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Weightlifting Movements: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks?

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Abstract

THIS ARTICLE FIRST DEFINES THE SPORT OF WEIGHTLIFTING SO THE READER HAS A CLEAR IDEA OF THE ACTIVITY. WE INCLUDE A DETAILED LOOK OF THE POTENTIAL BENEFITS THAT CAN BE DERIVED FROM INCLUDING WEIGHTLIFTING MOVEMENTS IN THE TRAINING PROGRAMS OF ATHLETES FROM A VARIETY OF SPORTS. FINALLY, A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE EVALUATING THE INJURY RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH PERFORMANCE OF THE WEIGHTLIFTING MOVEMENTS IS PRESENTED. THE GOAL IS TO PROVIDE STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACHES WITH RELEVANT INFORMATION SO THAT THEY CAN MAKE AN INFORMED DECISION REGARDING INCLUSION OF THE WEIGHTLIFTING MOVEMENTS IN THE TRAINING PROGRAMS OF THEIR ATHLETES.

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... to have performance enhancement benefits for a variety of athletes (14). In addition to these WMs, derivatives including the front squat, back squat, and overhead squat can provide an appropriate training stimulus for the athletic development in many athletes if performed properly (20,26). Unfortunately, the fear of injury while performing these WMs may deter some athletes from implementing them in a strength and conditioning program. ...
... Although injuries can be common in sport and training (14), appropriate strengthening programs have been suggested as tools to decrease this injury risk (14,20). In the field of strength and conditioning, physical therapists, athletic trainers, strength coaches, and other health professionals are well suited to understand the demands WMs place on the body, and specifically, the joints. ...
... The jerk and snatch provide the development of muscle synchronization, coordination, power, speed, and strength (20,26) that can carry over into most sports. The jerk and snatch lifts require an athlete to move a load from either the shoulder or ground to an overhead position, respectively. ...
Article
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Not all who perform or coach weightlifting movements (WM) like the clean & jerk and snatch are aware of the mobility requirements needed to perform the movements correctly and safely. Currently, no succinct assessment exists designed to evaluate all the range of motion requirements needed to perform these WM. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the joint and biomechanical forces experienced during WM and to propose assessment measures that attempt to objectively pair the motion requirements of WM with research-supported values and tests to determine if an athlete has the requisite motion available to perform a technique before adding an external load.
... Hang snatches are variations of the snatch where the starting position of the barbell is above the lifter's knees. This initial configuration of the body helps the lifter achieve triple extension, that is extension in the hip, knee, and ankle joints [11,17,[19][20]. A smaller difference between the starting and finishing position of the barbell makes it easier to master the technique of performing the hang snatch and the hang power snatch. ...
... A smaller difference between the starting and finishing position of the barbell makes it easier to master the technique of performing the hang snatch and the hang power snatch. Owing to the fact that these exercises do not include the technically difficult elements that are characteristic of the snatch, they are recommended for athletes with shorter training experience, and their use increases the strength and power capacities of the muscles [15,20]. ...
... An unquestionable advantage of using the snatch and its variations in the training of weightlifters and athletes practicing other disciplines is that it helps them master the habit of triple extension [1,17,[19][20]. Since at the beginning of hang snatches, the muscles of the lower limbs and trunk work in isometric conditions [38], the strength of these muscles was assessed using the isometric peak torque of these muscles. The isometric peak relative torque values of the knee extensors ranged from 4.98 ± 0.76 Nm/kg (M 1 ) to 5.55 ± 1.08 Nm/kg (M 7 ) and approximately corresponded with the mean values of this torque (4.86 Nm/kg) measured for the joint angle of 96˚in recreational weightlifters aged 39.2 years [4]. ...
Article
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The primary aim of the current study was to determine the time curves of changes in the record scores in the snatch and its variations during a two-year training cycle in young weightlifters. This study also aimed at assessing the ratios between these scores and at predicting the snatch record scores at the end of the subsequent annual training macrocycle. The final purpose was to compare the record scores with the isometric peak torque values of the trunk and knee extensors. The study involved 16 weightlifters who were tested seven times at three-month intervals. The overall mean ratios of the record scores in the hang snatch to those in the snatch and the record scores in the hang power snatch to those in the snatch were approximately constant and amounted to 0.95 and 0.79, respectively. The overall mean ratio between the scores in the power snatch to those in the snatch was approximately 0.88. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between the individual time trajectories of record scores in the snatch and its derivatives were identified in two consecutive annual training macrocycles. The error in predicting record results at the end of the following annual training macrocycle was 6.7 ± 4.7% or 8.1 ± 3.4% depending on the way the measurement data were modeled. The results of the study also indicate that the measurements of the isometric peak torque of the trunk extensors performed in laboratory conditions can be useful in diagnosing the strength capacity of young weightlifters.
... Overload refers to the manipulation of the training stimulus (weight, speed, and duration), so as to enable a greater than normal effort (35). Although some would contend that exercises cannot replicate sport movements, it is commonly accepted that exercises selected based on their similarity to sport movements, particularly in the strength/power training program of athletes, are beneficial (36). ...
... Weightlifting, often referred to as Olympic-style lifting, is one of the most accepted methods to enhance power output among athletes. Because the exercises involve rapid acceleration against resistance throughout the movement, power outputs are quite high (35,36,40,66). Indeed, the snatch and clean and jerk afford the highest power outputs recorded in sport (23,25) (Figures 1-6). ...
... Indeed, the snatch and clean and jerk afford the highest power outputs recorded in sport (23,25) (Figures 1-6). Given the intent to move the load as quickly as possible, weightlifting exercises stimulate greater motor unit synchronization and therefore improve the ability to generate power (30,36,60). The high levels of force development as well as improved muscle action speed associated with weightlifting can enhance performance in sports that require explosive dynamic movements, including volleyball (23,25,33,35,36,48,60). ...
Article
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VOLLEYBALL IS AN EXPLOSIVE SPORT IN WHICH A SUCCESSFUL PERFORMANCE IS LARGELY DETERMINED BY THE CAPACITY TO DEMONSTRATE REPEATED BOUTS OF MAXIMAL OR NEAR MAXIMAL POWER. GIVEN THE RELATIVELY HIGH LEVELS OF FORCE BEING GENERATED AND ABSORBED, THE RISK FOR INJURY EXISTS WHEN PLAYING. THIS ARTICLE FOCUSES ON WEIGHTLIFTING AS THE PRIMARY MEANS WITH WHICH TO ADDRESS THOSE ATTRIBUTES THAT UNDERLIE PERFORMANCE AND REDUCE THE CHANCE FOR INJURY.
... The implementation of multi-segmental exercises is also used as a resource in some studies (Hoffman et al., 2004;Hedrik and Wada, 2008). Multi-segmental exercises are those that require simultaneous movement of several body segments at the same time (e.g., arms and legs) and can provide progression options for uni-segmental exercises (which mobilize only one body segment; La Scala Teixeira et al., 2017). ...
... Some examples commonly used in research and practical interventions of functional training are push press, clean high pull, and burpee. In addition to simulating daily life tasks that require simultaneous movements of the arms and legs (task-specific), multi-segmental exercises raise the level of stress on the neuromuscular and motor control systems, stimulating the concomitant development of strength, coordination, balance, mobility, and cardiorespiratory fitness (Hedrik and Wada, 2008). ...
... Other resources used less frequently in studies, but not less effective in increasing complexity, are (1) the unilateral or alternating execution of exercises, which increases the coordination level, also providing changes in the activation pattern of trunk stabilizer muscles ( Behm et al., 2005), (2) the execution of double task exercises, increasing the technical difficulty because the attentional focus is directed from the physical to a cognitive task (Silsupadol et al., 2009;Wollesen et al., 2017), (3) the performance of exercises with non-cyclical patterns of movement (e.g., Olympic style weightlifting), which elevates the level of coordination and improves motor control (Hedrik and Wada, 2008), and (4) exercises with visual deprivation, which increases the need for proprioception (somatosensory system) and contributes to the increase in the acute strength performance ( Maior et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Traditional training progressions have involved changes in volume, intensity and density (amount of work per period of time). An alternative, recently popular, and action specific (sport, work, activities of daily living) functional training progression involves alterations in the complexity of movement. Increased complexity modulates the technical difficulty level of the exercise. Technical challenges can include more task specific, multi-segmental, multi-planar, double task (cognitive and physical), non-cyclical, unilateral, or alternating execution of exercises, changes in movement velocity, instability and visual deprivation.
