Article

A Review of Power Output Studies of Olympic and Powerlifting: Methodology, Performance Prediction, and Evaluation Tests

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Abstract

Total energy expenditure and rate of energy expenditure (power output) are important considerations for exercise programs and training programs. Mechanical power output generated during competitive lifts in both weightlifting (WL) and powerlifting (PL) is large in magnitude and can be measured accurately using standard biomechanical analysis equipment. Power tests do not appear to have predictive value for performance capability in PL. However, athletes in WL produce power outputs in vertical jump tests that are similar to those they produce in selected phases of the competitive lifts. This fact and related data have led to research that may result in simple power test protocols useful for estimating the training and performance potential of weightlifters and other athletes in power oriented sports, as well as for measuring a power component in standard fitness testing packages. Thus the purposes of this paper are to (a) review what is known about power output during the competitive lifts of WL and PL and the methods used to evaluate it, (b) review what is known about power tests in relation to performance prediction in WL and PL, and (c) suggest applications of this knowledge to related fields of study. (C) 1993 National Strength and Conditioning Association

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... 5 Although these exercises involve the whole-body in a complex and ballistic sequence of high intensity muscular actions, the performance capabilities of competitive weightlifters seem to primarily depend upon lowerlimb strength and power. 5,6 Maximum dynamic strength of the lower limbs has previously been found to be related to weightlifting performance. For example, Stone et al. 7 reported that maximum dynamic strength, measured by the 1RM back squat test, was almost perfectly correlated with snatch and clean performance in well-trained male weightlifters (r ¼ 0.94, r ¼ 0.95, respectively), with these correlations lower for women (r ¼ 0.79, r ¼ 0.86, respectively). ...
... However, normality of men's height (p ¼ 0.04) and weightlifting experience (p 0.001) was not confirmed. Results of an independent samples t-test revealed no significant differences in age between men and women (p ¼ 0. 6 Figure 2). Similarly, the results of the Mann-Whitney U test showed that when ratio scaled women still demonstrated significantly lower overhead press performance (p 0.001, ES ¼ 1.9) compared to men. ...
... 9 These findings are in agreement with previous research suggesting that the performance capabilities of weightlifting seem to primarily depend upon lower-limb strength and power, and therefore, the differences between the overhead press and split jerk performance. 5,6 To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to compare the differences between the overhead press and split jerk performance between men and women. For this comparison, a ratio scaling of the 1RM performance was used to diminish the differences in BM between men and women, as previously suggested. ...
Article
The aims of this study were to (I) determine the differences and relationship between the overhead press and split jerk performance in athletes involved in weightlifting training, and (II) explore the magnitude of these differences in one-repetition maximum (1RM) performances between sexes. Sixty-one men (age: 30.4 ± 6.7 years; height: 1.8 ± 0.5 m; body mass 82.5 ± 8.5 kg; weightlifting training experience: 3.7 ± 3.5 yrs) and 21 women (age: 29.5 ± 5.2 yrs; height: 1.7 ± 0.5 m; body mass: 62.6 ± 5.7 kg; weightlifting training experience: 3.0 ± 1.5 yrs) participated. The 1RM performance of the overhead press and split jerk were assessed for all participants, with the overhead press assessed on two occasions to determine between-session reliability. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and 95% confidence intervals showed a high reliability for the overhead press ICC = 0.98 (0.97 – 0.99). A very strong correlation and significant differences were found between the overhead press and split jerk 1RM performances for all participants (r = 0.90 [0.93 – 0.85], 60.2 ± 18.3 kg, 95.7 ± 29.3 kg, p ≤ 0.001). Men demonstrated stronger correlations between the overhead press and split jerk 1RM performances (r = 0.83 [0.73-0.90], p ≤ 0.001) compared with women (r = 0.56 [0.17-0.80], p = 0.008). These results provide evidence that 1RM performance of the overhead press and split jerk performance are highly related, highlighting the importance of upper-limb strength in the split jerk maximum performance.
... Although strength athletes have been used as subjects in sport science studies for decades, 38,40,41,54,55,75,117 papers discussing the use of comprehensive monitoring programmes within these sports have only recently become more common. 12,24,67,72,121,128 Consequently, there is currently no literature synthesising athlete monitoring practices among barbell strength athletes. ...
... Vertical jumps are one of the first developed tests of muscular power 113 and have been identified as the most commonly used performance measure to evaluate general athletic ability. 123 Vertical jumps have been observed to have mechanical similarities to WL movements, 21,43 and exhibit strong relationships to performance in WL. 22,41,72 Doubt has been expressed about using vertical jumps to predict performance in PL; however, no studies have been conducted to correlate jumping performance with PL performance. 41 The two most common vertical jumps used for testing are the countermovement jump (CMJ) and the static or squat jump (SJ). ...
... 123 Vertical jumps have been observed to have mechanical similarities to WL movements, 21,43 and exhibit strong relationships to performance in WL. 22,41,72 Doubt has been expressed about using vertical jumps to predict performance in PL; however, no studies have been conducted to correlate jumping performance with PL performance. 41 The two most common vertical jumps used for testing are the countermovement jump (CMJ) and the static or squat jump (SJ). Static jumps are arguably more task-specific for WL and PL and some evidence indicates that weighted jumps may be more sensitive to training strain, VL, and performance alterations in weightlifters. ...
Article
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Barbell strength sports such as weightlifting (WL) and powerlifting (PL) have been slow to adopt modern athlete monitoring practices. Obstacles such as a lack of resources, experience, and knowledge dealing with athlete monitoring stand in the way of their implementation into these sports. Therefore, the purposes of this review are: 1) to synthesise the scientific literature most relevant to the monitoring of strength athletes, and 2) to provide practical recommendations to the strength sport coach for implementing an athlete monitoring programme.
... The sport of weightlifting is a strength and power sport consisting of two lifts, the snatch and the clean and jerk (CJ), characterized by the high power outputs achieved during their execution (Garhammer, 1993). The production of these high power outputs can likely be attributed to the superior peak forces McBride et al., 1999;, rate of force development Haff et al., 2005;Zaras et al., 2020b), and peak velocities (McBride et al., 1999) weightlifters are capable of generating. ...
... Indeed, assuming that all sarcomeres within a given fascicle contract simultaneously, displacement will increase in proportion to the number of sarcomeres in series, and thereby maximal velocity will increase (Wickiewicz et al., 1983). Since the snatch and CJ in weightlifting are ballistic movements that require high levels of power output (Garhammer, 1991(Garhammer, , 1993, and therefore require an element of velocity for competitive success, morphological changes in FAL may affect weightlifting performance. ...
... r=0.54, respectively) performance among high-level competitive powerlifters. Interestingly, powerlifting is a sport characterized by the high-force/low-velocity produced during the competitive lifts (Garhammer, 1993) (e.g., back squat, bench press, deadlift), and therefore it could be hypothesized that a greater FAL would not correlate to greater performance. However, postulated that the extensive powerlifting experience (9-year mean) of the involved subjects likely meant they had reached a "critical" FAN (see Fascicle Angle), therefore, in order for the subjects to continue accumulating fat-free mass (FFM) they must add sarcomeres in series and thereby increasing FAL. ...
Thesis
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Physiological performance has been commonly scaled for body size using various methods to scale anthropometrics, but a paucity of data exists on scaling muscle size. The aim of this thesis was to elucidate the optimal method to scale height (HT), body mass (BM), lean body mass (LBM), and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) when scaling weightlifting performance for body size. 26 weightlifters (13 male, 13 female) participated in this study. The measurements collected were the snatch (SN), clean and jerk (CJ), isometric peak force (IPF), and countermovement jump height (CMJH). HT, LBM, BM, and vastus lateralis CSA were scaled using the ratio standard and allometry. Competition performance scaled for allometrically scaled CSA possessed greater relationships to CMJH (r = 0.60 – 0.78) than the ratio standard (r = 0.56 – 0.58). These findings suggest that allometrically scaling CSA may be superior when scaling weightlifting performance for CSA.
... θ 1 also did not satisfy the assumption of homoscedasticity (p = 0.002; all other p = 0.1 to > 0.9). A statistical main effect of competition was found only for Y max (η 2 = 0.106; F (1,34) Figure S1). ...
