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Roundtable Discussion: Periodization of Training-Part 1

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summary: The concept of periodization is important for strength and conditioning professionals. This roundtable covers several aspects of periodization strategies. (C) 2004 National Strength and Conditioning Association

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... Periodization can be defined as the planned manipulation of training variables to optimize performance at appropriate time points, manage fatigue, and prevent stagnation (Plisk and Stone, 2003). These variables (such as volume, intensity, and exercise selection) are varied in a cyclical fashion across training cycles to promote peak fitness levels for targeted competitions (Haff, 2004). The training cycles that are incorporated into the periodized plan consist of the macrocycle, which usually lasts a year, the mesocycle, which may last a month, and the microcycle, which may last a week (Turner, 2011). ...
... As noted by Turner (2011), substantial variability exists between the lengths of each training cycle, which will be dependent on the athlete's goals and competition schedule. In addition, taper periods are commonly incorporated into the training plan to allow the athlete to "peak" in readiness for a competition (Haff, 2004). For strength athletes, these phases may consist of reductions in training volume with maintained or slight increases in intensity (Pritchard et al., 2015). ...
... Periodization theory suggests that training variation is essential to maximize fitness adaptations (Haff, 2004). In the meta-analysis by Williams et al. (2017), the authors conclude that, "variation in training stimuli appears to be vital for increasing maximal strength." ...
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Prescribing the proper resistance training (RT) program is critical to optimize skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength. Periodization is a strategy that entails planned manipulations of training variables to maximize fitness adaptations while minimizing the risk of overtraining. Multiple meta-analyses have shown periodized RT to be superior to non-periodized RT for enhancing muscular strength. These findings are consistent irrespective of training status or training volume. Both the linear model and the undulating model are effective for enhancing strength, although a greater benefit might be achieved through the undulating model. Despite the suggested superiority of periodized RT for strength development, some authors suggest that this might be a consequence of the study designs employed rather than the nature of periodized training. In addition, several limitations exist in the periodization literature, making it difficult to accurately assess the efficacy of periodized RT. With regard to enhancing skeletal muscle hypertrophy, both the undulating model and the linear model appear equally effective; however, this conclusion can only be generalized to untrained populations. When comparing periodized RT to non-periodized RT programs, the research is unclear on whether periodized RT is necessary to maximize skeletal muscle hypertrophy.
... Desde la popularización de la Periodización del entrenamiento deportivo, basada en métodos desarrollados en la Europa del este y por primera vez expuestos por el científico soviético Matveiev, (1977) numerosos estudios han analizado la importancia de la planificación y periodización del entrenamiento deportivo como mecanismo clave para la consecución del máximo rendimiento deportivo (Matveiev, 1977;Navarro, 1999Navarro, , 2010Stone, 1999Stone, , 2000Fleck, 1999;Plisk y Stone 2003;Haff, 2004;González-Rave, 2003, 2005Gamble, 2006;Kraemer y Fleck, 2007;Cissik, 2008;Issurin, 2008Issurin, , 2010Tuner, 2011). La mayoría de estos autores ponen de manifiesto la relevancia que la periodización del entrenamiento deportivo tiene como herramienta de organización, control y evaluación en la consecución de los logros deportivos. ...
... Los componentes principales a considerar en cualquier programa de entrenamiento deportivo son el volumen, la intensidad y la frecuencia o número de sesiones de entrenamiento (Rhea y Aldeman, 2004). La mayoría de los expertos de la teoría y metodología del entrenamiento coinciden que estos componentes determinan la magnitud de la carga y como consecuencia de ello las respuestas y adaptaciones al entrenamiento (Matveiev, 1977;Navarro, 1999Navarro, , 2010Stone, 1999Stone, , 2000Fleck, 1999;Plisk y Stone 2003;Haff, 2004;González-Rave, 2003, 2005Gamble, 2006;Kraemer y Fleck, 2007;Cissik, 2008;Issurin, 2008Issurin, , 2010Tuner, 2011). ...
Thesis
The basis of traditional periodization was founded five decades ago and was studied of many researchers. Periodization in swimming same than other sports requires modulation and variations of volume, intensity and frequency of training. The aim of this research, was study effects of two different macrocycles of periodization. Took part in this study 25 swimmers national and regional level of training from Castilla-La Mancha Region (16.1±1.0 years 1.72±9.3 cm of height; 64.1±9.3 kg) divided in two groups as traditional periodization (GPT) and group of reverse periodization (GPI). participants trained 14 weeks to compete in 100m crawl style. Was analyzed in five times outputs in the dependent variables of time maximum effort in 100m crawl (t100c), average speed (VN), stroke frequency (BR) distance per stroke (DB) specific swim power measured with external loads (PENGCE), maxim drag charge (CMA), body weight (PC), muscle-skeletal mass (MME) and fat mass (MG). Statistic analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that after 14 weeks of preparation, improved in the t100c GPI, VN, PENGCE and CMA significantly (p <0.05) compared to GPT, both groups increased MME without significant differences between groups, and the GPT decreased significantly (p <0.05) MG compared to GPI. From the results found in this investigation we can conclude that a swimming program for 14 weeks sprinters in the 100 meters freestyle specialty, based on a reverse periodization model was more effective for improving performance the 100m freestyle, the preparation program based on the traditional periodization.
... A significant challenge in sports training is to effectively manipulate training loads [intensity and volume] to maximise athletes' physical performance while avoiding overtraining and injury over the competitive season [1]. Periodisation was developed as a systematic manipulation of training variables [load, sets, and repetitions] with the goal of maximising training adaptations and avoiding overtraining syndrome [2][3][4][5]. There appears to be common agreement regarding the importance of appropriate periodisation for achieving optimal performance outcomes [1,6,7]. ...
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Background and Study Aim. Periodised training strategies, due to their demonstrated success in improving athletic performance, have become increasingly utilised by coaches, athletes, and strength and conditioning practitioners as a key training methodology. As a consequence, a coach’s knowledge of periodisation and training methods have become increasingly important for improvement of sport-sprint performance. Despite their importance of performance at the elite level, it was suspected that little is known about the Sri Lankan context. As a result, the purpose of this formative exploratory study was to examine knowledge about, and application of, periodisation and training methods by Sri Lankan elite-level coaches working with short-sprint athletes. Material and Methods. With institutional ethics approval, ten (n=10) expert short-sprint coaches volunteered to participate in the study, with data collected via semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed inductively, to identify ‘patterns’, ‘themes’ and ‘categories’ using the NVivo 12 qualitative software. Results. Four primary themes emerged from the interview data. These included “Periodisation models”, “Monitoring training”, “Strength development”, and “Speed development”. Findings revealed that coaches reported minimal or inadequate knowledge of periodised training and consequently, there did appear to be a gap between coach knowledge of periodised training, but additionally in regard to general training methodology; including aspect such as prescribing strength and speed training loads and, monitoring of training loads. The coaches believed that their knowledge was inadequate to support athletes with Olympic level potential. Conclusions. The findings identified a potential knowledge gap in coach education and development for elite sprint coaches in Sri Lanka.
... A significant challenge in sports training is to effectively manipulate training loads [intensity and volume] to maximise athletes' physical performance while avoiding overtraining and injury over the competitive season [1]. Periodisation was developed as a systematic manipulation of training variables [load, sets, and repetitions] with the goal of maximising training adaptations and avoiding overtraining syndrome [2][3][4][5]. There appears to be common agreement regarding the importance of appropriate periodisation for achieving optimal performance outcomes [1,6,7]. ...
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Periodised training strategies, due to their demonstrated success in improving athletic performance, have become increasingly utilised by coaches, athletes, and strength and conditioning practitioners as a key training methodology. As a consequence, a coach’s knowledge of periodisation and training methods have become increasingly important for improvement of sport-sprint performance. Despite their importance of performance at the elite level, it was suspected that little is known about the Sri Lankan context. As a result, the purpose of this formative exploratory study was to examine knowledge about, and application of, periodisation and training methods by Sri Lankan elite-level coaches working with short-sprint athletes. Material and Methods With institutional ethics approval, ten (n=10) expert short-sprint coaches volunteered to participate in the study, with data collected via semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed inductively, to identify ‘patterns’, ‘themes’ and ‘categories’ using the NVivo 12 qualitative software. Results Four primary themes emerged from the interview data. These included “Periodisation models”, “Monitoring training”, “Strength development”, and “Speed development”. Findings revealed that coaches reported minimal or inadequate knowledge of periodised training and consequently, there did appear to be a gap between coach knowledge of periodised training, but additionally in regard to general training methodology; including aspect such as prescribing strength and speed training loads and, monitoring of training loads. The coaches believed that their knowledge was inadequate to support athletes with Olympic level potential. Conclusions The findings identified a potential knowledge gap in coach education and development for elite sprint coaches in Sri Lanka. Keywords: coaches’ knowledge, periodised training, sprint training, sports performance, elite level
... Becoming an expert in all coaching areas is not possible, however at the performance sport coaching level, having an extremely functional understanding of principles related to player conditioning and periodization is important (Johnson et al., 2011). For example, in a two-part, published, roundtable discussion of training, conditioning and periodization, Haff (2004aHaff ( , 2004b and multiple experts detailed key components, effective strategies, and best principles and practices of periodization and related information about decisions coaches make about how to organize and manage conditioning and training programs, (e.g., volume, intensity, frequency, period, recovery). Durand-Bush and Salmela (2002) noted in their examination of performance athletes that coaches and specialists (e.g., strength and conditioning coaches) invested significant amounts of time in physical training and conditioning. ...
