Article

Effects of Under- and Overweighted Implement Training on Pitching Velocity

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Abstract

This study examined the effects of training with various combinations of standard, light, and heavy baseballs on pitching velocity. High school (n = 45) and university pitchers (n = 180) were pretested for pitching velocity and randomly assigned to two experimental groups and one control group. Group 1 pitched with a heavy, light, and standard baseball 3 days a wk for 10 wks. Group 2 pitched with a heavy and standard baseball for the first 5 wks and then a light and standard baseball for the final 5 wks. Group 3 served as a control and pitched with a standard 5-oz baseball for 10 wks. Pitching velocities were determined by electromagnetic radiation radar. The velocity of 15 consecutive pitches was calculated to represent mean pitching velocity for each subject. Groups 1 and 2 improved significantly in throwing velocity, but no improvement was observed for the control group. The results suggest that training with weighted implements using either protocol can improve pitching velocity. (C) 1994 National Strength and Conditioning Association

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... However, there are different views on the type of overload needed to become faster. First, there is training based on the principle of an overload of force, e.g., throwing with overweight balls (2,5,6,8,9). Second, there is training based on the principle of an overload of velocity, e.g., throwing with underweight balls (5,6,8,9). ...
... First, there is training based on the principle of an overload of force, e.g., throwing with overweight balls (2,5,6,8,9). Second, there is training based on the principle of an overload of velocity, e.g., throwing with underweight balls (5,6,8,9). These 2 principles are derived from the force-velocity curve of movement, which in turn is based on the forcevelocity curve of muscle contraction described by Hill (12) (Figure 1). ...
... Three studies reported the effects of training with underweight and overweight balls on throwing performance (5, 10). DeRenne et al. (5) performed a study in baseball with 2 different training groups that trained with underweight and overweight balls in different protocols. Gløsen (10) conducted a similar type of study in team handball. ...
Article
Throwing velocity in overarm throwing is of major importance in sports like baseball, team handball, javelin, and water polo. The purpose of this literature review was to give an overview of the effect of different training programs on the throwing velocity in overarm throwing, provide a theoretical framework that explains findings, and give some practical applications based on these findings. The training studies were divided into 4 categories: (a) specific resistance training with an overload of velocity, (b) specific resistance training with an overload of force, (c) specific resistance training with a combination of overload of force and velocity, and (d) general resistance training according to the overload of force. Each category is presented and discussed.
... The athletes in research studies of baseball (5,(7)(8)(9)34,35,45) and team handball (3,13,17,54), like the former Soviet Union track athletes, have a history of specific weighted implement training for the overhand throwing power athlete. Sports scientists have demonstrated that throwing velocity of a standard 5 oz baseball during the off-season could be significantly increased by throwing 20-140% (6-12 oz) heavier baseballs (5,7,9,34), by throwing 20% (4.0-4.75 oz) lighter baseballs (7,9), or by using a wall pulley system with 2.5-10 lb of resistance that mimicked the actions of throwing a baseball (5,35). ...
... Therefore, they concluded that overloaded training did not significantly change throwing velocity. In 1994, DeRenne et al. (8) found that pitching velocity could be increased by 4.4-6.0% when using a combination of 2:1 frequency ratio of weighted baseballs that were slightly lighter and heavier (620%; 4 and 6 oz) to the standard 5 oz baseball during the off-season regardless of which training procedure (all 3 weighted balls or the "blocked" protocol) was implemented ( (17), the authors suggested that training with the same workload is very important when designing an overhand throwing training program. ...
... Because the peak force output of fast twitch muscle fibers can be 4 times greater than that of slow twitch fibers (18), it has been suggested that highly specific explosive movements could recruit and fire these high-threshold fast twitch muscle fibers (43). The results of baseball (5,(7)(8)(9)34,35), cricket (39), and team handball (3,13,17) throwing studies may indicate that greater exertion of muscle force at high speeds was the result of a modification of the recruitment pattern of motor units (12). Thus, selective activation of either of the fast or slow twitch motor units could be specifically trained by the strength and conditioning coach. ...
Article
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THROWING VELOCITY IS AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT TO THE OVERHAND THROWING POWER ATHLETE'S SUCCESS. THIS ARTICLE BRIEFLY REVIEWS THE RESULTS AND SHORTCOMINGS OF PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED RESEARCH THAT USED GENERAL, SPECIAL, SPECIFIC, AND COMBINED TRAINING METHODS IN AN ATTEMPT TO INCREASE THROWING VELOCITY OF OVERHAND THROWING POWER ATHLETES OR ACTIVITIES THAT REQUIRE OVERHAND THROWING ACTIONS. ADDITIONALLY, THIS ARTICLE SUGGESTS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS ON HOW AND WHEN TO APPLY THESE FINDINGS.
... These authors suggested the magnitude of horizontal velocity reduction during this phase to be more important than the duration of the phase. Their pace bowlers were faster throughout the power phase A greater aerobic capacity (predicted V ̇ O2max from 20-m shuttle-run test) was moderately related to a faster power phase duration (rs [27] = -0.42, p = 0.03). This relationship may be explained by the aerobic energy system's ability in prolonging the onset of fatigue. ...
... Furthermore, a moderate correlation between approach speed and knee extension at ball release was observed (rs [27] = -0.42, p = 0.03), implying that an approach speed that is too fast could result in a collapsed front-leg. The bowlers in this study may have ran-up too fast for their own lower body strength and balance capabilities, and lost the biomechanical advantage of an extended front-leg technique at ball release. ...
... There were no physical qualities that related to step length (p > 0.05), suggesting that this variable is probably influenced by other kinematic variables, such as approach speed (6). A longer step length was moderately related to knee extension angle at ball release (rs [27] = 0.42, p = 0.03). Worthington, King (55) observed that more of a heel strike technique at front-foot contact relates to a straighter front-leg at ball release (Figure 4.16). ...
