Article

Anabolic steroids: The physiological effects of placebos

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Abstract

Fifteen male varsity athletes were informed that some of them would be selected to receive an anabolic steroid (Dianabol). Instead, six selected subjects were given placebo pills. Taking the placebo apparently supplied the psychological inducement to increase strength gains above and beyond reasonable progression. Greater training gains were made during the placebo period in three out of four weight lifting exercises. The gains were statitsically significant when comparing the two regression lines for the pre-placebo and placebo periods. (C)1972The American College of Sports Medicine

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... Specifi cally, researchers in this area have attempted to determine the extent to which strength and performance are due to expectations, self-deception, or self-handicapping. Some of the studies in this category have examined college students (Kalasountas, Reed, & Fitzpatrick, 2007;Nelson & Furst, 1972;Ness & Patton, 1979;Proske et al., 2004), while others have involved powerlifters (Maganaris, Collins, & Sharp, 2000), Olympic weight lifters (Mahoney, 1995), or other athletes (Ariel & Saville, 1972) (see Table 22.5). Most studies have used a quasi-experimental or experimental research design; one study has employed a double-blind methodology (Mahoney, 1995). ...
... For this review RE studies have been classifi ed based on whether the protocol used deceptive or ambiguous (unknown weight) feedback. Ariel and Saville (1972) compared the impact of training and placebo on the expectancy outcome of steroid administration in a group of athletes. Performance was examined on the bench press, squat, seated military press, and leg press. ...
... Studies suggest that deception/placebo can alter performance even in elite performers, and the eff ect appears to be related to expectation of outcome. In ambiguous conditions, improvements in strength ranged from no eff ect to increases in athletic samples of up to 9.5% (Ariel & Saville, 1972). Future studies should determine how long the expectancy eff ect persists and what characteristics most predispose an individual to the placebo eff ect. ...
Article
Resistance exercise has been identified as an important mode of physical activity to maintain and enhance health. Research has been developing regarding psychological alterations during and after resistance exercise. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly highlight the physical health benefits of resistance exercise and then review research in five domains. First it reviews the relationship between resistance exercise and the sensation of effort. Second, it summarizes research that investigates resistance exercise and affect changes. Third, it discusses research regarding resistance exercise and its effects on self-perception. Fourth, it reviews research on the use of "psyching" strategies prior to maximal and submaximal performance of resistance exercise. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the role of expectation in resistance exercise performance.
... [32] Such data support the idea that the placebo effect impacts on sports performance, although the empirical evidence required to move beyond speculation was in fact lacking until recently, with only one published study prior to 2000. [33] Since then, a further 11 experimental studies have been published. [7,32,[34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42] This review focuses on the methods and findings of these studies. ...
... 2.1 Ariel and Saville (1972) In 1972, and preceding further research by almost 30 years, Ariel and Saville [33] investigated the placebo effect of anabolic steroids. Fifteen experienced weightlifters (»5 sessions/week for »2 years) were recruited to a study of the effects of the oral anabolic steroid methandrostenolone. ...
... 2.1 Ariel and Saville (1972) In 1972, and preceding further research by almost 30 years, Ariel and Saville [33] investigated the placebo effect of anabolic steroids. Fifteen experienced weightlifters (»5 sessions/week for »2 years) were recruited to a study of the effects of the oral anabolic steroid methandrostenolone. ...
Article
Full-text available
The placebo effect, with its central role in clinical trials, is acknowledged as a factor in sports medicine, although until recently little has been known about the likely magnitude and extent of the effect in any specific research setting. Even less is known about the prevalence of the effect in competitive sport. The present paper reviews 12 intervention studies in sports performance. All examine placebo effects associated with the administration of an inert substance believed by subjects to be an ergogenic aid. Placebo effects of varying magnitudes are reported in studies addressing sports from weightlifting to endurance cycling. Findings suggest that psychological variables such as motivation, expectancy and conditioning, and the interaction of these variables with physiological variables, might be significant factors in driving both positive and negative outcomes. Programmatic research involving the triangulation of data, and investigation of contextual and personality factors in the mediation of placebo responses may help to advance knowledge in this area.
... A placebo is a pharmacologically inert substance that, despite chemical inactivity, can impact the body. 1 Placebos have helped reduce doses of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome medication, relieve pain 2 , and reduce irritable bowel syndrome symptoms 3 . With regard to exercise performance, placebos have improved laboratory-assessed performance in running 4 , cycling 5,6 , and strength activities 7,8 . For a review on the topic of the effects of placebos in sports performance, see Beedie, et al. 9 The ability of placebos to reduce physical pain may be the mechanism by which placebos improving exercise performance may function. ...
... Previous work suggests that consuming placebos believed to be steroids, caffeine, or amino acids improved measures of muscular function compared to control conditions. 8,9,16,17 The handgrip test is simple and does not result in large muscle fatigue. Thus, the handgrip test can be performed prior to a VO2peak test without influencing performance on the VO2peak test. ...
... We did not specific a type of supplement or how it could increase performance as other studies have done. 7,8,21 Previous work in highly trained subjects has found strength improvements following placebo supplementation when subjects thought they were taking steroids. 7,8 Other work has found strength improvements in college students when they thought they were taking amino acids 17 , and caffeine 16 . ...
Article
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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of both known (“honest”) and unknown (“dishonest”) placebo ingestion on VO2peak to see if placebo ingestion would influence the test outcome by influencing the psychological compo nent of this test. A secondary purpose was to examine these effects on isometric handgrip strength. We hypothesized that placebo (honest or dishonest) ingestion prior to a VO2peak test would increase VO2peak compared to a control condition. We further hypothesized that isometric handgrip strength would be greater during both conditions of acute placebo ingestion compared to a control condition. Design: In a randomized, cross-over, counterbalanced design, subjects performed three trials: exercise tests with honest place bo, exercise tests with dishonest placebo, exercise tests only (control condition). Method: 41 subjects (28 males) aged 24 ± 7 years were tested. RM ANOVAs (3 × 1) were used to analyze VO2peak and handgrip strength across conditions. RM ANOVAs (3 × 1) were used to determine if test order influenced VO2peak and handgrip strength. (Alpha = 0.05.)Results: No differences were found across conditions for either VO2peak (p = 0.360) or handgrip strength (p = 0.474). Further, no differences were found for trial order for either VO2peak (p = 0.766) or handgrip strength (p = 0.067). Conclusions: Administration of both an honest and a dishonest placebo immediately prior to VO2peak and handgrip testing resulted in no differences in performance compared to each other or a control trial. The VO2peak test is a robust exercise test not influenced by immediately-prior pre-workout supplement consumption.
... The initial two studies to examine the effects of perceived anabolic steroid use in strength athletes were particularly fascinating. In the early 1970s, Ariel and Saville (1972) examined the placebo effect in well-trained men by informing those that responded well to a pre-intervention training period that they had received anabolic steroids (Dianabol) during the subsequent phase of the study. For the six participants who believed they were using steroids, statistically significant increases in maximal strength for the bench press (9.6%), standing military press (8.5%), and squat (13.8%) exercises were reported, with a smaller effect for the seated press exercise (6.2%). ...
... Placebo and OLP treatments have shown promise in enhancing muscular performance in athletes (Ariel and Saville 1972;Maganaris et al. 2000;McClung and Collins 2007;Beedie and Foad 2009) and improving patient outcomes in clinical settings (Sandler and Bodfish 2008;Kaptchuk et al. 2010;Kelley et al. 2012;Carvalho et al. 2016;Hoenemeyer et al. 2018), respectively. We tested the hypothesis that, in untrained adults, placebo and OLP treatments would enhance muscle strength and minimize neuromuscular fatigue. ...