Article
Around the world, there is a growing movement to improve sport coaching education. In recent years, the International Council for Coaching Excellence (ICCE) has begun to address questions related to the education, training and development of sport coaches through the publication of the International Sport Coaching Framework (ISCF) and the Sport Coaching Bachelor Degree Standards (SCBDS). In the United States, because sport coaches can undertake a wide variety of coaching-related educational opportunities, the United States Olympic Committee has taken steps to address the disparity in training through the publishing of the Quality Coaching Framework (QCF). All of these documents provide valuable information about the best principles for educating and training sport coaches. While principles, standards and theories provide valuable overarching information about how to organize education, specific information about what topics should actually be taught in education programs is still lacking. In this manuscript, utilizing principles of participation versus performance sport and professional knowledge, intra- and interpersonal skills, information about what and when to teach important sport coaching topics is proposed.
... Athletes aiming to compete in long-distance triathlons (e.g., ironman and half-ironman) frequently undertake high volumes of endurance exercise training to enhance performance. The intensity and volume of training is commonly periodized with concomitant high but fluctuating calorie expenditure, creating several nutritional challenges with respect to energy and macronutrient intake not only in achieving sufficient intakes, but also in periodizing these intakes to match changing training loads (Drenowatz et al., 2012;Haff, 2004;Loucks et al., 2011;Stubbs et al., 2004). ...
Article
This study explored the information sources long-distance triathletes used to inform their training and nutrition plans, and evaluated these plans over a training macrocycle. Seventy-four long-distance triathletes completed the online survey. Coaches were the most popular training information source (69%), whereas non-professional sources (internet 65%, other athletes 53%) were more popular than nutritionists (29%) for nutrition information. Attributes valued most in an information source were: source prior personal experience, individualised advice, breadth of knowledge, and credibility. Sixty-five percent of participants reported previously manipulating dietary intake to improve performance. Forty-three percent reported carbohydrate loading previously, but only 29% planned to carbohydrate load for their upcoming event. Thirty six percent of participants planned to reduce carbohydrate intake at some point in training, predominantly early (28%) and towards the end (22%) of their macrocycles. Twenty percent of participants planned to maintain energy intake early, and increase (14%) or maintain energy intake (15%) mid-cycle. Triathletes' training plans showed intentions for concurrent increases in volume and intensity, rather than a classical periodized training progression. Limitations of this study include the lack of diet intake and training data, quantitative comparison to dietary guidelines and high/low carbohydrate classification, and an overrepresentation of women in the study cohort. This research showed the popularity of the internet and other athletes to inform triathletes' nutrition plans, and revealed intentions to reduce carbohydrate intakes alongside training load increases, contrary to professional guidelines. Understanding athletes' intentions and sources of nutrition information is crucial to developing effective nutrition education strategies.
... This concerns both the conceptions developed in the Soviet Union and, to a large extent, the theory and methodology developed by Augustyn Dziedzic and the Polish School of Strength Athletics at the University School of Physical Education in Warsaw, who determined basic methodological recommendations that have been even presently applied in various sport disciplines[5,6,7]. In combat sports, where strength is one of the most important factors, both competitors and coaches quite often take advantage of such recommendations, adapting each of these methods for the requirements of different periods of training macro-cycles[8,9,10]. Especially, the modalities of strength training, aimed at maximal strength development are often applied since they allow the competitors to take control of their rivals, and predict who will be the winner[11,12,13]. ...
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The aim of the study was to present the modifications of strength athletics, enabling the competitors to achieve maximal muscular stimulations, leading to the development of specific strength in large muscle groups. The application goal was also determined, involving presentation of exercise sets used in strength sports and combat sports, developing specific strength in major muscle groups, particularly considering the tempo of exercising in each training sub-periods. The reference sources are reviewed as well as the earlier publications, describing the basic modalities of strength athletics. The versions of this approach connected with methodical recommendations of Polish Strength Athletics School, established by Augustyn Dziedzic are also presented. Each variant of strength athletics is described in terms of its usefulness for developing maximal strength, anaerobic endurance, mastering motor habits (techniques), applying exercises which have a similar or a more complex structure than these previously applied and a fast tempo of exercising. Tempo variations are attributed to each sub-period of the training cycle, considering the frequency of application and exercise sets, aimed at the development of large muscle groups are presented. It is emphasized that strength athletics should be regarded as a set of approaches, which, regularly applied, allow considerable increases of maximal muscular strength, anaerobic endurance and mastering motor habits. It has been confirmed that the application of different modalities of exercising tempo not only enriches their resources, but also can increase muscular strength and power, significantly contributing to the improvement of athletic performance in combat sports.
... Das Erklärung in Frage ( Komi, 2003). oder einen Status von "Übertraining" erreichen ( Fry, et al., 1992;Haff, 2004;Hasegawa, et al., 2002) Übergangsperiode betitelt werden, gefolgt von einer zweiten Vorbereitungsperiode ( Bisanz & Gerisch, 2008). Hieran schließt sich die zweite Wettkampfperiode, gefolgt von einer weiteren Übergangsperiode an ( Bisanz & Gerisch, 2008 Batsilas, 1999;Bisanz, 1985;Turner & Steward, 2014 Umfanges ( Batsilas, 1999;Bisanz & Gerisch, 2008;Turner & Steward, 2014 Schwächen dienen sollen ( Batsilas, 1999;Turner & Steward, 2014 Veränderungen statt ( Gondin, et al., 2006). ...
Thesis
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Das Anforderungsprofil des Fußballspieles zeigt, dass Maximal- und Schnellkraftleis-tungen einen leistungsdeterminierenden Faktor in dieser Sportart einnehmen. Krafttrai-ningsinterventionen im Kindes- und Jugendalter bis hin zum Erwachsenenalter führen zu Leistungsverbesserungen in Maximal- und Schnellkraftparametern. Ziel dieser Untersuchung ist es daher zu klären, ob und wie sich eine zweijährige Krafttrainingsintervention auf Maximal- und Schnellkraftleistungen jugendlicher Athleten aus dem Nachwuchsleistungssport auswirkt. An der zweijährigen Untersuchung nahmen 114 Probanden aus zwei Vereinen teil, die durch den Deutschen Fußball Bund e.V. mit dem Prädikat eines Leistungszentrums ausgezeichnet sind. Die Fußballer wurden in zwei Gruppen unterteilt. Die Fußballer wurden zusätzlich jeweils in Subgruppen nach Alter (unter 14 Jahren [U14], unter 16 Jahren [U16] und unter 18 Jahren [U18]) zugeordnet. Die eine Gruppe (KT) führte zweimal wöchentlich zusätzlich zum regulären Fußballtraining ein Krafttraining durch, die andere Gruppe (KG) absolvierte ausschließlich das reguläre Fußballtraining. Es wurde die Leistungsfähigkeit im Squat- (SJ), Countermovement- (CMJ) und Drop Jump (DJ) aus unterschiedlichen Höhen (16 bis 40 Zentimeter), sowie Maximalkraftleistungen im Ei-ner-Wiederholungs-Maximum (1RM) der Front- und Nackenkniebeuge vor, nach einem Jahr und nach der zweijährigen Trainingsphase erfasst. Zur Kontrolle des Einflussfak-tors Wachstum wurden in diesem Forschungsprojekt Querschnittsdaten im SJ, CMJ und DJ von insgesamt 426 Schülern (männlich) im Alter zwischen 12 und 19 Jahren analog zu den Fußballern erhoben. Die Schüler wurden in Altersklassen (U13 bis U19) eingeteilt. Für die Analyse der Leistungsentwicklung innerhalb einer Gruppe und die paarweisen Vergleiche zwischen zwei Gruppen wurde eine zweifaktorielle Varianzanalyse mit Messwiederholung mit den Faktoren Gruppe und Zeit durchgeführt. Im Falle signifikan-ter F-Werte wurde eine Post-hoc-Analyse (Scheffe) durchgeführt, um die Lokalisation der signifikanten Veränderungen zu errechnen. Die Analyse der Querschnittsdaten er-folgte über die einfaktorielle Varianzanalyse. Die Post-hoc-Analyse (Scheffe) zeigte statistisch signifikante Leistungsunterschiede zwischen den Altersklassen auf (paarwei-se Vergleiche zwischen zwei Altersstufen). Zur Ermittlung von Zusammenhängen zwi-schen verschiedenen Parametern wurde die Produkt-Moment-Korrelation nach Pearson berechnet. Das Signifikanzniveau wurde für alle statistischen Verfahren auf p < 0,05 festgelegt. Im Vergleich der Fußballer schnitt die Krafttrainingsgruppe nach der zweijährigen Untersuchungsdauer in den Maximalkraftleistungen der Front- und Nackenkniebeuge in allen Altersklassen signifikant besser ab. Die Ergebnisse der KG zeigen in der U18 für die Maximalleistungen bei den Kniebeugen über zwei Jahre Steigerungen im Mittel von 9,3 ± 13,1 bis 37,1 ± 21,4%, in der U16 von 48,3 ± 39,7 bis 62,1 ± 53,3% und in der U14 von 84,4 ± 26,1 bis 94 ± 39,8%. Die Leistungssteigerungen der KT in den Maxi-malkraftparametern übersteigen die Zunahmen der KG bei Weitem. In der U14 finden sich je nach Parameter zwischen 290,9 ± 107,7 bis 312,6 ± 118,6% Leistungssteigerung über zwei Jahre. Die U16 weist 112,4 ± 32,7 bis 121,4 ± 39,4% Leistungssteigerung auf und die U18 zwischen 104,0 ± 45,6 bis 106,0 ± 34,4% Leistungssteigerung je nach Pa-rameter über zwei Jahre. Im Squat Jump zeigte die KT ebenfalls signifikant bessere Leistungen (U18: 26,1 ± 13,9%, U16: 29,7 ± 16,7%, U14: 30,9 ± 13,8%), als die Gruppe, die kein Krafttraining absolvierte (U18: 1,0 ± 8,7%, U16: 10,4 ± 11,8%, U14: 8,1 ± 9,9%). Ähnliche signifikante Steigerungsraten wurden beim Countermovement Jump (U18: 20,3 ± 14,0% vs. 1,2 ± 6,9%, U16: 21,2 ± 14,4% vs. 11,1 ± 10,5%, U14: 21,6 ± 14,4% vs. 9,9 ± 7,7%) zugunsten der KG ermittelt. Die U18 der KT weist im Mittel Steigerungen des Drop Jump in den jeweiligen Höhen von 6,6 ± 16,9 bis 14,8 ± 21,3% auf. Es wurden keine signifikanten Unterschiede zur KG analysiert (Steigerungen: 0,0 ± 20 bis 6,2 ± 27,0%). Die U16 der KT erreicht Steigerungen im DJ im Mittel von 35,8 ± 28,8 bis 36,9 ± 22,5%. Dies führte zu signifikanten Unterschieden gegenüber der KG, die Steigerungen von 15,1 ± 20,8 bis 22,0 ± 19,0% aufwies. Zwischen den Gruppen der U14 kam es zu signifikanten Unterschieden im Ausgangstest. Die KT der U14 wies höhere Steigerungen (29,2 ± 25,8 bis 41,3 ± 29,3%) auf als die KG (1,5 ± 18,3 bis 15,2 ± 30,8%). Die Abschätzung der Leistungsentwicklung in den Schnellkraftparametern zeigte, dass es mit dem Alter zu leistungspositiven Veränderungen kommt. Unterstellt man, dass die Differenz zwischen den Mittelwerten der Leistungsparameter der einzel-nen Altersklassen der untrainierten Schüler die entwicklungsbedingte Leistungsentwick-lung darstellt, finden sich die höchsten Zunahmen zwischen den Altersklassen der U13 und der U17 und die geringsten Zunahmen bei den ältesten Jugendlichen. Die Gruppen-vergleiche erreichten nicht zwischen allen Altersstufen signifikantes Niveau, sondern zum Teil erst zu mindestens zwei Jahre älteren Probandengruppen. Die Zusammenhangsanalysen zeigen hohe Zusammenhänge zwischen dem SJ und CMJ und den Maximalkraftparametern. Die Zusammenhänge zwischen den Maximalkraftparametern und den Leistungen im DJ klassifizieren sich als gering bis mittel. Die Daten zeigen, dass sowohl dem Faktor körperliche Entwicklung, als auch der Sportart Fußball leistungspositive Einflüsse auf Schnellkraftleistungen zugeordnet wer-den können. Die Datenlage dieser Untersuchung zeigt ferner, dass ein Krafttraining ei-nen positiven Effekt auf Leistungsparameter im Fußball hat. Eine langfristige Trai-ningsintervention von zwei Jahren kann zu einer deutlichen Steigerung des 1RM, des SJ, des CMJ und des DJ führen. Die Maximal- und Schnellkraft ist demnach im Ju-gendalter durch ein langfristig angelegtes Krafttraining sehr gut zu steigern. Demnach ist ein ergänzendes Krafttraining im Nachwuchsleistungssport der Sportart Fußball zu empfehlen.
