Article

The Influence of the Low-Carbohydrate Trend on Collegiate Athletes' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Dietary Intake of Carbohydrates

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Abstract

This project assessed collegiate athletes' dietary practices, knowledge, and attitudes regarding carbohydrate and athletic performance during the current low-carbohydrate trend. Athletes (N = 165) at a division I university completed questionnaires regarding nutrition knowledge, attitudes toward carbohydrates, and dietary intake. Athletes reported sometimes restricting dietary carbohydrates (44%), with significantly more female athletes reporting restriction (P < .05) than their male counterparts. Responses revealed that 13% of athletes have been on a low-carbohydrate diet. The mean nutrition knowledge was 3.5 ± 1.5 correct answers out of 7. Carbohydrate attitude responses revealed, only 61.3% agreed that a high-carbohydrate diet could improve athletic performance, with a significantly higher percentage of men agreeing (P < .05) than do women.

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... Across the literature, an abundance of studies assessing both GNK and SNK in athletic populations have been conducted (Tables 1-3). A large proportion of this research has been done in the United States (US) (Abood, Black, and Birnbaum, 2004;Barr, 1986;Barr, 1987;Chapman et al., 1997;Collison, Kuczmarski, and Vickery, 1996;Condon, Dube, and Herbold, 2007;Douglas, and Douglas, 1984;Dunn, Turner, and Denny, 2007;Frederick and Hawkins, 1992;Guinard et al., 1995;Hoogenboom et al., 2009;Hornstrom et al., 2011;Jacobson, Sobonya, and Rosenbloom, 2001;Jonnalagadda, Rosenbloom, and Skinner, 2001;Kunkel, Bell, and Luccia, 2001;Manore et al., 2017;Miller, 2019;Mulderig, 2018;Nichols et al., 2005;Patton-Lopez et al., 2018;Perron and Endres, 1985;Rash et al., 2008;Rosenbloom, Jonnalagadda, and Skinner, 2002;Shifflett, Timm, and Kahanov, 2002;Shoaf, McClellan, and Birskovich, 1986;Torres-McGehee et al., 2012;Updegrove and Achterberg, 1990;Weeden et al., 2014;Werblow, Fox, and Henneman, 1978;Wiita, Stombaugh, and Buch, 1995;Wiita, and Stombaugh, 1996;Worme et al., 1990;Zawila, Steib, and Hoogenboom, 2003), but similar studies have been conducted in various other countries, such as Spain (Altavilla, Soledad, and Caballero, 2017), Italy (Cupisti et al., 2002), Iran (Arazi and Hosseini, 2012;Azizi et al., 2010;Jessri et al., 2010;Rastmanesh et al., 2017), Oman (Ali et al., 2015), Australia (Birkenhead, 2014;Devlin and Belski, 2015;Jenner et al., 2018;Spendlove et al., 2012;Trakman et al., 2018), Malaysia (Esa et al., 2015;Sedek and Yih, 2014), India (Davar, 2012;Nazni and Vimala, 2010), Finland (Heikkilä et al., 2018a;Heikkilä et al., 2019), the United Kingdom (UK) (Alaunyte, Perry, and Aubrey, 2015;Raymond-Barker, Petroczi, and Quested, 2007), Turkey (Saribay and Kirbas, 2019), Kazakhstan (Yerzhanova et al., 2019), Germany (Heydenreich, Carlsohn, and Meyer, 2014), Brazil (Nascimento et al., 2016;Noronha et al., 2020), Greece (Nikolaidis and Theodoropoulou, 2014), Canada (Reading, McCargar, and Marriage, 1999), Nigeria (Folasire, Akomolafe, and Sanusi, 2015), New Zealand (Harrison et al., 1991;Hamilton, Thomson, and Hopkins, 1994), and Ireland (Challis et al., 2017;Magee, Gallagher, and McCormack, 2016;Walsh et al., 2011;Walsh et al., 2013). ...
... In the studies that reported on gender, the majority (55%) indicated no significant difference between male and female nutrition knowledge scores (Arazi and Hosseini, 2012;Azizi et al., 2010;Condon, Dube, and Herbold, 2007;Hamilton, Thompson, and Hopkins, 1994;Heydenreich, Carlsohn, and Mayer, 2014;Heikkilä et al., 2019;Manore et al., 2017;Rash et al., 2008;Rosenbloom, Jonnalagadda, and Skinner, 2002;Saribay and Kirbas, 2019;Shifflett, Timm, and Kahanov, 2002). There was a trend towards females scoring higher than males, with seven studies (35%) showing a significantly greater nutrition knowledge score for females (Birkenhead, 2014;Douglas and Douglas 1984;Dunn, Turner, and Denny, 2007;Harrison et al., 1991;Jessri et al., 2010;Spendlove et al., 2012;Worme et al., 1990), and one study bordering on significance (Hamilton, Thompson, and Hopkins, 1994) (2015) found higher mean nutrition knowledge scores (72.8%) in professional rugby league players with a mean age of twenty-five, vs. the mean score (61.3%) from a cohort of elite Australian rugby league athletes from another study (Spendlove et al., 2012), with a mean age of nineteen. ...