Thesis
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This thesis sought to reveal the physical and kinematic determinants of pace bowling performance. After drawing on these determinants, a secondary aim was to investigate whether pace bowling performance could be enhanced with chronic resistance training and warm-up strategies. However, before the physical and kinematic determinants of pace bowling performance could be identified, and the effects of two training interventions and warm-ups on pace bowling performance, a new pace bowling test was created, and the test-retest reliability of its performance and kinematic measures were evaluated. Knowledge of a variables’ test-retest reliability is important for interpreting the validity of correlations, but also for the determination of a meaningful change following a training intervention. Only one published study to date has explored the test-retest reliability of a pace bowling assessment, and this test only measured bowling accuracy (1). Previous research has not comprehensively examined the relationships between physical qualities and pace bowling performance. Several important physical qualities (e.g., power, speed-acceleration, flexibility, repeat-sprint ability) have been excluded in correlational research, which may be crucial for optimal pace bowling performance. Furthermore, there is only one published training intervention study on pace bowling research (2). Consequently there is scant evidence for coaches to design training programs proven to enhance pace bowling performance. Baseball pitching studies have trialled the effects of heavy-ball throwing in the warm-up on subsequent throwing velocity and accuracy, but this approach has not been studied in cricket pace bowling, especially after several weeks of training. Therefore, four studies were conducted in this PhD project to address these deficiencies in the literature. The purpose of Study 1 (Chapter 3) was to ascertain the test-retest reliability of bowling performance measures (i.e., bowling speed, bowling accuracy, consistency of bowling speed, and consistency of bowling accuracy) and selected bowling kinematics (i.e., approach speed, step length, step-length phase duration, power phase duration, and knee extension angle at front-foot contact and at ball release) in a novel eight-over test, and for the first four overs of this test. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and coefficient of variation (CV) were used as measures of test-retest reliability (3). Following a three week familiarisation period of bowling, 13 participants completed a novel eight-over bowling test on two separate days with 4–7 days apart. The most reliable performance measures in the bowling test were peak bowling speed (ICC = 0.948–0.975, CV = 1.3–1.9%) and mean bowling speed (ICC = 0.981–0.987, CV = 1.0–1.3%). Perceived effort was partially reliable (ICC = 0.650–0.659, CV = 3.8–3.9%). However, mean bowling accuracy (ICC = 0.491–0.685, CV = 12.5–16.8%) and consistency of bowling accuracy failed to meet the pre-set standard for acceptable reliability (ICC = 0.434–0.454, CV = 15.3–19.3%). All bowling kinematic variables except approach speed exhibited acceptable reliability (i.e., ICC > 0.8, CV < 10%). The first four overs of the bowling test exhibited slightly poorer test-retest reliability for all measures, compared to the entire eight-over test. There were no systematic biases (i.e., p > 0.05) detected with all variables between bowling tests, indicating there was no learning or fatigue effects. The smallest worthwhile change was established for all bowling performance and kinematic variables, by multiplying the SEM by 1.5 (4). It is recommended that the eight-over pace bowling test be used as a more comprehensive measure of consistency of bowling speed and consistency of bowling accuracy, as bowlers are more likely to be fatigued. However, if coaches seek to assess pace bowlers in shorter time, delimiting the test to the first four overs is recommended. Both versions of the pace bowling test are only capable of reliably measuring bowling performance outcomes such as peak and mean bowling speed, and perceived effort. The second study of this PhD project examined the relationships between selected physical qualities, bowling kinematics, and bowling performance measures. Another purpose of this novel study was to determine if delivery instructions (i.e., maximal-effort, match-intensity, slower-ball) influenced the strength of the relationships between physical qualities and bowling performance measures. Given that there were three delivery instructions in the bowling test, an objective of this study was to explore the relationship between bowling speed and bowling accuracy (i.e., speed-accuracy trade-off). Thirty-one participants completed an eight-over bowling test in the first session, and a series of physical tests, spread over two separate sessions. Each session was separated by four to seven days. Mean bowling speed (of all pooled deliveries) was significantly correlated to 1-RM pull-up strength (rs [24] = 0.55, p = 0.01) and 20-m sprint time (rs [30] = -0.37, p = 0.04), but the correlations marginally increased as delivery effort increased (i.e., maximal-effort ball). Greater hamstring flexibility was associated with a better consistency of bowling speed, but only for a match-intensity delivery (rs [29] = -0.49, p = 0.01). Repeat-sprint ability (i.e., percent decrement on 10 × 20-m sprints, on every 20 s) displayed a stronger correlation to consistency of bowling speed (rs [21] = -0.42, p = 0.06) than for mean bowling speed (rs [21] = 0.15, p = 0.53). Bench press strength was moderately related to bowling accuracy for a maximal-effort delivery (rs [26] = -0.42, p = 0.03), with weaker but non-significant (p > 0.05) correlations for match-intensity and slower-ball deliveries. Bowling accuracy was also significantly related to peak concentric countermovement jump power (rs [28] = -0.41, p = 0.03) and mean peak concentric countermovement jump power (rs [27] = -0.45, p = 0.02), with both physical qualities displaying stronger correlations as delivery effort increased. Greater reactive strength was negatively associated with mean bowling accuracy (rs [30] = 0.38, p = 0.04) and consistency of bowling accuracy (rs [30] = 0.43, p = 0.02) for maximal-effort deliveries only. Faster bowling speeds were correlated to a longer step length (rs [31] = 0.51, p < 0.01) and quicker power phase duration (rs [31] = -0.45, p = 0.01). A better consistency of bowling accuracy was associated with a faster approach speed (rs [31] = -0.36, p = 0.05) and greater knee flexion angle at ball release (rs [27] = -0.42, p = 0.03). No speed-accuracy trade-off was observed for the group (rs [31] = -0.28, p = 0.12), indicating that most bowlers could be instructed to train at maximal-effort without compromising bowling accuracy. Pull-up strength training and speed-acceleration training were chosen for the “evidence-based” training program (Study 3). Heavy-ball bowling was also considered as part of the evidence-based training program, as it is a specific form of training used previously, and because there was a shortage of significant relationships (p < 0.05) between physical qualities and bowling performance measures in Study 2. The third investigation of this PhD project compared the effects of an eight-week evidence-based training program or normal training program (not a control group) on pace bowling performance, approach speed, speed-acceleration, and pull-up strength. Participants were matched for bowling speed and then randomly split into two training groups, with six participants in each group. After an initial two-week familiarisation period of bowling training, sprint training, and pull-up training, participants completed two training sessions per week, and were tested before and after the training intervention. Testing comprised the four-over pace bowling test (Study 1), 20-m sprint test (Study 2), and 1-RM pull-up test (Study 2). In training, the volume of bowling and sprinting was constant between both groups; the only differences were that the evidence-based training group bowled with heavy balls (250 g and 300 g) as well as a regular ball (156 g), sprinted with a weighted-vest (15% and 20% body mass) and without a weighted-vest, and performed pull-up training. Participants were instructed to deliver each ball with maximal effort in training, as no speed-accuracy trade-off was observed for the sample in Study 2. The evidence-based training group bowled with poorer accuracy and consistency of accuracy, with only a small improvement in peak and mean bowling speed. Heavy-ball bowling may have had a negative transfer to regular-ball bowling. Although speculative, a longer evidence-based program may have significantly enhanced bowling speed. Coaches could use both training programs to develop performance but should be aware that bowling accuracy may suffer with the evidence-based program. The evidence-based training group displayed slower 20-m sprint times following training (0.08 ± 0.05 s). However, the normal training group was also slower (0.10 ± 0.09 s), indicating the potential for speed-acceleration improvement is compromised if speed training is performed immediately after bowling training; most likely due to residual fatigue. Consequently it is recommended that speed-acceleration training be conducted when bowlers are not fatigued, in a separate session, or at the beginning of a session. The evidence-based training group improved their 1-RM pull-up strength by 5.8 ± 6.8 kg (d = 0.68), compared to the normal training group of 0.2 ± 1.7 kg (d = 0.01). The difference between training groups is due to the fact that the normal training group were not prescribed pull-up training. As many participants could not complete the pull-up exercise due to insufficient strength, the dumbbell pullover may be a suitable alternative that is more specific to the motion of the bowling arm (i.e., extended arm). The fourth study of this PhD project explored the acute effects of a heavy-ball bowling warm-up on pace bowling performance, and determined if these acute effects could be enhanced or negated following an evidence-based training program. This study involved the same participants who completed the evidence-based training program in Study 3. These participants were required to perform two different bowling warm-ups (heavy-ball or regular-ball) in pre and post-test period, followed by the four-over pace bowling test (Study 1). In pre-test period, bowling accuracy was 8.8 ± 7.4 cm worse for the heavy-ball warm-up compared to the regular-ball warm-up (d = 1.19). In post-test period however, bowling accuracy was 5.5 ± 6.4 cm better in the heavy-ball warm-up compared to the regular-ball warm-up (d = -0.90). A similar trend was observed for consistency of bowling accuracy. These findings indicate that pace bowlers adapt to heavy-ball bowling, and bowl more accurately with a regular ball if they warm-up with a heavy ball first (but only after eight weeks of heavy-ball training). Coaches could employ a heavy-ball warm-up prior to training or a match, but only after eight weeks of evidence-based training. It is hypothesised that a less biomechanically similar exercise to the pace bowling motion such as resisted push-ups / bench press throws could be more effective in eliciting potentiation by activating higher order motor units without negatively transferring to bowling performance. From the studies presented in this thesis, it is concluded that peak and mean bowling speed are the most reliable bowling performance measures, and all kinematic variables apart from approach speed possess excellent reliability. Furthermore, 1-RM pull-up strength and 20-m speed are significantly correlated to bowling speed. An evidence-based training program can develop peak and mean bowling speed, but the cost to bowling accuracy and consistency of bowling accuracy does not make this training program worthwhile in enhancing pace bowling performance. A heavy-ball warm-up impairs bowling accuracy and consistency of bowling accuracy compared to the regular-ball warm-up, but only prior to training with the heavier balls. Pace bowlers adapt to heavy-ball bowling after eight weeks of training, but must use the heavy balls in the warm-up to bowl more accurately with a regular ball, otherwise pace bowling performance is below optimal.