... Periodized training aims to promote improvements while preventing the onset of overtraining syndrome (Haff, 2004), which is characterized by physical and mental symptoms (Stone et al., 1991). Physiologically, the progressive overload, planned recovery, and variety inherent to periodization promote fitness gains while preventing physical signs of overtraining syndrome: severe fatigue, performance decrements, and injury (Kibler and Chandler, 1994; Kraemer et al., 2002; Kubukeli et al., 2002; Stone, 1990). ...
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Background: Periodization of exercise is a method typically used in sports training, but the impact of periodized exercise on health outcomes in untrained adults is unclear. Purpose: This review aims to summarize existing research wherein aerobic or resistance exercise was prescribed to inactive adults using a recognized periodization method. Methods: A search of relevant databases, conducted between January and February of 2014, yielded 21 studies published between 2000 and 2013 that assessed the impact of periodized exercise on health outcomes in untrained participants. Results: Substantial heterogeneity existed between studies, even under the same periodization method. Compared to baseline values or non-training control groups, prescribing periodized resistance or aerobic exercise yielded significant improvements in health outcomes related to traditional and emerging risk factors for cardiovascular disease, low-back and neck/shoulder pain, disease severity, and quality of life, with mixed results for increasing bone mineral density. Conclusions: Although it is premature to conclude that periodized exercise is superior to non-periodized exercise for improving health outcomes, periodization appears to be a feasible means of prescribing exercise to inactive adults within an intervention setting. Further research is necessary to understand the effectiveness of periodizing aerobic exercise, the psychological effects of periodization, and the feasibility of implementing flexible non-linear methods.
... This form of periodization involves the variation in training prescription and volume loads on a session-by-session basis to concurrently account for multiple training goals. It is suggested that one of the merits of this system is the ease with which sessions can be quickly tailored and administered in response to the intense and variable competition schedule (38). It should be noted that maintaining peak performance for up to 35 weeks is considered a thankless task (47,56) and is somewhat dependent on maintaining strength (3,7). ...
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Soccer is characterized as a high-intensity, intermittent, contact team sport that requires a number of proficient physical and physiological capabilities to perform successfully. Apart from the necessary technical and tactical skills required, soccer players must also develop and retain a high level of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning, speed, agility, strength, and power. These are best developed through high-intensity interval training, small-sided games, repeated sprints, coached speed and agility sessions and strength and power-based gym sessions. Soccer coaches and strength and conditioning coaches must work cohesively to ensure a structured and effective program is adhered to.
... Using strongman implements will force an athlete to move with a heavy weight, increasing the core stabilization needs as described earlier and may create a more sport-specific strength, by accounting for these factors. In addition, using strongman implements for conditioning purposes in the late off-season will provide a stimulus for hypertrophy at a period in the training program when there typically is an overall reduction in volume and an increase in intensity of resistance training with the primary focus being increasing power and/or speed (8,23). ...
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THIS ARTICLE EXAMINES THE USE OF STRONGMAN IMPLEMENTS IN A TRAINING PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE SPORT PERFORMANCE. THE BENEFITS AND REASONS FOR INCLUDING STRONGMAN IMPLEMENTS INTO AN OVERALL TRAINING PROGRAM WILL BE DISCUSSED. INFORMATION FROM SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CONDUCTED ON STRONGMAN IMPLEMENTS WILL BE USED THROUGHOUT THE ARTICLE. EXAMPLES OF HOW TO INCORPORATE STRONGMAN IMPLEMENTS INTO THE PROGRAM DESIGN WILL BE GIVEN FROM A THEORETICAL STANDPOINT AND A PRACTICAL STANDPOINT FROM PREVIOUS USE BY THE AUTHORS.
... Using strongman implements will force an athlete to move with a heavy weight, increasing the core stabilization needs as described earlier and may create a more sport-specific strength, by accounting for these factors. In addition, using strongman implements for conditioning purposes in the late off-season will provide a stimulus for hypertrophy at a period in the training program when there typically is an overall reduction in volume and an increase in intensity of resistance training with the primary focus being increasing power and/or speed (8,23). ...
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Zemke BS, Batty RW, Sorenson AM, Ullom GM. The Lasting Neurological Effects of Resistance Training: Comparing Strength Gains in Previously Trained and Non-previously trained College-Aged Males. Journal of Undergraduate Kinesiology Research 2007;3(1):79-85. Purpose: Strength gains made during resistance training are made due to neurological and morphological adaptations. During a period of detraining, some of these adaptations are lost, which need to be regained during a period of retraining. The purpose of our study was to compare the rate of strength gains made in previously trained and non-previously trained males over a six week period. Methods: 12 males ages 18 to 23 who were not currently participating in a resistance training program participated in the study. Subjects were placed in one of two groups, either previously trained or non-previously trained. The previously trained group included subjects who had been on a resistance training program 2 times per week for greater than 12 weeks, but had not resistance trained for the past 6 months to 4 years. The non-previously trained group included subjects who had never been on a resistance training program for longer than 4 weeks. Subjects were asked to complete a minimum of 8 of 11 training sessions over a 6 week period. The subject's performance in bench press, overhead press, squat, and leg press were used to assess strength gains. Body fat % and circumference measurements were used to assess any morphological changes. Results: Both groups made significant output changes in each of the four exercises (p< .05); however, there were no significant changes between the two groups. There were also no significant changes in the morphological measurements. Conclusion: This study indicates that previously trained individuals do not make strength gains at a faster rate than non-previously trained individuals. To our knowledge, there have been no previous studies investigating the strength gains in previously trained and non-previously trained individuals. We believe this research will give important information to response expectations for a retraining period.
Chapter
Despite the controversy surrounding periodization, it has been assumed over the years as the key tool in training planning for the development and achievement of high-level performance, in individual sports. Given the enormous density of nowadays competitive calendar and the athletes’ responsibilities towards their sponsors, the challenge is to train with quality, managing fatigue through specific training programs that correctly handle the load applied to the athlete. The scientific boom experienced today and the availability of information from areas such as physiology, biomechanics, biochemistry and sports training, allowed to overcome myths, improve training prescription/control and the development of new approaches to training periodization in elite athletes. The model presented here has as main characteristics to be timeless and dimensionless. That is, each “momentum” depends exclusively on the athlete’s body feedback in relation to the training loads, indicated by the biomarkers used. The duration of “momentums” and “macrocycles” depends on the athlete’s performance, ballast and physiological wear (internal biomonitored load). The purpose of this chapter is to present an overview of the components to be considered in individual sports training, their control and how the theory is translated into practice.
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Over the past several decades, periodization has been widely accepted as the gold standard of training theory. Within the literature, there are numerous definitions for periodization, which makes it difficult to study. When examining the proposed definitions and related studies on periodization, problems arise in the following domains: (1) periodization has been proposed to serve as the macro-management of the training process concerning the annual plan, yet research on long-term effects is scarce; (2) periodization and programming are being used interchangeably in research; and (3) training is not periodized alongside other stressors such as sport (i.e., only resistance training is being performed without the inclusion of sport). Overall, the state of the literature suggests that the inability to define periodization makes the statement of its superiority difficult to experimentally test. This paper discusses the proposed definitions of periodization and the study designs which have been employed to examine the concept.
