der low-volume Gruppe von 22 ± 2 kg auf 25 ± 2 kg. ...
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Discussing concepts behind testing and use of isometric testing
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O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a influência de três diferentes intervalos de recuperação no desempenho da força. Participaram do experimento 10 homens (27,5 ± 7,72 anos; 77,43 ± 13,27 kg; 174 ± 5 cm) treinados. Na primeira visita, os indivíduos executaram o teste de 10RM, e após 48h foram reavaliados. A aplicação do teste 10RM obedeceu a seguinte ordem: supino horizontal (SH), cadeira extensora (CE) e rosca bíceps (RB). Posteriormente, os indivíduos foram testados em apenas um intervalo nas três séries em cada dia. Para o tratamento dos dados utilizou-se uma ANOVA de duas entradas para medidas repetidas em associação ao teste post-hoc de Tukey. Comparando o número de repetições dos três exercícios, todas as séries comparadas à série anterior apresentaram redução no número de repetições (p<0,05). Os dados desse estudo sugerem que intervalos de recuperação de 45, 90 e 120 s, apresentam redução do número de repetições máximas com a evolução das séries, em todos os intervalos de recuperação estudados. Palavras-chave: Força muscular. Séries múltiplas. Exercícios resistidos.
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The inclusion of resistance training in the athletic preparation of young athletes is associated with increased time and personal demands. This study compared the effect of different rest interval (RI) lengths on quarter-squat performance in two age groups. Sixteen girls (age 12.20 ± 0.55) and 16 women (age 23.13 ± 2.23) performed three series of 10 quarter squats (10 repetition maximum [RM] load) with different RI times (1 min, 2 min, 3 min) between the three series. Each participant was randomly tested under all the RI conditions. The number of successful repetitions, power, and speed were recorded for each set using by FitroDyne device. The women completed significantly less repetitions in the third set than in the first set for the 2-min and 1-min RIs (9.38 ± 1.54, p = .05 and 8.44 ± 2.42; p = .003, respectively). There was observed a significant decrease in mean power and speed in the 3-min RI between the first and second set and in the 1-min RI between the first and third sets. No significant differences in numbers of completed repetitions and mean power were evident in girls for any RI condition, but there was a significant decrease in mean velocity in the 2-min RI between the first and second sets in this group. These results show that recommendations for adults may be not suitable for girls; the girls’ performance in three sets of 10 quarter squats was less affected by RI than the women’s performance.
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Rodrigues B, Maior AS, Sakugawa R, Bezerra E. Acute Effects of Fixed Rest Time during Multiple Sets on Upper Limbs Performance. JEPonline 2018;21(3):86-93. This study analyzed the acute effects of a 2-min rest interval on range of motion (ROM), blood lactate, and myoelectric activation (sEMG). Ten healthy resistance-trained men participated in the experimental protocol. Previously, they performed test and retest of 10RM (repetition maximum) on bench press (BP). After 48 hrs, the myoelectric activation on upper trunk and arm muscles; ROM elbow flexion; and blood lactate level were monitored before, during, and after 3 sets of BP with a 2-min rest interval between sets. Triceps brachii sEMG showed a decrease in set 2 and set 3 when compared to set 1 (P<0.05). Rectus abdominis sEMG increased in set 3 when compared to sets 1 and 2 (P<0.05). There were no significant differences on myoelectric activity for the pectoralis major and anterior deltoid between sets (P>0.05) and phases (P>0.05), respectively. Elbow flexion showed a higher ROM during set 1 when compared to sets 2 and 3 (P<0.05). Elbow extension showed no significant difference between sets (P>0.05). Blood lactate showed increase over the periods (set 3> set 2> set 1> rest, P<0.05). Absolute load volume was lower in set 3 in relation to set 2 and set 1 (P<0.05). We conclude that the fixed interval of 2 min is not sufficient to control for reduction in performance during bench press with load of 10RM. Thus, we suggest a rest time >2 min for better performance in this specific exercise for multiple sets.