... Top-three men at WWC, who lifted the heaviest loads of any group in this study, exhibited greater X 2 and less X net and X loop than top-three men at PAWC. It is unlikely that greater X 2 itself is beneficial for performance, as greater X 2 would increase the overall work and energy required to complete the lift [6,[33][34][35] and may increase instability during the catch [6]. These effects could be compounded by a potential subsequent increase in X loop , which is likely to be less during successful attempts [17]. ...
... The methods used in this study demonstrate an inexpensive, time-efficient, and user-friendly method to conduct technique analysis. The error and reliability of the methods herein can be improved by optimizing camera setup and specifications [23,34,58], controlling conditions during data collection (e.g., barbell placement [59] and lighting [60]), and selecting appropriate data smoothing or filtering techniques [60][61][62]. Coaches may also elect to use a uniform calibration factor given consistent camera and platform setup to further improve time-efficiency of video analysis. ...
Article
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Analysis of elite performances is important to elucidate the characteristics of effective weightlifting technique contributing to the highest level of achievement. The general technique of the weightlifting movements is well established. However, it is also apparent that weightlifting technique can differ based on athlete characteristics. Thus, existing technical models may not accurately reflect current technique of top performers or be applied generically to athletes of different skill, size, sex, or ability. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive study was to update the scientific knowledge of snatch technique of top international weightlifters. This study used video analysis to determine barbell trajectory and kinematics of 319 successful snatch attempts from two major international competitions. Relative frequencies of barbell trajectory types differed based on competition, sex, category, and ranking. No statistical differences were observed among the top-three performers for either sex for most kinematic variables, and there were no overall discernible patterns of effect size differences for individual or clusters of kinematic variables. The results of this study indicate that weightlifting success can be achieved with a variety of technique profiles.
... The jerk has been shown to be the exercise in which the greatest weight is lifted overhead in weightlifting competitions [24,26,48]. Supporting evidence also indicates that this exercise is excellent for achieving high levels of power output and improving muscular power in athletes [24,49,50]. Moreover, the jerk and other WOPDs such as push press, push jerk or split jerk from the back are widely implemented in strength and conditioning programs [51][52][53][54], based on the notion that they are mechanically similar to many sporting skills, due to the rapid extension of hips, knees and ankles [55]. ...
... The use of the lower body includes two key movements known as the dip (unweighting and braking phase of a quick partial squat) and the thrust or drive (a very rapid propulsion phase via extension of the hips and knees and plantar flexion of the ankles). These phases are also presented in the different variations of the jerk; they are related to weightlifting and other sporting tasks such as jumping, and are considered crucial for developing high power outputs [41,49]. ...
... Studies that have analysed the kinetic parameters of the jerk performance have shown that not only are the greatest loads lifted to an overhead position, but also very high values of power outputs have been developed [24,26,49,86]. As such, Garhammer [24,26,86] found very high values from 2500 to 6953 W for peak power and 2690-4321 W for mean power during the jerk. ...
Article
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This review examines the literature on weightlifting overhead pressing derivatives (WOPDs) and provides information regarding historical, technical, kinetic and kinematic mechanisms as well as potential benefits and guidelines to implement the use of WOPDs as training tools for sports populations. Only 13 articles were found in a search of electronic databases, which was employed to gather empirical evidence to provide an insight into the kinetic and kinematic mechanisms underpinning WOPDs. Practitioners may implement WOPDs such as push press, push jerk or split jerk from the back as well as the front rack position to provide an adequate stimulus to improve not only weightlifting performance but also sports performance as: (1) the use of WOPDs is an additional strategy to improve weightlifting performance; (2) WOPDs require the ability to develop high forces rapidly by an impulsive triple extension of the hips, knees and ankles, which is mechanically similar to many sporting tasks; (3) WOPDs may be beneficial for enhancing power development and maximal strength in the sport population; and, finally, (4) WOPDs may provide a variation in training stimulus for the sports population due to the technical demands, need for balance and coordination. The potential benefits highlighted in the literature provide a justification for the implementation of WOPDs in sports training. However, there is a lack of information regarding the longitudinal training effects that may result from implementing WOPDs.
... In the sport of weightlifting, the maximum load lifted during the snatch and the clean and jerk (C&J) is summed to determine the competition total and the overall winner of the competition (17). To lift greater loads than their opponents, weightlifters are required to perform an impulsive triple extension of the hips, knees, and ankles (plantar flexion), generating peak forces, rates of force development, and power (6,17). It is well documented that these exercises are complex multijoint tasks that involve the whole-body performing a series of movements in a ballistic sequence of high-intensity muscular actions. ...
... It is well documented that these exercises are complex multijoint tasks that involve the whole-body performing a series of movements in a ballistic sequence of high-intensity muscular actions. However, although these exercises involve the whole body, the performance capabilities of competitive weightlifters seem to be primarily dependent on lower-body strength (6,17). In fact, the 1RM of each competitive lift (i.e., snatch and C&J) along with other lowerbody strength measures, such as the back and front squats, is frequently used for programming percentages of 1RM during training and to monitor performance over time (18). ...
... The SJ is a unique movement where the largest loads are lifted to an overhead position (14). Researchers have widely suggested that the performance capabilities of weightlifting seem to primarily depend on lower-body strength (6,17,19). However, Soriano et al. (16) reported a strong relationship between the overhead press and SJ performance (r 5 0.90, p , 0.001), suggesting that the strength of the upper body is also related to weightlifting performance. ...
Article
Soriano, MA, Jiménez-Ormeño, E, Amaro-Gahete, FJ, Haff, GG, and Comfort, P. How does lower-body and upper-body strength relate to maximum split jerk performance? J Strength Cond Res 36(8): 2102-2107, 2022-The aims of this study were to (I) determine the relationships between the maximum dynamic strength of the upper and lower body, measured by overhead press and back squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) performances, and the split jerk (SJ) performance in trained weightlifters and (II) explore the magnitude of these relationships for men and women to establish sex-specific prediction equations. Twenty men (age: 28.9 ± 6.6 years; height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m; body mass [BM]: 82.5 ± 10.2 kg; weightlifting training experience: 4.2 ± 2.4 years) and 13 women (age: 27.7 ± 4.4 years; height: 1.7 ± 0.1 m; BM: 61.8 ± 5.2 kg; weightlifting training experience: 2.7 ± 1.7 years) competitive weightlifters participated. The 1RM performances of the overhead press, back squat, and SJ were assessed for all subjects. A very strong correlation exists between the back squat and overhead press, with maximum SJ performance for all subjects (r = 0.97; p < 0.001). Similarly, very strong correlations were found for men (r = 0.90, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.90, p = 0.0002), separately. The coefficient of determination indicates that the prediction equation for the maximum SJ performance is quite accurate (R2 = 0.94) for all subjects and men (R2 = 0.83) and women (R2 = 0.81), separately. These results provide evidence that the maximum strength of the upper and lower body are major contributors to SJ performance. In addition, SJ performance can accurately be predicted from the back squat and overhead press performances.
... The assessment of mechanical power production is of great interest for researchers and practitioners. Peak power output (PPO), defined as the highest instantaneous mechanical power output is the variable most commonly reported during the biomechanical assessment of sporting tasks (Garhammer, 1993). This is based on the notion that the PPO is highly related to sports performance during dynamic athletic tasks (Cronin & Hansen, 2005;Young, 2006), is a reliable and valid measure to differentiate between sports profile based on the training background (Baker, 2001;McBride et al., 1999), and therefore, may be appropriate to monitor during the training process. ...
... These findings suggest that both researchers and practitioners, whenever possible, should use the GRF method to estimate whole-body power production of a given athlete when attempting to assess the power applied to the SM during weightlifting exercises. Note that the results of this review may be speculated to occur in other kinds of weightlifting movements such as the snatch variations, since similar kinematics and kinetics of the body and barbell have been identified during the 1st and 2nd pull (Garhammer, 1991(Garhammer, , 1993. ...