... First, it should be noted that the results of this study are specific to isometric testing of the dominant knee extensors. In contrast, placebo studies in athletic populations tend to utilize whole-body assessments, such as cycling (Beedie et al. 2006) and resistance training exercises (Ariel and Saville 1972;Maganaris et al. 2000). It is unclear if other assessments, or single-joint testing of another muscle group (e.g., elbow flexors), would have brought about different results. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Recent evidence suggests that deception may not be necessary for placebos to improve clinical outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that placebo and open-label placebo (OLP) treatments would acutely improve strength and voluntary activation, as well as minimize neuromuscular fatigue, in untrained participants. Methods Twenty-one males (n = 11) and females (n = 10) visited the laboratory on three occasions (placebo, OLP, control) to receive each treatment in a randomized, counter-balanced manner. Trials involved a pretest, a 15-min intervention, and posttests. For the placebo trial, participants were informed that they would be ingesting a capsule that would improve their performance and make them feel more energetic. For the OLP intervention, participants were told that the capsules would have no effects. In “Experiment #1”, knee extensor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) peak torque and percent voluntary activation were evaluated. In “Experiment #2”, participants performed 20 consecutive MVCs while surface electromyographic signals were detected from the vastus lateralis. Subjective assessments of energy and perceived exertion were examined. Results The interventions had no effect on strength or voluntary activation, but energy levels increased following treatments (p = 0.016, η² = 0.257). Neither treatment influenced neuromuscular fatigue. Though some variables showed moderate-to-large effect sizes, these results were consistent for individuals with lower voluntary activation. Conclusion Placebo and OLP treatments had minimal influence on strength, voluntary activation, and fatigue resistance. As these findings differ from recent reports, we speculate that placebos and OLPs are more likely to enhance muscle function in patient populations seeking medical care.
... [32] Such data support the idea that the placebo effect impacts on sports performance, although the empirical evidence required to move beyond speculation was in fact lacking until recently, with only one published study prior to 2000. [33] Since then, a further 11 experimental studies have been published. [7,32,[34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42] This review focuses on the methods and findings of these studies. ...
... 2.1 Ariel and Saville (1972) In 1972, and preceding further research by almost 30 years, Ariel and Saville [33] investigated the placebo effect of anabolic steroids. Fifteen experienced weightlifters (»5 sessions/week for »2 years) were recruited to a study of the effects of the oral anabolic steroid methandrostenolone. ...
... 2.1 Ariel and Saville (1972) In 1972, and preceding further research by almost 30 years, Ariel and Saville [33] investigated the placebo effect of anabolic steroids. Fifteen experienced weightlifters (»5 sessions/week for »2 years) were recruited to a study of the effects of the oral anabolic steroid methandrostenolone. ...
Article
Full-text available
The placebo effect, with its central role in clinical trials, is acknowledged as a factor in sports medicine, although until recently little has been known about the likely magnitude and extent of the effect in any specific research setting. Even less is known about the prevalence of the effect in competitive sport. The present paper reviews 12 intervention studies in sports performance. All examine placebo effects associated with the administration of an inert substance believed by subjects to be an ergogenic aid. Placebo effects of varying magnitudes are reported in studies addressing sports from weightlifting to endurance cycling. Findings suggest that psychological variables such as motivation, expectancy and conditioning, and the interaction of these variables with physiological variables, might be significant factors in driving both positive and negative outcomes. Programmatic research involving the triangulation of data, and investigation of contextual and personality factors in the mediation of placebo responses may help to advance knowledge in this area.
... The initial two studies to examine the effects of perceived anabolic steroid use in strength athletes were particularly fascinating. In the early 1970s, Ariel and Saville (1972) examined the placebo effect in well-trained men by informing those that responded well to a pre-intervention training period that they had received anabolic steroids (Dianabol) during the subsequent phase of the study. For the six participants who believed they were using steroids, statistically significant increases in maximal strength for the bench press (9.6%), standing military press (8.5%), and squat (13.8%) exercises were reported, with a smaller effect for the seated press exercise (6.2%). ...
... Placebo and OLP treatments have shown promise in enhancing muscular performance in athletes (Ariel and Saville 1972;Maganaris et al. 2000;McClung and Collins 2007;Beedie and Foad 2009) and improving patient outcomes in clinical settings (Sandler and Bodfish 2008;Kaptchuk et al. 2010;Kelley et al. 2012;Carvalho et al. 2016;Hoenemeyer et al. 2018), respectively. We tested the hypothesis that, in untrained adults, placebo and OLP treatments would enhance muscle strength and minimize neuromuscular fatigue. ...
... First, it should be noted that the results of this study are specific to isometric testing of the dominant knee extensors. In contrast, placebo studies in athletic populations tend to utilize whole-body assessments, such as cycling (Beedie et al. 2006) and resistance training exercises (Ariel and Saville 1972;Maganaris et al. 2000). It is unclear if other assessments, or single-joint testing of another muscle group (e.g., elbow flexors), would have brought about different results. ...
... Prawdopodobnie pierwszy eksperyment, w którym placebo pojawia się w kontekście sportu, przeprowadzony został przez Ariela i Saville'a [51]. Badacze podawali uczestnikom programu treningowego placebo pod pozorem sterydów anabolicznych, stwierdzając w rezultacie większy przyrost siły u osób poddanych działaniu placebo niż w grupie kontrolnej, która brała udział w takim samym programie treningowym, ale nie przyjmowała placebo. ...
... The first experiment with placebo, applied to support athletic results, was probably conducted by Ariel and Saville [51]. The researchers gave athletes placebo, simulating anabolic steroids and found a higher increase in strength for the placebo group as compared with the controls, who participated in the training programme, but did not take placebo. ...
Article
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The first part of the paper sums up contemporary approaches to the subject of placebo action. The definition of placebo is discussed, as well as the types of its effects and underlying mechanisms. Placebo is defined as a method or an element of the method without any specific activity for the condition being treated. A proposal is discussed to classify the effects of placebo in one coherent system consisted of eight different effects. Also the psychological mechanisms underlying placebo effect are discussed. These include classical conditioning, expectancy and anxiety, and relationships between them. In the second part of the paper,a summary is used for critical analysis of the data from the research on the applications of placebo as an ergogenic aid in sports. Discussion of the research results is focused on the effectiveness of placebo in athletic performance improvement, the influence of the information given to sportsmen on placebo action on its effectiveness, the influence of the information given to sportsmen on active methods action on their effectiveness, and prior experience with active methods as a factor contributing to a placebo effect. The discussed results prove the usefulness of placebo in athletic performance improvement, and this, indicate an important role of the information given to sportsmen in evoking a placebo effect and as a placebo factor modifying action of active procedures. The results of the discussed research suggest that the effects of any ergogenic aid are due to both its active components and psychological factors, e.i., placebo component of any active method.
... Six published empirical studies have addressed the placebo effect in sport. These have demonstrated, for example , that athletes who falsely believed that they had been administered anabolic steroids (Ariel and Saville, 1972; Maganaris et al., 2000), or that they had ingested carbohydrate (Clark et al., 2000), caffeine (Beedie et al., 2006), or a hypothetical 'new ergogenic' (Foster et al., 2004), or who believed they were using a respiratory training device (Sonetti et al., 2001), performed better than baseline or controls. These data suggest that the placebo effect is a factor in sports performance. ...
... Six published empirical studies have addressed the placebo effect in sport. These have demonstrated, for example , that athletes who falsely believed that they had been administered anabolic steroids (Ariel and Saville, 1972; Maganaris et al., 2000 ), or that they had ingested carbohydrate (Clark et al., 2000), caffeine (), or a hypothetical 'new ergogenic' (Foster et al., 2004), or who believed they were using a respiratory training device (Sonetti et al., 2001), performed better than baseline or controls. These data suggest that the placebo effect is a factor in sports performance. ...