... The nutrition knowledge score in the present study is in agreement with previous research in athletes (Ali et al., 2015;Arazi and Hosseini, 2012;Barr, 1986;Condon, Dube, and Herbold, 2007;Douglas and Douglas, 1984;Dunn, Turner, and Denny, 2007;Hornstrom et al., 2011;Jonnalagadda, Rosenbloom, and Skinner, 2001;Noronha et al., 2020;Rosenbloom, Jonnalagadda, and Skinner, 2002;Saribay and Kirbas, 2019;Spendlove et al., 2012;Torres-McGehee et al., 2012;Updegrove and Achterberg, 1990;Weeden et al., 2014;Worme et al., 1990;Zawila, Steib, and Hoogenboom, 2003). The results are also similar to previous findings in Irish athletes, where nutrition knowledge scores have ranged from 47% to 59.6%, respectively (Challis et al., 2017;Magee, Gallagher, and McCormack, 2016;Walsh et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of GAA players of varying ability using a validated questionnaire—the Nutrition for Sport Knowledge Questionnaire (NSKQ). This thesis was submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for a B.Sc. Degree in Sports Science and Health in the School of Health and Human Performance, Dublin City University.
... Additionally, after completing the JBI critical appraisal on the remaining articles, the reviewers determined all studies had low to moderate risk of bias and decided to move forward with the eligible studies (see Appendix B for detailed summary of appraisal results). Therefore, the present review is based on the results of 13 articles: eight cross sectional studies (Allen et al., 2018;Ambwani et al., 2020;Condon et al., 2007;Eisenberg et al., 2005;Grigg et al., 1996;Marquez et al., 2018;Maxwell et al., 2017;Worsley and Skrzypiec, 1997), three qualitative studies (Poirier et al., 2016; Pujol-Busquets et al., 2020; Rydén and Sydner, 2011), one cohort study (Bonaccio et al., 2012), and one non-randomized experimental study (Paxton et al., 2002). ...
... Paxton et al., 2002), the remainder of the ages ranged from young adults (i.e. 20-39 years old; n = 1; Condon et al., 2007) to people ages 60-69 years old (n = 1; Rydén and Sydner, 2011). ...
... paleo; Maxwell et al., 2017), vegetarianism (n = 1; Worsley and Skrzypiec, 1997), and the Banting diet (n = 1; Pujol-Busquets et al., 2020). Additional fad diet components were identified in four studies as unhealthy weight or diet behaviours such as using food substitutes, laxatives, diet aids (Eisenberg et al., 2005;Grigg et al., 1996), and/ or specific macronutrient restriction (Condon et al., 2007;Poirier et al., 2016). Last, weight-loss was the most identified reason for fad diet use (n = 5; e.g. ...
Article
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Background: A fad diet is a broad term used to describe dieting methods that recommend altering the intake of macronutrients to specific proportions or instruct people to intake or avoid particular foods, often with the goal of rapid weight loss. Previous literature reviews report social influence impacts general diet behaviour, but have yet to examine fad diets, specifically. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize literature related to social influence on an individual's fad diet use and understand the sociocultural factors related to diet use. Methods: Using PRISMA guidelines, Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases were searched to identify articles investigating the impact of social on fad diet use. Covidence was used to manage the review process and Garrard's Matrix Method was used to extract data from reviewed articles (n = 13). Results: A majority of reviewed studies examined interpersonal influence (62%) and reported social influence impacting a variety of fad diet behaviours (92%). Interpersonal and media influence were highlighted as motivating factors for adopting unhealthy dieting methods (54%), and studies showed interpersonal support impacted adoption and maintenance of fad diet use (23%). Also, social norms were reported to influence unhealthy weight control behaviours (15%). Discussion: This review revealed social influence is associated with the adoption, adherence, and termination of fad diets. The prevalence of fad diets in society and the lack of research on this topic warrants further examination of factors related to fad diets use and the spread among interpersonal networks.
... The majority of the studies (n = 34) employed a cross-sectional design, with the remaining two [32,33] using a questionnaire to assess the effectiveness of an education program at two time points. Of the 36 included studies, 15 assessed nutrition knowledge in American college athletes [13,[23][24][25][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42]; two of these also collected data on coaches and athletic trainers, stratifying the results [23,24]. There were an additional four studies [38,[43][44][45] that assessed the knowledge of coaches alone. ...
... Five studies [15,24,33,34,45] did not report what sport the athletes played. Across the remaining studies, the other sports that were represented included: Australian football (AFL) [16], basketball [13,20,23,35,[37][38][39][40]42,44], baseball [23,25,37,38,42], cross-country [13,35,41,42,44], cycling [50], football [13,20,23,35,37,38,44], golf [13,23,35,37,40], gymnastics [13,35,40,49], hockey [35,40,47], lacrosse [23,35,39], soccer [13,23,32,38,42], softball [13,19,35,37,40,42,44], running and/or track and field [14,23,25,35,37,42,44,48], rugby [12,22,47,51], swimming [13,18,32,35,37,52], tennis [35,37,38,42,43], and triathlon [50]. Participant numbers ranged from five [17] to 595 [46]. ...
... Five studies [15,24,33,34,45] did not report what sport the athletes played. Across the remaining studies, the other sports that were represented included: Australian football (AFL) [16], basketball [13,20,23,35,[37][38][39][40]42,44], baseball [23,25,37,38,42], cross-country [13,35,41,42,44], cycling [50], football [13,20,23,35,37,38,44], golf [13,23,35,37,40], gymnastics [13,35,40,49], hockey [35,40,47], lacrosse [23,35,39], soccer [13,23,32,38,42], softball [13,19,35,37,40,42,44], running and/or track and field [14,23,25,35,37,42,44,48], rugby [12,22,47,51], swimming [13,18,32,35,37,52], tennis [35,37,38,42,43], and triathlon [50]. Participant numbers ranged from five [17] to 595 [46]. ...