... Olympic lifting variations utilize the triple extension, which is the key to athletic power (Frounfelter, 2009;Channell & Barfield, 2008). During the triple extension the ankles, knees, and hips fully extend to generate a powerful movement (Frounfelter, 2009;Hendrick & Wada, 2008). Similar movements can be found on the football field when performing skills such as tackling another player or jumping to catch a pass, and because of this it is believed that specific Olympic weight lifting variations can be transferred to sports specific skills (Hendrick & Wada, 2008). ...
... During the triple extension the ankles, knees, and hips fully extend to generate a powerful movement (Frounfelter, 2009;Hendrick & Wada, 2008). Similar movements can be found on the football field when performing skills such as tackling another player or jumping to catch a pass, and because of this it is believed that specific Olympic weight lifting variations can be transferred to sports specific skills (Hendrick & Wada, 2008). However, if an athlete is unable to generate power, their abilities will be limited, thereby, ultimately affecting their performance (Arnheim & Prentice, 2000). ...
Article
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A stronger emphasis has been placed on increasing strength, power, size, and speed for today’s football player. The key to obtaining these abilities and skills are accomplished in the weight room. There are various types of lifting methods when it comes to resistance training (RT) for football. Two types of lifting styles that are often used for high school football weight training programs are the traditional lifting or core training programs and Olympic style lifting. It is thought that Olympic lifts help to increase power, which is something that can be transferred onto the playing field and help improve overall performance. This study compared two different styles of RT (traditional vs. Olympic) in North American High School football athletes in order to determine if one RT protocol was superior at improving measures of speed, strength, and power. Forty male, high school football players ranging from 14 to 18 years old participated in an eight week, off-season, early morning football resistance training program. Each participant was randomly selected into either the traditional resistance protocol (TR: n = 20) or Four Quarters protocol (FQ: n = 20) experimental groups. The players each had the same weight lifting/conditioning routine, however, twice a week the FQ group performed an Olympic lift variation and the TR group performed a dead lift. Pre- and post-assessment scores were obtained and compared in the 1-RM squat, 1-RM power clean, vertical jump (VJ) and 9.14 meter sprint. Pre- post- scores were compared with in each group with a dependent t-test. A gain score was also calculated for each dependent variable (post-pre score) and compared between the experimental groups with an independent t-tests (p≤0.05). Both groups made improvements in pre to post assessments in the 1-RM squat, 1-RM power clean, and VJ (p<0.05). The gain scores for the 1-RM squat, 1-RM power clean were significantly greater for the FQ group (p<0.05). Neither group improved 9.14 meter sprint times (p>0.05). The results of this study are consistent with those found in previous literature demonstrating that increases in both the 1-RM squat and 1-RM power clean are better achieved using an Olympic lift variations when compared to using a traditional lifting method. Resistance training programs for athletes are designed with the goal of improving physical performance on the field of play. The results of this study suggest that improvements in muscular strength and power as measured by the 1-RM squat and 1-RM power clean are best achieved with a RT protocol that includes the Olympic lift variation of the power clean.
... Current evidence shows that implementing weightlifting training may be a good stimulus to develop rapid force production, maximal strength and power in a sporting population [23,55,88,104,[107][108][109]. Specifically, evidence suggests that weightlifting training enhances athletic performance that requires high-load speed strength [109]. ...
... The potential benefits of implementing WOPDs are not only to improve weightlifting performance, but also to enhance general sports performance, as discussed earlier. However, since many of the athletic population are not competitive weightlifters, they may not assume the same programming characteristics used by highly experienced weightlifters [88,104,108]. Consequently, adequate coaching and training strategies to implement WOPDs in a sports training programme remains to be determined. The actual programming of WOPDs adapted to a sports program depends on the sport, the desired objective, and the time of the year that it is taking place [53,54,88,104]. ...
Article
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This review examines the literature on weightlifting overhead pressing derivatives (WOPDs) and provides information regarding historical, technical, kinetic and kinematic mechanisms as well as potential benefits and guidelines to implement the use of WOPDs as training tools for sports populations. Only 13 articles were found in a search of electronic databases, which was employed to gather empirical evidence to provide an insight into the kinetic and kinematic mechanisms underpinning WOPDs. Practitioners may implement WOPDs such as push press, push jerk or split jerk from the back as well as the front rack position to provide an adequate stimulus to improve not only weightlifting performance but also sports performance as: (1) the use of WOPDs is an additional strategy to improve weightlifting performance; (2) WOPDs require the ability to develop high forces rapidly by an impulsive triple extension of the hips, knees and ankles, which is mechanically similar to many sporting tasks; (3) WOPDs may be beneficial for enhancing power development and maximal strength in the sport population; and, finally, (4) WOPDs may provide a variation in training stimulus for the sports population due to the technical demands, need for balance and coordination. The potential benefits highlighted in the literature provide a justification for the implementation of WOPDs in sports training. However, there is a lack of information regarding the longitudinal training effects that may result from implementing WOPDs.
... Weightlifting variations, such as hang cleans and hang snatches, are derivatives of full weightlifting movements that also involve triple extension with high velocity, high force loads. These weightlifting variations are often used in strength and conditioning programs, as these movements likely achieve the same goals, yet require less time for the athlete to learn and become proficient [14,[17][18][19][20]. ...
... In female athletes, the hang position has been shown to be faster and more power oriented than the more strength oriented first phase of the full pull [21][22][23][24]. For these reasons, many practitioners argue that hang cleans and hang snatches allow the athlete to produce a high rate of force development (RFD) and a high power output without completion of the more technical complete lift from the floor [14,[18][19][20]25]. ...
Article
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Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.
... The wide-ranging benefits of WLM are indisputable and documented more thoroughly elsewhere (12,19,43). Yet, some question their ability to improve jumping, especially when compared with BWJ. ...
... All work capacity movements should be primarily performed concentrically, in an effort to minimize muscular damage and soreness (rowing, cycling, sled pulling, etc.). For sample exercises for each movement see Table 4. learning of WLM (12,19,43). It should also be understood that as with the learning of any task, a small number of repetitions performed frequently and consistently throughout the year (during active recovery days or dynamic warmups, etc.) suitably develops aptitude and confidence. ...
Article
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Power and jumping ability correlate with sport performance. Improving maximal force and/or velocity increases power production, and therefore theoretically enhances game play. Coaches and researchers alike acknowledge that both jumping specific (e.g., plyometrics) and nonjumping activities (e.g., resistance training) function as valuable methods of increasing power. However, their efficacy and mechanisms of adaptation are often argued. this article presents a brief overview of vertical jumping, power, training modalities and provides a sample 12-week training cycle.
... Tuttavia, si crede che attraverso una corretta pianificazione si possano ottenere buoni risultati con l'allenamento della forza e persino con il sollevamento pesi 1,2 . La maggior parte dei ricercatori è concorde sul fatto che se il sollevamento pesi viene praticato con esercizi intensi che includono il sollevamento di un peso massimo sopra la testa, questo sarebbe troppo dannoso e comporterebbe conseguenze negative [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] . ...
... 1, 2 Yet, the majority of researchers maintain that if weightlifting is practiced applying intense exercises, which include lifting maximum weight over head it will be too dangerous and will have negative consequences. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] It is a general belief that intensive long-term exercises with heavy loads will have degenerative effects on the joints which are under the pressure. It is also stated that weightlifting exercises may render the weightlifters susceptible to spondylolis. ...