Article
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The paper examines the placebo effect in sports performance. The possibility that the placebo effect is a more common phenomenon than the quantity of published research would suggest is briefly addressed. It is suggested that the placebo control design often used in sports performance research masks any placebo effects and thus presents a false picture of the mechanisms underlying performance-enhancing interventions in the real world. An electronic survey was sent to 48 competitive, international and professional athletes. Questions related to the placebo effect in competitive sport. Thirty responses were received. Data indicate that the majority (97%) of respondents believe that the placebo effect can exert an influence on sports performance, and that a significant number (73%) have experienced what they defined as a placebo effect. Inductive content analysis reveals that these experiences fall into several categories such as explicit placebo effects, inadvertent false beliefs, ritual and reverse placebo effects. Furthermore, 10 respondents (33%) offer explanations as to the nature of the placebo effect. Again, inductive content analysis reveals that these explanations fall into several categories including deliberate changes in competitive strategy, belief/expectancy, faith in a third party, and marketing. Overall, responses support previous experimental research and anecdotal reports that have found a relationship between belief and sports performance. It is suggested that further research be structured to not simply control for the placebo effect, but to elucidate it. Key pointsA survey of 30 athletes revealed that 73% have experienced a placebo effect in sport.Athletes suggest several potential explanations for these effects.Findings support the idea that placebo effects might be common in sport.Researchers and practitioners should be aware of the possible impact of these effects on research findings and competitive performance.
... They were first developed in the late 1930s in an effort to treat hypogonadism and chronic wasting [1]. Their use rapidly spread and after World War Two athletes were openly using AAS for performance enhancement, however a 1972 study suggested that AAS had nothing more than a placebo effect as participants reported comparable performance enhancement when injected with a placebo [2]. However, there was little scientific evidence to suggest AAS had performance enhancing effect [2]. ...
... Their use rapidly spread and after World War Two athletes were openly using AAS for performance enhancement, however a 1972 study suggested that AAS had nothing more than a placebo effect as participants reported comparable performance enhancement when injected with a placebo [2]. However, there was little scientific evidence to suggest AAS had performance enhancing effect [2]. Consequently for years, the scientific community debated the utility of AAS, despite the fact that studies published had used inconsistent controls, insignificant doses and in some cases anecdotal reports [3]. ...
Article
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Androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. AAS are used by athletes and recreational users of all ages to enhance their athletic performance and/or physical appearance. While several adverse effects of AAS abuse have been described, their effect on the immune system has not been clearly elucidated. The literature generally indicates that supraphysiologic doses of AAS with an intact steroid nucleus are immunosuppressive, that is they reduce immune cell number and function. While those with alterations to the steroid nucleus are immunostimulatory as they induce the proliferation of T cells and other immune cells. Specifically, several common AAS have been shown to adversely influence lymphocyte differentiation and proliferation, antibody production, Natural Killer Cytotoxic activity and the production of certain cytokines, thereby altering the immune reaction. These effects may be profound and long lasting depending on the dosing regime, types or combinations of AAS used and the extent and duration of AAS abuse. Nevertheless, the effects of long term use of supraphysiologic doses of AAS on the immune system remain uncertain.
... Al respecto, debe señalarse que existen investigaciones que evidencian la influencia del placebo sobre el rendimiento de los deportistas (Ariel & Saville, 1972;Beedie, 2007Beedie, , 2010Beedie, Coleman, & Foad, 2007;Beedie & Foad, 2009;Beedie, Stuart, Coleman, & Foad, 2006;Benedetti, Pollo, & Colloca, 2007;Bérdi, Köteles, Szabó, & Bárdos, 2011;Clark, Hopkins, Hawley, & Burke, 2000;Duncan, 2010;Guillot, Genevois, Desliens, Saieb, & Rogowski, 2012;Hopker, Foad, Beedie, Coleman, & Leach, 2010;Pollo, Carlino, & Benedetti, 2008Pollo, Carlino, Vase, & Benedetti, 2012;Porcari et al., 2011;Singer, Dardena, & Llewellynb, 1973). Estas suelen basarse en la administración de sustancias o en el empleo de dispositivos cuya acción no posee un efecto probado sobre el rendimiento de los deportistas (Beedie & Foad, 2009). ...
... Deportiva La aplicación de intervenciones placebo en el deporte comenzó hace algunas décadas (Ariel & Saville, 1972;Singer et al., 1973). Estas se encuentran relacionadas con la utilización de determinadas sustancias o procedimientos, cuya finalidad se orienta hacia el incrementomantenimiento del rendimiento deportivo, por ejemplo a través de la hipnosis (Fernández-García, Sánchez-Sánchez, & Zurita-Ortega, 2013), la cafeína (Beedie, 2010;Duncan, 2010), el gel inactivo (Hopker et al., 2010), la simulación de administración de drogas (Benedetti et al., 2007) y la utilización de implementos (Guillot et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Psychological interventions aimed at enhancing the performance of athletes have become increaisngly popular. The article reviews the use of placebo interventions to enhance sports performance and finds that the context of application, the athlete’s personality traits, and the intervention ritual are usually seen as the most relevant factors to consider. It concludes that, despite their limitations, placebo interventions are effective alternatives that can be applied in different ways. The use of both conscious and unconscious means to activate the placebo effect materializes in the employment of the potentialities of verbal suggestion and priming.
... These data add to an increasing number of studies that have reported improvements in performance as a result of ingesting a placebo aid. The percentage increases in performance here (6.3%; percentage increase in PMP;W compared to the water and nocebo trial) are both lower (Ariel & Saville, 1972;Kalasountas et al., 2007;Pollo et al., 2008) and higher than values previously recorded (Beedie, Stuart, Coleman, & Foad, 2006;Beedie et al., 2007;Clark et al., 2000;Foad et al., 2008;Maganaris et al., 2000;McClung & Collins, 2007). However, methodological variances between the studies, including the mode of exercise and its outcome measure, and the duration of the study make direct comparisons difficult. ...
Article
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Abstract This investigation aimed to explore the effects of inert sugar-free drinks described as either 'performance enhancing' (placebo) or 'fatigue inducing' (nocebo) on peak minute power (PMP;W) during incremental arm crank ergometry (ACE). Twelve healthy, non-specifically trained individuals volunteered to take part. A single-blind randomised controlled trial with repeated measures was used to assess for differences in PMP;W, oxygen uptake, heart rate (HR), minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and subjective reports of local ratings of perceived exertion (LRPE) and central ratings of perceived exertion (CRPE), between three separate, but identical ACE tests. Participants were required to drink either 500 ml of a 'sports performance' drink (placebo), a 'fatigue-inducing' drink (nocebo) or water prior to exercise. The placebo caused a significant increase in PMP;W, and a significant decrease in LRPE compared to the nocebo (p=0.01; p=0.001) and water trials (p=0.01). No significant differences in PMP;W between the nocebo and water were found. However, the nocebo drink did cause a significant increase in LRPE (p=0.01). These results suggest that the time has come to broaden our understanding of the placebo and nocebo effects and their potential to impact sports performance.
... The placebo effect is witnessed when consumers of relatively benign substances experience pharmacodynamics of active substances they believe they are taking but aren't. In the history of PEDs, there was a significant period of time in which a significant segment of medical opinion in the western world believed the performanceenhancing effects of steroid use was a placebo effect (Ariel and Saville 1972). This could be true because of an established empirical element of the placebo effect; expectation. ...
Article
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... Therefore, no conclusive evidence of any performance enhancement was apparent. This finding is in contrast to previous research that has reported improved performance in participants who had ingested a placebo under the impression it was performance enhancing (Ariel & Saville, 1972;Beedie, Coleman, & Foad, 2007;Beedie et al., 2006). In the current study, large inter-individual performance responses may have accounted for the 2.4% (inform β-alanine trial) and 1.8% (inform placebo trial) increase in mean power output following β-alanine ingestion. ...