Article
The assessment of the mechanical power production is of great importance for researchers and practitioners. The purpose of this review was to compare the differences in ground reaction force (GRF), kinematic, and combined (bar velocity x GRF) methods to assess mechanical power production during weightlifting exercises. A search of electronic databases was conducted to identify all publications up to 31 May 2019. The peak power output (PPO) was selected as the key variable. The exercises included in this review were clean variations, which includes the hang power clean (HPC), power clean (PC) and clean. A total of 26 articles met the inclusion criteria with 53.9% using the GRF, 38.5% combined, and 30.8% the kinematic method. Articles were evaluated and descriptively analysed to enable comparison between methods. The three methods have inherent methodological differences in the data analysis and measurement systems, which suggests that these methods should not be used interchangeably to assess PPO in Watts during weightlifting exercises. In addition, this review provides evidence and rationale for the use of the GRF to assess power production applied to the system mass while the kinematic method may be more appropriate when looking to assess only the power applied to the barbell. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Therefore, because of the inclusion of accessory strength work in the WLT programmes, it is not possible to determine with accuracy the sole contribution of the WLT on strength gains. Additionally, the principle of training specificity may explain why similar improvements were evident from TRT and WLT in force-dominant assessments, since both training methods include exercises that demand high force expressions [87,88]. Furthermore, all of the TRT and WLT programmes included in the WLT versus TRT analysis included the squat exercise, providing a further, test-specific training stimulus. ...
... It is likely that neural mechanisms are primarily responsible for high force outputs [92] and improvements in rate coding, motor unit recruitment and motor unit synchronisation have been shown to typically occur as a result of high load, or high velocity training [93,94]. WLT provides both a high load and high velocity training stimulus in comparison with TRT exercises, which are performed as slower speeds [87]. Therefore, TRT may best elicit adaptations that underpin maximum force production, whilst WLT may also elicit improvements underpinning the velocity components. ...
Article
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Background Weightlifting training (WLT) is commonly used to improve strength, power and speed in athletes. However, to date, WLT studies have either not compared training effects against those of other training methods, or been limited by small sample sizes, which are issues that can be resolved by pooling studies in a meta-analysis. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of WLT compared with traditional resistance training (TRT), plyometric training (PLYO) and/or control (CON) on strength, power and speed. Methods The systematic review included peer-reviewed articles that employed a WLT intervention, a comparison group (i.e. TRT, PLYO, CON), and a measure of strength, power and/or speed. Means and standard deviations of outcomes were converted to Hedges’ g effect sizes using an inverse variance random-effects model to generate a weighted mean effect size (ES). Results Sixteen studies were included in the analysis, comprising 427 participants. Data indicated that when compared with TRT, WLT resulted in greater improvements in weightlifting load lifted (4 studies, p = 0.02, g = 1.35; 95% CI 0.20–2.51) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height (9 studies, p = 0.00, g = 0.95; 95% CI 0.04–1.87). There was also a large effect in terms of linear sprint speed (4 studies, p = 0.13, g = 1.04; 95% CI − 0.03 to 2.39) and change of direction speed (CODS) (2 studies, p = 0.36, g = 1.21; 95% CI − 1.41 to 3.83); however, this was not significant. Interpretation of these findings should acknowledge the high heterogeneity across the included studies and potential risk of bias. WLT and PLYO resulted in similar improvements in speed, power and strength as demonstrated by negligible to moderate, non-significant effects in favour of WLT for improvements in linear sprint speed (4 studies, p = 0.35, g = 0.20; 95% CI − 0.23 to 0.63), CODS (3 studies, p = 0.52, g = 0.17; 95% CI − 0.35 to 0.68), CMJ (6 studies, p = 0.09, g = 0.31; 95% CI − 0.05 to 0.67), squat jump performance (5 studies, p = 0.08, g = 0.34; 95% CI − 0.04 to 0.73) and strength (4 studies, p = 0.20, g = 0.69; 95% CI − 0.37 to 1.75). Conclusion Overall, these findings support the notion that if the training goal is to improve strength, power and speed, supplementary weightlifting training may be advantageous for athletic development. Whilst WLT and PLYO may result in similar improvements, WLT can elicit additional benefits above that of TRT, resulting in greater improvements in weightlifting and jumping performance.
... A análise da modalidade powerlifting demonstra significativa demanda fisiológica da força muscular, com manifestação predominante da força máxima [6][7][8][9] em especial pelas características anaeróbicas dos exercícios realizados nas competições e treinamento. ...
... García-Manso et al. [5], compararam as proporcionalidades de atletas de powerlifting com outra modalidade que utilizam como metodologia para seu desenvolvimento a aplicação de força contra uma resistência, demonstrando que a diferença entre volume e intensidade do treinamento resulta em desenvolvimento diferentes na força e na composição corporal. Portanto, atletas de powerlifting tendem a desenvolver mais força máxima sem grandes mudanças na secção transversa do músculo e baixa alteração de adiposidade [6]. ...
Article
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Introdução: A composição corporal e os indicadores morfofuncionais são importantes aspectos no desempenho de atletas de powerlifting. Portanto, buscar informações sobre a influência da composição corporal no desempenho esportivo de atletas pode trazer informações que poderiam explicar os resultados em competições e progressão nas cargas de treinamento. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão sistemática sobre as características morfológicas de atletas e praticantes de powerlifting. Métodos: para a realização do presente estudo,foram utilizadas as bases de dados (Scielo,Ebsco,PubMed e Portal Capes Brasil). Os descritores powerlifting, anthropometric, training foram utilizados no intervalo temporal de análise entre 2000 a 2013. Resultados: Foram selecionados 112 artigos,sendo que 15 artigos permaneceram na presente revisão por atender os critérios de inclusão, especialmente por terem analisado o perfil morfológico de atletas e praticantes de powerlifting. Os resultados principais demonstraram que a média de idade foi de 33 ± 2 anos, tempo de prática de 10 ± 2 anos e média de 39 ± 5 sujeitos avaliados por estudo. Conclusão: Dados permitiram concluir que os atletas e praticantes de powerlifting são predominantemente mesomorfos,com grandes diâmetros ósseos, sendo que as diferenças entre massa muscular e adiposidade mostraram um discreto aumento da massa livre de gordura ao longo de um período de treinamento.Palavras-chave: powerlifting, training, anthropometry.
... Most reviewed papers filtered out high-frequency noise to ensure ML models learnt solely from movement data [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. Individual repetitions were segmented from continuous movement data into discrete observations either manually [12][13][14][15]17,[19][20][21] or with automatic algorithms [11,16,18,22,23]. Automatic segmenting methods included simple peak detection algorithms [11,16], zero-velocity crossing criteria [19] and ML model approaches such as k-means clustering [18]. ...
... Furthermore, resampling ensured movement classification was related to differences in movement patterns rather than differences in movement timing [12,20,21]. Removing time-dependency is particularly important for ML models that provide real-time feedback (i.e. during the movement's performance) for movements such as the barbell squat or deadlift, in which successful movement performance is not time-dependent [22]. Failure to do so can result in users being heavily penalised for diverging from specified movement velocities or timings, leading to poor movement feedback [14]. ...
Article
The technical performance of resistance-training (RT) movement is commonly monitored through visual assessment and feedback by trained practitioners or by individual self-evaluation. However, both approaches are limited due to their subjectivity, inability to monitor multiple joints simultaneously, and dependency on the assessor’s or exerciser’s experience and skill. Portable data collection devices and machine learning (ML) have been combined to overcome these limitations by providing objective assessments for RT movement performance. This systematic review evaluates systems developed for providing objective, automatic assessment for RT movements used to improve physical performance and/or rehabilitation in otherwise healthy individuals. Databases searched included Scopus, PubMed and Engineering Village. From 363 papers initially identified, 13 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information extracted from the collated papers included the experimental protocols, data processing, ML model development methodology and movement classification performance. Identified movement assessment systems ranged in classification performance (accuracy of 70%–90% for most classifiers). However, several methodological errors in the development of the ML models were identified, and additional aspects such as model interpretability or generalisability were often neglected. Future ML models should adopt the correct developmental methodology and provide interpretable and generalisable models for application in the RT environment.