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Periodization schedules training periods according to predicted timings of cumulative adaptations and has been at the foundation of exercise prescription. Recently, a selected body of work has highlighted that original research may be providing support for variation, but not for periodized variation. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the timings of expected adaptations have not been tested. However, it is not clear if these problems are present in meta-analyses on the subject, since they might have selected a distinct body or work. Therefore, our goal was to systematically review meta-analyses on exercise periodization, to verify whether the included periodized programs have been contrasted to two types of non-periodized programs (i.e., constant or varied) and also if the predictions concerning cumulative adaptations were tested. Data sources: Cochrane, EBSCO (Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SportDISCUS), ISI Web of Knowledge, PEDro, PubMed, Scielo, Scopus. Study eligibility criteria: Meta-analyses comparing periodized exercise programs with non-periodized programs. Participants and interventions: Humans following any form of training periodization. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: A checklist was used to verify whether studies included in the meta-analyses compared periodized to constant or varied, non-periodized programs, as well as whether predictions concerning the timing of adaptations were tested. None of the 21 studies included in the two meta-analyses compared periodized programs with varied, non-periodized programs. The accuracy of the predictions concerning the proposed timings of adaptations was not scrutinized by any of the 21 studies. The studies in question have focused only on strength training, meaning they are limited in scope. The limitations found in these meta-analyses suggest that consultation of original research on the subject is advisable. Systematic review registration number (PROSPERO): CRD42018111338.
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Hernandez, DJ, Healy, S, Giacomini, ML, and Kwon, YS. Effect of rest interval duration on the volume completed during a high-intensity bench press exercise. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Between-set rest intervals (RIs) are one of the most important variables in resistance training; however, no known research has investigated the effects of RIs greater than 5 minutes during high-intensity strength training. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of 3 different RIs on repetition sustainability and training volume (sets × reps × resistance) during a high-intensity bench press exercise. Fifteen resistance-trained male subjects (mean ± SD, age = 25.5 ± 4.5 years, and bench press 1 repetition maximum [1RM] ratio [1RM/body mass] = 1.39 ± 0.1) completed 3 experimental sessions, during which 4 sets of the bench press were performed with 85% of 1RM load. Subjects performed the bench press using 3 different RIs in a random counterbalanced design. Data were analyzed using both a one- and two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. As sets progressed, repetitions were significantly different (p < 0.05) between all RIs, and only the 8-minute RI (p < 0.05) allowed for the complete sustainability of repetitions over 4 consecutive sets. Subjects attained the greatest training volume (p < 0.05) using an 8-minute RI between sets compared with a 2- or 5-minute RI. Similarly, a significantly greater training volume was achieved using the 5-minute RI compared with the 2-minute RI. Resistance-trained men, with the goal of greater volume during strength training, would benefit from longer RIs, specifically using an 8-minute RI between 4 consecutive sets of a bench press exercise.
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An investigation into the effect of a block periodisation system in an elite olympic sprinter over the duration of three competitive seasons.
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Background: This study compared the effects of plyometric training (PT) and virtual training (VT) on physical and functional performance. Methods: Fifty-five moderately-trained women participated in this randomized, controlled, prospective study. The subjects were randomly assigned to VT (n=20), PT (n=18), and control (CG, n=17) groups. The VT was performed using the Your Body Shape Fitness Evolved 2012TM exergame in an Xbox360/KineticTM environment. The PT was based on the methods used in previous studies. Both interventions were performed 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Participants in the CG were not submitted to any type of intervention. Physical performance (fitness and athleticism levels) was assessed using the Nike+ Kinetic TrainingTM exergame in an Xbox360/KineticTM environment. Functional performance was assessed using the shuttle run (SR), triple hop test (THT), and six-meter timed hop test (STHT). Results: Post-intervention fitness and athleticism levels were significantly greater in VT (P < 0.001 and P = 0.009) and in PT (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003) than baselines values. Only VT post-intervention fitness level was significantly greater compared to CG (P = 0.03). Postintervention SR values were significantly lower than baselines values in all groups (P <0.001). VT (P = 0.08) and PT (P = 0.006) post-intervention values were significantly lower compared to CG. Post-intervention THT values were significantly greater than baselines values in VT and PT (P < 0.001). VT (P = 0.04 - dominant limb) and PT (P = 0.003 -dominant limb and P = 0.03 - non-dominant limb) post-intervention values were significantly greater compared to CG. Post-intervention STHT values were significantly lower than baselines values in VT (P < 0.001), PT (P < 0.001) and CG (P = 0.01-0.02). PT post-intervention dominant (P = 0.01) and non-dominant (P = 0.03) limb values were significantly lower compared to CG. Conclusions: Both VT and PT are beneficial for improving physical and functional performance. Therefore, VT might be a new tool that can be used for physical exercise practice and conditioning training in moderately-trained women.