Article
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Aim. The objective of the present study was to compare the range of motion (ROM) of shoulder joint in movements (inward and outward rotation, abduction and extension) in active and former weightlifters, and ordinary people (nonweightlifters). Methods. For this purpose, 61 men aged 19-29 years from Golestan and Markazi provinces were selected using cluster random sampling and categorized in three groups, that is, active weightlifters (N.=23), former weightlifters (N.=18) and non-weightlifters (N.=20) who, then, participated in a causal-comparative study. Measurements were conducted using Universal goniometer as suggested in Norkin and White’s method (1995). Data analysis was carried out using paired t-test, ANOVA and LSD. Results. ROM of shoulder joint in active and former weightlifters was significantly less than in non-weightlifters (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between ROM of shoulder joint in active and former weightlifters (P<0.05). Conclusion. It could be concluded that ROM decrease among the weightlifters after they retire from this field might be expected.
... There are a number of benefits of performing weightlifting pulling derivatives as opposed to the full weightlifting movements. These benefits include evidence indicating that weightlifting pulling derivatives are less complex [60][61][62][63], are more time efficient with regard to teaching and learning [28,135], may potentially decrease the overall impact on the body [54], allow the greater ability to overload a number of fitness characteristics (e.g., peak force, RFD, velocity, and power) [2,60,65,66], and may be used in a variety of setrepetition configurations including strength-power potentiating complexes [129,[136][137][138]. ...
... The second benefit of implementing weightlifting pulling derivatives is that they can be more time efficient to teach and learn as compared with the full weightlifting movements. The full weightlifting movements are more timeconsuming to teach and learn as compared with a progression exercise or derivative that does not involve the catch phase [28,135]. Given the schedules of high school athletes and the current NCAA athlete time restrictions for collegiate athletes, practitioners must maximize quality training time for their athletes. ...
Article
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This review article examines previous weightlifting literature and provides a rationale for the use of weightlifting pulling derivatives that eliminate the catch phase for athletes who are not competitive weightlifters. Practitioners should emphasize the completion of the triple extension movement during the second pull phase that is characteristic of weightlifting movements as this is likely to have the greatest transference to athletic performance that is dependent on hip, knee, and ankle extension. The clean pull, snatch pull, hang high pull, jump shrug, and mid-thigh pull are weightlifting pulling derivatives that can be used in the teaching progression of the full weightlifting movements and are thus less complex with regard to exercise technique. Previous literature suggests that the clean pull, snatch pull, hang high pull, jump shrug, and mid-thigh pull may provide a training stimulus that is as good as, if not better than, weightlifting movements that include the catch phase. Weightlifting pulling derivatives can be implemented throughout the training year, but an emphasis and de-emphasis should be used in order to meet the goals of particular training phases. When implementing weightlifting pulling derivatives, athletes must make a maximum effort, understand that pulling derivatives can be used for both technique work and building strength–power characteristics, and be coached with proper exercise technique. Future research should consider examining the effect of various loads on kinetic and kinematic characteristics of weightlifting pulling derivatives, training with full weightlifting movements as compared to training with weightlifting pulling derivatives, and how kinetic and kinematic variables vary between derivatives of the snatch.
... Specificity relates to whether an exercise mimics the movements that are most critical to performance, whereas overload refers to the manipulation of the training stimulus so that a person works at progressively more demanding workloads (46). Accepting that exercises selected based on their similarity to sport movements are beneficial (47), deep water running, using water resistance as a constraint, may improve cardiorespiratory function, and thus aerobic performance. Although studies examining the effects of immersed running at submaximal and maximal speeds report increases in VȮ 2 and VȮ 2 max upward of 18 and 40%, respectively, in untrained populations (51,57), only marginal improvements have been reported in trained individuals (14,15,37,48,57,88,89,97). ...
... In addition, aquatic jump training was performed at a knee depth immersion, which is comparable with land-based jumping (26). Thus, greater specificity and overload may have elicited a superior training effect among the competitive athletes (4,46,47,63). Collectively, the available research suggests that jump performance may be improved irrespective of immersion depth (4,7,22,26,55,63,80,85). However, at greater depths, the timing of post-testing may favor aquatic jump training conditions given the likely fatigue incurred from land-based jump training, particularly among lesser or untrained subjects. ...
Article
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Holmberg, PM, Gorman, AD, Jenkins, DG, and Kelly, VG. Lower-body aquatic training prescription for athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Traditionally prescribed to manage various medical ailments and promote healing, aquatic immersion may provide a favorable environment to undertake preparatory training tasks given its profound biological effects that extend across most homeostatic systems. In addition to understanding these effects, which are related to the fundamental principles of hydrodynamics, there is a need to consider the acute physiomechanical responses to alterations of key constraints associated with particular preparatory tasks. Evidence suggests that the manipulation of different constraints during aquatic training can enable a unique setting to complement, supplement, or supplant land-based programming to maintain or improve physical capacities in athletes without exacerbating physiological stress. Thus, this article focuses on the interplay of constraints and their associated outcomes to provide information that can be used to program lower-body aquatic training for athletes. In addition, the aim of the article is to summarize the literature on aquatic training to highlight the outcomes that occur when certain constraints are manipulated.
... [6] The aim of an athlete in weightlifting is to complete his attempt to lift with maximum weight as much as he can and successfully. [7] Weightlifters' classification is depending on their body weight as classes: Men 56 kg, 62 kg, 69 kg, 77 kg, 85 kg, 94 kg, 105 kg and >105 kg; and women 48 kg, 53 kg, 58 kg, 63 kg, 69 kg, 75 kg and >75 kg. [8] As well as, there is a category of weightlifter according to the age of athlete: Junior, youth, and master. ...
Article
Weightlifting is considered as a dynamic strengthen exercise and power sport in which the athletes lifts a maximum weight with one repetition. The weightlifting as other sports has common musculoskeletal injuries in different body location corresponding to the sports beneficial. However, identifying the injuries incidence and the etiology is a first two-step in the model of the injury prevention in order to introduce preventive measures for sports. Therefore, this literature review is aimed to focus on the incidence and the etiology related to injuries of the weightlifting. However, the incidence injuries studies revealed that the children have more injuries related to accident than the adults. Whereas, the adults have more injuries related to strain and sprain. The most common injured locations are shoulder, lumbar spine, knee, elbow, hand, and wrist in the weightlifters. The percentage of the injuries according to location is the shoulder (36%), lumbar spine (24%), elbow (11%), and the knee (9%). In the other hand, the rule and regulation in the weightlifting had been changed since 1972 in which the clean and press lift eliminated from the competition due to the risk of this lift. Finally, weightlifting considered as safe sport if it is compared with other sports.
... As outlined above, the benefits of resistance training for youth are vast and can positively influence both physiological and psychological qualities. Research has identified that this training mode is effective in reducing the risk of injury, increasing muscular strength and power, improving body composition, improving motor control, and increasing bone mineral density 4,9,10,13,14,15,20 ...
... The biomechanical analysis of the motion of bar in weightlifting was analysed in various scientific research works [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11]. The trajectory of barbell motion and accelerations and velocities were measured. ...
Conference Paper
Characteristic points of the law of motion were determined based on the results of experimental study on the velocities and accelerations of the lifted barbell. Relationship between the height of the athlete, lifted weight, maximal velocity and acceleration was estimated analytically. It was shown, that at the initial time moment the athlete must apply approximately 1,5 times larger force than lifted weight. The values of the parameters of the barbell’ law of motion and lifting force approximate law of change were estimated.
... Olympic lifts and their derivatives are often hypothesised to provide an appropriate stimulus for motor skills requiring triple extension. 59,66,69,113 Moreover, the 2nd pull position (i.e., power snatch/clean from hang - Figure 9), provides a biomechanical comparison to the punching and kicking start position, therefore sport specificity can be further gained by commencing lifts from this position. ...
... From an athletic development perspective, both the acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) application of the power clean and its weightlifting variations have been linked to athletic preparation programming. For instance, many athletes seek enhanced speed strength capabilities with power development the primary physiological characteristic determining successful athletic performance [18]. ...