... In addition, many sports involve movements that require generation of force over a short period of time (McBride, Triplett, Davie & Newton, 1999), for example, in the case of sprint performance along with the speed increase, the groundcontact time typically decreases (Haugen et al. 2015) and there is evidence that higher level athletes of a combat sport present lower contact time compared to lower level athletes when executing different vertical jumping tasks (Zaggelidis, Lazaridis, Malkogiorgos & Mavrovouniotis, 2012). Along with this, certain joint angles of the body are more favorable for the development of muscle power (Garhammer, 1993). ...
Article
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Background: Fencing is an Olympic combat sport divided into three different disciplines: the foil, the épée and the sabre. The most used attack movement by fencing athletes is the lunge. Problem and Aim: The main objective of this study was to correlate joint positions of the lower limb with the contact time of the lunge attack followed by the recoil. Methods: Ten male (mean ± SD, age = 22.0 ± 5.7 years; body mass = 70.3 ± 11.1 kg; height = 174.6 ± 9.4 cm) fencing athletes (sabre) from national and international teams participated. Results: We observed a correlation between the contact time of the lunge attack and hip angle (r =-.75, p = <.05). Conclusions: The degree of flexing of the hip joint, evaluated through video, was inversely related to the contact time in the lunge attack and recoil in male sabre athletes. Resumen. Antecedentes: La esgrima es un deporte de combate olímpico dividido en tres diferentes armas: florete, espada y sable. El movimiento de ataque más utilizado por los esgrimistas es el fondo. Problema y objetivo: El principal objetivo de este estudio fue correlacionar las posiciones articulares de las piernas con el tiempo de contacto del fondo seguido por el recobro. Métodos: Diez esgrimistas (sable) masculinos (media ± DS, edad = 22.0 ± 5.7 años; peso corporal = 70.3 ± 11.1 kg; talla = 174.6 ± 9.4 cm) de equipos nacionales e internacionales participaron. Resultados: Observamos una correlación entre el tiempo de contacto del ataque de fondo y el ángulo de la articulación de la cadera (r =-.75, p = <.05). Conclusiones: El grado de flexión de la articulación de la cadera evaluado a través de video, estuvo inversamente correlacionado con el tiempo de contacto en el ataque de fondo y el recobro en sablistas masculinos.
... It has been reported that performing exercises that produce high power greatly increased muscular power and, therefore, enhanced athletic performance (2,4,7,11). Weightlifting and its derivatives are considered highly effective training methods for power development because they produce among the greatest power during the second pull phase where maximal extension occurs at the hip, knee, and ankle, relative to other traditional resistance exercises (2)(3)(4)6,12,14). One way to classify weightlifting exercises is by the presence or absence of the phase of catching the bar: catching derivatives that include the catching phase (e.g., hang power clean [HPC]) and pulling derivatives that omit the catching phase (e.g., jump shrug, hang high pull [HHP]) (16). ...
Article
Takei, S, Hirayama, K, and Okada, J. Comparison of the power output between the hang power clean and hang high pull across a wide range of loads in weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The current study compared the peak power output during the hang power clean (HPC) and hang high pull (HHP) across a wide range of external loads in weightlifters. Eight weightlifters completed 1 repetition maximum (1RM) assessment for the HPC (1.59 ± 0.17 kg/body mass) and a power test for the HPC and HHP at relative loads of 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 95, and 100% 1RM of the HPC. The ground reaction force and 2-dimensional bar position data were recorded to determine the system (barbell + body mass) kinetics and bar height, respectively. System power was calculated as force multiplied by system velocity. The HHP produced significantly greater peak power than the HPC at 40, 60, and 70% 1RM. Conversely, there was no statistical or practical difference in peak power between the exercises at 80, 90, 95, and 100% 1RM. No significant interaction was found in force at peak power, whereas velocity at peak power was significantly greater during the HHP than during the HPC at 40, 60, and 70% 1RM. In addition, significantly greater peak bar height was observed for the HHP than the HPC at 40, 60, and 70% 1RM. From the power output comparisons across loads, the HHP should be used over the HPC at loads of 40-70% 1RM, whereas the HPC and HHP can be interchangeably used at loads of 80-100% 1RM.
... Taking into account the two above-mentioned aspects of the power snatch, it is presumed that incorporating this exercise in the training causes beneficial neuromuscular adaptations, which increase the power generated by the lifter's muscles [7,9,17]. Power is regarded as a valuable predictor of weightlifters' performance [18]. It can be defined as a product of the weight of the barbell and its vertical velocity (the power of the barbell) and can be used in assessing exercise intensity [15]. ...
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The primary aim of the current study was to determine the time curves of changes in the record scores in the snatch and its variations during a two-year training cycle in young weightlifters. This study also aimed at assessing the ratios between these scores and at predicting the snatch record scores at the end of the subsequent annual training macrocycle. The final purpose was to compare the record scores with the isometric peak torque values of the trunk and knee extensors. The study involved 16 weightlifters who were tested seven times at three-month intervals. The overall mean ratios of the record scores in the hang snatch to those in the snatch and the record scores in the hang power snatch to those in the snatch were approximately constant and amounted to 0.95 and 0.79, respectively. The overall mean ratio between the scores in the power snatch to those in the snatch was approximately 0.88. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between the individual time trajectories of record scores in the snatch and its derivatives were identified in two consecutive annual training macrocycles. The error in predicting record results at the end of the following annual training macrocycle was 6.7 ± 4.7% or 8.1 ± 3.4% depending on the way the measurement data were modeled. The results of the study also indicate that the measurements of the isometric peak torque of the trunk extensors performed in laboratory conditions can be useful in diagnosing the strength capacity of young weightlifters.
... Therefore, the body posture and barbell position used were selected to closely match those found during the initiation of the second pull during the clean (53,57). It has previously been established that this position results in the highest force output and barbell velocities during the clean (41,42,50,58). Briefly, performance of the IMTP entails the placement of the athlete in a position mimicking the second pull of the clean, after which they pull on an immovable barbell with maximal effort for approximately five seconds (57). ...
... There are differences in the decline of the performance levels, depending on the type of sport, that is, whether endurance or anaerobic function is emphasized, or whether the emphasis is on strength or on power. The total weight lifted in the Olympic weightlifting competition exercises are effective measures of lower body power, strength, speed, balance, and coordination (5). Weightlifting training leads to an adaptation of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems and the power output of weightlifters exceeds that of other strength athletes (6 and references therein). ...
Article
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Introduction: The rate of decline in physical performance for women is thought to be faster than that for men at any age in the Masters age classes in weightlifting and other sports. We quantified the age-associated decline in Olympic weightlifting separately for women and men and investigated possible impact of perimenopausal years on the performance decline. Methods: Results from Masters Weightlifting competitions from 1993 to 2018 were compiled from original score sheets and meet results made available by International Weightlifting Federation. Quantile curves were estimated for the age-related performance decline, and confidence intervals (CI) for the fractional performance with reference age 35 yr were calculated. Age-related decline curves were estimated for different periods to examine changes in performance levels. Results: A total of 10,225 performance results for male and female weightlifters age 35 to 90 yr from 71 countries were included in the analysis. At age 40 yr compared with age 35 yr, the fractional performance is 0.947 (95% CI, 0.926-0.975), for men and 0.952 (95% CI. 0.898-0.986) for women while this is reduced to 0.723 (95% CI: 0.651-0.800) at age 60 yr for men and 0.604 (95% CI. 0.543-0.706) for women. Female performance levels before 2000 were worse; however, they have stabilized since 2013. Conclusions: The performances of women weightlifters have improved over the last 25 yr. Thus, previous publications do not reflect current physical capabilities of women. The age-associated performance decline for female weightlifters mirrors the decline for men except for an accelerated decline during a 10-yr period across the age range from late 40s to late 50s thus coinciding with a transition into menopause.
... The power was the ratio of the mechanical work to the time spent in the release phase. 20 They were standardized together with the corresponding shot putters' body mass. The calculation formulas of the shot mechanical energy are as follows: ...