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Prior to major competitions, athletes often use a peaking protocol such as tapering or training cessation to improve performance. The majority of the current literature has focused on endurance-based sports such as swimming, cycling, and running to better understand how and when to taper or use training cessation to achieve the desired performance outcome. However, evidence regarding peaking protocols for strength and power athletes is lacking. Current limitations for peaking maximal strength is that many studies do not provide sufficient details for practitioners to use. Thus, when working with athletes such as powerlifters, weightlifters, throwers, and strongman competitors, practitioners must use trial and error to determine the best means for peaking rather than using an evidence-based protocol. More specifically, determining how to peak maximal strength using data derived from strength and power athletes has not been established. While powerlifting training (i.e., back squat, bench press, deadlift) is used by strength and power athletes up until the final days prior to a competition, understanding how to peak maximal strength relative to powerlifting performance is still unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to review the literature on tapering and training cessation practices relative to peaking powerlifting performance.
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Makalah ini berjudul Training cycles (siklus latihan) yang merupakan tugas kuliah metodelogi latihan dengan dosen pengampu Prof. Dr. dr James Tangkudung Sport. Med M. P.d dan Dr. Johansyah Lubis. M.Pd Adapun isi dari makalah ini meliputi pengertian, klasifikasi dan kegunaan dari siklus latihan pada program latihan , yaitu Siklus Mikro, Siklus Makro dan Siklus Meso Terimakasih penulis ucapkan kepada rekan-rekan S-3 POR UNJ 2018 Semoga makalah ini dapat memberikan manfaat baik untuk penulis maupun untuk pembaca
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do treinamento de força: uma revisão crítica. R. bras. Ci e Mov. 2008; 16(1): 89-97. RESUMO: Originária da Alemanha e da antiga União das Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas (URSS), a teoria da periodização do treinamento se desenvolveu em meados do século XX, no chamado período científi co, baseada na teoria da Síndrome Geral da Adaptação (SGA). A literatura científi ca pertinente ao treinamento de força entende a periodização como a variação sistemática da intensidade e do volume com a fi nalidade de se desenvolver de forma efi ciente uma ou mais capacidades físicas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo analisar o efeito da periodização sobre o treinamento de força com relação às suas adaptações específi cas e comparar os modelos mais recorrentes (fi xo, linear e ondulado). Para tanto, foi feito um levantamento bibliográfi co sobre as variáveis utilizadas para a prescrição do treinamento resistido, assim como uma revisão sistemática de artigos encontrados nas seguintes bases de dados: Pubmed e Scielo. A constatação principal da presente revisão foi que o modelo ondulado é o mais efi ciente para o aumento de força máxima e potência, seguido pelo linear e por último o fi xo, embora sejam necessárias mais investigações enfocando resistência de força e hipertrofi a muscular. Palavras chaves: força muscular, treinamento resistido, volume, intensidade.
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do treinamento de força: uma revisão crítica. R. bras. Ci e Mov. 2008; 16(1): 89-97. RESUMO: Originária da Alemanha e da antiga União das Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas (URSS), a teoria da periodização do treinamento se desenvolveu em meados do século XX, no chamado período científi co, baseada na teoria da Síndrome Geral da Adaptação (SGA). A literatura científi ca pertinente ao treinamento de força entende a periodização como a variação sistemática da intensidade e do volume com a fi nalidade de se desenvolver de forma efi ciente uma ou mais capacidades físicas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo analisar o efeito da periodização sobre o treinamento de força com relação às suas adaptações específi cas e comparar os modelos mais recorrentes (fi xo, linear e ondulado). Para tanto, foi feito um levantamento bibliográfi co sobre as variáveis utilizadas para a prescrição do treinamento resistido, assim como uma revisão sistemática de artigos encontrados nas seguintes bases de dados: Pubmed e Scielo. A constatação principal da presente revisão foi que o modelo ondulado é o mais efi ciente para o aumento de força máxima e potência, seguido pelo linear e por último o fi xo, embora sejam necessárias mais investigações enfocando resistência de força e hipertrofi a muscular. Palavras chaves: força muscular, treinamento resistido, volume, intensidade.
Thesis
The overall purpose of this thesis was to obtain knowledge about individualised, supervised strength and conditioning programmes for physical performance and injury prevention in female athletes. Data are presented both on the influence of individualisation and supervision during resistance training for physical performance and injury prevention and on the athletes’ experience of resistance training and the role of the physical coach. Data are also presented on physical performance testing and injury prevalence and preventive action in female volleyball. Study I: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of injury and the extent of preventive action in elite Swedish volleyball players. Injuries to players in the elite male and female Swedish division, during the 2002-2003 season, were registered using a questionnaire. Of the 158 volleyball players, a total of 82 players (52%) reported 121 injuries, during a total exposure time of 24,632 h. The majority of the injuries were located in the ankle, knee and back. Most injuries were classified as being of minor severity. Although most players took part in some kind of preventive action, one in every two players incurred an injury during the season, which indicates that the risk of suffering an injury in elite volleyball is relatively high. Study II: The purpose of Study II was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of sit-ups and push-ups and to investigate performance differences in muscular endurance (maximum number of repetitions) and power (timed; maximum number of repetitions in 30 s) in young women and men. Thirty-eight women and 25 men (age18-35) participated in the study. Thirteen female participants performed two test sessions of each test using a test-retest design. A high level of reliability was noted for both the sit-up and the push-up tests. There were no significant differences between the men and the women in the sit-up test, whereas the men performed significantly more push-ups than the women. Study III: The purpose of Study III was to evaluate the effects of a 26-week individualised and supervised strength and injury-prevention programme on performance enhancement. Young female volleyball players completed resistance training with either a supervised, individualised training programme (experimental group; n=10) or an unsupervised, non-individualised training programme (control group; n=17). Exposure and injury data were collected during the 2006-2007 season (baseline) and the 26-week programme with physical performance testing was carried out during the 2007-2008 season. After the intervention, the experimental group had improved significantly more (p<0.05) than the control group in the squat, barbell bench press, push-ups and sit-ups. Individualisation and supervision of resistance training seem to improve greater training adherence and strength gains compared with non-individualised and unsupervised training. Study IV: The purpose of Study IV was to explore and describe volleyball players’ experience of an individualised, supervised strength-training programme aiming at physical performance and injury prevention. The purpose was also to use the players’ observations to obtain an understanding of the role of a physical coach. The study comprised nine participants (mean age 19 years) who had been involved as the experimental group in Study III. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and were analysed using qualitative conventional content analysis. Three overarching themes describing the content of the text emerged: 1) being in an enjoyable, relaxed situation, 2) interaction between coach and athlete and 3) mental and physical achievements. Conclusions: Individualisation and supervision appear to be of importance for compliance, strength gains and athletic performance, during strength training. From the female team athletes’ perspective, the willingness to perform strength training is dependent on team spirit, individual goal-setting and bonding with the coach. Strength training, on the one hand, could be used to improve self-esteem among young females. On the other hand, when designing strength-training intervention studies, it is important to be aware of the fear and feeling of uncertainty that may exist among the participants when it comes to strength training. Key words: Strength training, physical performance, functional tests, strength assessment, injury prevention, physical coach, young female athletes, volleyball
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Current research has explored the degree of undulation (variation) necessary to optimize athletic preparedness. In this context Linear, Traditional, and Non- Traditional periodization strategies are analyzed. Special emphasis is placed on the advantages and disadvantages of increasing undulation.
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THIS COLUMN DESCRIBES THE USE OF PERIODIZATION AND COMPLEX TRAINING AS AN EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE WAY TO INCREASE STRENGTH AND POWER DURING A SUMMER OFF-SEASON HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM.
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PERIODIZATION REPRESENTS AN OPTIMAL STRATEGY FOR ORGANIZING STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING PROGRAMS. THE SELECTED STRATEGY, HOWEVER, SHOULD BE BASED ON THE LEVEL OF THE ATHLETE AND THE CONSTRAINTS OF THE COMPETITIVE SEASON. A COMMON THEME THROUGHOUT ALL THE PERIODIZATION PROTOCOLS IS THE NEED TO MANIPULATE VOLUME LOADS, PROGRESS FROM GENERAL TO SPORT-SPECIFIC TRAINING, AND DISSIPATE FATIGUE. SIGNIFICANT TO THE LATTER, THE USE OF PRECOMPETITION TAPERS APPEARS EVIDENTLY BENEFICIAL. ALTHOUGH ENOUGH ANECDOTAL EVIDENCE EXISTS TO VALIDATE THE USE OF PERIODIZATION, FURTHER SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION IS REQUIRED TO UNDERSTAND ITS USE AND LIMITATIONS TO ELITE LEVEL ATHLETES ACROSS EXTENDED PERIODS (E.G., >4 YEARS). UNTIL SUCH TIME, HOWEVER, ITS USE IS RECOMMENDED AND ADVOCATED BY THE RESEARCH HEREIN.
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To determine the most effective periodization model for strength and hypertrophy is an important step for strength and conditioning professionals. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of linear (LP) and daily undulating periodized (DUP) resistance training on body composition and maximal strength levels. Forty men aged 21.5 +/- 8.3 and with a minimum 1-year strength training experience were assigned to an LP (n = 20) or DUP group (n = 20). Subjects were tested for maximal strength in bench press, leg press 45 degrees, and arm curl (1 repetition maximum [RM]) at baseline (T1), after 8 weeks (T2), and after 12 weeks of training (T3). Increases of 18.2 and 25.08% in bench press 1 RM were observed for LP and DUP groups in T3 compared with T1, respectively (p < or = 0.05). In leg press 45 degrees , LP group exhibited an increase of 24.71% and DUP of 40.61% at T3 compared with T1. Additionally, DUP showed an increase of 12.23% at T2 compared with T1 and 25.48% at T3 compared with T2. For the arm curl exercise, LP group increased 14.15% and DUP 23.53% at T3 when compared with T1. An increase of 20% was also found at T2 when compared with T1, for DUP. Although the DUP group increased strength the most in all exercises, no statistical differences were found between groups. In conclusion, undulating periodized strength training induced higher increases in maximal strength than the linear model in strength-trained men. For maximizing strength increases, daily intensity and volume variations were more effective than weekly variations.