... A faster release speed reduces the batsman's decision-making time and stroke-execution time and so limits the runs scored or increases the chance of dismissing the batsman. Training with underweight and overweight implements (also known as modified-implement training) is a recognized method of increasing release speed in throwing sports [1][2][3][4][5]. Modified-implement training is sometimes used by cricket fast bowlers; however, Petersen and colleagues [5] found that a 10-week program of training with modified balls was not effective in increasing bowling speed in male club-level cricketers. ...
... The two training groups ('Intervention' and 'Control') followed a prescribed training program of three sessions a week for eight consecutive weeks. The training programs were similar to those used in previous studies of baseball pitching and cricket fast bowling [3,5], and the bowling frequency and workload were within the guidelines of the England and Wales Cricket Board [18]. Both groups had a progressive increase in load every two weeks with an increase in the number of deliveries, and the Intervention group used a wide and contrasting range of ball weights in every session. ...
... This proposal is supported by results from studies of other throwing sports. Training with underweight and overweight implements is a recognized method of increasing throwing speed in baseball, handball, water polo, javelin throw, discus throw, and shot put [1][2][3][4]. Coaches in these sports recommend training with implements that differ by 5%-20% from the standard implement weight. This range of implement weight produces substantial changes in release speed and, presumably, provides a sufficient training stimulus to the athlete. ...
Article
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The aims of this study were: (1) to quantify the acute effects of ball weight on ball release speed, accuracy, and mechanics in cricket fast bowling; and (2) to test whether a period of sustained training with underweight and overweight balls is effective in increasing a player’s ball release speed. Ten well-trained adult male cricket players performed maximum-effort deliveries using balls ranging in weight from 46% to 137% of the standard ball weight (156 g). A radar gun, bowling target, and 2D video analysis were used to obtain measures of ball speed, accuracy, and mechanics. The participants were assigned to either an intervention group, who trained with underweight and overweight balls, or to a control group, who trained with standard-weight balls. We found that ball speed decreased at a rate of about 1.1 m/s per 100 g increase in ball weight. Accuracy and bowling mechanics were not adversely affected by changes in ball weight. There was evidence that training with underweight and overweight balls might have produced a practically meaningful increase in bowling speed (>1.5 m/s) in some players without compromising accuracy or increasing their risk of injury through inducing poor bowling mechanics. In cricket fast bowling, a wide range of ball weight might be necessary to produce an effective modified-implement training program.
... Exercises for throwing/pitching and hitting must be compatible with the alternating acceleration and deceleration movements. For example, throwing and hitting weight room exercises that duplicate the acceleration and deceleration arm and bat movements at a rate close to game speeds will bring about changes that will enable the thrower/ pitcher and hitter to enhance their respective competitive performances (12,13,41). Periodization is a comprehensive training plan that is divided into various phases and cycles (4,5). ...
... During the baseball precompetitive phase, strength and conditioning coaches should emphasize the development of sport-specific, explosive rotational and linear power, which includes exercises that mimic the throwing and hitting motions of baseball players. A unique training protocol to enhance throwing and hitting performances that is researched based, sport specific, and conducted during the precompetitive training phase with possible injury prevention is called weighted implement training (7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)17). ...
... Research findings of light-and heavy-weighted baseball studies have reported significant increases in throwing velocities (1,3,16,20,21,41,42). Interestingly, these findings were recorded at distances less than the standard high school and collegiate pitching distances of 60# 6$. Since the 1980s, the youth, high school, and collegiate throwing and pitching weighted implement studies reported significant velocity increases while conducted at competitive distances (8,12,14,24). ...
Article
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BASEBALL RESISTANCE TRAINING HAS BECOME A MAJOR COMPONENT OF MOST HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGIATE PITCHERS' AND HITTERS' CONDITIONING PROGRAMS. DURING THE PRECOMPETITIVE TRAINING PHASE, POWER TRAINING LASTING 1-2 MONTHS SHOULD INCLUDE A UNIQUE EXPLOSIVE TRAINING REGIMEN CALLED WEIGHTED IMPLEMENT TRAINING. WEIGHTED IMPLEMENT TRAINING REGIMENS USE PRECISELY CONSTRUCTED WEIGHTED BATS AND BASEBALLS IN SPORT-SPECIFIC TRAINING PROTOCOLS. THIS ARTICLE WILL REVIEW THE EFFECTS OF BASEBALL WEIGHTED IMPLEMENT TRAINING IN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGIATE PITCHERS AND HITTERS AND PROVIDE STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACHES WITH PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS.
... 4,9,[15][16][17] Recent studies have shown improvement in pitch velocity following such training programs without compromising pitch biomechanics. 6,8,9,15,17 Although weighted-ball programs have shown improved performance potential, their impact on injury risk is still unknown. Prior investigations of training with overweight and underweight balls have reported no additional risk of arm injury. ...
... Prior investigations of training with overweight and underweight balls have reported no additional risk of arm injury. 4,6,[8][9][10][15][16][17] These studies have typically focused on skeletally mature athletes such as high school and college throwers. 1,4,5,7,10,11 The impact of weighted-ball throwing on youth pitchers remains unclear. ...