Conference Paper
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Purpose: β-alanine is a common ingredient in supplements consumed by athletes. Indeed, athletes may believe that the β-alanine induced paresthesia, experienced shortly after ingestion, is associated with its ergogenic effect despite no scientific mechanism supporting this notion. The present study examined changes in cycling performance under conditions of β-alanine induced paresthesia. Methods: Eight competitive cyclists (VO2max= 61.8±4.2 mL•kg•min-1) performed three practice, one baseline, & four experimental trials. The experimental trials comprised a 1-km cycling TT under four conditions with varying information (i.e., athlete informed β-alanine or placebo) & supplement content (athlete received β-alanine or placebo) delivered to the cyclist: informed β-alanine/received β-alanine, informed placebo/received β-alanine, informed β-alanine/received placebo, informed placebo/received placebo. Questionnaires were undertaken exploring the cyclists` experience of the effects of the experimental conditions. Results: A possibly likely increase in mean power was associated with conditions in which β-alanine was administered (±95%CL; 2.2±4.0%), but these results were inconclusive for performance enhancement (p = 0.32, ES = 0.18, smallest worthwhile change = 56% beneficial). A possibly harmful effect was observed when cyclists were correctly informed that they had ingested a placebo (-1.0±1.9%). Questionnaire data suggested that β-alanine ingestion resulted in evident sensory side-effects & six cyclists reported placebo effects. Conclusion: Acute ingestion of β-alanine is not associated with improved 1-km TT performance in competitive cyclists. These findings are in contrast to the athlete’s “belief” as cyclists reported improved energy & the ability to sustain a higher power output under conditions of β-alanine induced paresthesia.
... Therefore, no conclusive evidence of any performance enhancement was apparent. This finding is in contrast to previous research that has reported improved performance in participants who had ingested a placebo under the impression it was performance enhancing (Ariel & Saville, 1972;Beedie, Coleman, & Foad, 2007;Beedie et al., 2006). In the current study, large inter-individual performance responses may have accounted for the 2.4% (inform β-alanine trial) and 1.8% (inform placebo trial) increase in mean power output following β-alanine ingestion. ...
Article
Full-text available
β-alanine is a common ingredient in supplements consumed by athletes. Indeed, athletes may believe that the β-alanine induced paresthesia, experienced shortly after ingestion, is associated with its ergogenic effect despite no scientific mechanism supporting this notion. The present study examined changes in cycling performance under conditions of β-alanine induced paresthesia. Eight competitive cyclists (VO2max = 61.8 ± 4.2 mL·kg·min−1) performed three practices, one baseline and four experimental trials. The experimental trials comprised a 1-km cycling time trial under four conditions with varying information (i.e., athlete informed β-alanine or placebo) and supplement content (athlete received β-alanine or placebo) delivered to the cyclist: informed β-alanine/received β-alanine, informed placebo/received β-alanine, informed β-alanine/received placebo and informed placebo/received placebo. Questionnaires were undertaken exploring the cyclists’ experience of the effects of the experimental conditions. A possibly likely increase in mean power was associated with conditions in which β-alanine was administered (±95% CL: 2.2% ± 4.0%), but these results were inconclusive for performance enhancement (p = 0.32, effect size = 0.18, smallest worthwhile change = 56% beneficial). A possibly harmful effect was observed when cyclists were correctly informed that they had ingested a placebo (–1.0% ± 1.9%). Questionnaire data suggested that β-alanine ingestion resulted in evident sensory side effects and six cyclists reported placebo effects. Acute ingestion of β-alanine is not associated with improved 1-km TT performance in competitive cyclists. These findings are in contrast to the athlete’s “belief” as cyclists reported improved energy and the ability to sustain a higher power output under conditions of β-alanine induced paresthesia.
... The authors reported that, although caffeine exerted an ergogenic effect irrespective of belief and an interaction between belief and pharmacology was observed, at a group level the hypothesised placebo effect of caffeine on performance in the informed caffeine/received placebo condition failed to materialise. These findings run counter to those of previous sport research of substantially improved performance in conditions in which participants believed they had ingested an ergogenic substance (Ariel and Saville, 1972; Beedie et al., 2006; Clark et al., 2000; Maganaris et al., 2000; McLung and Collins, 2007). The present study describes four brief analyses that were designed to explore the original findings of Foad et al., in greater depth. ...
Article
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The placebo effect, a positive outcome resulting from the belief that a beneficial treatment has been received, is widely acknowledged but little understood. It has been suggested that placebo responsiveness, the degree to which an individual will respond to a placebo, might vary in the population. The study aimed to identify placebo-responsive participants from a previously published paper that examined the effects of caffeine and placebos on cycling performance. A quantitative model of placebo responsiveness was defined. 14 male participants were subsequently classified as either placebo responsive or non-responsive. Interviews were conducted to corroborate these classifications. Secondary quantitative analyses of performance data were conducted to identify further placebo responses. Finally, the five factor model of personality was used to explore relationships between personality and placebo responsiveness. Overall, 5 of 14 participants were classified as placebo responsive. Performance data suggested that 2 participants were placebo responsive whilst 12 were not. Interview data corroborated experimental data for these participants and for 9 of the remainder, however it suggested that the remaining 3 had experienced placebo effects. Secondary quantitative analysis revealed that performance for these 3 participants, whilst no better than for non-responsive participants, was associated with substantially increased oxygen uptake in the 2 conditions in which participants believed caffeine had been administered (7.0% ± 15.1; 95% confidence intervals -2.6 to 16.7, and 6.0% ± 15.4; -3.9 to 15.9 respectively). Finally, data suggested that the personality factors of extroversion, agreeableness, openness and neuroticism may relate to placebo responding. Placebo effects such as pain tolerance and fatigue resistance might be experienced by a percentage of participants but might not always be manifest in objective measures of performance.
... For example, weightlifters receiving a placebo have been found to improve on average ϳ10% in different exercise tasks (24). Similarly, in a different study subjects received a placebo that they believed to be a steroid and performed significantly better, with average values around 4% (227). ...
Article
Modern medicine has progressed in parallel with the advancement of biochemistry, anatomy, and physiology. By using the tools of modern medicine, the physician today can treat and prevent a number of diseases through pharmacology, genetics, and physical interventions. Besides this materia medica, the patient's mind, cognitions, and emotions play a central part as well in any therapeutic outcome, as investigated by disciplines such as psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology. This review describes recent findings that give scientific evidence to the old tenet that patients must be both cured and cared for. In fact, we are today in a good position to investigate complex psychological factors, like placebo effects and the doctor-patient relationship, by using a physiological and neuroscientific approach. These intricate psychological factors can be approached through biochemistry, anatomy, and physiology, thus eliminating the old dichotomy between biology and psychology. This is both a biomedical and a philosophical enterprise that is changing the way we approach and interpret medicine and human biology. In the first case, curing the disease only is not sufficient, and care of the patient is of tantamount importance. In the second case, the philosophical debate about the mind-body interaction can find some important answers in the study of placebo effects. Therefore, maybe paradoxically, the placebo effect and the doctor-patient relationship can be approached by using the same biochemical, cellular and physiological tools of the materia medica, which represents an epochal transition from general concepts such as suggestibility and power of mind to a true physiology of the doctor-patient interaction.
... Demonstrando com isso, a possibilidade ergolítica da substância consumida. Além disso, as pesquisas recentes revelam contradição nos dados obtidos devido as suas limitações metodológicas, ou seja, exatidão dos equipamentos ou técnicas aplicadas, assim como devido ao efeito placebo (Ariel & Saville, 1972). É necessário uma atitude cautelosa, que observe a dosagem e o controle do uso do recurso ergogênico visando melhoria da performance. ...