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To compare the physiological and performance adaptations between periodized and nonperiodized resistance training in women collegiate tennis athletes. Thirty women (19 +/- 1 yr) were assigned to either a periodized resistance training group (P), nonperiodized training group (NV), or a control group (C). Assessments for body composition, anaerobic power, VO2(max), speed, agility, maximal strength, jump height, tennis-service velocity, and resting serum hormonal concentrations were performed before and after 4, 6, and 9 months of resistance training performed 2-3 d.wk (-1). Nine months of resistance training resulted in significant increases in fat-free mass; anaerobic power; grip strength; jump height; one-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press, bench press, and shoulder press; serve, forehand, and backhand ball velocities; and resting serum insulin-like growth factor-1, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations. Percent body fat and VO2(max) decreased significantly in the P and NV groups after training. During the first 6 months, periodized resistance training elicited significantly greater increases in 1-RM leg press (9 +/- 2 vs 4.5 +/- 2%), bench press (22 +/- 5 vs 11 +/- 8%), and shoulder press (24 +/- 7 vs 18 +/- 6%) than the NV group. The absolute 1-RM leg press and shoulder press values in the P group were greater than the NV group after 9 months. Periodized resistance training also resulted in significantly greater improvements in jump height (50 +/- 9 vs 37 +/- 7%) and serve (29 +/- 5 vs 16 +/- 4%), forehand (22 +/- 3 vs 17 +/- 3%), and backhand ball velocities (36 +/- 4 vs 14 +/- 4%) as compared with nonperiodized training after 9 months. These data demonstrated that periodization of resistance training over 9 months was superior for enhancing strength and motor performance in collegiate women tennis players.
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The use of resistance training for children has increased in popularity and interest. It appears that children are capable of voluntary strength gains. Exercise prescription in younger populations is critical and requires certain program variables to be altered from adult perspectives. Individualization is vital, as the rate of physiological maturation has an impact on the adaptations that occur. The major difference in programs for children is the use of lighter loads (i.e., > 6 RM loads). It appears that longer duration programs (i.e., 10-20 wks) are better for observing training adaptations. This may be due to the fact that it takes more exercise to stimulate adaptational mechanisms related to strength performance beyond that of normal growth rates. The risk of injury appears low during participation in a resistance training program, and this risk is minimized with proper supervision and instruction. Furthermore, with the incidence of injury in youth sports, participation in a resistance training program may provide a protective advantage in one’s preparation for sports participation.
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Elite and nonelite junior weightlifters (nonelite: n = 14, X +/- SE, age = 17.2 +/- 0.4 years; elite: n = 8, age = 18.4 +/- 0.4 years) performed identical training programs for 4 weeks. Pre-and postexercise serum samples were collected before and after 1 week of high-volume training and after 3 weeks of normal-volume training. The percent change (%D) in preexercise testosterone/cortisol exhibited different correlations (p <0.05), with %D weightlifting performance for each training phase and each group (high volume nonelite: r =-0.70; high volume elite: r = 0.00; normal volume nonelite: r = 0.51; normal volume elite: r = 0.92). Correlations for %D testosterone or cortisol and weightlifting performance exhibited no discernible pattern. These data indicate that preexercise testosterone/cortisol of these weightlifters reflect the short-term training volumes and is correlated to changes in competitive weightlifting performances. Furthermore, based on hormonal profiles and weightlifting performances, elite weightlifters appeared to better tolerate high-volume training than nonelite weightlifters. (C) 2000 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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In sport and everyday activities, the most important attribute of skeletal muscle is the ability to generate power, a product of strength and speed of movement. Many factors influence the muscle's ability to generate power. Training for muscular power requires special care in developing the proper exercise prescription. The need for muscular power runs across a spectrum of people from elite athletes attempting to optimize sports performance to the frail elderly trying to perform simple tasks. Power development is paramount to optimal neuromuscular function.
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether ballistic resistance training would increase the vertical jump (VJ) performance of already highly trained jump athletes. Sixteen male volleyball players from a NCAA Division I team participated in the study. A Vertec was used to measure standing vertical jump and reach (SJR) and jump and reach from a three-step approach (AJR). Several types of vertical jump tests were also performed on a Plyometric Power System and a forceplate to measure force, velocity, and power production during vertical jumping. The subjects completed the tests and were then randomly divided into two groups, control and treatment. All subjects completed the usual preseason volleyball on-court training combined with a resistance training program. In addition, the treatment group completed 8 wk of squat jump training while the control group completed squat and leg press exercises at a 6RM load. Both groups were retested at the completion of the training period. The treatment group produced a significant increase in both SJR and AJR of 5.9+/-3.1% and 6.3+/-5.1%. respectively. These increases were significantly greater than the pre- to postchanges produced by the control group, which were not significant for either jump. Analysis of the data from the various other jump tests suggested increased overall force output during jumping, and in particular increased rate of force development were the main contributors to the increased jump height. These results lend support to the effectiveness of ballistic resistance training for improving vertical jump performance in elite jump athletes.
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The purpose of this investigation was to study a high-intensity resistance exercise overtraining protocol resulting in muscular strength decrements. Seventeen weight-trained males were divided into an overtraining group (OT; N = 11; mean +/- SE, age = 22.0 +/- 0.9 yr,) that exercised on a squat machine daily for 2 wk with 100% of 1 repetition maximum (RM) relative intensity, and a control group (CON; N = 6; age = 23.7 +/- 2.4 yr) that exercised 1 d.wk-1 with low intensity (50% 1 RM). Test batteries were conducted at the beginning (test 1), after 1 wk (test 2), and after 2 wk (test 3) of the study. One RM performance significantly decreased from test 1 to test 3 (P < 0.05) for the OT group (mean = -12.2 +/- 3.8 kg), but not the CON group (mean = -1.1 +/- 0.8 kg). Isokinetic and stimulated isometric muscle force significantly decreased for the OT group compared with the CON group by test 3. The primary site of maladaptation appeared to be in the periphery as indicated by changes in stimulated force, circulating CK activity, and exercise-induced lactate responses. This protocol produced a significant decrease in 1 RM performance, thus providing a model for the study of short-term, high-intensity resistance exercise overtraining.
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Seventeen weight-trained males were divided into an overtraining group [OT; n = 11; age = 22.0 +/- 0.9 (SE) yr] that weight trained their legs daily for 2 wk with 100% 1 repetition maximum relative intensity on a squat machine and a control group (n = 6; age = 23.7 +/- 2.4 yr) that exercised 1 day/wk with low relative intensity (50% 1 repetition maximum). Test batteries including strength assessments and resting and exercise-induced concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were conducted at the beginning, middle, and end (tests 1-3, respectively) of the study. Strength capabilities decreased by test 3 for the OT group (P < 0.05). Resting catecholamine concentrations did not change for either group during the study, whereas exercise-induced concentrations of both epinephrine (test 1 = 3,407.9 +/- 666.6 pmol/l, test 2 = 7,563.7 +/- 1,210.6 pmol/l, test 3 = 6,931.6 +/- 919.3 pmol/l) and norepinephrine (test 1 = 42.9 +/- 7.4 nmol/l, test 2 = 70.0 +/- 8.8 nmol/l, test 3 = 85.2 +/- 14.5 nmol/l) significantly increased by tests 2 and 3 for only the OT group. Correlation coefficients suggested decreased responsitivity of skeletal muscle to sympathetic nervous system activity. It appears that altered exercise-induced sympathetic nervous system activity accompanies high relative intensity resistance exercise overtraining and may be among the initial responses to the onset of the previously theoretical sympathetic overtraining syndrome.
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Few data exist on the long-term adaptations to heavy resistance training in women. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of volume of resistance exercise on the development of physical performance abilities in competitive, collegiate women tennis players. Twenty-four tennis players were matched for tennis ability and randomly placed into one of three groups: a no resistance exercise control group, a periodized multiple-set resistance training group, or a single-set circuit resistance training group. No significant changes in body mass were observed in any of the groups throughout the entire training period. However, significant increases in fat-free mass and decreases in percent body fat were observed in the periodized training group after 4, 6, and 9 months of training. A significant increase in power output was observed after 9 months of training in the periodized training group only. One-repetition maximum strength for the bench press, free-weight shoulder press, and leg press increased significantly after 4, 6, and 9 months of training in the periodized training group, whereas the single-set circuit group increased only after 4 months of training. Significant increases in serve velocity were observed after 4 and 9 months of training in the periodized training group, whereas no significant changes were observed in the single-set circuit group. These data demonstrate that sport-specific resistance training using a periodized multiple-set training method is superior to low-volume single-set resistance exercise protocols in the development of physical abilities in competitive, collegiate women tennis players.