... The effects of weighted-ball throwing on medial elbow torque have been evaluated in high school-level and college-level pitchers previously. 4,[6][7][8][9][10]16,17,19,27 In a recent motion capture analysis of 25 experienced, skeletally mature throwers, overweight balls correlated with decreased arm force, torque, and velocity. 16 Pitchers were evaluated while throwing from various positions (flat ground or mound), with various ball weights (4, 5, 6, 7, 14, and 32 oz), and with various techniques (crop throw, hold, or standard pitch), and 38 reflective markers were positioned on participants' bodies for video analysis. ...
Article
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Hypothesis: Our hypothesis was that an increase in ball weight would result in an increase in medial elbow torque during the pitching motion. Methods: Youth pitchers were recruited for this study and instructed to throw 5 maximum-effort fastballs from ground level using baseballs of 4 different weights: 85 g (3 oz), 113 g (4 oz), 142 g (5 oz), and 170 g (6 oz). The validated Motus sensor was used to assess medial elbow torque, arm speed, arm slot, and shoulder rotation for each pitch. Pitch velocity was measured using a radar gun. Relationships between baseball weight and pitching kinetics and/or kinematics were evaluated using linear mixed-effects analysis. An exit survey was conducted detailing the pitcher's evaluation of the ball weights used. Results: A total of 19 youth baseball pitchers (average age, 11.8 ± 1.1 years; age range, 9-14 years) completed the study. For every 1-oz (28-g) increase in ball weight, ball velocity decreased 2.0 ± 0.1 mph (χ2 = 52.68, P < .001), medial elbow torque increased 0.92 ± 0.37 newton meters (χ2 = 5.36, P = .02), and arm speed decreased 8.52 ± 3.68 rpm (χ2 = 5.03, P = .02). Shoulder rotation and arm slot were not significantly impacted by ball weight (P > .05). Survey results indicated that the 85-g (3-oz) baseball was most favored (8 of 19 pitchers) and believed to result in the highest pitch velocity (15 of 19 pitchers). The 170-g (6-oz) baseball was least favored (17 of 19 pitchers) and believed to result in the slowest pitch velocity (18 of 19 pitchers). No adverse outcomes were reported with the use of any ball weight or the mobile sensor. Conclusion: Among youth pitchers, an increase in ball weight correlated with greater medial elbow torque, decreased pitch velocity, and decreased arm speed.
... Theories abound as to the optimal exercise strategy to increase baseball pitch velocity. Three strategies entail general [1], special and specific [2,3,4] exercise protocols [5]. Intended to offer adaptations similar to actual baseball pitches, specific resistive exercise protocols were combined with other paradigms [6]. ...
... Other study results, such as special resistive exercise protocols geared towards overhead throws, also show large force gains coupled to small pitch velocity changes [5]. With workouts that emphasize throws with light-and heavy-weighted baseballs, spe-cific resistive exercise protocols may act as an optimal strategy to achieve overvelocity and faster pitch speeds [2][3][4]6]. Ideally specific resistive exercise protocols should evoke a higher degree of overvelocity, with a better transfer of workout adaptations to the pitching mound. ...
... Devices to test rotator cuff strength, a muscle group associated with pitching, include isokinetic dynamometry [7]. Yet specific resistive exercise protocols emphasize workouts with baseballs of various masses; they include light-(113 g) standard-(142 g) and heavy-weighted (170 g) balls to assess which may induce overvelocity and higher pitch speeds [2][3][4]. To date, results from specific resistive exercise studies are mixed [2][3][4]. ...
... In studies of throwing, diff erent ball weights were used to enhance throwing velocity (van den Tillaar, 2004). Most frequently, over-and or underweighted balls were used in practice to enhance throwing velocity with regular weighted balls (DeRenne, Tracy, & Dunn-Rankinn, 1985;DeRenne, Ho, & Blitzbau, 1990;Edwards van Muijen, Jöris, Kemper, & van Ingen Schenau, 1991;DeRenne, Buxton, Hetzel, & Ho, 1994;van den Tillaar & Marques, 2011a). Results indicate that practice with underweighted balls always had a positive eff ect upon the throwing velocity with regular balls (DeRenne, et al.,1985;DeRenne, et al., 1990;Edwards van Muijen, et al., 1991;DeRenne & House, 1993), while practice with overweight balls did not always have the same eff ect upon throws with regular balls (Brose & Hanson, 1967;Straub, 1968;DeRenne, et al., 1985;DeRenne, et al., 1990;Edwards van Muijen, et al., 1991;DeRenne, et al., 1994). ...
... Most frequently, over-and or underweighted balls were used in practice to enhance throwing velocity with regular weighted balls (DeRenne, Tracy, & Dunn-Rankinn, 1985;DeRenne, Ho, & Blitzbau, 1990;Edwards van Muijen, Jöris, Kemper, & van Ingen Schenau, 1991;DeRenne, Buxton, Hetzel, & Ho, 1994;van den Tillaar & Marques, 2011a). Results indicate that practice with underweighted balls always had a positive eff ect upon the throwing velocity with regular balls (DeRenne, et al.,1985;DeRenne, et al., 1990;Edwards van Muijen, et al., 1991;DeRenne & House, 1993), while practice with overweight balls did not always have the same eff ect upon throws with regular balls (Brose & Hanson, 1967;Straub, 1968;DeRenne, et al., 1985;DeRenne, et al., 1990;Edwards van Muijen, et al., 1991;DeRenne, et al., 1994). Reasons off ered for these discrepancies were experience and total workload in practice period between groups. ...
Article
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To investigate the effects of two different strength-training programs with the same workload (impulse) on throwing velocity in water polo, 30 water polo players (M age = 17.1 yr., SD = 4.9; M mass = 71.2 kg, SD = 14.7; M height = 1.75 m, SD = 0.09 m) were randomly divided in two groups based upon throwing performance with water polo ball. The medicine-ball training group performed 3 x 6 reps with a 3-kg medicine ball, while the combination training group completed 1 x 9 repetitions with the 3-kg medicine ball, followed by 3 x 14 repetitions with a water polo ball. Both groups trained eight weeks twice per week in addition to their regular water polo training. Throwing velocity was measured with a Doppler radar gun before and after the training period. Testing included throws with a water polo ball on land and in water, as well as with 1-kg and 3-kg medicine balls on land. Statistically significant increases were found in mean peak throwing velocity with the water polo, 1-kg, and 3-kg medicine balls after training. No differences between the groups were found, except in throwing velocity with water polo on land, with a statistically significantly larger increase for the combination training group (+7.6%) than the medicine-ball training group (+3.4%). These findings indicate that after training with the same workload (impulse), increases in throwing velocity in water polo are similar and suggesting workload may be a critical variable for training results.
... This is referred to as the "too heavy" theory, and may result in decreased bat velocity due to an alteration in swing mechanics (18). The "too heavy" theory is supported by the findings of DeRenne (1,19). Warming up with a weighted implement more than 10% heavier than a standard weight baseball bat decreased bat velocity (1). ...
... Warming up with a weighted implement more than 10% heavier than a standard weight baseball bat decreased bat velocity (1). Similarly, training with a ball more than 20% heavier than a standard weight baseball resulted in decreased throwing velocity (19). ...