Article
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Shot put is a throwing exercise in track and field. Performance has a strong relationship with the thrower’s height, technique, and energy transferred. The purpose of this study was to compare basic kinematics, joint movement, shot mechanical energy, and joint energy of the male glide-style shot put between high-performance (HP) and low-performance (LP) athletes. Data for 12 right-handed male shot putters with glide-style was captured at the National Games held in Taipei city in 2013. The HP ( n = 6) and LP ( n = 6) groups were classified according to their best throwing distance in the competition. Additionally, the 2D kinematics of their joints and shots were obtained by Kwon 3D motion analysis. Finally, the kinematics and energy were calculated in Excel software package. Results showed significant differences in throwing distance, the relationship between throwing distance and body height index (RDH index), release velocity, and the shoulder-shot (BSX) angle at right toe-off ground instant (RTF) and the angle difference between the right toe-off instant and release instant (RI-RTF) between the HP and LP groups. However, the energy of the joints and shots were not significantly different between the two groups. The better throwers exhibited a faster release velocity, accompanied by a smaller change in the SSX angle, and the SSX angle can be used by the coach to assess the body’s forward or backward tilt during training.
... A popular assessment of strength in the current literature is the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) (3,6,10,15). The mid-thigh position adopted during weightlifting movements such as the clean, is the point at which maximal force is exerted (13). Therefore, replicating this position should provide a true indication of maximal isometric force. ...
Research
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It is looking into the validity and reliability of a £30 crane scale to conduct Isometric mid-thigh pull testing on instead of requiring a force plate.
... Competitive success in the sport of weightlifting relies on the kinetic and kinematic abilities of the athlete. However, after a few months to years of training weightlifting technique tends to become highly stable [1,2], while the weight lifted and power outputs continue to increase [3]. There is also ample evidence that suggests weightlifting success is heavily dependent on the magnitude and rate of force development (RFD) generated by the lifter [4][5][6]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetic and morphological adaptations that occur during distinct phases of a block periodized training cycle in weightlifters. Athlete monitoring data from nine experienced collegiate weightlifters was used. Isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and ultrasonography (US) results were compared to examine the effects of three specific phases of a training cycle leading up to a competition. During the high volume strength-endurance phase (SE) small depressions in rate of force development (RFD) but statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (CSA), and body mass (BM) were observed. The lower volume higher intensity strength-power phase (SP) caused RFD to rebound above pre-training cycle values despite statistically significant reductions in CSA. Small to moderate increases only in the earlier RFD time bands (<150 ms) occurred during the peak/taper phase (PT) while CSA and BM were maintained. Changes in IMTP RFD and CSA from US reflected the expected adaptations of block periodized training phases. Changes in early (<100 ms) and late (≥150 ms) RFD time bands may not occur proportionally throughout different training phases. Small increases in RFD and CSA can be expected in well-trained weightlifters throughout a single block periodized training cycle.
... Before data collection, subjects performed 3 submaximal bilateral IMTPs, progressively increasing their pulling intensity from 50, 75, and finally 90% of their maximum. Subjects were positioned into their second-pull position of the clean because this has been shown to correspond to the portion of the clean that generates the highest force output (16). From this position, knee (mean 5 146 6 4°) and hip (mean 5 153 6 5°) angles were recorded with a manual goniometer. ...
Article
Wells, JET, Mitchell, ACS, Charalambous, LH, and Fletcher, IM. Relationships between highly skilled golfers' clubhead velocity and vertical ground reaction force asymmetry during vertical jumps and an isometric midthigh pull. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Clubhead velocity (CHV) is a commonly measured variable within golf due to strong associations with increased drive distance. Previous research has revealed significant relationships between CHV and vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) variables during bilateral tasks including a countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), drop jump (DJ), and isometric midthigh pull (IMTP). Asymmetries have been linked to performance outcomes in a number of sports; however, few studies have assessed asymmetries within golf. The current study, therefore, examined the relationships between CHV and vGRF asymmetries for CMJ positive impulse, SJ positive impulse, DJ positive impulse, and IMTP peak force (PF). Furthermore, the level of agreement for asymmetries between protocols was assessed by using Kappa coefficients. Fifty highly skilled (handicap #5) male golfers attended laboratory and range-based testing sessions. Positive impulse and PF were measured using a dual force platform system, with CHV measured using a TrackMan 3e launch monitor. There was no significant relationship (r 5 20.14 to 0.22) between CHV and each of the vGRF asymmetry measures. Of the golfers tested, 26 had a "real" asymmetry in the CMJ, 18 had a "real" asymmetry in the SJ, 25 had a "real" asymmetry in the DJ, and 27 had a "real" asymmetry in the IMTP. Kappa coefficients indicated that asymmetries rarely favored the same limb (k 5 0.06 to 0.39) with asymmetries varying for individual golfers between protocols. As such, asymmetries are neither beneficial nor detrimental to CHV but are inherently individual and dependent on the task.
... As the IMTP was, in part, originally designed to monitor physical qualities deemed important to weightlifting performance, the position used during performance of the IMTP corresponds to the position found at the initiation of the second pull of the clean (21). Previous research has indicated that during dynamic performance of the clean, this position displays the highest forces and barbell velocity throughout the movement (14,15,17,22). Due to the mechanical similarity between these positions, peak force (PF) displayed during the IMTP is highly correlated to performance in the weightlifting movements (clean & jerk and snatch) and their derivatives (3,13,33). ...
Article
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A large degree of variation in the position used during isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) testing and conflicting results of the effects of these changes can be found in the literature. This study investigated the effect of altering body posture and barbell position on the reliability and magnitude of force-time characteristics generated during the IMTP. Seventeen strength-power athletes (n = 11 males, height: 177.5 ± 7.0 cm, body mass: 90.0 ± 14.1 kg, age: 30.6 ± 10.4 years; n = 6 females, height: 165.8 ± 11.4 cm; body mass: 66.4 ± 13.9 kg, age: 30.8 ± 8.7 years) with greater than 6 months of training experience in the clean (1RM: 118.5 ± 20.6 kg, 77.5 ± 10.4 kg) volunteered to undertake the experimental protocol. Subjects performed the IMTP using four combinations of hip and knee angles, and two different barbell positions. The first barbell position corresponded to the second pull of the clean, while the second rested at the mid-point between the iliac crest and the patella. Peak force (PF), time-specific force (F50, F90, F150, F200, F250), peak rate of force development (pRFD), and impulse (IMP) time-bands were reliable in all four testing positions examined. Statistically greater PF, F50, F90, F150, F200, F250, pRFD and IMP0-50, IMP0-90, IMP0-150, and IMP0-200 were generated in a testing position corresponding to the second pull of the clean when compared to a bent over torso angle, regardless of the barbell position used. Moderate to large effect sizes favouring a testing position corresponding to the second pull were also found. Overall, when performing the IMTP, an upright torso and a barbell position that matches the second pull of the clean should be used
... This position is the strongest and most powerful position during weightlifting movements, generating the highest forces and velocities of any part of the lift. 15 Feet were placed between hip-and shoulder-width apart with the toes pointed slightly outward. Angles were measured using a hand-held goniometer; grip and foot width were measured and remained consistent between trials. ...
Article
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Purpose This investigation examined the relationships between the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), isometric squat (ISqT) and sprint acceleration performance in track & field sprinters, and to determine whether there are differences between males and females. Methods Fifteen male and ten female sprinters performed 3 maximal effort IMTPs, ISqTs and 3 x 30 m from blocks. Results Among males, results showed significant negative correlations between IMTP and ISqT peak force, relative peak force, force at 100, 150 and 200 ms, rate of force development (0 – 150, 0 – 200 ms) and impulse (0 – 200 ms) and 0 – 5 m time ( r = -0.517 to -0.714; P < 0.05). IMTP impulse significantly predicted 0 – 5 m time (B = -0.582, P = 0.023). ISqT relative peak force significantly predicted 0 – 5 m time (B = -0.606, P = 0.017). Among females, no IMTP or ISqT variables significantly correlated with any sprint times. Males measured significantly higher than females for all IMTP measures except for relative peak force. Males were significantly faster than females at all splits. When comparing measures of the ISqT, there were no significant differences between males and females. Conclusions Variables measured during the IMTP and ISqT significantly correlated with 0 – 5 m sprint performance in male athletes. Isometric strength can have a sizable influence on 0 – 5 m time, but in some cases the maximum effect could be very small.