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The purpose of this investigation was to determine the long-term training adaptations associated with low-volume circuit-type versus periodized high-volume resistance training programs in women. 34 healthy, untrained women were randomly placed into one of the following groups: low-volume, single-set circuit (SSC; N = 12); periodized high-volume multiple-set (MS; N = 12); or nonexercising control (CON) group (N = 10). The SSC group performed one set of 8-12 repetitions to muscular failure 3 d x wk(-1). The MS group performed two to four sets of 3-15 repetitions with periodized volume and intensity 4 d x wk(-1). Muscular strength, power, speed, endurance, anthropometry, and resting hormonal concentrations were determined pretraining (T1), after 12 wk (T2), and after 24 wk of training (T3). 1-RM bench press and leg press, and upper and lower body local muscular endurance increased significantly (P < or = 0.05) at T2 for both groups, but only MS showed a significant increase at T3. Muscular power and speed increased significantly at T2 and T3 only for MS. Increases in testosterone were observed for both groups at T2 but only MS showed a significant increase at T3. Cortisol decreased from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3 in MS. Insulin-like growth factor-1 increased significantly at T3 for SSC and at T2 and T3 for MS. No changes were observed for growth hormone in any of the training groups. Significant improvements in muscular performance may be attained with either a low-volume single-set program or a high-volume, periodized multiple-set program during the first 12 wk of training in untrained women. However, dramatically different training adaptations are associated with specific domains of training program design which contrast in speed of movement, exercise choices and use of variation (periodization) in the intensity and volume of exercise.
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In order to stimulate further adaptation toward a specific training goal(s), progression in the type of resistance training protocol used is necessary. The optimal characteristics of strength-specific programs include the use of both concentric and eccentric muscle actions and the performance of both single- and multiple-joint exercises. It is also recommended that the strength program sequence exercises to optimize the quality of the exercise intensity (large before small muscle group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, and higher intensity before lower intensity exercises). For initial resistances, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) be used in novice training. For intermediate to advanced training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range, from 1-12 RM in a periodized fashion, with eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1-6 RM) using at least 3-min rest periods between sets performed at a moderate contraction velocity (1-2 s concentric, 1-2 s eccentric). When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that 2-10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number. The recommendation for training frequency is 2-3 d x wk(-1) for novice and intermediate training and 4-5 d x wk(-1) for advanced training. Similar program designs are recommended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and frequency. For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1-12 RM be used in periodized fashion, with emphasis on the 6-12 RM zone using 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity. Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing hypertrophy. Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies: 1) strength training, and 2) use of light loads (30-60% of 1 RM) performed at a fast contraction velocity with 2-3 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise. It is also recommended that emphasis be placed on multiple-joint exercises, especially those involving the total body. For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to moderate loads (40-60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (> 15) using short rest periods (< 90 s). In the interpretation of this position stand, as with prior ones, the recommendations should be viewed in context of the individual's target goals, physical capacity, and training status.
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Thirty-two untrained men [mean (SD) age 22.5 (5.8) years, height 178.3 (7.2) cm, body mass 77.8 (11.9) kg] participated in an 8-week progressive resistance-training program to investigate the "strength-endurance continuum". Subjects were divided into four groups: a low repetition group (Low Rep, n = 9) performing 3-5 repetitions maximum (RM) for four sets of each exercise with 3 min rest between sets and exercises, an intermediate repetition group (Int Rep, n = 11) performing 9-11 RM for three sets with 2 min rest, a high repetition group (High Rep, n = 7) performing 20-28 RM for two sets with 1 min rest, and a non-exercising control group (Con, n = 5). Three exercises (leg press, squat, and knee extension) were performed 2 days/week for the first 4 weeks and 3 days/week for the final 4 weeks. Maximal strength [one repetition maximum, 1RM), local muscular endurance (maximal number of repetitions performed with 60% of 1RM), and various cardiorespiratory parameters (e.g., maximum oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, maximal aerobic power, time to exhaustion) were assessed at the beginning and end of the study. In addition, pre- and post-training muscle biopsy samples were analyzed for fiber-type composition, cross-sectional area, myosin heavy chain (MHC) content, and capillarization. Maximal strength improved significantly more for the Low Rep group compared to the other training groups, and the maximal number of repetitions at 60% 1RM improved the most for the High Rep group. In addition, maximal aerobic power and time to exhaustion significantly increased at the end of the study for only the High Rep group. All three major fiber types (types I, IIA, and IIB) hypertrophied for the Low Rep and Int Rep groups, whereas no significant increases were demonstrated for either the High Rep or Con groups. However, the percentage of type IIB fibers decreased, with a concomitant increase in IIAB fibers for all three resistance-trained groups. These fiber-type conversions were supported by a significant decrease in MHCIIb accompanied by a significant increase in MHCIIa. No significant changes in fiber-type composition were found in the control samples. Although all three training regimens resulted in similar fiber-type transformations (IIB to IIA), the low to intermediate repetition resistance-training programs induced a greater hypertrophic effect compared to the high repetition regimen. The High Rep group, however, appeared better adapted for submaximal, prolonged contractions, with significant increases after training in aerobic power and time to exhaustion. Thus, low and intermediate RM training appears to induce similar muscular adaptations, at least after short-term training in previously untrained subjects. Overall, however, these data demonstrate that both physical performance and the associated physiological adaptations are linked to the intensity and number of repetitions performed, and thus lend support to the "strength-endurance continuum".
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training on physiological adaptations including muscle fiber hypertrophy and muscle creatine accumulation. Methods: Nineteen healthy resistance-trained men were matched and then randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either a creatine (N = 10) or placebo (N = 9) group. Periodized heavy resistance training was performed for 12 wk. Creatine or placebo capsules were consumed (25 g x d(-1)) for 1 wk followed by a maintenance dose (5 g x d(-1)) for the remainder of the training. Results: After 12 wk, significant (P < or = 0.05) increases in body mass and fat-free mass were greater in creatine (6.3% and 6.3%, respectively) than placebo (3.6% and 3.1%, respectively) subjects. After 12 wk, increases in bench press and squat were greater in creatine (24% and 32%, respectively) than placebo (16% and 24%, respectively) subjects. Compared with placebo subjects, creatine subjects demonstrated significantly greater increases in Type I (35% vs 11%), IIA (36% vs 15%), and IIAB (35% vs 6%) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Muscle total creatine concentrations were unchanged in placebo subjects. Muscle creatine was significantly elevated after 1 wk in creatine subjects (22%), and values remained significantly greater than placebo subjects after 12 wk. Average volume lifted in the bench press during training was significantly greater in creatine subjects during weeks 5-8. No negative side effects to the supplementation were reported. Conclusion: Creatine supplementation enhanced fat-free mass, physical performance, and muscle morphology in response to heavy resistance training, presumably mediated via higher quality training sessions.
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Information concerning frequency of training for resistance trained individuals is relatively unknown. Problems in designing training programs for student athletes are frequently encountered due to differential time constraints placed upon them. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-selection of resistance training frequency on muscular strength. Sixty-one members of an NCAA. Division IAA football team participated in a 10-week winter conditioning program. Each subject was given the option of choosing from a three-day (3d, n=12) four-day (4d, n=15), five-day (5d, n=23) or six-day (6d, n=ll) per week resistance training program. In addition to the strength training, the subjects participated in a football conditioning program twice a week. Testing was conducted before and after the 10-week training program. Field tests common to football off-season conditioning programs were utilized to evaluate strength (1 RM squat and bench press), speed (40-yard sprint), endurance (two-mile run), vertical jump and anthropometric measurements. Posttests revealed significant changes for the 3d group in decreased time for the two-mile run (2mi), decreased sum of skinfolds (SF) and an increased chest girth (CH). The 4d program revealed significant decreases in body weight, 2mi, SF, and increases in 1 RM squat, CH and thigh girths (TH). The 5d group significantly decreased 2mi, and SF, and increased both 1 RM squat and bench press and CH and TH. The 6d group revealed significant decreases in 2mi, and SF, and an increase in 1 RM squat. Of the total variables measured, 4d and 5d frequency groups revealed the greatest amount of improvement. In conclusion, when resistance training frequency is self-selected by athletes (i.e., college football players) it appears that four or five days per week are the optimal choices for developing strength, endurance and muscle mass. (C) 1990 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
Fourteen female NCAA Division I collegiate volleyball players were monitored during a 12-week off-season strength and conditioning program. Physical characteristics (mean +/- standard deviation) included: age, 19.6 +/- 0.6 years; height, 171.9 +/- 6.8 centimeters; weight, 64.3 +/- 7.0 kilograms. Training included resistance exercise, plyometrics, aerobic endurance exercise and on-court volleyball practice. At the beginning of the study, starters (ST, n = 6) were compared with non-starters (NST, n = 8), and were found to be faster, more flexible and stronger. ST were still stronger when one-repetition maximum (1 RM) values were corrected for fat-free mass (FFM). Ten subjects completed the 12-week strength and conditioning program and participated in the post-training tests. ST and NST responded similarly to the training program for all physical and performance tests. Significant improvements were observed for FFM, sport-specific peak and mean isometric force, vertical jump (VJ), shoulder flexibility, 1 RM strength and 1 RM/FFM for the bench press, military press, squat and hang power clean, and isokinetic leg extension torque at 1.05 and 3.14 rads*sec-1. Furthermore, two-mile run times and sit-up performance (in 60 seconds) also improved. Significant decreases were observed for VJ endurance. Over the course of the training program, the relationship between 1 RM strength and FFM decreased, while shoulder flexibility was increasingly related to sport-specific isometric strength. Isokinetic testing did not reflect the magnitude of changes in 1 RM tests. Thus, while differences appear to exist in physical characteristics between starters and non-starters, it was shown that most physical and performance variables for ST and NST can be improved with a comprehensive strength and conditioning program for female collegiate volleyball players. (C) 1991 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