Article
7(2):63-69. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hydro-resistance training on bat velocity during mimicked baseball swings in twenty-five female college students. Subjects were pre-tested for bat velocity and assigned to dry land (n = 8), water (n = 8), and control (n = 9) groups. The dry land group swung a 737 g (26 oz) Easton T1 Thunderstick baseball bat for three sets of 15 swings, three days per week, for eight weeks. The water group performed the swings in shoulder deep water. The dry land and water groups also participated in mandatory team general resistance training three days per week. The control group performed no bat swing or resistance-training regimens. Mean bat velocity was measured with an electronic eye-timing device. A 3 x 2 (Group x Time) ANOVA with repeated measures was used for statistical analysis, followed up with Tukey's post hoc test. Bat velocity decreased significantly for the dry land and water groups (24.0 ± 3.6 m/s to 20.6 ± 4.1 m/s and 23.8 ± 3.5 to 18.8 ± 4.1 m/s, respectively). Bat velocity did not change for the control group (21.5 ± 3.0 m/s to 20.2 ± 2.1 m/s). We speculate that the decreased bat velocity in the dry land and water groups was caused by the mandatory team general resistance-training program.
... In studies of throwing, diff erent ball weights were used to enhance throwing velocity (van den Tillaar, 2004). Most frequently, over-and or underweighted balls were used in practice to enhance throwing velocity with regular weighted balls (DeRenne, Tracy, & Dunn-Rankinn, 1985;DeRenne, Ho, & Blitzbau, 1990;Edwards van Muijen, Jöris, Kemper, & van Ingen Schenau, 1991;DeRenne, Buxton, Hetzel, & Ho, 1994;van den Tillaar & Marques, 2011a). Results indicate that practice with underweighted balls always had a positive eff ect upon the throwing velocity with regular balls (DeRenne, et al.,1985;DeRenne, et al., 1990;Edwards van Muijen, et al., 1991;DeRenne & House, 1993), while practice with overweight balls did not always have the same eff ect upon throws with regular balls (Brose & Hanson, 1967;Straub, 1968;DeRenne, et al., 1985;DeRenne, et al., 1990;Edwards van Muijen, et al., 1991;DeRenne, et al., 1994). ...
... Most frequently, over-and or underweighted balls were used in practice to enhance throwing velocity with regular weighted balls (DeRenne, Tracy, & Dunn-Rankinn, 1985;DeRenne, Ho, & Blitzbau, 1990;Edwards van Muijen, Jöris, Kemper, & van Ingen Schenau, 1991;DeRenne, Buxton, Hetzel, & Ho, 1994;van den Tillaar & Marques, 2011a). Results indicate that practice with underweighted balls always had a positive eff ect upon the throwing velocity with regular balls (DeRenne, et al.,1985;DeRenne, et al., 1990;Edwards van Muijen, et al., 1991;DeRenne & House, 1993), while practice with overweight balls did not always have the same eff ect upon throws with regular balls (Brose & Hanson, 1967;Straub, 1968;DeRenne, et al., 1985;DeRenne, et al., 1990;Edwards van Muijen, et al., 1991;DeRenne, et al., 1994). Reasons off ered for these discrepancies were experience and total workload in practice period between groups. ...
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This study compared the effect of practice throwing with specific weights (specificity principle) or with variable weights (variability of practice) for a short practice period in children. Primary school children (N = 41; M age = 7.7 yr., SD = 0.5) were randomly divided into three homogenous groups. The first two groups used specific overhead throwing practice: throws with a soccer ball or 1 kg balls, while the third group used variable practice with 0.35, 0.45, 0.5, and 1 kg balls. All groups trained twice per week for six weeks. The same workload per session between the three groups varied from 24 throws (1 kg practice group) to 43 throws (soccer ball practice group). Throwing speed and distance with different balls was measured before and after the practice period. Statistically significant increases in performance in all three practice groups were found with no significant differences between groups. The results indicate that both specific and variable practice of throwing in children lead to increases in performance. However, it seems that the increased workload (practice) is a more important factor than the type of practice (specific or variable) in enhancing performance in children.
... These skills depend on the coordination of a powerful, rotational movement, as well as the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC). The ability to utilize this power and SSC are related, in part, to the interaction of the 3 body segments (hips, torso, and upper body) as a kinetic link (1,2). In order to transfer the forces generated from the lower body to the upper body while throwing or hitting, baseball players need hip and torso rotational strength (1,2). ...
... The ability to utilize this power and SSC are related, in part, to the interaction of the 3 body segments (hips, torso, and upper body) as a kinetic link (1,2). In order to transfer the forces generated from the lower body to the upper body while throwing or hitting, baseball players need hip and torso rotational strength (1,2). Based on this knowledge, strength programs are designed to maximize an athlete's power on the field. ...
... Using both underweight (,5 oz.) and overweight (.5 oz.) baseballs, this type of training is believed to increase shoulder and elbow velocity (9), as well as arm strength (5), thereby increasing throwing velocity. Although studies have shown this training method to have a beneficial effect on pitching velocity (3,21,28), there are concerns regarding the risk of injury associated with these types of training programs. Okoroha et al. found an increase in elbow medial torque with increasing ball weight in youth pitchers (17). ...
... Many of these injuries are attributable to overuse and lack of rest between bouts of throwing (13,19). Given the potential for components of weighted-ball programs (overweight balls and flatground throwing) to increase upper-extremity loading, the added throwing volume of about 40-80 pitches per week typically prescribed during this type of training (3,28), and the direct stress placed on the arm and shoulder during traditional strength training programs, an alternative method of training to increase ball velocity while reducing the training load on the arm and shoulder may be desirable. Over the course of development, pitchers must walk the fine line between accumulating the appropriate amount of throwing volume for competition and conditioning versus overstressing their arms. ...
Article
Orishimo, KF, Kremenic, IJ, Mullaney, MJ, Fukunaga, T, Serio, N, and McHugh, MP. Role of pelvis and trunk biomechanics in generating ball velocity in baseball pitching. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of pelvis rotation velocity, trunk rotation velocity, and hip-shoulder separation on ball velocity during baseball pitching. Fastball pitching kinematics were recorded in 29 male pitchers (age 17 ± 2 years, 23 high school, 6 college). Pelvis and trunk angular velocities and hip-shoulder separation were calculated and averaged for the 3 fastest pitches. Associations between peak pelvis velocity, peak trunk velocity, hip-shoulder separation at foot contact, and ball velocity were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression. The average ball velocity was 33.5 ± 2.8 m·s-1. The average hip-shoulder separation at foot contact was 50 ± 12°. The peak pelvis velocity (596 ± 88°·s-1) occurred at 12 ± 11% of the time from stride foot contact to ball release, with the peak trunk velocity (959 ± 120°·s-1) occurring at 36 ± 11%. Peak trunk velocity was predictive of ball velocity (p = 0.002), with 25% of the variability in ball velocity explained. No combination of factors further explained ball velocity. Hip-shoulder separation at foot contact (17%, p = 0.027), peak pelvis velocity (23%, p = 0.008), and the timing of peak pelvis velocity (16%, p = 0.031) individually predicted peak trunk velocity. The combination of peak pelvis velocity, hip-shoulder separation at foot contact, and the timing of peak trunk velocity explained 55% of the variability in trunk rotation velocity (p < 0.001). These data highlight the importance of interactions between pelvis and trunk for maximizing velocity in pitching. Training to improve pelvis-trunk axial dissociation may increase maximal trunk rotation velocity and thereby increase ball velocity without increasing training load on the shoulder and elbow.
