Article

Spectrum of abdominal pathologies detected with CT in long term dialysis patients

Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak cad. No. 45, Bahcelievler/Ankara, Turkey.
European journal of radiology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 09/2008; 72(2):306-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.07.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

As a consequence of the expanded use of long term hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) treatments and extended life spans, complications of end-stage renal disease and dialysis treatments are being encountered with increasing frequency in these patients. Computed tomography can accurately depict many of the potential complications of end-stage renal disease on dialysis. This article presents the abdominal CT findings of 429 end-stage renal disease patients who are on either hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treatment.

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the frequency of non-traumatic acute abdominal emergencies in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD)) patients and in the general population as diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) imaging. The abdominal CT findings of ESRD patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain during the years 2001-2010 have been retrospectively evaluated. Thirty-three HD (14 females, 19 males, mean age: 62 ± 10.5) and 22 PD patients (12 females, 10 males, mean age: 59 ± 9.4) with acute abdominal pathology based on their CT scans have been included into the study. In addition, 127 individuals (68 females, 59 males, mean age: 40.7 ± 12.8) with normal renal functions who presented with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain diagnosed with an acute abdominal pathology based on their CT scans have been prospectively evaluated during the years 2009-2010. While the most frequent etiology in PD patients was peritonitis (45.4%), acute pancreatitis (13.6%) and perforation (18.1), and in HD patients it was nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (18.1%) and spontaneous intraabdominal bleeding (21.2%). The basic causes of acute abdomen in the general population were ureteral stone (34.6%) and appendicitis (18.1%). The causes of acute abdominal pain in ESRD patients is significantly different when compared to the general population. And within this special patient population the etiology of acute abdomen differs depending on the renal replacement therapy modality they are receiving. Thus, the causes of acute abdomen in PD patients are mostly peritonitis, acute pancreatitis, and perforation, while being mostly nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia and spontaneous intraabdominal bleeding in patients receiving HD therapy.
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