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Background and Aim: The effect of periodization has been confirmed on the training adaptations; but the most effective approach are not known well for strength and endurance development for a wide variety of populations; therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of linear periodized (LP) and Nonlinear periodized (NLP) resistance training on muscular strength and endurance in untrained adolescence girls. Materials and Methods: A number of 23 untrained adolescence girls were randomly assigned into 3 groups including control group, LP group, and NLP group. The linear model of periodization include a volume decrease and an intensity gradually increase as training progressive and the nonlinear model of periodization includes an increase and decrease of the intensity and volume training, respectively during cycles training. 48 hours before and after 8 weeks protocols, the upper and lower body muscular strength were assessed via 1RM leg press and bench press movements respectively, and lower and upper body muscular endurance were measured through push up and squat movement, respectively as well. The data was analyzed using ANCOVA test and the significance level was considered if p<0.05. Results: Data analysis showed that LP and NLP significantly increased upper and lower body muscular strength, upper body muscular endurance (p<0.001), lower body muscular endurance (p=0.01 ), and decrease body fat percent (p=0.04). In addition, LP led to more increase in lower body muscular strength (p=0.04), and NLP led to more increase in upper body muscular endurance (p=0.03), while there was no significant difference in explosive power (p=0.07), upper body muscular strength (p=0.88), lower body muscular endurance (p=0.99) and body fat percent (p=0.64) between LP and NLP groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Although muscular strength and endurance are improved by the LP and NLP models; the LP model is better training method to improve lower body muscular strength and NLP model is a more approach to improve upper body muscular endurance in untrained adolescence girls, although strength and endurance of muscles are improved in the result of LP and NLP models.
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Endogenous hormones are essential for physiological reactions and influence the adaptation to weightlifting training by modulating anabolic and catabolic processes. It seems that testosterone and cortisol are playing a key role in anabolic and catabolic processes in resistance training. Eight elite Czech and Slovak weightlifters volunteered in present study. The testosterone and cortisol were measured in 4 testing sessions over 18 weeks during preparation and competition period. The training protocol consisted of three specific weightlifting exercises. The saliva samples were collected in 4 testing sessions, pre and 5 min, 15 min and 30 min after protocol, respectively. The basal level of salivary testosterone and cortisol remains unchanged during preparation and competition period. Also, acute testosterone response was not observed over the monitored period. However, acute decrease of cortisol were found between pre intervention and post 5 (p ≤ 0.01), 15 (p ≤ 0.01), and 30 min (p ≤ 0.05) during preparation periods. While in competition period was found significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) only 5 min after testing protocol. The testosterone/cortisol ratio significantly increased during preparation periods (p ≤ 0.01), but not in competition period. Results indicated that the routine assessment of testosterone and cortisol may provide an effective way to monitor acute and chronic adaptive response to weightlifting training. Our results suggest that cortisol, not the testosterone is an important component of adaptation during elite weightlifting training.
This study investigated whether isokinetic strength training might induce changes in static and dynamic power already achieved as a result of isometric strength training. The subjects were twelve males. The isometric strength and dynamic power of elbow flexors were tested by means of an electric dynamometer and fly-wheel every two weeks. During the first 8 weeks all subjects trained the elbow flexors isometrically at four different positions of elbow joints. This training produced 27-36% gains in isometric strength and 34-46% in power. Thereafter the subjects were divided into two groups: the FG group who trained isokinetically at a fast velocity of 157 degrees . s-1, and the SG group at slow velocity of 73 degrees . s-1. After 6 weeks of training, the FG group produced a significant gain in power with light equivalent masses and the SG group did so with heavy equivalent masses. Neither group showed change in isometric strength.