... Conversely, although less accurate, videography systems, including digitisation software, are readily available to practitioners (Garhammer & Newton, 2013). However, due to its limited use within research, this method will not be discussed further, with readers referred to Garhammer (1993) for common methodological issues, and Garhammer and Newton (2013) for videography setup considerations. ...
Thesis
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The effects of external loading on jumping mechanics have been extensively investigated; however, review of the body of knowledge revealed a number of methodological issues, as well as a common omission of key mechanical theory, with limited studies investigating the effects of changing the position of the external load. Therefore, the primary aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of changing the position of the external load and training status on system centre of mass and lower limb joint mechanics during countermovement jumping, with a particular emphasis on power output. Section 3 (Mundy, Lake, Carden, Smith, & Lauder, 2016a) established that the force platform method and the combined method cannot be used interchangeably within practice for measuring power output, and argued that the force platform method should be adopted as the criterion method. Using the force platform method, section 4 (Mundy, Smith, Lauder, & Lake, 2016b) established that the effects of barbell loading on system centre of mass mechanics reported are often overemphasised, and it was argued that investigating the complex interaction between the underpinning force, temporal and spatial components is of interest to practitioners. Section 5 demonstrated that practitioners may overcome the constraints of barbell loading by changing the position of the external load to arms’ length using a hexagonal barbell, which facilitated greater system centre of mass and lower limb joint mechanics in strength-power trained athletes. However, as the effects of external load have been posited to be population specific, section 6 demonstrated that regardless of the magnitude of the external load, strength-power trained athletes produced significantly greater hip joint peak power outputs than their recreationally trained counterparts. As such, the findings of the thesis support the hypothesis that practitioners should prescribe the position of external loading that maximise hip joint peak power output. In conclusion, this thesis has not only made significant steps towards providing a standardised method of measuring power output, but it has also offered a revealing insight into the effects of training status, as well as the effects of changing the position and magnitude of the external load on system centre of mass and lower limb joint mechanics during countermovement jumping.
... They were then placed into the appropriate position, based upon the knee and hip angles (141° and 124°, respectively) that were set up by a handheld goniometer. The position chosen corresponds to the portion of the clean lift where the highest power is produced (Garhammer, 1993). Once the participants were in position, they initiated the exercise after a countdown "3, 2, 1, pull." ...
Article
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This study investigates the relationship between peak force and rate of force development (RFD) obtained from maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) of the back muscles and the power produced during a loaded lifting task. A group of 27 resistance-trained and 41 recreationally physically active men performed a maximal isometric strength test of the back muscles and a deadlift to high pull while lifting progressively increasing weights. Peak RFD correlated significantly with the peak and mean power produced during a deadlift to high pull with lower weights (from 20 to 40 kg), with r values ranging from.941 to.673 and from.922 to.633. The r ² values ranged from.89 to.45 and from.85 to.40, explaining 89%–45% and 85%–40% of total variance. There were also significant relationships between MVC peak force and peak and mean values of power produced during a deadlift to high pull with weights ≥60 kg (r in range from.764 to.888 and from.735 to.896). Based on r ² , a moderate-to-high proportion of variance was explained (58%–79% and 54%–80%). These findings indicate that peak RFD obtained from MVC of the back muscles may be predictive of power performance during a lifting task at light loads. In addition to MVC peak force produced by back muscles, the ability of subjects to develop a high force in a short time should be evaluated in order to gain deeper insight into a loaded lifting performance, namely, in those prone to low back pain.
... Weightlifting exercises, including snatch and clean, but also power and hang variations, play a main part in technical, postural, and power development (30,34). Regarding the high level of strength produced in a short period, these exercises represent an excellent benchmark for evaluating power and explosive strength capacity (28,34). However, one has to keep in mind that when using weightlifting movements, perfect technical execution should remain a prerequisite before training volume and intensity are increased (34,43). ...
Article
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Abstract The purpose of this article is to describe the training strategy built by the French Rugby Union to optimize strength and power development in elite rugby union players. The training process is based on 4 stages composed of educational and technical efficiency, work capacity, maximal strength and explosive power. The evolution of the player during these different steps should be adjusted according to individual progression and not only their chronological and biological age. Supervised training sessions with qualified and experienced strength and conditioning coaches are paramount to ensure individualized training and provide sound pedagogical approaches.
... However, substantial demand is placed on the forearm muscles in gripping the barbell. As a result, one's grip strength can often be a limiting factor in the amount of weight that can be lifted (Garhammer, 1993). As using heavier loads has been shown to be beneficial in optimising strength gains, multiple grip variations have been developed aiming to reduce the limiting nature of one's grip strength when performing a DL (Shimano et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Muscle activation, peak velocity (PV) and perceived technical difficulty while using three grip variations and three loads during a deadlift exercise (DL) were examined. Twenty-nine resistance-trained athletes (15 males, age: 22.2±2.7 years; 14 females, age: 24.8±7.0 years) performed the DL with 50%, 70% and 90% of their one repetition maximum (1RM) using hook grip (HG), mixed grip (MG) and double overhand (DOH) grip. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the brachialis (BS), brachioradialis (BR) and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) was recorded. PV and perceived technical difficulty of each grip were also measured. Regardless of load and grip, females exhibited greater BS activation compared to males (p<0.05; ES=0.69) while males displayed greater BR activation, significant at 90% load (p<0.01; ES=1.01). MG elicited the least BR and FCU activation regardless of load and sex (p<0.01; ES=0.64-0.68) and was consistently ranked as the easiest grip for any load. Males achieved significantly greater PV than females at 50% and 70% (p<0.01; ES=1.72-1.92). Hand orientation did not significantly impact PV. A MG may be beneficial in reducing the overall perceived technical difficulty when performing a maximal DL. Athletes aiming to maximise muscle activation and potentially develop their grip strength should utilise a DOH grip or HG.
... The sport is divided into 10 classes based on body mass with male and female categories and 8 eligible physical limitations: impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, and athetosis (25). The modality is an adapted version of conventional weightlifting, also known as powerlifting, which involves 3 strength exercises: squat, bench press, and deadlift (10). In the Paralympic version, athletes perform only the bench press and must lower the bar to the chest, hold it motionless, and then press it upward to arm's length with locked elbows (24). ...
Article
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Neto, FR, Dorneles, JR, Luna, RM, Spina, MA, Gonç alves, CW, and Gomes Costa, RR. Performance differences between the arched and flat bench press in beginner and experienced Paralympic powerlifters. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The present study aimed to verify the differences of the total load, trajectory of the barbell in the sagittal plane, and mean velocity of the barbell between the arched and flat techniques of the bench press in beginner (BG) and experienced (EG) Paralympic powerlifters. Twenty beginners (age: 34.4 years; experience: 3.3 months) and 23 experienced (age: 35.5 years; experience: 9.8 months) Paralympic powerlifters were selected from a Rehabilitation Hospital Network and a Paralympic sports center. Subjects were assessed in the one-maximum repetition test of the bench press exercise using the flat and arched bench press techniques (48-72-hour interval between sessions). The maximum strength, trajectory of the barbell in the sagittal plane, and mean velocity of the barbell were measured to compare the techniques and the groups. The total load corrected with the Haleczko formula was significantly higher in EG compared with BG (Δ 5 21.1%; effect sizes [ES] 5 0.39, p # 0.05). There were no significant differences for all analyzed outcomes comparing the arched and flat techniques. During the eccentric phase of the bench press, all assessed differences ranged from 216.6 to 23.1% and presented ES of trivial to moderate. On the concentric phase, the assessed differences ranged from 220.7 to 13.9% and presented ES of trivial to moderate. The total load, trajectory of the barbell in the sagittal plane, and mean velocity of the barbell were not significantly different between the arched and flat techniques for experienced and beginner powerlifting athletes during both the eccentric and concentric phase of the movement. However, further analyses are essential to determine the best technique for athletes.