Article
RESUMO A literatura científica se refere aos ergogênicos como sendo as substâncias ou fenômenos que melhoram o desempenho de um atleta. O termo é derivado de duas palavras gregas: "ergon" (trabalho) e "gennan" (produzir). Este experimento avaliou o uso de suplementos alimentares em academias de ginástica de Vitória -ES. O instrumento utilizado para avaliar o objetivo proposto foi um questionário composto por 23 questões, referentes ao perfil de pessoas que freqüentam as academias na cidade de Vitória -ES englobando questões relativas aos objetivos deste estudo. As questões eram de múltipla escolha, podendo o aluno escolher se desejasse mais de uma resposta para a mesma pergunta. Os dados foram tratados em termos de percentuais. Cerca de 76% dos alunos pesquisados cursaram ou estão cursando o 3o. grau, tem em média 27,5 anos, 70% dos alunos usam suplementos, 94% praticam musculação, 67% compram em lojas especializadas, 66% usam aminoácidos, 33% são prescritos pelos professores, 56% tem como objetivo a hipertrofia muscular. Os resultados sugerem que o uso de suplementos alimentares está ligado ao paradigma uso versus melhoria da performance. UNITERMOS: Suplemento alimentar; Academias de ginástica; Ergogênico; Nutrição. INTRODUÇÃO * Centro Universitário de Vila Velha -ES. A nutrição corresponde aos processos gerais de ingestão e conversão de substâncias alimentícias em nutrientes que podem ser utilizadas para manter a função orgânica. Esses processos envolvem nutrientes que podem ser utilizados com finalidade energética (carboidratos, lipídios e proteínas), para a construção e reparo dos tecidos (proteínas, lipídios e minerais), para a construção e manutenção do sistema esquelético (cálcio, fósforo e proteínas) e para regular a fisiologia corpórea (vitaminas, minerais, lipídios e água) (Wolinsky & Hickson Junior, 1996). Quando os nutrientes se apresentam em quantidades ótimas, a saúde e o bem-estar do indivíduo são maximizados. A determinação de quais nutrientes são essenciais e das quantidades ótimas dos nutrientes essenciais têm sido foco de investigações por décadas e as recomendações de nutrientes específicos têm sido aprensentadas nas Recomendações de Ingestão pela Dieta -RIDs (National Research Council, 1989). Entretanto, essas RDIs aplicam-se à população não atlética normal e podem não satisfazer as necessidades de atletas. Atualmente, não existem dados disponíveis para que se apresentem um conjunto de RIDs para atletas (Wolinsky & Hickson Junior, 1996). A nutrição é um dos fatores que pode otimizar o desempenho atlético. A nutrição bem equilibrada pode reduzir a fadiga, lesões, ou repará-las rapidamente, otimizar os depósitos de energia e para saúde geral do indivíduo (Brouns, Saris & Hoor, 1986; Hasson & Barnes, 1989; Sherman & Costill, 1984).
... 14 This has first been shown in the early 1970's in weight lifters, whose performance increased significantly when they were falsely told that they took anabolic steroids. 15 Results of such expectations and believes are commonly known as placebo effects and are defined as the improvement of symptoms due to the administration of an inert treatment. ...
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Placebo effects are common in all areas of medicine and beyond and thus, are also present when ergogenic aids are used to enhance performance in athletes. While they usually are regarded as secondary and a nuisance in relation to performance-improving nutritional supplements, we here propose to utilize them to investigate central control mechanisms of athletic performance. Following a brief review of the current literature on placebo effects in sports, we outline a research protocol designed to understand the neurobiological basis of endurance performance, limiting factors and the integration of central and peripheral fatigue mechanisms. A placebo response to ergogenic aids will be elicited to isolate and study both central and peripheral components of performance regulation. This protocol employs endurance performance measurements, electroencephalography, functional near-infrared spectroscopy and ratings of perceived exertion in order to quantify the performance altering placebo response elicited by a nutritional ergogenic aid. A model is proposed integrating the placebo response with current theories of performance determining and limiting factors such as the central governor model and the central fatigue hypothesis. The first experiment is concerned with the influence of the mode of administration of an ergogenic aid on endurance performance. In the second experiment, the cortical processes underlying increased motor performance will be investigated using electroencephalography. The third experiment will employ functional near-infrared spectroscopy to look at the integration of cortico-muscular feed forward and feedback signaling pathways mediating fatigue. This protocol provides an integrative approach for neuroscience and sports science research, investigating cortical processes involved in the placebo induced exploitation of residual central and peripheral resources causing better athletic performance. It also will affect prevention and treatment of diseases which may be caused by a lack of physical activity or which may cause a decrease in the ability to be physically active.
... There is also evidence suggesting PLA to be potentially confounding when testing for the effect of CHO on effort perception [6]. Thus, it is essential to account for this possibility when evaluating the effect of CHO or any other active substance, as expectations could determine the intrinsic feedback as classically shown [7]. Notably, improved exercise performance was reported when subjects believed they were ingesting CHO but were actually consuming PLA [6]. ...
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This study evaluated double blind ingestions of placebo (PLA) versus 6% carbohydrate (CHO) either as capsules (c) or beverage (b) during 60 km self-paced cycling in the heat (32uC and 50% relative humidity). Ten well-trained males (mean 6 SD: 2663 years; 64.567.7 kg and 70.768.8 ml.kg 21 .min 21 maximal oxygen consumption) completed four separate 60 km time trials (TT) punctuated by 1 km sprints (14, 29, 44, 59 km) whilst ingesting either PLA b or PLA c or CHO b or CHO c . The TT was not different among treatments (PLA b 130.2611.2 min, CHO b 140.5618.1 min, PLA c 143.1629.2 min, CHO c 137.3620.1 min; P.0.05). Effect size (Cohen's d) for time was only moderate when comparing CHO b – PLA b (d = 0.68) and PLA b – PLA c (d = 0.57) whereas all other ES were 'trivial' to 'small'. Mean speed throughout the trial was significantly higher for PLA b only (P,0.05). Power output was only different (P,0.05) between the sprints and low intensity efforts within and across conditions. Core and mean skin temperatures were similar among trials. We conclude that CHO ingestion is of little or no benefit as a beverage compared with placebo during 60 km TT in the heat. Copyright: ß 2014 Nassif et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: Funding from Charles Sturt University & Federal University of Minas Gerais. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
... Whilst this literature is reviewed elsewhere, 43 it suffices to state that placebo effects on sports performance resulting from the belief that an ergogenic substance had been ingested have been reported in 12 well-controlled studies. [5][6][7]39,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50] Most of these effects were in the range of 1%-5%. In three studies, nocebo (or negative placebo) effects were observed as the result of subjects either being given negative information about an intervention, 44 having previous negative experience with caffeine, 5 or for reasons that were not entirely clear. ...
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The ergogenic effects of caffeine on performance are well documented. These effects are more evident in endurance and short-duration, sustained-effort events than in interactive or stop-go sports. Experimentally-induced placebo effects of caffeine on sports performance have also been observed in a number of recent studies. In the present paper it is argued that, given the nature of the sports in which caffeine effects are observed, the well documented hypoalgesic effects of caffeine, and the fact that pain is highly placebo-responsive, a reduction in perceived pain might be the common factor in both the biologic and placebo ergogenic effects of caffeine on sports performance. This idea is supported by evidence from medicine that suggests placebo effects are often associated with mechanisms similar or identical to those of the substance the subject believes they have ingested. Research findings from both biomedicine and sports medicine that attest to the interaction of biologic and psychologic factors in caffeine and pain responses are briefly reviewed. In conclusion, it is recommended that researchers investigate the pain hypothesis. Furthermore, researchers should consider psychosocial factors that might modulate the pain response as variables of interest in future caffeine and performance research.