Article
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Context: Nutrition knowledge can influence dietary choices and impact on athletic performance. Valid and reliable measures are needed to assess the nutrition knowledge of athletes and coaches. Objectives: (1) To systematically review the published literature on nutrition knowledge of adult athletes and coaches and (2) to assess the quality of measures used to assess nutrition knowledge. Data sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. Study selection: 36 studies that provided a quantitative measure of nutrition knowledge and described the measurement tool that was used were included. Data extraction: Participant description, questionnaire description, results (mean correct and responses to individual items), study quality, and questionnaire quality. Data synthesis: All studies were of neutral quality. Tools used to measure knowledge did not consider health literacy, were outdated with regards to consensus recommendations, and lacked appropriate and adequate validation. The current status of nutrition knowledge in athletes and coaches is difficult to ascertain. Gaps in knowledge also remain unclear, but it is likely that energy density, the need for supplementation, and the role of protein are frequently misunderstood. Conclusions: Previous reports of nutrition knowledge need to be interpreted with caution. A new, universal, up-to-date, validated measure of general and sports nutrition knowledge is required to allow for assessment of nutrition knowledge.
... Although there is an increased awareness of the effect of nutrition on athletic performance, research indicates a large gap in nutrition knowledge among athletes at all levels, from elite athletes [7,8], to college athletes [9][10][11][12], to coaches and trainers [13][14][15]. In general, the literature indicate sport nutrition knowledge scores, obtained using a variety of instruments, range from 36%-73% correct. ...
... In general, the literature indicate sport nutrition knowledge scores, obtained using a variety of instruments, range from 36%-73% correct. The inadequacy of nutrition knowledge covers a broad range of topics such as weight control, dietary supplements, and overall general nutrition information [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. A recent systematic review of athletes' and coaches' nutrition knowledge concluded that a new, universal, up-to-date, validated measure of general and sports nutrition knowledge is needed to adequately measure sports nutrition knowledge [16]. ...
Article
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Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete surveys were obtained from 289 CrossFit trainers. The mean Sport Nutrition Knowledge (SNK) score was 11.1 ± 2.1, equivalent to 65.3% ± 12.4% correct. The trainers perceived nutrition to be extremely important to athletic performance (9.4 ± 0.9 on a 10 point scale). Overall, the trainers graded their SNK higher than that of their CrossFit peers. The internet and CrossFit peers were the most frequently reported sources for nutrition information; Registered Dietitians were the least reported source. The Paleo and Zone diets were the most common dietary regimens recommended by CrossFit trainers. Results indicated a positive correlation between a CrossFit trainer's self-reported hours of nutrition education and their SNK score (r = 0.17; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Nutrition education modules for Level 1 and 2 CrossFit trainers, developed with input from Board Certified Specialists in Sports Dietetics, are recommended.
... Other studies had not found a significant association between NK and age [32], probably because the age range was narrower than in our sample. As in most studies [41,[43][44][45][46][47][48], we did not detect differences between sexes, although the comparison could not be done for all the teams because the only sample of female athletes was the one of the soccer team. ...
Article
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Nutrition knowledge (NK) is one of several factors needed to establish proper eating habits and is especially important for athletes. The aims of this study were the following: to assess the NK of athletes from the Fútbol Club Barcelona; and to study its possible association with self-perceived level of NK, attitude towards nutrition, sources of information, and some dietary habits. We performed a cross-sectional study in two parts. First, we assessed the NK of elite athletes (n = 264) and compared it to the NK of technical teams of different sports (n = 59) and non-athletes (n = 183) of different ages and levels of education. Second, we investigated the associations between NK and other variables. To assess NK, we used a previously validated questionnaire Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for Young and Adult Athletes (NUKYA). Athletes showed a low median score (25.1 points), similar to the scores obtained by high school students (19.5) and university Philosophy students (29.0), and significantly lower than the scores of the sports technical team (58.5, p<0.05) and final year students of Human Nutrition and Dietetics (74.6, p<0.05). Moreover, we found statistically significant associations between NK and self-perceived level of NK (n=240,ρ=0.2546,p=0.0001) intake of fruits and vegetables (n=111,ρ=0.2701,p=0.0041), and intake of discretionary food (n=111,ρ=−0.2008,p=0.0001). Athletes with lower scores tended to overestimate their competence in nutrition (Dunning-Kruger effect). We concluded that NK of athletes needs to be improved through education plans that should consider aspects such as the proper selection of information resources and the importance of not consuming supplements without the adequate prescription. Incorporation of technical team and families to the education plan should be considered.
... A number of studies indicated that most athletes in their samples were unable to correctly identify the role of certain important nutrients or the recommended percentage of energy contribution from the macronutrients (Dunn et al., 2007;Hamilton et al., 1994;Shifflett et al., 2002;Zawila et al., 2003). Common misconceptions of athletes in a number of studies included protein acting as a primary energy source for muscle contraction (Condon et al., 2007;Jonnalagadda et al., 2001;Rosenbloom et al., 2002;Wiita et al., 1995;Wiita & Stombaugh, 1996;Zawila et al., 2003) and vitamin and mineral supplements delivering energy (Harrison et al., 1991;Jonnalagadda et al., 2001;Rash et al., 2008;Rosenbloom et al., 2002;Zawila et al., 2003). Protein supplements and vitamin and mineral supplements were often reported by athletes as being necessary to achieve peak performance (Harrison et al., 1991;Jonnalagadda et al., 2001;Rash et al., 2008;Rosenbloom et al., 2002;Wiita et al., 1995;Wiita & Stombaugh, 1996;Zawila et al., 2003). ...