Article
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The power clean and its variations are prescribed by strength and conditioning coaches as part of the ‘big three’ to develop “total body strength”. This article explores the application of the power clean and its variations to athletic performance and introduces strength and conditioning coaches to teaching progressions, with specific emphasis on developing the correct body positioning required for the power clean. Teaching components are addressed with special reference to taller athletes. It is recommended that strength and conditioning coaches teach the hang clean follow a progression model to decrease movement complexity when advancing athletes to the power clean.
... Concern still exists when the topic of including weightlifting movements or derivations in the programs of team or court sport athletes is broached. Perceived time required for athletes to learn, lack of understanding the potential benefits offered from incorporating these movements and potential injury concerns are commonly brought to light (Hedrick & Wada, 2008). Many of the sporting movements required in sport are of higher difficulty in comparison to weightlifting movements, especially the remedial movements such as the mid thigh pull (DeWeese, Serrano, Scruggs, & Burton, 2013). ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study was to observe changes in sprint velocity, ground contact time, and peak force demonstrated by a competitive sprinter following an integrated approach to speed development and strength training. As part of an ongoing monitoring procedure the participant completed 20m sprint testing through an optical measurement system and isometric-strength testing before and after each phase of training. Sprint velocity, ground contact time and peak force were analysed using Tau-U, smallest worthwhile and percent change statistics. Results indicate sprinting velocity statistically improved while changes in peak force were practically significant and ground contact time remained trivial throughout the investigation. Results lead investigators to suggest the implementation of a periodized approach merging technical skill and the development of physical abilities. The integrated approach provided a transfer of training effect and may have been the primary source of sprint enrichment.
... One of these characteristics is the application of multi-joint movements not only to exercises that involve the upper or lower limbs (e.g., bench press and leg press), but that require actions involving all body segments (multi-segment) in an integrated and simultaneous manner (e.g., clean and thruster) (Heinrich et al., 2012). In addition to resembling ADLs, these movements raise the level of stress to the neuromuscular system, stimulating the development of strength, power, motor coordination, balance, and flexibility/mobility (Hedrick and Wada, 2008). ...
Article
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In the twenty-first century, functional training (FT) has become a strong worldwide fitness trend (Thompson, 2016), resulting in a growing interest to investigate its effects on many variables (e.g., morphological, physiological, and psychological) with different populations (children, adults, and elderly). Confirming this view, the current position stand of the American College of Sports Medicine on the prescription of physical exercise for healthy individuals includes FT (also termed: “neuromotor training”) as one of the modalities to be considered (Garber et al., 2011). Although the tools (exercises, equipment, and accessories) used in current functional training have long been employed in rehabilitation and conditioning programs, the systematic use of these tools, as well as scientific interest in this topic, are recent phenomena (Anderson and Behm, 2004; Rhea et al., 2008; Gordon and Bloxham, 2016). However, since it is still a subject of recent scientific interest, there are many methodological conflicts and divergences in training prescriptions (La Scala Teixeira et al., 2016). For example, some studies have associated FT with the use of instability and applied unstable bases in many exercises (Pacheco et al., 2013), while other studies have used instability in a small part of exercises (Weiss et al., 2010; Distefano et al., 2013) or have not used any unstable bases (Lohne-Seiler et al., 2013). In view of these considerations, detailing the actual concepts and characteristics of FT forms the basis for maximizing the benefits of both research and day-to-day interventions in terms of performance or rehabilitation (Behm et al., 2010). However, the methodological divergence observed with practical interventions in several fitness facilities, as well as in scientific studies, points to a reality in which the real concept of FT and all that it encompasses are still not well-elucidated (Fowles, 2010). A major factor that has contributed to this problem in the general population are probably the marketing campaigns promoting FT, which explore random several medias in order to attract consumers (Da Silva-Grigoletto et al., 2014). For example, publications of functional exercises can contain at the same time exercises of low (e.g., planks and squats) and high complexity (e.g.,Olympic weightlifting and calisthenics/gymnastics exercises). Similarly, marketing explores simple and low-cost accessories (e.g., balls, balance disk, elastic bands, medicine balls), as well as expensive equipment (e.g., multi-station machines, pneumatic resistance equipment). Although contributing to the consolidation of the term “functional training” in the fitness scenario, this wide variation in publications impairs consolidation of its true concepts and characteristics (La Scala Teixeira and Evangelista, 2014). Taken together, these facts highlight the need for researchers to establish a consensus about the concept of FT so that studies can be conducted according to a methodological pattern using pre-established criteria and, finally, that coaches and practitioners can make practical applications based on sound theoretical and scientific evidence. Therefore, in this paper we defined the concepts and characteristics of FT based on the analysis of current and relevant specific technical and scientific literature.
... Nevertheless, when compared to other fields of sport, the best results of weightlifters were at slow speed (60º/s). According to Hedrick & Wada (2008), such results are due to the athletes' training program, which is made up mainly of exercises performed at slow speed and thus require greater strength. Although the beginning of the lifting is an explosive movement, the subsequent movements are performed at slower speed, which, consequently, requires greater PT at slow speeds (Fry et al., 2003;Chiu & Schilling, 2005), whilst in the majority of sports the muscle demands occur at faster speeds. ...
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Weightlifting is a sport in which the athlete attempts to lift a barbell loaded with weight plates and the biomechanical demands of the lower limbs joints change. Thus, weightlifting plays a direct role to the knees involving their main extensor muscle groups and knee flexors. The present study used isokinetic evaluation to analyze muscle performance of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in male weightlifting athletes. The results demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the limbs, whether for mean peak torque values or for the flexor/extensor ratio. However, the results demonstrated muscle imbalances between the flexors and extensors, with the mean flexors PT values lower than expected when compared to the extensors. This result highlights the importance of training to increase the performance of the flexor muscles to reach an ideal level in relation to the extensor, thus improving athletic performance and preventing musculoskeletal injuries. Keywords: weightlifting, knee, muscle, torque.
... Furthermore, similar kinetics are also observed between WL exercises and CMJ (maximal force and power, time to maximal force and power and relative force and power) (Canavan et al., 1996;Haff et al., 1997). On the other hand, although it is possible to execute the same movement pattern (i.e., triple extension) during TRT, it is carried out slower due to the high load used (e.g., ≥ 80% 1RM) (Cormie et al., 2007a;Hedrick & Wada, 2008). Even in low-load conditions (e.g., 45% 1RM), which may be more representative of sports movement speed, TRT has a marked deceleration phase. ...
Article
Jump performance is considered an important factor in many sports. Thus, strategies such as weightlifting (WL) exercises, traditional resistance training (TRT) and plyometric training (PT) are effective at improving jump performance. However, it is not entirely clear which of these strategies can enable greater improvements on jump height. Thus, the purpose of the meta-analysis was to compare the improvements on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance between training methods which focus on WL exercises, TRT, and PT. Seven studies were included, of which one study performed both comparison. Therefore, four studies comparing WL exercises vs. TRT (total n = 78) and four studies comparing WL exercises vs. PT (total n = 76). The results showed greater improvements on CMJ performance for WL exercises compared to TRT (ESdiff: 0.72 ± 0.23; 95%CI: 0.26, 1.19; P = 0.002; Δ % = 7.5 and 2.1, respectively). The comparison between WL exercises vs. PT revealed no significant difference between protocols (ESdiff: 0.15 ± 0.23; 95%CI: −0.30, 0.60; P = 0.518; Δ % = 8.8 and 8.1, respectively). In conclusion, WL exercises are superior to promote positive changes on CMJ performance compared to TRT; however, WL exercises and PT are equally effective at improving CMJ performance.
... Therefore, strength training lead to increase muscle synchronization (Carroll et al., 2001). But generally speaking, transfer of weightlifting benefits is strangest in movements which force generating, power and strength play a basic role (e.g., jumping) and weakest in sports with less biomechanical aspects, for example open water swimming, comparing weightlifting movements (Hedrick, & Wada, 2008). ...