... Several training methods have been suggested for different sports to improve the performance of throwing, such as conventional weight training (Coleman 1982, Newton andMcEnvoy 1994), weight training combined with explosive throwing exercises (Voigt and Klausen 1990, Hof and Almasbakk 1995, Walace and Cardinale 1997, plyometric training (Newman 1985), ballistic resistance training (Newton and Kraemer 1994) and training with over-or under-weighted balls (Egstrom et al. 1960, Brose and Hanson 1967, Straub 1968, Toyoshima and Miyashita 1973, Vasiliev 1983, van Muijen et al. 1991, DeRenne et al. 1994). More specifically, it has been reported that the training with medicine balls can primarily improve the muscle strength and secondary the release velocity of the ball (Newton and McEnvoy 1994), whereas it has been argued that the velocity component can be significantly improved when the weight training is combined with ballistic movements (Voigt and Klausen 1990, Hof and Almasbakk 1995, Walace and Cardinale 1997. ...
... It could be argued, therefore, that the usage of lighter balls can have interference in the pattern of throwing. Nevertheless, this seems not to be the case in the current study, since it has been supported that an addition or reduction of 20% of the ball weight does not affect the performance range of motion (DeRenne et al. 1994). ...
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Throwing velocity is an important factor that substantially affects the performance of a handball player. Several training methods have been suggested in order to improve this ability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of training with underweighted balls, followed by detraining, upon the throwing velocity of male novice athletes. The subjects underwent 20 weeks of handball training and were divided into two groups; one group used normal handball balls for training and the other group used 20% lighter balls. The first ten weeks allowed the handball players to become familiar with the throwing technique. The evaluation tests were performed before, in the middle and at the end of the specific training period and then after 4 weeks of detraining. Throwing velocity was estimated from the mean velocity of 7 shots against a fixed target placed 6m away from the subjects. A radar gun measured the ball release velocity. The results showed that training with lighter balls caused a greater improvement in the throwing performance than using normal balls. Additionally, the benefit of training after 4 weeks of detraining was only maintained in the group that used the lighter training ball. This suggests that decreased resistance during training that involves ballistic movements can be advantageous for the player's performance and therefore trainers are encouraged to apply this method of training as a tool for improving the throwing efficiency of novice handball players.
... Interest in weighted-ball training increased again in the 1990s with a series of studies by DeRenne et al. 7,8 Their first study prospectively evaluated 30 high school baseball pitchers over the course of a 10-week training program with regulation weight, progressively underweight, or progressively overweight baseballs. Pitchers trained 3 days per week. ...
... 8 The same author group followed up their findings with a larger sample, including high school and college-aged pitchers. 7 They established 3 groups: a mixed training group, which used over-and underweight baseballs during training; a blocked training group, which used overweight balls for 5 weeks and then underweight balls for 5 weeks; and a control group, which used only regulation balls. For this study, the overweight balls weighed 6 oz; the underweight balls, 4 oz; and the standard balls, 5 oz (regulation). ...
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Background Weighted-implement training utilizing over- or underweight baseballs has increased in popularity at all levels in competitive baseball. However, there is no consensus on the efficacy or safety of these training methods. Hypothesis This systematic review was intended to answer the following questions: Does weighted-ball training improve pitching velocity? Does weighted-ball training increase the risk of injury? Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods Searches were conducted with MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ProQuest Physical Education Index. Articles were included if the study population consisted of adult, adolescent, or youth baseball pitchers training with under- or overweight baseballs, with velocity as a measured outcome. Articles were excluded if they were review articles, examined sports other than baseball, utilized weighted implements other than baseballs, or were not published in peer-reviewed journals. Included articles were at least level 4 evidence. Data extracted for qualitative analysis included training protocol parameters (such as ball weight, number of pitches, duration of training), velocity change, and injuries or complications reported. Results A total of 4119 article titles were retrieved, of which 156 were selected for abstract review. After manual removal of duplicates, 128 abstracts were reviewed. Of these, 17 met the inclusion criteria, and the full text was obtained. After full-text review, 7 additional articles were excluded, leaving 10 articles that met inclusion criteria and were included for analysis. Conclusion Weighted-implement training increased pitching velocity in the majority of the included studies. However, the quality of available evidence was determined to be very poor, and there was marked heterogeneity in training protocols, ball weights, and study populations. There was inadequate evidence reported to determine the risk of injury with this type of training.
... The ability to pitch is influenced by a pitcher's particular physical conditions; thus, the weight of the ball used for training must vary with age. Previous studies have suggested that WB training is more effective in increasing ball speed than RB training among high school and college baseball pitchers [11][12][13][14]. However, DeRenne et al. [17,18] conducted pitching training with 4-to 6-oz baseballs for 10 weeks in high school pitchers and found no difference between LB and WB training in increasing pitching speed. ...
... Changes in muscle activity during TBME and ST using [29]. Although several studies have reported that WB training is effective in improving ball speed [11][12][13][14], arm velocity, trunk velocity, and arm force decrease as ball weight increases from 5 to 7 oz [19]. In addition, Reinold et al. [29] reported mixed outcomes in pitchers training with 2-, 4-, 6-, 16-, and 32oz WBs three times a week. ...
Article
OBJECTIVES Several studies have reported that weighted baseball (WB) training is effective in improving ball speed; however, the weight of the ball suitable for training remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the changes in muscle activity during pitching using 5- to12-oz WBs and to provide basic data for training programs to improve pitching speed.METHODS The subjects of this study were 10 overhand pitchers who had more than 5 years of experience. Muscle activity was measured and analyzed at 70–85% of throwing baseball maximum effort (TBME) during soft toss (ST) and TBME was evaluated using electromyography.RESULTS As the ball weight increased, muscle activity also increased in all pitching phases. Muscle activity was higher during ST with WBs heavier than 10 or 11oz than during TBME, indicating that the loads on the shoulder and elbow joint muscles increased. Conversely, muscle activity during ST with 5- to 7-oz WBs was lower than that during TBME, although phase and muscle group differences were observed.CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest that training with 8- to 10-oz WBs could increase muscle strength and activity, although the effect may vary with fitness level and muscle strength.
... These studies were based upon training in javelin, shot put, and discus throwing. Later studies in handball (Edwards van Muijen et al., 1991;van den Tillaar et al., 2002), and baseball (DeRenne et al., 1985(DeRenne et al., , 1990(DeRenne et al., , 1994DeRenne & House, 1993;Escamilla et al., 2000;Fleisig et al., 2006) showed that training weights, and regular ball weights on the kinematics and performance in overarm throwing is detectable. In such case, we hypothesized that the effects are in accordance with findings as found with larger weight differences. ...