Article
Nutrition education aims to enhance knowledge and improve dietary intake in athletes. Understanding athletes' nutrition knowledge and its influence on dietary intake will inform nutrition-education programs in this population. To systematically review the level of nutrition knowledge in athletes, benchmark this against nonathlete comparison groups, and determine the impact of nutrition knowledge on dietary intake. An extensive literature search from the earliest record to March 2010 using the terms nutrition knowledge or diet knowledge and athlete or sport was conducted. Included studies recruited able or physically disabled, male or female, competitive (recreational or elite) athletes over the age of 13 yr. Quantitative assessment of knowledge and, if available, diet intake was required. Because of variability in the assessment of nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, meta-analysis was not conducted. Twenty-nine studies (17 published before 2000) measuring nutrition knowledge (7 including a nonathlete comparison group) met inclusion criteria. Athletes' knowledge was equal to or better than that of nonathletes but lower than comparison groups including nutrition students. When found statistically significant, knowledge was greater in females than males. A weak (r < .44), positive association between knowledge and dietary intake was reported in 5 of 9 studies assessing this. Common flaws in articles included inadequate statistical reporting, instrument validation, and benchmarking. The nutrition knowledge of athletes and its impact on their dietary intake is equivocal. There is a need for high-quality, contemporary research using validated tools to measure nutrition knowledge and its impact on dietary intake.
... Other studies had not found a significant association between NK and age [32], probably because the age range was narrower than in our sample. As in most studies [41,[43][44][45][46][47][48], we did not detect differences between sexes, although the comparison could not be done for all the teams because the only sample of female athletes was the one of the soccer team. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nutrition knowledge (NK) is one of several factors needed to establish proper eating habits and is especially important for athletes. The aims of this study were the following: to assess the NK of athletes from the Fútbol Club Barcelona; and to study its possible association with self-perceived level of NK, attitude towards nutrition, sources of information, and some dietary habits. We performed a cross-sectional study in two parts. First, we assessed the NK of elite athletes (n = 264) and compared it to the NK of technical teams of different sports (n = 59) and non-athletes (n = 183) of different ages and levels of education. Second, we investigated the associations between NK and other variables. To assess NK, we used a previously validated questionnaire Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for Young and Adult Athletes (NUKYA). Athletes showed a low median score (25.1 points), similar to the scores obtained by high school students (19.5) and university Philosophy students (29.0), and significantly lower than the scores of the sports technical team (58.5, p < 0.05) and final year students of Human Nutrition and Dietetics (74.6, p < 0.05). Moreover, we found statistically significant associations between NK and self-perceived level of NK (n = 240, ρ = 0.2546, p = 0.0001) intake of fruits and vegetables (n = 111, ρ = 0.2701, p = 0.0041), and intake of discretionary food (n = 111, ρ = −0.2008, p = 0.0001). Athletes with lower scores tended to overestimate their competence in nutrition (Dunning-Kruger effect). We concluded that NK of athletes needs to be improved through education plans that should consider aspects such as the proper selection of information resources and the importance of not consuming supplements without the adequate prescription. Incorporation of technical team and families to the education plan should be considered.
... Further, additional factors, including the development of body dissatisfaction or the belief that the athlete needs to be "thin to win", can also manifest in disordered eating [2]. Although knowledge about nutrition is more accessible than ever, and athletes were shown to generally have a better understanding of nutrition than non-athletes, many misbeliefs, such as "carbohydrates will make you gain weight" or "food intake should only occur within certain time windows", are still common [33][34][35]. Overall, insufficient knowledge of general sports nutrition in athletes is still evident [31,36,37]. ...
Article
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Low energy availability (LEA) represents a state in which the body does not have enough energy left to support all physiological functions needed to maintain optimal health. When compared to the normal population, athletes are particularly at risk to experience LEA and the reasons for this are manifold. LEA may result from altered dietary behaviours that are caused by body dissatisfaction, the belief that a lower body weight will result in greater performance, or social pressure to look a certain way. Pressure can also be experienced from the coach, teammates, and in this day and age through social media platforms. While LEA has been extensively described in females and female athletes have started fighting against the pressure to be thin using their social media platforms, evidence shows that male athletes are at risk as well. Besides those obvious reasons for LEA, athletes engaging in sports with high energy expenditure (e.g. rowing or cycling) can unintentionally experience LEA; particularly, when the athletes' caloric intake is not matched with exercise intensity. Whether unintentional or not, LEA may have detrimental consequences on health and performance, because both short-term and long-term LEA induces a variety of maladaptations such as endocrine alterations, suppression of the reproductive axis, mental disorders, thyroid suppression, and altered metabolic responses. Therefore, the aim of this review is to increase the understanding of LEA, including the role of an athlete's social environment and the performance effects related to LEA.
... Moreover, the current study found no differences in nutritional knowledge based on gender. This finding is consistent within the literature (Botsis & Holden, 2015;Arazi & Hosseini, 2012;Condon, Dube, & Herbold, 2007;Corley, Demarest-Litchford, & Bazzarre, 1990;Hamilton, Thomson, & Hopkins, 1994;Nichols, Jonnalagadda, Rosenbloom, & Trinkaus, 2005;Rash et al., 2008;Sedek & Yih, 2014;Weeden et al., 2014). ...