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This study would report about one of the problems (learning of a new sport skill) that occurs probably following weightlifting and decrease range of motion (ROM). Weightlifters (WLs) group (n=20) and Non-Weightlifters (NWs) group (n=20) were trained overhand serve volleyball based on a similar schedule program. The Results of performance accuracy showed, WLs didn’t learn the skill, but NWs learned did. When ROM had been controlled, performance of WLs and NWs were not different. We observed, WLs had noticeable differences in pattern of joints displacement in comparison with NWs and reference pattern of serve skill. Thus, it seems that WLs encounter with some problems regarding performance and learning of new motor skills due to ROM’s limitation.
... Although Olympic lifts are often considered relatively safe (8,9), musculoskeletal injuries, such as strains and sprains, are not uncommon. Injury rates during these movements have been estimated at 2-4 injuries per 1,000 training hours with knee, shoulder, and lower back regions particularly vulnerable (17,34). ...
Article
Barnes, MJ, Petterson, A, and Cochrane, DJ. Peak power output and onset of muscle activation during high pull exercise. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) at which peak power output occurred during the high pull (HP) exercise. In addition, the onset time of the biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus maximus (GM), across a range of loads, was investigated. Twelve resistance-trained men performed 1RM testing for the HP followed by lifts at 10% increments from 30 to 80% 1RM. During each load of power, output was measured using a linear potentiometer, whereas surface electromyography was recorded from the BF and GM. Peak power output occurred at 70% (1881.9 ± 296.1 W); however, there was no significant difference between loads at 60-80% (all p > 0.05). Loads between 40 and 80% 1RM produced significantly higher power outputs than 30% while 80% generated greater power than 100% 1RM (all p < 0.05). There was no significant (p > 0.05) main effect of muscle or load in the onset of BF (156.5-212.1 ms) or GM (112.1-158.1 ms). Therefore, these results suggest that training at a load between 60 and 80% 1RM may be useful in increasing power in the HP. In addition, activation of 2 of the hip extensors occurs in a relatively synchronous order irrespective of load.
... The derivatives may also enable the practitioner to overload the triple extension movement, enhancing strength and power characterristics. 56,57 Therefore, the application of these derivatives may enhance the triple extension movement within the athletic population [58][59][60] Also, from a pragmatic perspective, the teaching of derivatives may enable the athlete to achieve the ability to produce higher velocities and higher force movements without gaining full technical competency of the lift. 46 The objective of this research is to ascertain whether not knowing the load to be lifted during of a mid-thigh pull (MTP) could enhance kinetic and kinematic variables. ...
Article
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Strength & conditioning practitioners often seek novel and applied methods to enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this current research was to examine whether ‘not knowing the load’ during a mid-thigh pull (MTP) performance led to enhanced performance characteristics across a randomised selection of loads (75%-95% 1RM). Fifteen male collegiate athletes (age 21.8 ± 2.3, height 171.8 ± 7.5 cm, mass 89.3 kg ± 9.8 kg, MTP 1RM 135.5 kg ± 18 kg) were selected for the pre 1RM MTP and the 5 post randomised unknown lifts between 75%-95% of individual 1RM. The research demonstrated that unknown loads at 75% 1RM lead to significant changes in average power (AP) (known 1062 ± 251 W, unknown1213 ± 289 W; p ≤ 0.05; effect size (ES) = 0.56 small). Unknown loads at 75% 1RM lead to significant changes in average velocity (AV) (known: 0.49 ± 0.1, unknown: 0.66 ± 0.10 m/s; p ≤ 0.00; ES = 1.66 large). There was also a significant change in peak velocity (PV) at 75% 1RM (known: 0.74 ± 0.16, unknown: 0.95 ± 0.26 m/s; p ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.99 moderate). Unknown loads at 80% 1RM lead to significant changes in AV (known: 0.47 ± 0.10 unknown: 0.60 ± 0.10 m/s; p ≤ 0.01; ES = 1.36 large). There was no significant difference in AP, AV, peak power (PP) and PV variables across 85, 90, 95% 1RM (p ≥ 0.05; ES = trivial to small). It appears that these findings especially at unknown loads between 75% and 80% 1RM could be beneficial in enhancing velocity-based performance variables. Therefore, the application of unknown loads are of meaningful practical use to enhance performance variables during weightlifting pulling derivatives. Therefore, weightlifting pulling derivatives are potentially a useful training modality to improve desirable ballistic actions in particular triple extension.
... Maximal strength program design is based around multi-joint and structural compound exercises such as bench press, squat, and deadlift. However, exercises such as power cleans and many of the weightlifting variations have gained acceptance for strength and power athletes, as risk of injury is low when undertaken under the guidance of a qualified S&C coach (17). Such compound exercises are advantageous as they use recruitment patterns similar to specific positions within the game. ...
Article
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The field of strength and conditioning has seen the rapid development of new training methods to enhance sport performance. While the training techniques and strategies may have changed, the cornerstone of athletic development has not, in that strength training during the general preparation phase remains an integral component in athletic conditioning for sport. It is the purpose of this article to present preseason strength training during the preparation phase implemented for the 2009 rugby season for senior, amateur, first- and second-grade players competing in the domestic central west rugby competition, New South Wales, Australia.
... Milo of Crotona introduced weighted implements in the fifth century BC and Galen described strength training exercises using halters in the second century [2]. It became popular in the 19th century [3] in Europe [4], and in the 20th century its risks and proper use are discussed in the context of including power lifting movements in the training programs of athletes [5]. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to identify dermatoglyphic characteristics and the quality of the physical strength in high-performance para-athletes in the supine power lifting category. This study included ten male athletes aged between 18 and 40 years who had qualified for the Brazilian Regional Championships. The athletes were randomly distributed into the following three groups: group 1 (n = 4) comprising athletes with the best results for relative strength, group 2 (n = 4) comprising athletes with intermediate results for relative strength, and group 3 (n = 2) comprising athletes with the lowest results for relative strength. To determine the strength potential of the athletes, the one repetition maximum test was chosen, and to identify their genetic profile their fingerprints were analyzed by the method of Cummins and Midlo using paper and ink. The data showed no homogeneity between the groups. Group 1 showed a higher genetic predisposition and better results for the quality of their physical strength. These results indicate that dermatoglyphics may be an important tool to identify and guide athletes according to their genetic potential.
... Why strength training as a target application. The number of injuries in fitness training is staggering [12,13,14,15]. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System keeps records of the common injuries for which people visit the hospital [16]. ...
Preprint
This paper presents our findings from a multi-year effort to detect motion events early using inertial sensors in real-world settings. We believe early event detection is the next step in advancing motion tracking, and can enable just-in-time interventions, particularly for mHealth applications. Our system targets strength training workouts in the fitness domain, where users perform well-defined movements for each exercise, while wearing an inertial sensor. We collect data for 20 exercises across 12 users over 26 months. We propose an algorithm to detect repetitions before they end, to allow a user to visualize movement derived metrics in real-time. We further develop a gamified approach to display this information to the user and encourage them to perform consistent movements. Participants in a feasibility study find the gamified feedback useful in improving their form. Our system can detect repetition events as early as 500 ms before it ends, which is 2x faster and more accurate than state-of-the-art trackers. We believe our approach will open exciting avenues for tracking, detection, and gamification for fitness frameworks.
... [13] Injuries occur in different anatomical locations in the body, but in RT, specifically, the sites most susceptible to injury are the shoulder, knee, and back, because of their biomechanical role in absorbing and distributing load. [14] SHOULDER INJURIES It is reported that 36% of RT injuries occur in the shoulder complex. [15] Different intrinsic and extrinsic factors can expose the shoulder joint to injuries. ...
... Weightlifting exercises (jump shrug and hang variations) require the athlete to effectively use the extension patterning of the body under load, namely the triple extension of the ankle, knee, and hip. These movements share kinetic and kinematic similarities of sporting movements, namely sprinting and jumping, which have been postulated to lead to specific transfer to sports performance (62,148). The second pull phase of the clean has been shown to generate the greatest power output (151). ...