... Several studies have examined the effect of throwing training with these weight differences (DeRenne et al., 1985(DeRenne et al., , 1990(DeRenne et al., , 1994Jöris et al., 1985). However, none of the studies reported the throwing velocities for the different ball weights during training. ...
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The aim of this study was to compare the kinematics in throwing with a regular weighted handball with 20% lighter and heavier balls in female experienced handball players. In total, eight joint movements during the throw were analyzed. The analysis consisted of maximal angles, angles at ball release, and maximal angular velocities of the joint movements and their timings during the throw. Results on 24 experienced female team handball players (mean age 18.2 ± 2.1 years) showed that the difference in ball weight affected the maximal ball velocity. The difference in ball release velocity was probably a result of the significant differences in kinematics of the major contributors to overarm throwing: elbow extension and internal rotation of the shoulder. These were altered when changing the ball weight, which resulted in differences in ball release velocity.
... In the studies by DeRenne and colleagues (18,23), bat weight was within 612% of standard game bat weight. These percentages of standard-weight implements are based on DeRenne and colleagues' (16,17,20) under-and overweighted implement training results in baseball hitting and pitching. Sergo and Boatwright (42) have reported that any bat swung 300 times a week for 6 weeks would increase bat swing velocity. ...
... Weight reduction, applied to objects or to the athlete's body, is an effective way to increase movement velocities and is demonstrated to be a well established method in jump training (1,33,36) and throwing events (6,10,27,29). Several studies were performed for body-weight supported running on a treadmill, reporting the following effects: (a) decreased vertical and horizontal ground reaction forces (4,11,35); (b) lower electromyographic activities of leg muscles (20); (c) lower metabolic rates (11,35); (d) longer step lengths (26); (e) lower step frequencies (11,26,35); and (f ) decreased ground contact times (11,26,35). ...
Article
It is well founded that ground contact time is the crucial part of sprinting because the available time window to apply force to the ground diminishes with growing running velocity. In view of this knowledge, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of body-weight support during full-effort sprints on ground contact time and selected stride parameters in 19 Austrian male elite sprinters. A kite with a lifting effect combined with a towing system to erase drag was utilized. Subjects performed flying 20m-sprints under three conditions: (i) free sprint; (ii) body-weight supported sprint - normal speed (BWS-NS); and (iii) body-weight supported sprint - overspeed (BWS-OS). Sprint cycle characteristics were recorded during the high-speed phase by an optical acquisition system. Additionally, running velocity was calculated from the 20m-sprint time. Compared to the fastest free sprint, running velocity, step length, and step frequency remained unchanged during BWS-NS, while ground contact time decreased (-5.80%), and air time increased (+5.79%) (both p<0.001). Throughout, BWS-OS ground contact time (-7.66%) was reduced, whereas running velocity (+2.72%), air time (+4.92%), step length (+1.98%) (all p<0.001), and step frequency (+1.05%; p<0.01) increased. Compared to BWS-NS, BWS-OS caused an increase in running velocity (+3.33%), step length (+1.92%) (both p<0.001), and step frequency (+1.37%; p<0.01), while ground contact time was diminished (-1.97%; p<0.001). In summary, sprinting with a body-weight supporting kite appeared to be a highly specific method to simulate an advanced performance level, indicated by higher running velocities requiring reduced ground contact times. The additional application of an overspeed condition led to a further reduction of ground contact time. Therefore, we recommend body-weight supported sprinting as an additional tool in sprint training.
... The importance of the last two factors mentioned explains the interest in evaluating them, although in many cases coaches have used throws with a medicine ball, which are very general and poorly validated tests (Mayo & Pardo, 2001; Moreno, 2004; Torres et al., 2004). Throws with a medicine ball have also been used as a training method for specifically improving throwing velocity in handball (DeRenne, Ho, & Blitzblau, 1990; Van Muijen et al., 1991; DeRenne et al., 1994; Cardoso & González-Badillo, 2006). The analysis of the relationship between this type of general throwing tests with a medicine ball and specific throwing tests in handball constitutes the starting point for the present study. ...
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Rivilla-García J, Martínez I, Grande I, Sampedro-Molinuevo J. Relation between general throwing tests with a medicine ball and specific tests to evaluate throwing velocity with and without opposition in handball. J. Hum. Sport Exerc. Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 414-426, 2011. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship among general throwing tests, with a medicine ball, and throwing velocity tests with and without opposition in different groups of handball players, thus analyzing the influence of technique and decision making in specific throwing capacity. To do this, ninety-four handball players of different competitive levels, age groups and playing positions were tested in four throws of progressive specificity: a) throwing with a heavy medicine ball (THMB); b) throwing with a light medicine ball (TLMB); c) throwing velocity (VS); and d) throwing velocity with opposition (VO). The correlational study, using Pearson's correlation coefficient, was found to be significant (p<0.01) in the relations among the different tests in the whole sample and all groups. The data indicated not very high correlations between the THMB and the other tests, especially with the VO in the over 18 senior players (r=0.404**). Correlation values for TLMB-VS were very high in general (r=0.904**) and in all groups. By contrast, the correlation between the throwing tests was not high, especially in the under 18 players (r=0.621**), backcourt players (r=0.632**) and central players (r=0.594**). The data lead to the conclusion that the general test has limited utility for assessing specific throwing capacity; that TLMB adequately predicts VS; and that opposition has a significant influence on specific throwing speed.
... The implementation of resistance training with the goal of increasing throwing velocity has been successfully studied for many years with the use of several different methods (4). Resistance training in the form of free weight (18), band training (8), medicine balls (MBs) (16), and isokinetic machines (27) has shown positive effects on throwing velocity, and also special resistance training of throwing overweight and underweight balls (3). However, there are very few sport-specific studies examining the relationship between field tests or exercises and throwing velocity. ...
Article
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Baseball specific athleticism, potential and performance have been difficult to predict. Increased muscle strength and power can increase throwing velocity but the majority of research has focused on the upper body. The present study sought to determine if bilateral or unilateral lower body field-testing correlates with throwing velocity. Baseball throwing velocity scores were correlated to the following tests; medicine ball scoop toss and squat throw, bilateral and unilateral vertical jumps, single and triple broad jumps, hop and stop in both directions, lateral to medial jumps, 10 and 60 yard sprints, and both left and right single leg 10 yard hop for speed in 42 college baseball players. A multiple regression analysis (forward method), assessing the relationship between shuffle and stretch throwing velocities and lower body field test results determined that right handed throwing velocity from the stretch position were most strongly predicted by lateral to medial jump right (LMJR) and body weight (BW)(R =0.322), whereas lateral to medial jump left (LMJL)(R = 0.688) predicted left stretch throw. Right-handed shuffle throw was most strongly predicted by LMJR and medicine ball scoop (R=0.338); whereas, LMJL, BW and LMJR all significantly contributed to left-handed shuffle throw (R=0.982). Overall, this study found that lateral to medial jumps were consistently correlated with high throwing velocity in each of the throwing techniques, in both left and right handed throwers. This is the first study to correlate throwing velocity with a unilateral jump in the frontal plane, mimicking the action of the throwing stride.