Article
The study of nutrition and its effects on athletic performance has increased in recent years and its importance to exercise and sport performance is well documented. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the sports nutrition knowledge of volleyball players. There were 77 participants (13 male, 64 female) who were currently playing collegiate indoor or sitting Paralympic volleyball. Sports nutrition knowledge was assessed using the Sports Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (SNKQ) by Zinn, Schofield, and Wall (2005). The mean SNQ raw score was 40.22 ± 8.39 out of a possible score of 88.00. The mean percentile score was 46 ± 9%. No athlete scored above the 70% established passing score. A univariate ANOVA was calculated evaluating nutritional knowledge based on school/level of competition, prior nutrition course taken, grade point average (GPA), and gender. Significance was established at p ≤ 0.05. Findings indicated no significant differences in SNKQ scores for any of the independent variables. Results clearly indicate collegiate athletes need further support, training, and education related to sport nutrition knowledge.
... However, some questionnaires have used multiple constructs that is, beliefs, information sources and intended practices, 25 or knowledge, attitudes and dietary intake. 26 Using multiple constructs could lead to longer questionnaire length and increased participant burden; however, it can enable a greater range of concepts to be investigated. ...
Article
Aim To develop and validate a questionnaire investigating endurance athletes' carbohydrate beliefs, knowledge, information sources, and other dietary and non-dietary practices related to exercise-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods A questionnaire was developed by a review of relevant literature and sports-related questionnaires, and input from five experienced sports dietitians. Item construct and format was adapted and modified from a previous questionnaire. The modified questionnaire sought information on demographics, nutrition knowledge, beliefs, intended practices, information sources and exercise-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. A five-phase validity process was conducted to determine content, face and construct validity, item difficulty and internal reliability of the questionnaire. The Delphi technique was applied with experts over three anonymous rounds. Items were reviewed to determine whether to keep, modify, or delete, rate the relevance of each item using a content validity index (CVI), and provide comments. A content analysis was conducted on all comments after each round. Online interviews were conducted with a pilot group of endurance athletes (n = 15) to assess item difficulty and feasibility. Nutrition knowledge was compared between pilot group of athletes and experts to determine construct validity and internal consistency. A test-retest process was applied to a second pilot group (n = 8) to verify questionnaire reliability. Results High CVI (≥.83) and agreement scores were obtained through the Delphi technique. High reliability (r = .942) and acceptable internal consistency (α = .53-.78) of the questionnaire were obtained. Conclusions The questionnaire was shown to be a valid and reliable tool that will be of use for clinicians and research purposes.
... The Secondary aim of the study was to investigate the factors which may influence an elite squash players nutrition knowledge. Greater standards of education have been shown to positively influence athlete's nutrition knowledge [25][26][27][28][29][30], while sex [26,27,[31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49], playing ability [28,30,39,44,46,[50][51][52][53][54], age [27,41,44,46,[55][56][57] and main source of nutrition knowledge [27,54] have all been reported to have equivocal influences on athlete's nutrition knowledge. Consequently, the study aimed to assess the association between age and world ranking on nutrition knowledge and quantify whether players standard of relevant education and main source of nutrition knowledge influence nutrition knowledge. ...
Article
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Background There is a reported mismatch between macronutrient consumption and contemporary macronutrient guidelines in elite standard squash players. Suboptimal dietary practices could be due to a lack of nutrition knowledge among players. Subsequently, the purpose of this study was to assess the sports nutrition knowledge of elite squash players through the Nutrition for Sport Knowledge Questionnaire (NSKQ) and provide an indication of whether players require nutrition support to increase their nutrition knowledge. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed the nutrition knowledge of 77 elite squash players via the NSKQ over the period of June 2020 to August 2020. Results Players conveyed average nutrition knowledge with a mean NSKQ score of 48.78 ± 10.06 (56.07% ± 11.56%). There were no significant differences in NSKQ score between male and female players ( p = .532). There was found to be a weak positive association between world ranking and NSKQ score ( r = .208) and age and NSKQ score ( r = .281). Players who had a relevant undergraduate degree (e.g. BSc Sport & Exercise Science) had significantly greater NSKQ score than players with no relevant qualifications ( p = .022). Players who consulted a sports nutritionist to obtain their main source of nutrition information were shown to have significantly greater knowledge than those who acquired knowledge from a sports scientist ( p = .01) or the internet / social media ( p = .007). Conclusions Players should consult with a sports nutritionist to increase their sport nutrition knowledge. Future research should quantify the effectiveness of a nutritional education intervention at increasing nutrition knowledge in players.
... It would also be helpful to list examples of options for each food group that can be found in the university dining halls or local grocery store(s). Research shows that competitive athletes are susceptible to diet fads and misinformation (Condon et al., 2007). Granting athletes access to a simple online resource that is universally accepted by the athletic department can give athletes a clear guideline to follow and may limit some unhealthy eating patterns. ...
Article
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Research has shown a strong relationship between nutrition and mental health. Packed schedules and little rest time may make student-athletes more susceptible to mental health issues than the general population, but few athletes are fully aware of the effects that nutrition can have on their mental health. While collegiate athletic programs are beginning to recognize the individual contributions of nutrition and mental health to performance and are hiring sport dietitians and psychologists for their athletes, it is unclear whether these topics are ever discussed within the same context. The goal of this study was to understand the perspectives of different athletic personnel on the relationship between nutrition and mental health. 17 athletic personnel (11 Female, 6 Male) from 6 NCAA Division I universities were recruited for a 30–45-min semi-structured WebEx interview. Participants included athletic trainers, coaches, dietitians, sport psychologists, strength and conditioning coaches, and sports medicine physicians. Participants were asked questions about their educational backgrounds, resources, and perspectives on the integration of nutrition and mental health in their programs. Transcribed responses were sorted into four themes: (1) Resources, (2) Education, (3) Department Integration or Collaboration, and (4) Student and Coach Engagement. All participants reported a need for greater monetary resources and staffing. Around 59% of the participants felt they had little more than general or personal interest-level knowledge on topics pertaining to nutrition or mental health, with the exception of sports dietitians or psychologists. Each school varied in the degree to which their athletic staff regularly communicated about their work and athlete health statuses. Athletes were reportedly more or less likely to utilize the resources provided depending on coach attitudes toward nutrition or mental health. Regardless of size, reputation and annual spending, each university was reported to be in the early stages of integrating nutrition and mental health programs into their existing athletic departments. Implications of this work may be to help schools plan for ways to reallocate funding for nutrition or mental health programming.