Article
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Camogie (kuh$mow$gee) is a traditional, amateur Gaelic sport played by female athletes. This invasion-based field sport involves high-intensity intermittent physical demands. There is currently a dearth of available research in intercounty despite the prevalence of research in the male version of the game (hurling). The aims of this article are to provide strength and conditioning recommendations for the sport of camogie, specifically at intercounty level. These recommendations include considerations working with intercounty female camogie athletes, specific camogie injury epidemiology, physiological demands, and practical strength and conditioning for implementation by practitioners. Moreover, a sport-specific testing battery; development of physical attributes to enhance match-play performance; a proposed annual periodization cycle; and sample strength, speed and agility programs will be discussed.
... Weightlifting exercises (jump shrug and hang variations) require the athlete to effectively use the extension patterning of the body under load, namely the triple extension of the ankle, knee, and hip. These movements share kinetic and kinematic similarities of sporting movements, namely sprinting and jumping, which have been postulated to lead to specific transfer to sports performance (62,148). The second pull phase of the clean has been shown to generate the greatest power output (151). ...
Article
Full-text available
Camogie (kuh$mow$gee) is a traditional , amateur Gaelic sport played by female athletes. This invasion-based field sport involves high-intensity intermittent physical demands. There is currently a dearth of available research in intercounty despite the prevalence of research in the male version of the game (hurling). The aims of this article are to provide strength and conditioning recommendations for the sport of camogie, specifically at intercounty level. These recommendations include considerations working with inter-county female camogie athletes, specific camogie injury epidemiology, physiological demands, and practical strength and conditioning for implementation by practitioners. Moreover, a sport-specific testing battery; development of physical attributes to enhance match-play performance; a proposed annual periodization cycle; and sample strength, speed and agility programs will be discussed.
... Furthermore, the catch phase during exercises such as the power clean has been linked to eccentric loading of the lower limbs and improving absorption qualities (38,39). Although this method is criticized as being difficult to learn and also as having a low injury risk for athletes during the catch phase, this injury risk can be reduced when only completing the pulling derivative exercises (13,38). Therefore, scope to establish other means of eccentric loading exercises during power-based movements is an area of research that is sought after. ...
Article
Accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) can be combined with lower body power-based movements to acutely enhance them, however, currently there are limited recommendations for this training method. AEL can enhance force and power metrics during its utilization with lower body power-based exercises. When employing AEL, exercises should consist of jump squats and countermovement jumps with loading methods consisting of weight releasors or dumbbell hand release. Elastic bands can be utilized, however, more research is needed in this area. External loads ranging from 10 – 30% of body mass can be utilized. Future research needs to investigate increased eccentric and concentric loads when employing AEL with power-based movements.
... Esses programas usam levantamentos que envolvem a coordenação de grandes grupos musculares e múltiplas articulações, como exercícios básicos do LPO, agachamentos, levantamento terra, snatch, clean and jerk, entre outros 3,5 . A inclusão desses movimentos de LPO tornou-se uma área de ênfase nesses programas de treinamento 6 . ...
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RESUMO: O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a amplitude de movimento articular de praticantes de um programa de condicionamento extremo. O estudo transversal, descritivo, caracteriza-se por uma pesquisa quanti-qualitativa. Os praticantes responderam perguntas sociodemográficas, relacionadas à prática da modalidade, se possuía alguma dor/desconforto articular e realizaram testes para a avaliação da amplitude articular de ombro, punho, quadril e tornozelo. Os testes realizados foram: Reverse Wall Slide para o ombro, Weight-Bearing Box Test para o punho, Supine Kness-To-Chest para o quadril e Weight-Bearing Lunge Test para a articulação do tornozelo. Foram avaliados 46 praticantes, sendo 26 mulheres e 20 homens. Os resultados foram analisados e apresentados de forma descritiva com cálculo da média e desvio padrão. Nos praticantes avaliados cerca de 30,43%; 80,45%; 58,69% e 60,28% apresentaram avaliação positiva para a amplitude de movimento de ombro, punho, quadril e tornozelo, respectivamente. Foi encontrado correlação positiva e fraca somente entre o resultado do teste de mobilidade do tornozelo e dor/desconforto Palavras-chave: Amplitude de Movimento; Exercício; Treinamento de Resistência. Limitação da Mobilidade. Neto, A.R., Magalhães, L.F., Bertoncello, D. AVALIAÇÃO DA AMPLITUDE DE MOVIMENTO EM PRATICANTES DE UM PROGRAMA DE CONDICIONAMENTO EXTREMO. R. bras. Ci. e Mov 2020;28(4):63-69. Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the range of articular movement of practitioners of an extreme conditioning program. The cross-sectional, descriptive study is characterized by quantitative and qualitative research. The practitioners answered sociodemographic questions, related to the practice of the sport, if they had any joint pain / discomfort and performed tests to assess the shoulder, wrist, hip and ankle joint amplitude. The tests performed were: Reverse Wall Slide for the shoulder mobility, Weight-Bearing Box Test for the wrist mobility, Supine Kness-To-Chest for the hip mobility and Weight-Bearing Lunge Test for the ankle mobility. Was evaluated 46 practitioners, 26 women and 20 men. The results were analyzed and presented descriptively with calculation of the mean and standard deviation. In the evaluated practitioners about 30.43%; 80.45%; 58.69% and 60.28% had a positive evaluation for the range of motion of the shoulder, wrist, hip and ankle, respectively. A positive and weak correlation was found only between the result of the ankle mobility test and pain / discomfort.
... Currently, there is a lack of published research investigating the effectiveness of weightlifting on actual sports performance in adolescent athletes. However, the snatch, clean and jerk, and their derivative lifts, do replicate the kinetic and kinematic patterns inherent to lower limb locomotion, where force application against the ground via triple extension of the ankle, knee, and hip is essential (12,32). The adaptations in strength and power that result from weightlifting (34) would suggest potential transfer to sporting movements such as sprinting, accelerating, decelerating, and jumping. ...
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CONSIDERABLE CONTROVERSY AND MISGUIDED INFORMATION HAS SURROUNDED THE INCLUSION OF WEIGHTLIFTING WITHIN YOUTH-BASED STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING PROGRAMS TO DEVELOP STRENGTH, POWER, AND SPEED. THIS ARTICLE REVIEWS THE EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT ITS INCLUSION AS A SAFE AND EFFECTIVE MEANS TO ENHANCE ATHLETIC POTENTIAL. GUIDELINES ARE PRESENTED TO PROVIDE COACHES WITH A STRUCTURED AND LOGICAL PROGRESSION MODEL, WHICH IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE THEORETICAL CONCEPTS UNDERPINNING LONG-TERM ATHLETIC DEVELOPMENT. IT IS HOPED THAT THIS REVIEW WILL SERVE AS A USEFUL TOOL TO HELP STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACHES INTEGRATE WEIGHTLIFTING EXERCISES WITHIN TRAINING PROGRAMS OF YOUNG ATHLETES IN A SAFE AND EFFECTIVE MANNER.
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IN WOMEN'S COLLEGE BASKETBALL, A WINNING SEASON IS COMMONLY DEPENDENT UPON THE QUALITY OF TRAINING DURING THE PRESEASON PERIOD. FOR THE STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACH (SCC), THIS IS A TIME TO DEVELOP THOSE CHARACTERISTICS, WHICH CAN PRODUCE MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE. UNIQUE NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION DIVISION III REGULATIONS LIMIT THOSE TRAINING SESSIONS IN THE NONCOMPETITIVE SEASON HIGHLIGHT THE NEED FOR ASSESSMENT AND, IN TURN, CALL FOR THE DESIGN OF AN APPROPRIATE AND WELL-ORGANIZED CONDITIONING REGIMEN. BY IDENTIFYING THE NEEDS AND GOALS OF THE TEAM, IN COLLABORATION WITH THE COACHING STAFF, THE SCC CAN ENHANCE HIS OR HER ABILITY TO IMPLEMENT AN EFFECTIVE TRAINING PLAN. IN WOMEN'S COLLEGE BASKETBALL, A WINNING SEASON IS COMMONLY DEPENDENT UPON THE QUALITY OF TRAINING DURING THE PRESEASON PERIOD. FOR THE STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACH (SCC), THIS IS A TIME TO DEVELOP THOSE CHARACTERISTICS, WHICH CAN PRODUCE MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE. UNIQUE NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION DIVISION III REGULATIONS LIMIT THOSE TRAINING SESSIONS IN THE NONCOMPETITIVE SEASON HIGHLIGHT THE NEED FOR ASSESSMENT AND, IN TURN, CALL FOR THE DESIGN OF AN APPROPRIATE AND WELL-ORGANIZED CONDITIONING REGIMEN. BY IDENTIFYING THE NEEDS AND GOALS OF THE TEAM, IN COLLABORATION WITH THE COACHING STAFF, THE SCC CAN ENHANCE HIS OR HER ABILITY TO IMPLEMENT AN EFFECTIVE TRAINING PLAN.