... Prior to data collection, a standardised verbal explanation and demonstration was provided, followed by one submaximal trial performed by each participant. Participants were positioned into their individual second-pull position of the clean, since this has been shown to correspond to the portion of the clean that generates the highest force output (Garhammer, 1993). From this position knee (145 ± 7°) and hip (136 ± 11°) angles were recorded with a universal goniometer. ...
Article
A number of field-based investigations have evidenced practically significant relationships between clubhead velocity (CHV), vertical jump performance and maximum strength. Unfortunately, whilst these investigations provide a great deal of external validity, they are unable to ascertain vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) variables that may relate to golfers' CHVs. This investigation aimed to assess if the variance in European Challenge Tour golfers' CHVs could be predicted by countermovement jump (CMJ) positive impulse (PI), isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) peak force (PF) and rate of force development (RFD) from 0-50 ms, 0-100 ms, 0-150 ms and 0-200 ms. Thirty-one elite level European Challenge Tour golfers performed a CMJ and IMTP on dual force plates at a tournament venue, with CHV measured on a driving range. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that the variance in CHV was significantly predicted by all four models (model one R 2 = 0.379; model two R 2 = 0.392, model three R 2 = 0.422, model four R 2 = 0.480), with Akaike's information criterion indicating that model one was the best fit. Individual standardised beta coefficients revealed that CMJ PI was the only significant variable, accounting for 37.9% of the variance in European Challenge Tour Golfers' CHVs.
... While greater RT loads and volumes are often associated with positive neuro-muscular adaptations [6][7][8], increasing the load or performing multiple repetitions of deadlifts can increase the demand on the forearm muscles in gripping the barbell. In that regard, the grip strength of an individual can be a limiting factor during deadlifts by limiting the number of continuous repetitions that can be performed, reducing training loads, or both [9,10]. Since decreasing the training load or volume can compromise the stimuli imposed on the individual and thus resulting in submaximal training adaptations, alternative grip variations have been proposed to combat the limiting nature of grip strength when performing the deadlift exercise [11]. ...
Article
It is possible that during resistance training, a weak link in the kinetic chain could possibly result in under-stimulated prime movers. Since grip strength can be a limiting factor during multiple sets of various pulling exercises such as deadlifts, it is important to determine how lifting straps can affect mechanical performance, grip strength, perceived exertion and perceived grip security and power. Sixteen males (24.4 ± 2.3 y; 181.6 ± 5.8 cm; 86.6 ± 8.2 kg) completed three protocols: 4 sets of 4 repetitions without straps using 80% of their without-straps 1-repetition max (DLnn); the same protocol with straps based on their without-straps 1-repetition max (DLwn); and the same with straps based on their with-straps 1-repetitions max (DLww). DLwn allowed for greater mean velocity (MV) and peak velocity (PV) than DLnn and DLww, while MV and PV were greater during DLnn than DLww. The magnitude of grip fatigue was lower during DLwn and DLww than DLn. Perceived grip security and power were greater during DLwn and DLww compared to DLn. Perceived exertion was lower during DLwn than DLnn and DLww. These findings suggest that the use of lifting straps during deadlifts allows for a better maintenance of grip strength, faster grip strength recovery following training, and greater perceived grip security and power than deadlifts performed without lifting straps, while also increasing mechanical performance and decreasing the perceived exertion. Therefore, the ergogenic potential of the lifting straps has important training implications and should be considered during RT involving the deadlift exercise and possibly other pulling exercises.
... Maximum isometric torque can exceed eccentric and concentric torque in lower extremity joint actions when joint angles are individually adjusted (Stotz et al., 2022). The knee and hip angles of 141°and 124°respectively used for MVC assessment of the back muscles correspond to the portion of the clean lift where the highest power is produced (Garhammer, 1993). Nonetheless, moderate to low relationships between lifting task capacity and maximum isometric muscle strength indicate that lifting performance cannot be based only on muscle strength testing under static conditions (Rosecrance et al., 1991). ...
Article
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While force-velocity-power characteristics of resistance exercises, such as bench presses and squats, have been well documented, little attention has been paid to load, force, and power-velocity relationships in exercises engaging core muscles. Given that power produced during lifting tasks or trunk rotations plays an important role in most sport-specific and daily life activities, its measurement should represent an important part of the test battery in both athletes and the general population. The aim of this scoping review was 1) to map the literature related to testing methods assessing core muscle strength and stability in sport and rehabilitation, chiefly studies with particular focus on force-velocity-power characteristics of exercises involving the use of core muscles, 2) and to identify gaps in existing studies and suggest further research in this field. The literature search was conducted on Cochrane Library databases, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed and MEDLINE, which was completed by SpringerLink, Google Scholar and Elsevier. The inclusion criteria were met in 37 articles. Results revealed that among a variety of studies investigating the core stability and core strength in sport and rehabilitation, only few of them analyzed force–velocity–power characteristics of exercises involving the use of core muscles. Most of them evaluated maximal isometric strength of the core and its endurance. However, there are some studies that assessed muscle power during lifting tasks at different loads performed either with free weights or using the Smith machine. Similarly, power and velocity were assessed during trunk rotations performed with different weights when standing or sitting. Nevertheless, there is still scant research investigating the power-velocity and force-velocity relationship during exercises engaging core muscles in able-bodied and para athletes with different demands on stability and strength of the core. Therefore, more research is needed to address this gap in the literature and aim research at assessing strength and power-related measures within cross-sectional and intervention studies. A better understanding of the power-force-velocity profiles during exercises with high demands on the core musculature has implications for designing sport training and rehabilitation programs for enhancement of athletes’ performance and/or decrease their risk of back pain.
... During Olympic style weightlifting almost 7000 W can be produced during a clean pull of a 125 kg elite lifter (Garhammer, 1993). However, national caliber weight lifting athletes, were not found to have a clear predominance of FT fibers, as the percentage of FT fibers was identified to range between 53% and 59%. ...