This study examined the effects of manipulating volume and intensity on strength and power in experienced male athletes. Subjects (N = 22) were tested for maximum strength in the squat and bench press lifts, vertical jump (VJ), lean body mass (LBM), and neural activation levels (IEMG). They trained 3 days a week for 12 weeks according to a linear periodization model (n = 8), an undulating periodization model (n = 5), or a nonperiodized control model (n = 9). Training volume and relative intensity were equated for all groups. Maximal squat, bench press, and LBM all improved significantly in each group, and changes in maximal strength correlated significantly with changes in LBM. IEMG levels were generally unchanged and did not correlate with changes in strength. The VJ increased significantly through training, but there were no differences between groups. Changes in VJ were not significantly correlated with changes in squat, LBM, or IEMG levels. The results indicate that in short-term training using previously trained subjects, no differences in maximal strength are seen when training volume and relative intensity are equated. (C) 1994 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
The present investigation compared the effects of three selected mesocycle-length weight training programs using partially equated volumes on upper and lower body strength. Ninety-two previously weight-trained males were tested at five intervals (T1 through T5) on freeweight bench press and parallel back squat strength before, during, and after 16 weeks of training. Groups 1 and 2 trained with programs consisting of 5x10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM and 6x8-RM at 83.3% of 1-RM, respectively, while keeping the amount of sets, repetitions, and training resistance (relative intensity) constant. Group 3 trained with a periodization program involving 4 weeks of 5x10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 6x8-RM with 83.3% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 3x6-RM with 87.6% of 1-RM, and 4 weeks of 3x4-RM with 92.4% of 1-RM. Group 4 served as a non-weight-training control group. A 4x5 (Group x Test) MANOVA with repeated measures on test revealed that pretest normalized bench press and squat strength values were statistically equal when the study began. For the bench press at T2, results revealed that Groups 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different from Group 4 but not from each other. At T3, T4, and T5, Group 3 demonstrated significantly different strength levels in the bench press from Groups 1, 2, and 4. Groups 1 and 2 were not significantly different from Group 4. For the squat exercise at T2, T3, and T4, Groups 2 and 3 were significantly different from Groups 1 and 2 but not from each other. At T5, Group 3 was significantly different from Groups 1, 2, and 4. Group 2 was significantly different from Groups 1 and 4, and Group 1 was only significantly different from Group 4. It was concluded that a mesocycle-length weight training program. incorporating periodization is superior in eliciting upper and lower body strength gains when compared to programs with partially equated volumes. (C) 1993 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
Some controversy exists concerning the "transfer of training effect" from different methods of resistance-training programs to various athletic performance variables. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 3 different resistance-training methods on a variety of performance variables representing different portions of the force velocity curve, ranging from high force to high speed movements. Forty-two previously trained men (1 repetition maximum [RM] squat kg per kg body mass >= 1.4) served as subjects. After a 4-week high-volume training period and the pretests, the subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. The groups were high force (HF; n = 13), high power (HP; n = 16), and a combination training group (COM; n = 13); each group trained 4 d[middle dot]wk-1 for 9 weeks. Group HF trained using 80-85% of their 1RM values. Group HP trained at relative intensities approximating 30% of peak isometric force. Group COM used a combination training protocol. Variables measured pre-and posttraining were the 1RM parallel squat, 1RM 1/4 squat, 1RM midthigh pull, vertical jump (VJ), vertical jump power, Margaria-Kalamen power test (MK), 30-m sprint, 10-yd shuttle run (10-yd), and standing long jump (SLJ). Data were analyzed within groups with t-tests, and the between-group analysis used a group [chi] trials analysis of variance test. The HF group improved significantly in 4 variables (p <= 0.05 for squat, 1/4 squat, midthigh pull, MK), the HP group in 5 variables (p <= 0.05 for 1/4 squat, midthigh pull, VJ, MK, SLJ), and the COM group in 7 variables (p <= 0.05 for squat, 1/4 squat, midthigh pull, VJ, VJP, 10-yd). These results indicate that when considering the improvement of a wide variety of athletic performance variables requiring strength, power, and speed, combination training produces superior results. (C) 2000 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
To examine the efficacy of a 3-week, high-intensity, resistance exercise protocol for inducing overtraining, 9 subjects trained their lower body on a squat-simulating resistance exercise machine. Five subjects performed a training (Trn) protocol 5 days a week to elicit an overtraining response. Four subjects performed a control (Con) protocol 2 days a week. Test batteries of sprints, jumps, and strength tests were performed four times during the study at l-week intervals (Tl, T2, T3, T4). One-RM performances increased for the Trn group by T2 and remained augmented through T4. Overtraining did not occur, but other performances were attenuated for the Trn group. Increased sprint times for 9.1 m and 36.6 m were evident by T2 for the Trn group and remained slower through T4. Leg extension torque decreased for the Trn group by T4. Future attempts to induce intensity-dependent overtraining for study should use greater training intensities or different training modalities and should monitor physiological factors that may contribute to this phenomenon. (C) 1994 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
This study examined the effects of a single set of weight training exercise to failure and 2 multiple-set protocols (not to failure) on the 1-RM parallel squat. Forty-three men were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 weight training protocols emphasizing leg and hip strength: SS = single set to failure of 8-12 reps; MS = 3 x 10 reps; MSV = multiple-set program using a varied set and rep scheme. Relative intensity (% initial 1-RM), intensity (average mass lifted), and volume load (repetitions x mass) differed between groups over 14 weeks. Body mass, body composition, and the 1-RM parallel squat were assessed at baseline and at Weeks 5 and 14. Results showed no significant changes in body mass or body composition. The 1-RM squat increased significantly in all groups. Differences in 1-RM between groups indicate that MS and MSV increased approximately 50% more than SS over the 14 weeks. Results suggest that multiple sets not performed to failure produce superior gains in the 1-RM squat. (C) 1997 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the trends of fitness acquisition via isometric knee extension breaking strength (IKEBS) as measured by a Nicholas Manual Muscle TesterTM (NMMT) and body composition as measured by summing skinfolds. The data were analyzed on 7 female gymnasts for 1 academic year. The four skinfold thicknesses taken from the right side of the body by the same investigator included medial gastrocnemius, anterior thigh, triceps, and chin. The IKEBS measurement was obtained by placing the NMMT approximately 2 cm proximal to the anterior ankle joint line, placing the knee in 30[degrees] of flexion, and pushing on the NMMT until the athlete could no longer resist the displacing force. The gymnasts showed a marked decrease in sum of skinfolds during the preparatory phase of training. Skinfolds stabilized during the competition phase and then increased postseason. The IKEBS assessments were calculated as absolute values, relative to body mass, and relative to skinfold sums. The IKEBS trends indicated rapid increases during the preparatory period followed by moderate increases during the competition phase. Both body composition and strength changes occurred weekly throughout the year. (C) 1995 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
MARX, J. O., N. A. RATAMESS, B. C. NINDL, L. A. GOTSHALK, J. S. VOLEK, K. DOHI, J. A. BUSH, A. L. GÓMEZ, S. A. MAZZETTI, S. J. FLECK, K. HÄKKINEN, R. U. NEWTON, and W. J. KRAEMER. Low-volume circuit versus high-volume periodized resistance training in women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 4, 2001, pp. 635–643. Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the long-term training adaptations associated with low-volume circuit-type versus periodized high-volume resistance training programs in women. Methods: 34 healthy, untrained women were randomly placed into one of the following groups: low-volume, single-set circuit (SSC;N = 12); periodized high-volume multiple-set (MS;N = 12); or nonexercising control (CON) group (N = 10). The SSC group performed one set of 8-12 repetitions to muscular failure 3 d·wk-1. The MS group performed two to four sets of 3-15 repetitions with periodized volume and intensity 4 d·wk-1. Muscular strength, power, speed, endurance, anthropometry, and resting hormonal concentrations were determined pretraining (T1), after 12 wk (T2), and after 24 wk of training (T3). Results: 1-RM bench press and leg press, and upper and lower body local muscular endurance increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at T2 for both groups, but only MS showed a significant increase at T3. Muscular power and speed increased significantly at T2 and T3 only for MS. Increases in testosterone were observed for both groups at T2 but only MS showed a significant increase at T3. Cortisol decreased from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3 in MS. Insulin-like growth factor-1 increased significantly at T3 for SSC and at T2 and T3 for MS. No changes were observed for growth hormone in any of the training groups. Conclusion: Significant improvements in muscular performance may be attained with either a low-volume single-set program or a high-volume, periodized multiple-set program during the first 12 wk of training in untrained women. However, dramatically different training adaptations are associated with specific domains of training program design which contrast in speed of movement, exercise choices and use of variation (periodization) in the intensity and volume of exercise.
Article
An overview of the main problems and misconceptions in the clinical application and theoretic evaluation of the stress concept reveals that the same 10 problems appear to cause the greatest difficulties in its application, irrespective of the specialty in which it is used: (1) the correct definition of stress, stressors and the general adaptation syndrome; (2) the concept of nonspecificity in biology and medicine; (3) the conditioning of stress responses by diverse endogenous (mainly genetically determined) and exogenous (environmental) factors; (4) the relation between the genral and the local adaptation syndromes; (5) the difference between direct and indirect pathogens; (6) the definition of the morbid lesions in whose pathogenesis stress plays a particularly prominent role--the so-called diseases of adaptation; (7) the role of genetics versus that of factors under voluntary self-control in mastering biologic stress; (8) the mode of action of syntoxic and catatoxic hormones, drugs and behavioural attitudes; (9) the so-called first mediator of the stress response, which carries the message that a state of stress exists from the directly affected area to the neurohormonal regulatory centres; and (10) the prophylaxis and treatment of stress-induced damage by pharmacologic and behavioural techniques.