... There is also evidence suggesting PLA to be potentially confounding when testing for the effect of CHO on effort perception [6]. Thus, it is essential to account for this possibility when evaluating the effect of CHO or any other active substance, as expectations could determine the intrinsic feedback as classically shown [7]. Notably, improved exercise performance was reported when subjects believed they were ingesting CHO but were actually consuming PLA [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated double blind ingestions of placebo (PLA) versus 6% carbohydrate (CHO) either as capsules (c) or beverage (b) during 60 km self-paced cycling in the heat (32°C and 50% relative humidity). Ten well-trained males (mean ± SD: 26±3 years; 64.5±7.7 kg and 70.7±8.8 ml.kg-1.min-1 maximal oxygen consumption) completed four separate 60 km time trials (TT) punctuated by 1 km sprints (14, 29, 44, 59 km) whilst ingesting either PLAb or PLAc or CHOb or CHOc. The TT was not different among treatments (PLAb 130.26 11.2 min, CHOb 140.5±18.1 min, PLAc 143.1±29.2 min, CHOc 137.3±20.1 min; P>0.05). Effect size (Cohen's d) for time was only moderate when comparing CHOb - PLAb (d = 0.68) and PLAb - PLA c (d = 0.57) whereas all other ES were 'trivial' to 'small'. Mean speed throughout the trial was significantly higher for PLAb only (P<0.05). Power output was only different (P<0.05) between the sprints and low intensity efforts within and across conditions. Core and mean skin temperatures were similar among trials. We conclude that CHO ingestion is of little or no benefit as a beverage compared with placebo during 60 km TT in the heat.<br /
... Studies carried out in different parts of the world showed no significant effect of steroids on muscular strength. A study [31] involving groups of men who trained with weight and took steroids and another group that trained with placebo pills (pills that the participants may take for steroids but which actually consisted of sugar) was carried out. The participants on the sugar pill tend to get stronger because they thought they took a strength promoting substance. ...
Article
The use of drugs to enhance sports performance by athletes is currently a world wide social problem. Although, sports administrators are doing a lot to discourage the practice, yet the incidence appears to be on the increase. It is against this background that the study investigated the knowledge and use of performance enhancing drugs among Nigerian elite athletes. Also, it examined the influence of chronological age of a selected sample of elite athletes and type of sports they engage in on the use of performance enhancing drugs. A total of 220 athletes were randomly sampled from eleven popular sports in Nigeria. A set of questionnaire developed and validated by the researcher was used to collect data for the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results showed that all the participants had heard about and seen each of the performance enhancing drugs identified in the study. Also, there was a significance influence of the sex of athletes and types of sports in drug use habits. Athletes in this study had used ephedrine, caffeine, anabolic steroids and dianabol. Participants in this study used performance enhancing drugs to perform beyond their ability, control weight and to excel at competitions. Based on the findings, it was recommended that Nigerian government should embark on a comprehensive and effective implementation of preventive drug educational programmes for athletes and athletes' support personnel.
... However, despite evidence elsewhere that the placebo effect impacts a wide range of physiological, psychological, and behavioral variables (6), the placebo effect per se has received scant attention in sports science research. The few studies that have specifically addressed the placebo effect in sport (2,4,8,13), despite collectively providing little systematic information relating to its magnitude or mechanisms, do suggest that placebo effects might be associated with several nutritional and pharmacological interventions. For example, Clark et al. (4) reported placebo effects associated with carbohydrate supplementation in cycling performance. ...
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BEEDIE, C. J., E. M. STUART, D. A. COLEMAN, and A. J. FOAD. Placebo Effects of Caffeine on Cycling Performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 38, No. 12, pp. 2159–2164, 2006. Purpose: The placebo effectVa change attributable only to an individual`s belief in the efficacy of a treatmentVmight provide a worthwhile improvement in physical performance. Although sports scientists account for placebo effects by blinding subjects to treatments, little research has sought to quantify and explain the effect itself. The present study explored the placebo effect in laboratory cycling performance using quantitative and qualitative methods. Method: Six well-trained male cyclists undertook two baseline and three experimental 10-km time trials. Subjects were informed that in the experimental trials they would each receive a placebo, 4.5 mgIkgj1 caffeine, and 9.0 mgIkgj1 caffeine, randomly assigned. However, placebos were administered in all experimental conditions. Semistructured interviews were also conducted to explore subjects` experience of the effects of the capsules before and after revealing the deception. Results: A likely trivial increase in mean power of 1.0% over baseline was associated with experimental trials (95% confidence limits, j1.4 to 3.6%), rising to a likely beneficial 2.2% increase in power associated with experimental trials in which subjects believed they had ingested caffeine (j0.8 to 5.4%). A dose– response relationship was evident in experimental trials, with subjects producing 1.4% less power than at baseline when they believed they had ingested a placebo (j4.6 to 1.9%), 1.3% more power than at baseline when they believed they had ingested 4.5 mgIkgj1 caffeine (j1.4 to 4.1%), and 3.1% more power than at baseline when they believed they had ingested 9.0 mgIkgj1 caffeine (j0.4 to 6.7%). All subjects reported caffeine-related symptoms. Conclusions: Quantitative and qualitative data suggest that placebo effects are associated with the administration of caffeine and that these effects may directly or indirectly enhance performance in well-trained cyclists. Key Words: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS, DECEPTIVE ADMINISTRATION, ERGOGENIC AIDS, BELIEF EFFECTS
... The role of expectation as a psychological mechanism that can influence sport performance has been extensively demonstrated with placebo manipulations. In 1972, Ariel and Saville first described the positive effects of placebos in sports by showing that after the administration of an inert substance, masked by anabolic steroids, weightlifters improved their performance by 9.5% compared to the pre-placebo phase (Ariel & Saville, 1972). Similar findings were replicated almost 30 years later by Maganaris and colleagues (Maganaris, Collins, & Sharp, 2000), who observed improvement in the performance of weightlifters who were told they had ingested an anabolic steroid (actually a placebo). ...
Chapter
There is strong behavioral evidence that placebo and nocebo effects can influence aspects of motor performance like speed, force, and resistance to fatigue in athletes and non-athletes alike. These behavioral studies were essential for extending experimental investigation of the placebo and nocebo effects from the pain to the motor domain and to reveal how verbal suggestions and experiential learning are involved in shaping modulatory systems and related behavioral responses. However, the neural underpinnings of these effects in the motor domain are still largely unknown. Studies in healthy subjects demonstrated that the placebo-induced enhancement of force is associated with increased activity in the corticospinal system and that the placebo-induced reduction of fatigue can be disclosed by recording the readiness potential, an electrophysiological sign of movement preparation. Further evidence derives from studies in patients with Parkinson's disease that have directly demonstrated that placebo-induced improvements in motor symptoms are related to changes in subcortical neural firing activity and dopamine release. Future investigations are needed to better clarify the complex neural architecture underpinning the placebo and nocebo effects in the motor domain.
... Most published studies in sport focused on the effects of placebo nutritional supplements, including caffeine, creatine-monohydrate, carbohydrate and even anabolic steroids. Whilst some studies reported the effects of the placebo against no treatment (Ariel & Saville, 1972;Beedie, Coleman, & Foad, 2007), others directly compared the effects of the placebo with the substance which the placebo was described to be (Clark, Hopkins, Hawley, & Burke, 2000;McClung & Collins, 2007). The majority of these studies reported positive effects of placebos on objective measures of performance outcome and subjective markers of physiological stress such as rating of perceived exertion (Duncan, 2010). ...