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MUAY THAI WAS DEVELOPED IN THAILAND AND IS A COMBAT SPORT IN WHICH CONTESTANTS CAN KICK, PUNCH, KNEE, ELBOW, AND GRAPPLE WITH THEIR OPPONENTS. LIKE MOST MARTIAL ARTS, MUAY THAI ATHLETES TEND TO PLAY THEMSELVES FIT, OFTEN BECAUSE THIS HAS LONG BEEN THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH BUT ALSO BECAUSE OF THE MANY MYTHS THAT SURROUND GYM-BASED TRAINING EXERCISES. THIS PAPER THEREFORE AIMS TO JUSTIFY THE INCLUSION OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING WITHIN MUAY THAI AS AN INTERVENTION TO FURTHER ENHANCE ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE. IN ADDITION, AN EVIDENCE-BASED PROGRAM IS SUGGESTED.
Chapter
Osteosarcopenia is a recently identified geriatric syndrome comprising low bone mass (osteopenia or osteoporosis) and low muscle strength, mass, and physical performance (sarcopenia). The prevalence of osteosarcopenia increases with age and comorbidities. The presence of osteosarcopenia increases the risk of negative outcomes in older adults, including falls, fractures, and mortality. While osteosarcopenia research is in its infancy, there is compelling evidence suggesting targeted and consistent exercise programs (particularly resistance training) can slow the progression and in some cases reverse the impact of osteosarcopenia. In this chapter, we introduce the concept of osteosarcopenia including its epidemiology, pathophysiology, and approach to diagnosis and management. We then focus on the role of exercise as the priority intervention for the prevention and management of osteosarcopenia in older adults by providing readers with practical and evidence-based exercise programs that may be applicable in their clinical and community settings. Finally, nutritional recommendations are addressed and future possibilities explored.
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The design of effective interventions in sport psychology often requires a subtle blend of techniques, tailored to meet the client’s specific needs. Input from a variety of disciplinary support specialists, working as a team, is also frequently needed. Accordingly, this study investigated an interdisciplinary team approach to the technical change and rehabilitation of an elite weight lifter following injury; necessitating the avoidance of regression when performing under competitive pressure. Multiple coaching approaches were used and complimented by targeting specific mental skills. Kinematic analyses indicated progressive technical, and subsequently permanent, change even after 2 years. Self-report measures of self-efficacy and imagery use were deemed essential in facilitating the change. Finally, a discussion focuses on the intervention’s multifactorial nature, its application within high performance coaching, and how this may advise future research into the refinement of already existing and well-established skills.
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THIS ARTICLE EXPLORES THE “FRONT SQUAT” (FSQ) AND ITS VARIATIONS AS PART OF THE “BIG THREE” (DEADLIFT, POWER CLEAN, AND SQUAT) EXERCISES PRESCRIBED BY STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACHES TO DEVELOP TOTAL BODY STRENGTH, TARGETING THE HIP EXTENSORS (GLUTEUS MAXIMUS), KNEE EXTENSORS (QUADRICEPS), KNEE FLEXORS (HAMSTRINGS), AND CORE MUSCULATURE (ERECTOR SPINAE, QUADRATUS LUMBORUM, OBLIQUES, RECTUS, AND TRANSVERSE ABDOMINIS). MORE SPECIFICALLY, THE PURPOSE OF THIS ARTICLE IS TO INTRODUCE STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACHES TO THE FSq TEACHING PROGRESSION, WITH SPECIFIC EMPHASIS ON DEVELOPING THE CORRECT BODY POSITIONING REQUIRED FOR EXECUTION OF THE FSQ.
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This study compared the biomechanical characteristics of the log lift and clean and jerk. Six experienced male strongman athletes performed log lifts and clean and jerks at 70% of their 1RM clean and jerk. Significant (P<0.05) between-exercise kinematic differences were observed throughout all the lifting phases, except at lift completion. The log lift demonstrated significantly greater trunk (↑24%) and hip (↑9%) range of motion than the clean and jerk. Significantly greater peak bar velocities were achieved in the clean and jerk in the second pull (↑16%) and the jerk (↑14%). While similarities existed in ground reaction force data between the lifts, mean and peak powers were significantly greater (↑40% to ↑64%) in propulsive phases of the clean and jerk. The log lift may be an effective conditioning stimulus to teach rapid triple extension while generating similar vertical and anterior-propulsive forces as the clean and jerk with the same given load.
Poster
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The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the published results from two recent elite classic powerlifting championship events in order to examine whether strategy, gender or location factors affect the relative frequencies of success or failure at such events; and whether, when considering each sequence of three attempts at a given lifting discipline, any sequences are more commonly occurring and/or may be considered to be “good strategies” in the sense of identifying more with placing in the top three rather than with non-placing competitors. More specifically we would like to determine the influence of attempt selection in dictating success or failure, in that attempting too big a jump between lifts may be more likely to result in failure and that correct attempt selection may be more likely to lead to success and winning.
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Learning Objectives 1. Critique weightlifting exercises used in the training of lower-extremity power and their proposed supplementary benefits. 2. Recognize the potential for catastrophic acute injury and development of predisposing factors for future injury with weightlifting exercises. 3. Recommend the use of an existing abbreviated exercise in training with the goal of lower-extremity power enhancement.
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Investigations of trunk strength with high-level athletes are limited. The purpose of this study was to compare maximal concentric isokinetic trunk extension and flexion torque, power, and strength ratios between high-level weightlifters (n = 20), wrestlers (n = 20) and a control (n = 25) population. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to evaluate peak torque, power and strength ratios during seated trunk extension/flexion actions at 60°/s and 180°/s. There were no significant anthropometric differences between groups. Overall, trunk isokinetic force variables as a function of the increase in angular velocity, showed a decrease in peak torque, but an increase in power (athletes and controls). Compared to the control group, athletes demonstrated significantly higher trunk extension torque (+67.05 N·m, ES = 0.81) and power (+49.28 N·m, ES = 0.82) at 60°/s and 180°/s, respectively. Athletes produced significantly greater trunk flexion-extension ratios at 60°/s and 180°/s (ES = 0.80-0.47) than controls. Weightlifters and wrestlers exhibited significantly higher extensor than flexor torque at all angular velocities. Weightlifters demonstrated greater torque (ES = 0.79) than wrestlers at 60°/s. The wrestlers' average power was significantly higher (ES = 0.43) than weightlifters at 180°/s. There were no significant ratio differences between wrestlers (66.23%) and weightlifters (72.06%). Weightlifters had stronger extensor muscles at 60°/s, whereas wrestlers had higher power at 180°/s for extensor muscles. It was postulated that the extensor muscles were stronger than the flexors to ensure trunk stabilisation, and for prevention of injuries. These differences seem to be associated to the movements that occur in each sport in terms of both muscle actions and contractile forces.