Thesis
The human skeletal muscle consists of two major cell types, slow-twitch fibers (also called type I fibers) and fast-twitch fibers (or type II fibers). These fibers have distinct characteristics, as fast-twitch fibers are able to generate a large amount of power at high shortening velocities, while slow-twitch fibers have a better energy efficiency, a higher resistance to fatigue and a more robust structural integrity. On average, most humans will dispose of a 50% slow-twitch and a 50% fast-twitch distribution. However a big heterogeneity exists, what results in people with predominantly slow or fast muscle fibers. The typology of a person is mostly genetically determined and is present across most muscles of the body. Taken together, the fact that muscle fibers have distinct characteristics and that muscle typologies range over the whole continuum from predominantly slow to fast in human, will have important implications for sports performance. Nevertheless, these typologies are currently not used in the daily coaching practice. This is probably due to the invasiveness of the current ‘gold’ standard to measure the muscle typology: a muscle biopsy, which is a labor intensive method and harbors a low generalizability. In 2011, our group introduced a non-invasive way to estimate the muscle fiber type composition through the measurement of carnosine – a metabolite which is abundantly available in fast-twitch fibers – using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). The non-invasiveness of this technique enables the use in both the sports practice and science, and renews the interest of the muscle typology in sports. In the first study, the 1H-MRS method to determine the muscle typology was further optimized with the ultimate goal to make it applicable on various scanner systems of multiple vendors. 1H-MRS was found to be a reliable method to quantify carnosine in the muscle. Furthermore, best practices were proposed to prevent often encountered methodological problems and step by step guidelines were developed to allow broader utilization of this technique. Secondly, we investigated if pre-puberty carnosine measurements could give insights in the post-puberty carnosine concentrations, which would allow application of this technique in early specialization sports (study 2). Carnosine was shown to be a trackable metabolite through the disruptive puberty period (R2=0.249-0.670), which confirms the potential of the current technique to scan both future talents and elite athletes. Next to the methodological optimization, the relevance of the muscle typology for talent identification was examined. Before the start of the thesis, the construct validity of our method was already confirmed in athletics, in which clear differences were determined in the muscle typology of either sprint or endurance disciplines. Despite the fact that a comparable distribution of the muscle typologies could be expected in other cyclic sports such as cycling and swimming, this was not yet investigated in elite athletes. Therefore, study 3 established the muscle typologies of 80 world-class cyclists. Clear differences were found in the muscle typology between cycling events. Keirin, bicycle motocross racing (BMX), sprint and 500 m to 1 km time trial cyclists can be considered as fast typology athletes. Time trial, points race, scratch, and omnium consist of intermediate typology athletes, while most individual pursuit, single-stage, cyclo-cross, mountain bike, and multistage cyclists have a slow typology. Nevertheless, this distribution was not present in 73 elite swimmers (study 4), as no clear differences in the muscle typology were detected between short and long distance swimming events in the different strokes. However, there was some evidence to suggest that truly world-class sprint swimmers had a faster muscle fiber type composition when compared to elite swimmers competing at the international level. Moreover, breaststroke swimmers were identified to have a faster muscle typology in comparison to the either freestyle, backstroke or butterfly swimmers. Elite soccer players (n=118) were found to have an on average intermediate typology, which matches with the intermittent nature of this sport (study 6). In contrary to our hypothesis, no differences in the muscle typology were detected between different positions (keeper, defender, midfielder and striker). A big heterogeneity was established over all positions, indicating that the muscle typology is not of major importance for talent identification in soccer. To determine the influence of the muscle typology on individualized training and recovery cycles, we investigated if fatigue and recovery were different when both slow and fast typology subjects were exposed to the same high-intensity training (study 5). Fatigue during three Wingate tests, determined by the power drop, was 20% higher in fast typology athletes. Even though the same work was done during these Wingate tests, also the recovery from these Wingate tests was found to be 15 times slower in fast typology athletes (20 min in slow typology vs. longer than 5 h in fast typology). If a training plan would be composed with a minimum of recovery in between the training sessions, recovery might be insufficient for fast typology athletes, possibly rendering them with a higher risk for muscle strains. In study 6, we studied if the muscle typology is a risk factor for muscle strains in elite soccer players. We discovered that fast typology soccer players had a 5.3 times higher chance to get a hamstring injury, when compared to slow typology soccer players during a prospective longitudinal follow-up study over three seasons. Next to a higher accumulation of fatigue, a higher vulnerability in fast typology players could be expected due to the lower structural integrity in fast fibers. Bringing together, the muscle typology is an important characteristic, which could be non-invasively monitored using 1H-MRS. This technique could help athletes to make a scientific based decision on their ideal discipline during talent orientation. Moreover, it could help coaches tailoring training to enlarge the athletes’ muscle potential and to prevent fatigue accumulation. This endeavor might partly prevent fast typology athletes to be at a higher risk for strain injuries. Consequently, we believe that measuring the muscle fiber typology of athletes should be considered as a valuable procedure to help athletes to fully develop their potential based on the smart use of muscle profiling.
... Günümüzde halter sporcularının silkme ve koparma tekniğinde tek tekrar maksimal yükü kaldırabilmesi beklenmektedir. Bu teknikler; halterin zemin tepki kuvvetiyle beraber, tek yönlü hareket (alt ekstremiteden üst ektremiteye) ve kuvvet iletiminin patlayıcı bir şekilde kaldırılmasını gerektirdiğinden, yüksek seviyede güç çıktısı oluşmaktadır (22) . Powerlifting sporunda halter sporunda olduğu gibi, tek tekrar maksimal bir ağırlık kaldırılmaya çalışılır. ...
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GİRİŞ Ağırlık antrenmanları, dünyanın birçok yerinde farklı kesimden insanlar tarafından tercih edilen popüler bir spor haline gelmiştir. Bazı insanlar ağırlık antrenmanlarını sağlık ve fitness rutinlerinin sadece bir parçası olarak kullanırken, bazıları ise; halter, powerlifting ve vücut geliştirme gibi rekabete dayalı, kazanma amacı güderek performansı geliştirmek için yapmaktadır. Günümüzde halter sporcularının silkme ve koparma tekniğinde tek tekrar maksimal yükü kaldırabilmesi beklenmektedir. Bu teknikler; halterin zemin tepki kuvvetiyle beraber, tek yönlü hareket (alt ekstremiteden üst ektremiteye) ve kuvvet iletiminin patlayıcı bir şekilde kaldırılmasını gerektirdiğinden, yüksek seviyede güç çıktısı oluşmaktadır. Powerlifting sporunda halter sporunda olduğu gibi, tek tekrar maksimal bir ağırlık kaldırılmaya çalışılır. Bununla birlikte Strongman (Güçlü Adam) ya-rışmaları; tır çekme, araba taşıma, kaya kaldırma, lastik çevirme gibi farklı etkinlikler barındırmaktadır. Bu etkinliklerden bazıları tek tekrar maksimal ağırlığı en hızlı ve en kısa sürede kaldırmayı gerektirmektedir. Vücut geliştirmede ise, diğer ağırlık sporlarından farklı olarak; yarışma sırasında kaldırılan ağırlığa değil, sporcunun fiziksel görünümü değerlendirilir. Ayrıca yarışmacıların özellikle kas kütlesi, kas yoğunluğu ve kas grupları arasında meydana gelen asimetri dikkate alınarak değerlendirilir . Halter, powerlifting ve vücut geliştirme gibi ağır yüklerin kaldırıldığı spor branşlarında, yıl içerisinde gerçekleştirilen farklı vücut ağırlığına sahip erkek ve kadın sporcuların katılabileceği yarışmalar düzenlen-mektedir. Halter şu anda olimpik statülü bu sporlardan sadece bir tanesidir. Bu spor branşlarında kaldırılabilecek ağır yükler ve yarışma esnasında icra etmeleri gereken ortak pozisyon ve duruşlar (kesme ve sıkıştırma) sırasında büyük oranda kuvvet meydana gelmektedir. Bu nedenle, kamu, spor, tıb veya bilimsel kuruluşlarca bu tür aktivitelerin doğası gereği tehlikeli olduğu ve ayrıca uzun yıl-1
... Este método se utiliza como medio de transferencia del desarrollo de fuerza máxima a fuerza explosiva, facilitando el proceso y evitando cambios bruscos en la forma de entrenamiento (García Manso, 1999). El método de contrastes actúa sobre los factores fisiológicos y biomecánicos de los que depende la fuerza explosiva siendo uno de los métodos más efectivos en la activación de las unidades motoras rápidas (Garhammer, 1993).El método búlgaro clásico consiste en alternar en la misma sesión series con cargas pesadas (en torno al 90% de 1RM -Repetición Máxima) y ligeras (40-50% de 1RM), realizando los movimientos a máxima velocidad (Cometti, 1999). ...
... The relative power and work values were calculated by dividing the absolute work and power values by the lifter's body mass. The calculated power outputs only included the vertical work done by lifting the barbell (Garhammer 1993). ...
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... The vertical velocity of the barbell can reach up to 2.28 and 1.73 and m/sec in snatch and clean & jerk, respectively [5,6]. Weightlifting exercises require technical skills, power, strength, speed, balance, and coordination [6,7] and have become popular to augment training of athletes in other sports. Weightlifting training leads to an adaptation of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, leading to greater cross-sectional areas of type-II fibers and lean tissue in limbs, and the power output of weightlifters exceeds that of other strength athletes [5, and references therein]. ...
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Maximum power output during the performance of a standing jump of two feet from a force platform and stair climbing has been studied in 47 male subjects aged 20-50 years and 8 female subjects aged 18-27 years in relation to body composition. During the standing jump, power output mean values of 5·23 hp for men and 3·15 hp for women wore recorded. These figures are amongst the highest over recorded in man; they ore some four times higher than the corresponding values for the stair climb and fifteen times those achieved during maximum aerobic work on a stationary bicycle ergometer.Maximum power output in the two forms of activity were dependent on ago and sex, size, stature and, to a lesser extent, body composition of the subject. In young men and women the power output values were related to estimates (from soft tissue radiographs) of thigh muscle and loan body mass. However, in older subjects these relationships disappeared. Power output values during stair climbing could be accounted for in terms of known body stores of (chemical) energy. However, it was suggested that an explanation of the high values of power output on the force platform must involve the storage of energy within the muscle during the initial stages of the jump which is later available for the performance of useful work.