... In order to know how nutrition is important for the athletes, there should be un understanding of the effect of nutrition on every process in the body from energy production and recovery from exercise (4). ...
Article
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Background: Individuals who have valuable knowledge on how the importance of adequate and balanced diet and this knowledge will on their behaviors which eventually considered to be more successful in sports life. The present study aims to evaluate the nutrition and nutrients imbalance related to the health knowledge among trainers’ athletes. Methods: The study sample consists of 203 voluntary trainers from the sport clubs and gyms. Modified questionnaire was used in the study and Chi-square and Pearson correlation test was used. Results: Athletes related fields were determined to have the lack of knowledge on nutrition and also nutrients deficit related to ill-health questions. It was more likely the trainers know some aspects of foods and nutrients such as role and sources of some foods, but the overall score showed 40-50% for nutritional knowledge questions. Furthermore, questions related to ill-health showed poor score (< 40%). There was no gender difference in related nutrition knowledge questions and also questions for nutrient and ill-health. However, significant differences were found between education levels in which positive correlation R= 0.2 (P<0.05) between question for nutrition knowledge, nutrient related to health outcomes and high levels of education. Conclusion: The athlete’s trainers have regular nutrition knowledge and poor health related nutrients disorders knowledge. While gender differences did not influence neither nutrition knowledge nor health related nutrients deficient questions, the education levels found to have significant impact on both nutrition knowledge and health related nutrients deficient. Furthermore, dietitians with an expertise in athletes’ nutrition are qualified professionals who should be the primary source for obtaining diet information and subsequently monitoring. Article visualizations: </p
... Despite all the information available to athletes, it has been demonstrated that they lack knowledge about nutrition and hydration issues (Condon, Dube, & Herbold, 2007;Jonnalagadda, Rosenbloom, & Skinner, 2001;Rosenbloom, Jonnalagadda, & Skinner, 2002). Even when they know the general hydration recommendations, they do not necessarily put them into practice (Nichols, Jonnalagadda, Rosenbloom, & Trinkaus, 2005). ...
Article
Twelve adolescent athletes underwent, in a crossover-design study, 3 separate 90-min training sessions in the following conditions: no fluid ingestion allowed (NF), ad libitum ingestion of water (W), and ad libitum ingestion of a commercial 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte sports beverage (CSB). After each session athletes performed a set of basketball drills (2-point, 3-point, and free-throw shootout, suicide sprints, and defensive zigzags). Body weight (before and after sessions), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), urine color, and beverage acceptability were determined in each session. Athletes also completed a survey about their knowledge and behaviors regarding hydration and fluid replacement. The percentage of weight loss was significantly higher in NF (2.46% ± 0.87%) than in the other 2 conditions (W, 1.08% ± 0.67%, p = .006; CSB, 0.65% ± 0.62%, p = .001) but also higher in W than CSB (p = .012). RPE was higher in NF (16.8 ± 1.96) than in the W (14.2 ± 1.99, p = .004) and CSB (13.3 ± 2.06, p = .002) trials. Athletes' fluid intake was positively correlated with proper self-reported behaviors (r = .75, p = .005) and knowledge (r = .76, p = .004) about fluid and hydration. In conclusion, fluid restriction during exercise was associated with a greater level of dehydration and increased perceived exertion but had no impact on basketball performance compared with ad libitum drinking of water or a CSB. Athletes with more knowledge about hydration and better self-reported hydration behaviors ingested more fluids during training sessions.
Article
Objective To evaluate the agreement between a 61-item Nutrition Screening Survey (NSS) and 127-item validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Participants Forty-seven college students (male, n = 29; female, n = 18), age 21.7 ± 0.4 years, BMI of 23.5 ± 0.4 kg/m². Methods Participants completed the NSS, Block FFQ, and anthropometric measurements. Pearson’s correlation, paired sample t test, and Bland–Altman plot evaluated agreement between the assessments. Results Moderate to strong associations between assessments (0.61–0.89, p < 0.001) were identified for meals/day, snacks/day, calories, carbohydrate, fiber, grains, non-starchy vegetables, potatoes, legumes, fruit, yogurt, cheese, and eggs. Mean daily meals/day, calories, fat, fiber, grains, fruit, milk, and eggs did not significantly differ between surveys. The Bland–Altman plot analyses indicated no proportional bias for calories, fat, fiber, grains, fruit, milk, and eggs. Conclusions The NSS and Block FFQ display reasonable agreement, supporting use of the NSS for evaluating a range of dietary components among physically active college students.
Article
The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for developing a sports nutrition education program in a collegiate athletic department. A review of literature on student-athlete nutrition behaviors is combined with practical suggestions from personnel who wrote a sports nutrition curriculum at a large Midwestern university. There are 2 primary implications for practice. First, maintaining a written curriculum and conducting periodic evaluation are fundamental aspects of sports nutrition education programs. Second, better documentation of program outcomes is needed to establish best practices in collegiate sports nutrition education and demonstrate the value of full-time sports registered dietitians.