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BACKGROUND: Although it is known that isokinetic knee extensor strength and balance ability are important, valid and reliable parameters, they have not been used hitherto to predict the performance of junior weightlifters. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship among body composition, isokinetic knee extensor strength, balance, and weightlifting performance and to determine whether these factors predict competition performance in junior men weightlifters. METHODS: Fifty-one male junior weightlifters (age: 15.9 ± 1.2 years, height: 161.9 ± 7.7 cm, body mass: 62.7 ± 11.3 kg) participated in this study. Participants performed isokinetic knee extensor strength tests in concentric mode (at 60 and 180∘/s) and balance tests (static and dynamic). Competition performance was calculated according to the Sinclair equation, which was used as the dependent variable in the statistical analysis. The extent to which the independent variables predicted competition performance was determined by bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Significant correlations were found between the Sinclair score and the independent variables (r= 0.496–0.804, p< 0.05). Three models were fitted by hierarchical linear regression analysis. Body fat percentage was determined as a control variable in step one, isokinetic knee extensor strength at 180∘/s was included in step two, and static balance was included in step three, with all three contributing to the models significantly (p= 0.0001, p= 0.0001, and p= 0.003, respectively). The variance of competition performance was explained by approximately 65% in step one, approximately 78% in step two, and approximately 82% in step three. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that isokinetic knee extensor strength, static balance, and body fat percentage are effective for predicting competition performance in junior weightlifters. Keywords: Olympic weightlifting, knee extensor, Sinclair, snatch, clean, and jerk
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Four Olympic-style weightlifters and six athletes from other sports volunteered to perform maximal and submaximal vertical jumps with countermovement and/or snatch lifts on a Kistler force plate to compare the kinetics of the two activities at different levels of effort. Parameters studied included maximum vertical ground reaction force generated during a snatch lift or jump for both maximal and submaximal efforts and force duration at magnitudes greater than 50, 80 and 90 percent of max during the propulsion phase of each activity. Results indicated that in both activities, as the level of performance (intensity) increased, maximal propulsion force magnitudes generally decreased, whereas the duration of force at higher percentages of maximum increased. Qualitative similarities in the temporal pattern of vertical ground reaction force for each activity were observed in both unweighting and propulsion phases. Use of a double knee bend lifting technique accounted for an unweighting phase during the snatch lifts. Data indicated that the athletes used adjustments in temporal pattern of propulsive force application, rather than an increase in the magnitude of force generated for maximal versus submaximal efforts in both activities. Athletes who require improved jumping ability may benefit from utilizing Olympic lifting movements as part of their strength training program due to the applied overload and the similarities found between the propulsive force patterns of each activity. (C) 1992 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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To date, no published studies have demonstrated resistance exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone in adolescent males. Furthermore, few data are available on the effects of training experience and lifting performance on acute hormonal responses to weightlifting in young males. Twenty-eight junior elite male Olympic-style weightlifters (17.3 +/- 1.4 yrs) volunteered for the study. An acute weightlifting exercise protocol using moderate to high intensity loads and low volume, characteristic of many weightlifting training sessions, was examined. The exercise protocol was directed toward the training associated with the snatch lift weightlifting exercise. Blood samples were obtained from a superficial arm vein at 7 a.m. (for baseline measurements), and again at pre-exercise, 5 min post-, and 15 min post-exercise time points for determination of serum testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, plasma beta-endorphin, and whole blood lactate. The exercise protocol elicited significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) increases in each of the hormones and whole blood lactate compared to pre-exercise measures. While not being significantly older, subsequent analysis revealed that subjects with greater than 2 years training experience exhibited significant exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone from pre-exercise to 5 min post-exercise (16.2 +/- 6.2 to 21.4 +/- 7.9 nmol.l-1), while those with less than or equal to 2 years training showed no significant serum testosterone differences. None of the other hormones or whole blood lactate appear to be influenced by training experience.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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A new procedure was developed for calculating power production during Olympic lifting movements and comparisons were made with a method previously used. The power output of seven superior lifters was determined during selected phases of the snatch, clean, and jerk, from films taken at the 1975 U.S. National Championships. The values obtained depended on the following variables: vertical change in the bar's mechanical energy from the beginning of a force exertion phase until maximum vertical bar velocity was achieved; work done by the athlete in producing horizontal bar movement; and work done in raising the body's center of gravity. Results showed the expected increase in power with increased bodyweight for a given movement. Values for the jerk drive ranged from 2140 watts in the 56 kg class to 4786 watts for a 110 kg lifter. Heavier lifters exceeded published maximal estimates for human power output during brief exertions. More significant was the high degree of consistency in the rate of work done by any given lifter in movements which were very similar with respect to joint action, but competitively had very different objectives. The procedure should prove useful in detecting problems in lifting movements that result in power outputs which are low relative to those measured for biomechanically equivalent exertions.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and prevalence of injuries among elite weight lifters and power lifters, with a special focus on shoulder injuries and possible injury-provoking exercises. In 1995, a questionnaire was administered to 110 male and female elite lifters to evaluate injuries and training characteristics. A follow-up of the athletes from 1995 was conducted in 2000, and a new 2000 elite group was also queried. In 1995 and again in 2000, the athletes sustained, on average, 2.6 injuries per 1000 hours of activity. Most common in 1995 were low back injuries, with an injury rate of 0.43 per 1000 hours, and shoulder injuries, with a rate of 0.42 per 1000 hours. Shoulder injuries dominated in 2000, with an injury rate of 0.51 per 1000 hours of activity. There was a difference in injury pattern between weight lifters, who mostly sustained low back and knee injuries, and power lifters, in whom shoulder injuries were most common. No correlation was found between shoulder injuries and any specific exercise. Although the total injury rate was the same during the two periods of study, the rate of shoulder injuries had increased.
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Identifying and understanding the key biomechanical factors that exemplify the power clean can provide athletes the proper tools needed to prevail at a competitive event. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize and describe ground reaction forces (Fz) during the power clean lift. Three 60-Hz motion-detecting cameras and an AMTI force plate were used to collect data from 10 collegiate weightlifting men who performed a power clean at 60 and 70% of their last competitive maximum clean. The results revealed that a greater peak force (Fz) was produced during the second pull compared with the first pull and unweighted phases in both percentage lifts. As the system weight increased from 60 to 70%, the peak force (Fz) increased for the first pull and unweighted phases and decreased during the second pull phase. Learning the proper technique of the power clean may provide athletes the basic understanding needed to be competitive in a weightlifting or sporting event.
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Biopsies fro the vastus lateralis muscle of male weightlifters (WL; n=6; X +/- SE, age=27.0 +/- 2.1 years), and non-weight-trained men (CON; n=7; age=27.0 +/- 2.0 years) were compared for fiber types, myosin heavy chain (MHC) and titin content, and fiber type-specific capillary density. Differences (p<0.05) were observed for percent fiber types IIC (WL=0.4 +/- 0.2, CON=2.4 +/- 0.8); IIA (WL=50.5 +/- 3.2, CON=26.9 +/- 3.7); and IIB (WL=1.7 +/- 1.4, CON=21.0 +/- 5.3), as well as percent MHC IIa (WL=65.3 +/- 2.4, CON=52.1 +/- 4.2) and percent MHC IIB (WL=0.9 +/- 0.9; CON=18.2 +/- 6.1). All WL exhibited only the titin-1 isoform. Capillary density (caps.mm(-2)) for all fiber types combined was greater for the CON subjects (WL=192.7 +/- 17.3; CON=262.9 +/- 26.3), due primarily to a greater capillary density in the IIA fibers. Weightlifting performances and vertical jump power were correlated with type II fiber characteristics. These results suggest that successful weightlifting performance is not dependent on IIB fibers, and that weightlifters exhibit large percentages of type IIA muscle fibers and MHC IIa isoform content.
Advanced training strategies In: Designing Resistance Training Programs
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Fleck SJ and Kraemer WJ. Advanced training strategies In: Designing Resistance Training Programs (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2004. pp. 209–239.
Biomechanics of resistance exercise
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Harmon E. Biomechanics of resistance exercise. In: Essentials of Strength & Conditioning (3rd ed). TR Baechle and RW Earle, eds. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2008. pp. 65-91.
Does performance of hang power clean differentiate performance of jumping, sprinting, and change of direction
  • N Hori
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Hori N, Newton RU, Andrews WA, Kawamori N, McGurgan MR and Nosaka K. Does performance of hang power clean differentiate performance of jumping, sprinting, and change of direction. J Strength Cond Res 22: 412-418, 2008.