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In June 2017 a group of experts in anthropology, biology, kinesiology, neuroscience, physiology, and psychology convened in Canterbury, UK, to address questions relating to the placebo effect in sport and exercise. The event was supported exclusively by Quality Related (QR) funding from the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). The funder did not influence the content or conclusions of the group. No competing interests were declared by any delegate. During the meeting and in follow-up correspondence, all delegates agreed the need to communicate the outcomes of the meeting via a brief consensus statement. The two specific aims of this statement are to encourage researchers in sport and exercise science to 1. Where possible, adopt research methods that more effectively elucidate the role of the brain in mediating the effects of treatments and interventions. 2. Where possible, adopt methods that factor for and/or quantify placebo effects that could explain a percentage of inter-individual variability in response to treatments and intervention.
... We therefore used EEG in this study of the EPR, as it allows the recording of brain activity during high intensity cycling, where the body is stationary while under high physiological stress. EEG activity in the alpha frequency band (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13) is inversely related to activation of the underlying cortex 24,25 and builds the basis of the valence motivation model 26 . This model associates dominant left relative to right frontal activation, also known as frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA), with an approach motivational system and positive affect 27 . ...
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The performance enhancing (ergogenic) placebo effect is elicited by an inert treatment and caused by positive affective appraisal of effort perception. Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) is a neurobiological correlate of positive affect. This study investigates, whether receiving an ergogenic placebo increases FAA and whether scores on the behavioral inhibition and activation system (BIS/BAS) scales affect this increase in FAA. Nineteen competitive male cyclists (37.26 ± 9.82 years) performed two maximum effort time trials. The first served as baseline for the second intervention time trial, where athletes received a placebo ergogenic aid or no treatment. We recorded FAA using EEG throughout all time trials and assessed BIS/BAS by questionnaire. There was a significant difference in change from baseline to intervention time trial in FAA during cycling in response to the placebo ergogenic aid compared to the control group. BIS, the BAS subscale Drive and the BAS-BIS difference score significantly co-varied with the change in FAA from baseline to intervention time trial in response to the placebo ergogenic aid. Administering a placebo ergogenic aid significantly influenced FAA during maximum effort cycling. Those athletes with a more pronounced goal seeking persistence and an overall dominance of the BAS over the BIS showed a significantly greater increase in FAA in response to a placebo ergogenic aid. A more pronounced BIS, however, seems to antagonize the increase in FAA associated with the ergogenic placebo response.
... While placebo and nocebo studies of symptoms other than pain are not as plentiful, some lines of research have a long history-for example, the placebo effect was studied in weightlifters and asthmatics in the early 1970s (13,14). However, as in pain, these studies tend to focus only on a single symptom; there is very little comparative work that examines the similarities and differences between placebo and nocebo effects on pain and these other symptoms. ...
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Placebo and nocebo effects are, respectively, the helpful and harmful treatment effects that do not arise from active treatment components. These effects have thus far been researched most often in pain. It is not yet clear to what extent these findings from pain can be generalized to other somatic symptoms. This review investigates placebo and nocebo effects in four other highly prevalent symptoms: dyspnea, fatigue, nausea, and itch. The role of learning mechanisms (verbal suggestions, conditioning) in placebo and nocebo effects on various outcomes (self-reported, behavioral, and physiological) of these different somatic symptoms is explored. A search of experimental studies indicated that, as in pain, the combination of verbal suggestion and conditioning is generally more effective than suggestion alone for evoking placebo and nocebo effects. However, conditioning appears more and verbal suggestions less relevant in symptoms other than pain, with the exception of placebo effects on fatigue and nocebo effects on itch. Physiological measures, such as heart rate, lung function, or gastric activity, are rarely affected even when self-reported symptoms are. Neurobiological correlates are rarely investigated, and few commonalities appear across symptoms. Expectations generally predict placebo and nocebo effects for dyspnea and itch but seem less involved in fatigue and nausea. Individual characteristics do not consistently predict placebo or nocebo effects across symptoms or studies. In sum, many conclusions deriving from placebo and nocebo pain studies do appear to apply to other somatic symptoms, but a number of important differences exist. Understanding what type of learning mechanisms for which symptom are most likely to trigger placebo and nocebo effects is crucial for generalizing knowledge for research and therapies across symptoms and can help clinicians to optimize placebo effects in practice.
Summary The effects were investigated of high intensity short duration exercise and anabolic steroid treatment on the medial gastrocnemius muscle of female rats. Twelve rats were divided equally into four groups, exercise with and without steroid administration and sedentary with and without steroid administration. Animals were made to swim for 5 weeks, 6 days·week–1. Muscle fibres were classified as slow-twitch (ST), fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG) and fast-twitch glycolytic (FG). Muscle fibre size was measured as the equivalent circle diameter. Exercise (PPPPPP
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Included with this issue of IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine are two DVDs produced by the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society (VTS) Education Committee, chaired by Joseph F. Ziomek. The blue disc contains the courses “Grounding of Hybrid Vehicles” (8 hours) by Prof. James Gover, Kettering University, and “Thermal Stress Failures in Electronic and Photonic Systems” (8 hours) by Prof. Ephraim Suhir, UC Santa Cruz. The yellow disc contains the courses “In Vehicle Networking” (6 hours) by Bruce Emaus, retired president, Vector CANtech, and “Accelerated Life Testing” (8 hours) by Prof. Ephraim Suhir, UC Santa Cruz. The DVDs are encoded using MPEG-4 with MP-3 audio and will play on current personal computers and DVD players. The lecture subjects were divided into approximately one-hour segments and were chosen to be of current interest to IEEE Vehicular Technology Society (VTS) members with the advent of hybrid and plug-in vehicles. The technical depth is at undergraduate level, and the approach is current industry's best practice. The Education Committee welcomes any comments on the courses or suggestions for other topics of interest.
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The empirical foundation of the 'placebo effect' is presented briefly, which is followed by the meta-analysis of the relatively few published reports that have investigated placebo effects in sports performance. Based on the analysis of the fourteen studies included in the meta-analysis, an overall medium effect size (0.4, 95% CI ranged from 0.24 to 0.56) was found. Homogeneity of effect sizes (χ 2 (13, N = 196) = 9.35, p = 0.75) and the feasibility of possible explanation models were also tested. In various sports (e.g. cycling, running, weightlifting) the investigation of the placebo effect on various physiological or performance measures (e.g. muscle power, heart rate, running speed) and psychological attributes (e.g. perceived exertion, post-experiment interviews) yielded significant results. Indeed, the common finding of the reviewed studies was that from the point of view of the athletes there is substantial performance enhancement as a result of different forms of placebos. However, the interpretation of some of the results may be limited by methodological shortcomings. Based on the reviewed articles and further questions emerging from them, methodological recommendations as well as possible research ideas are suggested for further inquiries in the area. Placebo-Effekt im Bereich Sport: Metaanalyse: Die Grundlagen der Erforschung des Place-bo-Effekts werden kurz geschildert, sodann werden die Ergebnisse unserer Metaanalyse vorge-stellt, die auf Grundlage einiger Studien zur Untersuchung des messbaren Placebo-Effekts bei Sportleistungen durchgeführt wurde. Auf Grundlage der in die Metaanalyse integrierten 14 Stu-dien wurde eine mittlere Wirkungsgröße festgestellt (0,4, mit 95% CI 0,24–0,56). Es wurden die Homogenität der Wirkungsgrößen (χ 2 (13, N = 196) = 9,35, p = 0,75), sowie die Möglichkeit der *
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This study used false information about a placebo (milk-sugar tablet) to induce expectancies regarding force production. Forty-two college students were assigned to a placebo/placebo (PP), placebo/no-placebo (PN), or control group, and underwent baseline testing and two trials assessing one-repetition maximum (1 RM) strength on a bench press and seated leg press. The PP and PN groups improved significantly compared to the control at Trial 1 for the bench press (p ≤ .01) and leg press (p ≤ .01). Disclosure of the true nature of the placebo resulted in force production declines in the PN group to levels approximating controls on the bench press (p > .05) and seated leg press (p > .05). The results suggest that placebo-associated expectancy effects played a significant part in the observed changes. Implications include information for coaches, teachers, and fitness enthusiasts about the importance of psychological factors in successful performance.