Article
Food and drink choices before, during and after training and competition have a direct impact on health, body mass and composition, nutrient availability and recovery time, and an optimal diet can significantly improve exercise performance. Nutrition for Sport and Exercise outlines the fundamental principles of nutrition in relation to sport and exercise and then applies these principles through practical tools such as food and nutrient lists, recipes and menu options. This practical guide translates the athlete's goals into achievable strategies and shortens the gap between theory and practice. Equipping the reader to successfully implement dietary changes, this is an invaluable resource for athletes, sports physicians and undergraduate students of nutrition and sport and exercise science courses. Special Features. • Dedicated chapters on the impact and relevance of specific nutrients and food groups. • Includes recipes and menu options. • Covers the area of sport and exercise nutrition with an evidence-based approach. • Concise and accessible, combining theory and practice.
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The focus of this paper is on the glycemic index (GI) that provides effectual information on planning nutritional strategies for carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation in exercise. Related research has suggested that the GI can be used as a reference guide for the selection of an ideal CHO supplement in sports nutrition. Recently, the manipulation of GI of CHO supplementation in optimizing athletic performance has provided an exciting new research area in sports nutrition. There is a growing evidence to support the use of the GI in planning the nutritional strategies for CHO supplementation in sports. The optimum CHO availability for exercise has been demonstrated by manipulating the GI of CHO. Research has shown that a low GI CHO-rich meal is a suitable CHO source before prolonged exercise in order to promote the availability of the sustained CHO. In contrast, a high GI CHO-rich meal appears to be beneficial for glycogen storage after the exercise by promoting greater glucose and insulin responses. The prescribed feeding patterns of CHO intake during recovery and prior to exercise on glycogen re-synthesis and exercise metabolism have been studied in the literature. However, the studies on the subject are still limited, leaving some open questions waiting for further empirical evidences. The most significant question is whether CHO supplementation before and after exercise is beneficial when consumed as large feedings or as a series of snacks. Further research is needed on the effect of feeding patterns on exercise performance.
Article
Fifty-one female ultra-endurance triathletes training for an iron distance triathlon, 3.8-km swim, 180-km cycle, and 42.2-km run were studied regarding carbohydrate intake during their training. Triathletes were queried on their triathlon history, training and dietary habits, height/weight measurements, and recent menstrual history. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hour recall based on the categories of the Food Guide Pyramid and on the serving sizes of the diabetic exchange list. All participants were below the recommended intake for endurance athletes in training for total carbohydrate intake: 190-g mean intake (mean 3.15 g/kg of body weight, SD = 1.2) versus 360 to 600 g (6–10 g/kg of body weight) recommended.
Article
It is well established that adequate bodily carbohydrate reserves are required for optimal endurance. Based on this fact, it has been hypothesized that consumption of a diet with a high percentage of carbohydrate energy will optimize training adaptations and athletic performance. Scrutiny of the literature, however, does not strongly support the hypothesis that short-term or long-term reductions in dietary carbohydrate energy impairs training or athletic performance. Additional studies with well devised training protocols and performance tests are necessary to prove or disprove the hypothesis that a high carbohydrate energy diet is necessary to optimize training adaptations and performance. Because dietary carbohydrate contributes directly to bodily carbohydrate reserves, and because a high carbohydrate energy diet does not impair athletic performance, it remains prudent to advise athletes to consume a diet with a high carbohydrate energy content.
Article
This study examined potential links between dietary intakes, body fatness, menstrual status, and hematological and serum iron status in 21 competitive female figure skaters aged 11-16 yr. Attitudes toward dieting were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). Dietary intakes were based on 3-d food records. Percent body fat was calculated using measures of triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, pectoral, axillary, abdominal, and thigh skinfold measures. Blood iron status was measured using hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hgb), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and serum iron. Menstrual status was based on a self-report questionnaire. Body weights and estimated energy intakes were all within normal range for this age group. Higher EAT scores were associated with lower micronutrient, but not lower energy intakes. Menstrual status and iron status were normal. No significant correlations between measures of body fatness, menstrual status, and hematological or serum iron status were observed. Although the measured indices of nutritional status were normal, adolescent athletes have higher energy needs than does the general population. Depending on energy expenditure levels, energy and nutrition intakes in the low normal range may put some athletes at risk for undernutrition.
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to assess nutrition knowledge, opinions, and practices of coaches and trainers at a Division I university. Participants (n = 53) completed questionnaires regarding nutrition knowledge, opinions, and practices. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance were used to analyze data. Overall, participants responded correctly to 67% of nutrition knowledge questions. Participants who coached/trained female athletes tended to score better than respondents who coached/trained male athletes. Strength and conditioning coaches and participants with greater than 15 years of experience scored higher than other participants. Nutrition opinions/practices responses revealed that nutritional supplements were provided for all but 6% of participants' athletes. Participants rated body weight as more important than body composition to athletes' performances. Over 30% of participants perceived at least one case of disordered eating within the past year. Some participants (53%) felt that athletes may consume more nutritious meals on team-sponsored trips if given larger food allowances. Thirty percent of participants reported dietitians were available to them; the same percentage reported utilizing dietitians. Coaches and trainers are knowledgeable about some appropriate nutritional recommendations, but registered dietitians or qualified sports nutrition professionals may complement the nutrition-related education and counseling of athletes (23).