Article
Athletic performance improves as the athlete adapts to progressively increasing training loads. Empirical observations and studies investigating fluctuations in performance indicate that this adaptation occurs during periods of reduced training, termed regeneration periods. Thus it is essential that adequate regeneration time be included in training programmes so that adaptation can be achieved. In order to induce adaptation, heavy periods of training are used to provide a stimulus for adaptive processes to become functional. The literature and anecdotal accounts suggest that the cycling of light, medium, and heavy periods of training is an optimal method for combining the heavy periods of training with the periods of light training needed to allow adaptation and supercompensation.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to present a hypothetical model for strength training and to present supporting data. The model is an attempt to conform to the concepts of training 'periodization' and specificity of training. The model consists of four phases: (1) Hypertrophy, high volume-low intensity, (2) Basic Strength, moderate volume-high intensity, (3) Strength-Power, low volume-very high intensity (special subphases include maintenance and peaking), (4) Active Rest, very low volume-very low intensity. A review of the literature indicates that three sets of six repetitions maximum, 3 days/week is the generally recommended method of attaining maximal strength increases. However, a short term comparison (6 weeks) showed the model to be superior in producing gains in the squat (1 RM), squat/kg body weight and power as measured using the vertical jump and Lewis formula. Additionally two observations of the practical use of the model with high caliber athletes are presented. Six Olympic niveau weightlifters were observed at three competitions about 3 months apart. The 3 lifters training according to the concepts of the model showed greater improvement compared to the three using traditional methods. The second observation used a high school American-style football team. The players using the strength training model produced greater gains (bench press, squat and power) than the players using 3x6 RM over a 12 week period. The data gathered suggest that the model for strength training presented produces superior strength-power gains when compared to traditional methods.
Article
Nine elite male junior weightlifters (mean age 17.6 +/- 0.3 yrs) performed weightlifting tests before (Test 1) and after (Test 2) 1 week of increased training volume (overreaching) and repeated the protocol after 1 year of their training program. Strength increased by Year 2 (p < 0.05) but did not change during either week of increased training volume. The 1-week overreaching stimulus resulted in attenuated exercise-induced testosterone concentrations during Year 1, but augmented exercise-induced testosterone concentrations during Year 2. Testosterone concentrations at 7 a.m. decreased for only Year 1. For both years, the 1-week overreaching stimulus increased cortisol at 7 a.m, indicative of the increased training volumes. Testosterone/cortisol was not affected by increased training volume for either year. One year of chronic weightlifting and prior exposure to the overreaching stimulus appears to decrease the detrimental effects of stressful training on the endocrine system.
Article
This study was performed to determine which of three theoretically optimal resistance training modalities resulted in the greatest enhancement in the performance of a series of dynamic athletic activities. The three training modalities included 1) traditional weight training, 2) plyometric training, and 3) explosive weight training at the load that maximized mechanical power output. Sixty-four previously trained subjects were randomly allocated to four groups that included the above three training modalities and a control group. The experimental groups trained for 10 wk performing either heavy squat lifts, depth jumps, or weighted squat jumps. All subjects were tested prior to training, after 5 wk of training and at the completion of the training period. The test items included 1) 30-m sprint, 2) vertical jumps performed with and without a countermovement, 3) maximal cycle test, 4) isokinetic leg extension test, and 5) a maximal isometric test. The experimental group which trained with the load that maximized mechanical power achieved the best overall results in enhancing dynamic athletic performance recording statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvements on most test items and producing statistically superior results to the two other training modalities on the jumping and isokinetic tests.
Article
Overtraining is defined as an increase in training volume and/or intensity of exercise resulting in performance decrements. Recovery from this condition often requires many weeks or months. A shorter or less severe variation of overtraining is referred to as overreaching, which is easily recovered from in just a few days. Many structured training programmes utilise phases of overreaching to provide variety of the training stimulus. Much of the scientific literature on overtraining is based on aerobic activities, despite the fact that resistance exercise is a large component of many exercise programmes. Chronic resistance exercise can result in differential responses to overtraining depending on whether either training volume or training intensity is excessive. The neuroendocrine system is a complex physiological entity that can influence many other systems. Neuroendocrine responses to high volume resistance exercise overtraining appear to be somewhat similar to overtraining for aerobic activities. On the other hand, excessive resistance training intensity produces a distinctly different neuroendocrine profile. As a result, some of the neuroendocrine characteristics often suggested as markers of overtraining may not be applicable to some overtraining scenarios. Further research will permit elucidation of the interactions between the neuroendocrine system and other physiological systems in the aetiology of performance decrements from overtraining.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training on physiological adaptations including muscle fiber hypertrophy and muscle creatine accumulation. Nineteen healthy resistance-trained men were matched and then randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either a creatine (N = 10) or placebo (N = 9) group. Periodized heavy resistance training was performed for 12 wk. Creatine or placebo capsules were consumed (25 g x d(-1)) for 1 wk followed by a maintenance dose (5 g x d(-1)) for the remainder of the training. After 12 wk, significant (P < or = 0.05) increases in body mass and fat-free mass were greater in creatine (6.3% and 6.3%, respectively) than placebo (3.6% and 3.1%, respectively) subjects. After 12 wk, increases in bench press and squat were greater in creatine (24% and 32%, respectively) than placebo (16% and 24%, respectively) subjects. Compared with placebo subjects, creatine subjects demonstrated significantly greater increases in Type I (35% vs 11%), IIA (36% vs 15%), and IIAB (35% vs 6%) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Muscle total creatine concentrations were unchanged in placebo subjects. Muscle creatine was significantly elevated after 1 wk in creatine subjects (22%), and values remained significantly greater than placebo subjects after 12 wk. Average volume lifted in the bench press during training was significantly greater in creatine subjects during weeks 5-8. No negative side effects to the supplementation were reported. Creatine supplementation enhanced fat-free mass, physical performance, and muscle morphology in response to heavy resistance training, presumably mediated via higher quality training sessions.
Article
Eleven women (TRW; 64 +/- 4 yrs) and ten men (TRM; 65 +/- 5 yrs) participated in the strength/power training twice a week for 24 weeks. Basal concentrations of serum total and free testosterone, growth hormone (GH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) as well as acute responses of serum total and free testosterone, growth hormone (GH) were measured. Maximal 1RM strength in the squat, chair rise time and muscle fibre distribution and areas of type I and IIa and IIb of the vastus lateralis were also examined. 1RM squat increased in TRW by 26 (SD10)% (p < .001), and in TRM by 35 (7)% (p < .001) and chair rise time improved in both groups (p < .001). Fibre areas increased in type I, (p < .01), IIa (p < .01) and IIb (p < .01) in TRM and type I (p < .05) and IIa (p < .05) in TRW. The proportion of type IIa increased from 31% to 43% (p < .05) in TRW and that of type IIb decreased from 27% to 17% (p < .05) in TRW and from 25% to 17% (p < .05) in TRM. Individual concentrations of testosterone/cortisol ratios correlated (r = 0.63; p < .05) with the individual increases in 1RM strength in TRW. The exercise sessions resulted in acute increases in serum GH in both groups (p < .05) with a further increase (p < .01) up to 10 minutes post-loading in TRM at post-training.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of amino acid supplementation on muscular strength, power, and high-intensity endurance during short-term resistance training overreaching. Seventeen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either an amino acid (AA) or placebo (P) group and underwent 4 weeks of total-body resistance training consisting of two 2-week phases of overreaching (phase 1: 3 x 8-12 repetitions maximum [RM], 8 exercises; phase 2: 5 x 3-5 RM, 5 exercises). Muscle strength, power, and high-intensity endurance were determined before (T1) and at the end of each training week (T2-T5). One repetition maximum squat and bench press decreased at T2 in P (5.2 and 3.4 kg, respectively) but not in AA, and significant increases in 1 RM squat and bench press were observed at T3-T5 in both groups. A decrease in the ballistic bench press peak power was observed at T3 in P but not AA. The fatigue index during the 20-repetition jump squat assessment did not change in the P group at T3 and T5 (fatigue index = 18.6 and 18.3%, respectively) whereas a trend for reduction was observed in the AA group (p = 0.06) at T3 (12.8%) but not T5 (15.2%; p = 0.12). These results indicate that the initial impact of high-volume resistance training overreaching reduces muscle strength and power, and it appears that these reductions are attenuated with amino acid supplementation. In addition, an initial high-volume, moderate-intensity phase of overreaching followed by a higher intensity, moderate-volume phase appears to be very effective for enhancing muscle strength in resistance-trained men.
Article
Prestigious professional organisations have questioned the efficacy of resistive training by children or have often neglected to address weightlifting in their position papers on resistive training for children. The purpose of this paper was to address the deficit in data regarding the efficacy of training children for weightlifting and to report data regarding to safety in this population. Eleven subjects (3 female, 8 male) who had trained at the USA Weightlifting Development Centre in Shreveport Louisiana for a minimum of 22 months (mean = 28.8; SD +/- 4.4) served as subjects for this study. Means for the pool of subjects subjected to t-test to compare data obtained at each subject's initial competition with that obtained at the individual's most recent competition revealed significant positive changes in body weight, snatch weight, clean and jerk weight, and total weight lifted. The latter three were significant both in absolute weight and in weight lifted per kg of body weight. Total weight lifted at competitions plotted separately for boys and for girls across time indicated an apparently steeper slope of improvement for boys. The latter were not tested for significance because of the small sample sizes. The lack of injury in training and in 534 competitive lifts was discussed. None required medical attention or loss of training time. It was concluded that there can be no doubt regarding the efficacy of weightlifting as carried out at the USA Weightlifting Development Centre. The importance of proper application of scientific theory of conditioning in a conservative manner for this population was emphasised.
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  • L Mateyev
Mateyev, L. Periodisierang des Sprotichen Training. Berlin, Germany: Berles and Wernitz, 1972.
Periodization of strength training for athletes. Track Technique Short-term performance effects of high speed, high force or combined weight training
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Kramer, J.B., M.H. Stone, H.S. O'Bryant, M.S. Conley, R.L. Johnson, D.C. Nieman, D.R. Honeycutt, and T.P. Hoke. Effects of single versus multiple sets of weight training exercises on body composition and maximum leg and hip strength. J. Strength Cond. Res. 11(3):143-147. 1997.
Strength training for sport. In: Inter-national Olympic Committee Hand-book in Sports Medicine
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Kraemer, W.J., and K. Häkkinen. Strength training for sport. In: Inter-national Olympic Committee Hand-book in Sports Medicine. W.J. Krae-mer, K. Häkkinen, eds. Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Scientific Publishers, 2002.