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Concern has been raised that persons using anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) to enhance physique and performance may experience negative psychological effects. This review generates and evaluates theory-based hypotheses regarding AAS-mood and behavior associations at consumption and withdrawal. Emphasis is placed on moods and behaviors typically believed to change during these times (e.g., mood lability, irritability, euphoria, libido, aggression, self-esteem). Although some data suggest that affect and behavior differ while using and withdrawing from AASs, the nature of the relationships is unclear. Nondrug factors that may play a role in the moods and behaviors linked to AASs are identified and suggestions for future research are offered.
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Although the great increase in interest in the placebo phenomenon was spurred by the clinical implications of its use, the progressive elucidation of the neurobiological and pharmacological mechanisms underlying the placebo effect also helps cast new light on the relationship between mind (and brain) and body, a topic of foremost philosophical importance but also a major medical issue in light of the complex interactions between the brain on the one hand and body functions on the other. While the concept of placebo can be a general one, with a broad definition generally applicable to many different contexts, the description of the cerebral processes called into action in specific situations can vary widely. In this paper, examples will be given where physiological or pathological conditions are altered following the administration of an inert substance or verbal instructions tailored to induce expectation of a change, and explanations will be offered with details on neurotransmitter changes and neural pathways activated. As an instance of how placebo effects can extend beyond the clinical setting, data in the physical performance domain and implications for sport competitions will also be presented and discussed.
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In a double-blind experiment, human males (n = 27) were given either testosterone (40 mg/day), placebo, or no treatment, over a one week period. Subjective and observer assessed mood estimations were conducted before and after treatment. Testosterone levels in saliva were measured with radioimmunoassay. The results revealed a significant placebo effect [c. f. Medicine and Science in Sports 4: 124–126]: After treatment, the placebo group scored higher than both the testosterone and the control group on self-estimated anger, irritation, impulsivity, and frustration. Observer-estimated mood yielded similar results. The lack of a placebo effect in the testosterone group is intriguing, and may be due to secondary effects caused by suppression of the body's own testosterone production, since recorded non-protein bound testosterone did not significantly rise due to treatment. The resultss suggest that androgen usage causes expectations, rather than an actual increase of aggressiveness. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Nuzzo, JL. History of strength training research in man: an inventory and quantitative overview of studies published in English between 1894 and 1979. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Limited scholarship exists on the history of strength training research. The current review advances existing qualitative and biographical work by inventorying all experimental studies and case reports published before 1980 on the effects of ≥1 week of strength training on human health and function. Data on authors, journals, citations, study samples, training interventions, study outcomes, and study themes were extracted and summarized. Three hundred thirty-nine strength training studies were published between 1894 and 1979. Studies included 14,575 subjects, with 10,350 undergoing strength training. Subjects were usually healthy (81.1% of articles), university students (51.0%), or aged 18-65 years (86.7%). Men comprised 70.0% of subjects. Interventions typically involved isoinertial only (64.6%) or isometric only (35.4%) training. Upper-body interventions were more common (35.4%) than lower-body interventions (27.4%). Duration and frequency of training were typically 4-8 weeks (55.3%) and 3 days per week (39.2%), respectively. Isometric maximal voluntary contractions (54.0%) and one repetition maximum (20.4%) were the most common muscle strength tests. Other common outcomes included limb girths (20.9%) and muscle endurance (19.5%). Common research themes were physiology (54.3%), physical fitness (28.9%), and injury/rehabilitation (20.4%). The 339 studies have been cited 21,996 times. Moritani and deVries' 1979 article on time course of neuromuscular adaptations is the most highly cited (1,815 citations). DeLorme (5 articles and 772 citations), Hellebrandt (4 articles and 402 citations), Rasch (9 articles and 318 citations), and Berger (12 articles and 1,293 citations) made the largest contributions. Research Quarterly published the most articles (27.4%). The history of strength training research is discussed in the context of the results.
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The inhibition efficiency of the formulation consisting of Triisopropanol amine (TIPA) and Zn 2+ in controlling the corrosion of mild steel in aqueous solution containing 60 ppm Cl -has been evaluated by the weight loss method. The formulation consisting of 100 ppm TIPA, and 50 pm Zn 2+ has 62.5% inhibition efficiency TIPA alone has 46% efficiency. The nature of the protective film has been analyzed by polarization study, AC impedance spectra. A suitable mechanism of corrosion inhibition is proposed based on the results obtained from the weight loss method, polarized study, AC impedance spectra and FTIR spectra.
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Let us leave the conceptual problems aside for a while and keep the phrase placebo effect. Even then there is a multitude of issues to be examined: Do placebo effects exist after all? If they do exist, what is their nature in relation to the human mind and body? How and why have they evolved? Are there placebo effects outside medicine? Is there a certain kind of personality that is prone to placebo effects? Can placebo effects be seen in children and non-human animals? I will begin with the question concerning the existence of placebo effects.
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A brief theoretical discussion of the placebo effect and of some methodological issues of the measurement of it are followed by a narrative review based on the results of our earlier metaanlysis of fourteen published research on the investigation of placebo effect in sports and exercise. Various factors (e.g. personality factors, perceptual characteristics of the applied substance or treatment) of placebo-effect effecting performance in sports and relevant research are also addressed. Absztrakt A placebo-hatás rövid elméleti áttekintését, valamint a placebo-hatás mérésének néhány módszertani problematikájának bemutatását korábbi metaanalízisünkön alapuló, különböző sportokban végzett placebo-hatás vizsgálatok narratív összefoglalója követi. A sportban megfigyelhető placebo-hatás különböző, a teljesítményt is befolyásoló összetevőit (pl. személyiség, az alkalmazott szer perceptuális tulajdonságai) vizsgáló kutatásokat is ismertetünk.
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The first experimental proof that the testes produce a substance responsible for virility was provided by Berthold (1849). He transplanted testes from roosters into the abdomen of capons and recognized that the animals with the transplanted testes behaved like normal roosters: “They crowed quite considerably, often fought among themselves and with other young roosters and showed a normal inclination to hens”. Berthold concluded that the virilizing effects were exerted by testicular secretions reaching the target organs via the bloodstream. Berthold’s investigation is generally considered the origin of experimental endocrinology (Simmer and Simmer 1961). Following his observation various attempts were made to use testicular preparations for therapeutic purposes. The best known experiments are those by Brown-Séquard (1889), who tried testis extracts on himself (which can at best have had placebo effects). The first testicular extracts with demonstrable biological activity were prepared by Loewe and Voss (1930) using the seminal vesicle as a test organ. Finally, the groundstone for modern androgen therapy was laid when steroidal androgens were first isolated from urine by Butenandt (1931), testosterone was obtained in crystalline form from bull testes by David et al. (1935) and testosterone was chemically synthesized by Butenandt and Hanisch (1935) and Ruzicka and Wettstein (1935).
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Neue komplexe motorische Fertigkeiten zu erlernen ist wohl das höchste Erreichbare der bewussten motorischen Steuerung. Diese motorische Lernfähigkeit fußt auf der adaptiven Fähigkeit neuronaler Netze, sich zu reorganisieren.
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The effect of self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids on psychomotor and motor speed were studied among five top-level power athletes. The experiment included a 26-week intensive strength training period in association with the use of exogenous hormones and a 6-week follow-up after drug withdrawal. Six athletes not using exogenous hormones served as a control group. The results indicated a similar, and in most cases insignificant, improvement (0–10%) in performance in both groups in both the simple and more complicated motor and psychomotor tests. Only in maximal vertical speed related to body weight was there more improvement in the experimental group, from 122.2 to 143.9 kg · m · s–1 than in the control group where the corresponding figures were from 125.5 to 137.1 kg · m · s–1.
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