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine nutrition knowledge and behavior of division IA college athletes and to compare such knowledge and behavior with data from a similar survey conducted in 1992. Surveys with distribution instructions and statements of confidentiality were sent randomly to strength and conditioning coordinators (SCCs) at 16 universities. Survey results indicated that women (60.6%) received more nutrition information than men (49.5). SCCs and athletic trainers were the primary nutrition sources for men, whereas university classes and nutritionists were primary for women. Much information was obtained from arguable sources such as magazines, family members, and coaches. Only 3, 11.7, and 29.5% correctly identified recommended percents of total calorie intake for protein, fat, and carbohydrates, respectively. Thirty-seven percent correctly identified the role of vitamins and 54.4% for protein. Creatine and vitamin/mineral supplements were the most common for men and women, respectively. Despite previous recommendations regarding nutrition education of high-level athletes, diminutive changes have occurred in the past 6 years.
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 7-day Zone diet compared with a normal diet on maximal oxygen uptake (V(O)2 max), running time to exhaustion during endurance performance, and body composition. Eight men, with the following physical characteristics (mean +/- SE), participated in this study: age, 26.1 +/- 1.9 years; height, 178 +/- 1.7 cm; mass, 70.7 +/- 2.1 kg; and V(O)2 max, 54.6 +/- 3.1 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1). All subjects undertook pretesting for V(O)2 max, time to exhaustion (80% V(O)2 max), and body composition (Biostat 1500) before following either the normal diet or the Zone diet for 7 days. These performance trials were performed before and after the dietary period. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in total energy consumption from a mean of 2,314 +/- 334 kcal on a pretest diet to 1,994 +/- 438 kcal on the Zone diet. Subjects showed a significant reduction (p < 0.02) in body mass from 70.7 +/- 2.1 kg to 69.8 +/- 2.1 kg. In the 80% V(O)2 max time to exhaustion trial, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in time to exhaustion from 37.68 +/- 8.6 minutes for the pretest diet to 34.11 +/- 7.01 minutes for the Zone diet. In conclusion, the claim of the authors of the Zone diet that performance time and V(O)2 max can be improved was not shown in this 1-week research trial. We would suggest that this is not a nutritional strategy that athletes should use until further work has been conducted.
Article
Currently, the carbohydrate-restricted diet is very popular. Atkins' book, Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution, has sold millions in its more than 25 years of existence. His book promotes the carbohydrate-restricted diet, which focuses on the consumption of proteins and fats as primary calorie and energy sources, while severely restricting carbohydrates. However, when carbohydrates are restricted from the diet, the body's primary energy source is reduced considerably. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the psychological responses to exercise of individuals when on a carbohydrate restrictive diet and when on a noncarbohydrate restrictive diet. For this study, 17 participants practiced a noncarbohydrate-restricted diet for three weeks and the carbohydrate-restricted diet for three weeks, while maintaining previous exercise habits. After each exercise session, the participants completed the Physical Activity Affect Scale, which measures Positive Affect, Negative Affect, Tranquility, and Fatigue. Simple one-way analyses of variance indicated significant treatment differences (ps<.05) relative to Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Fatigue. The results of the study indicate as predicted, that, when a person restricts carbohydrates from the diet, he will experience more fatigue, more negative affect, and less positive affect in response to exercise than those individuals who are not restricting carbohydrates.
Article
OBJECTIVE: To assess the nutritional knowledge and attitudes of the female collegiate cross-country runner. Awareness of the deficient areas of nutritional knowledge, important in performance and healing, may assist professionals in educating female runners. DESIGN AND SETTING: In this descriptive study, subjects completed a nutritional questionnaire with both quantitative and qualitative components. In a 9-day period, the nutritional questionnaire was administered at 6 colleges and universities in Illinois and Michigan. SUBJECTS: The convenience sample included female collegiate cross-country runners (N = 60). Overall compliance rate was 61% (60 out of 99). MEASUREMENTS: Our questionnaire included a demographics section, 76 Likert-scale true-false questions, and 7 open-ended questions. True-false questions were divided into subscales of 3 or more questions based on the topic. Statistical analyses focused on quantitative analysis. RESULTS: Runners who completed a nutrition course in college scored significantly higher overall. Runners scored significantly higher in the knowledge for the athlete component than in the general knowledge component. Several specific areas of deficient nutritional knowledge were identified. Overall, the mean of the runners' total positive responses for the attitudes component of the questionnaire was 90.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the female collegiate cross-country runner lacks nutritional knowledge critical to preventing nutrition-related health problems. Because most of the runners in our study exhibited positive attitudes toward nutrition, female collegiate cross-country runners may be receptive to nutritional education.
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary intakes and behaviors of male and female collegiate athletes. Athletes (n =345) at a NCAA Division I university completed an anonymous questionnaire. T-tests, chi(2) statistic, and ANOVA were used to assess gender and sport differences. Multiple linear regression was used to assess gender differences in nutrient intakes, controlling for energy intake and to examine the relationships between desired weight change, dietary behaviors, and nutrient intakes. Only 15 % and 26 % of athletes had adequate intakes of carbohydrate and protein, respectively, based on recommendations for athletes. Males were more likely to exceed the Dietary Guidelines for fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium than females. Sixty-two percent of female athletes wanted to lose at least 5 lbs compared to 23 % of males. The desire to lose weight was associated with decreased energy and macronutrient consumption, but not with inadequate micronutrient intakes.
Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: nutrition and athletic performance.
Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on affective responses to acute exercise among physically active participants.
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Guidelines for daily carbohydrate intake: do athletes achieve them Sports Med.
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