... In baseball, DeRenne et al. (6) showed a stronger progression too, when training including ball hits (+10%), which could be explained by difference in training protocol (baseballs were hitting with alternated overweight, underweight, and standard 30-oz bats for 12 weeks) and initial players' skill level. However, when training conditions were quite similar to those of this study, improvements in swing or throw speed were ranged between 3 and 12% (5,6). If the comparison of the present results with those of previous works remained difficult, it appeared that, after 6 weeks, significant increase in forehand drive ball speed was observed for the 2 training modalities studied. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two training modalities on the tennis forehand drive performance. Forty-four tennis players (age = 26.9 ± 7.5 years; height = 178.6 ± 6.7 cm; mass = 72.5 ± 8.0 kg; International Tennis Number = 3) were randomly assigned into three groups. During six weeks, the first group (HMB) performed handled-medicine-ball throws included in the regular tennis practice, the second group (OWR) played tennis forehand drives with overweighed racket during the regular tennis practice; and the third group (RTT) practiced only tennis training as usual. Before and after the 6-weeks program, velocity and accuracy of tennis crosscourt forehand drives were evaluated in the three groups. The main results showed that after 6-weeks training, the maximal ball velocity was significantly increased in HMB and OWR groups in comparison with RTT (p < 0.001 and p = 0. 001, respectively). The estimated averaged increase in ball velocity was greater in HMB than in OWR (11% vs 5%, respectively; p = 0.017), but shot accuracy tended to be deteriorated in HMB when compared to OWR and RTT (p=0.043 and p=0.027, respectively). The findings of the present study highlighted the efficiency of both training modalities to improve tennis forehand drive performance, but also suggested that the handled medicine ball throws may be incorporated into the preseason program preferably, while the overweight racket forehand drives may be included in the on-season program.
... Additionally, our program included stabilization and flexion/ extension exercises (weighted walks, birddogs, back extensions, etc.) that addressed all phases of an overhand throw, but the RT may not have been similar enough to the overhand throwing motion to increase TV. Whereas, DeRenne, Buxton, Hetzler, & Ho (1994) significantly improved TV by throwing with a combination of standard, light, and heavy baseballs 3 days a week for 10 weeks. ...
Article
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The current issue is the third of the seventh volume of the Athens Journal of Sports, published by the Sport, Exercise, & Kinesiology Unit of the ATINER under the aegis of the Panhellenic Association of Sports Economists and Managers (PASEM).
... Because the peak force output of fast twitch muscle fibers can be 4 times greater than that of slow twitch fibers (18), it has been suggested that highly specific explosive movements could recruit and fire these high-threshold fast twitch muscle fibers (43). The results of baseball (5,(7)(8)(9)34,35), cricket (39), and team handball (3,13,17) throwing studies may indicate that greater exertion of muscle force at high speeds was the result of a modification of the recruitment pattern of motor units (12). Thus, selective activation of either of the fast or slow twitch motor units could be specifically trained by the strength and conditioning coach. ...
... According to the specificity principle, this would result in increases in both soccer ball and 3-kg medicine ball-throwing velocities. It was also expected that throwing velocity with the 1-kg medicine ball after the 6-week training period would be positively influenced in this group because of a possible transfer from training with heavier and lighter balls (6,7). However, in this group only increased throwing velocity with the soccer ball, no increase with the 1-kg medicine ball and a decrease with the 3-kg medicine ball were observed ( Figure 2). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine if different throwing programs based upon velocity (throwing with a regular sized soccer ball), resistance (throwing with heavy medicine ball), or a combination of both with the same workload would enhance 2-handed overhead throwing velocity with different ball weights. Sixty-eight high-school students (16.5 ± 1.8 years, 57.8 ± 12 kg, 164 ± 9 cm), divided into 3 groups, participated in the study. The training programs were matched on total workload, which resulted in the velocity-training group performing 6 series of 14 reps per session with soccer balls, whereas the resistance-training group performed 3 series of 6 throws with a 3-kg medicine ball, and the combination-training group threw 9 times with a 3-kg medicine ball and 3 series of 14 reps with a soccer ball per session. Throwing velocity with a soccer ball, a 1- and 3-kg medicine ball was tested before and after a training period of 6 weeks with 2 sessions per week. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in throwing velocity was found after the 6-week training period with the soccer ball (6.9%) and the 1-kg medicine ball (2.8%), but not with the 3-kg medicine ball (-2.5%). In contrast, no group interaction was found with the different balls indicating that velocity, resistance, or a combination as a form of training increased the throwing velocity. Different types of training with the same total workload can increase the throwing velocity in a similar way, which shows that workload is of importance in designing training programs and comparing training with each other. Therefore, those that train high-school soccer players could implement any one of these 3 6-week programs to increase 2-handed overhead soccer throw-in velocity. This could allow the throw-in to be harder or potentially thrown farther if the right trajectory is used.
... In training studies on experienced throwers, different ball weights were used to enhance throwing velocity 1 . Mainly over-and or underweighted balls were used in training to enhance throwing velocity with regular weighted balls [2][3][4][5][6] . It was found that training with underweighted balls always had a positive effect upon the throwing velocity with regular balls [3][4][5]7 ,while practicing with overweight balls did not always had the same effect on throws with regular balls after the training period 2-5,8,9. ...
Article
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Background: Throwing is a fundamental ability that children learn during their youth. There are different ways to train this throwing ability in children. Research question: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of training throwing in children with light, regular or heavier balls in an overhead throwing movement and transferring to other ball weights after a short training period. It was hypothesised that all training groups would significantly improve their throwing velocity due to the throwing training, but that each group increased the most with the ball they trained with during the training period because of the specificity principle. Type of study: A randomised controlled study Methods: Thirty primary school children (age 8.5 ± 0.5 yr, body mass 33.3 ± 6.7kg, height 1.35 ± 0.04m), divided into three groups (underweight ball: 0.35 kg, regular ball: 0.45 kg and overweight ball: 0.5 kg training group), participated in the study. Each group conducted the same total throwing workload twice a week for six consecutive weeks. Throwing velocity and distance with a 0.35 kg, 0.45 kg, 0.5 kg and a 1 kg ball was tested before and after a training period. Results: A significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in throwing velocity (10-18%) and distance (16-19%) was found after the six-week training period with every ball with no significant differences between groups Conclusions: This study indicates that training workload is of importance for enhancement of ball throwing performance and not especially for the ball weight that is thrown with for children. Furthermore, this training also had a positive effect upon throwing performance with heavier balls (1 kg) indicating that transfer to heavier balls is possible in throwing for children.
... The authors speculated that training with a range of modified cricket balls from 80-400 g may provide an appropriate stimulus to develop ball release speed without significantly altering bowling technique or bowling accuracy (47). Previous research and coaching literature indicates that modified-implement training can enhance implement velocity in throwing-related sports such as baseball (12,13), javelin (6), shot put (24), and discus (2). Using modified implements is a form of "specific" training (14), designed to assist the athlete with coordinating body segments at faster speeds with a lighter implement, whereas the heavier implement is believed to enhance the strength (i.e., provide resistance) that is required to attain these higher speeds (16). ...
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Feros, SA, Young, WB, and O'Brien, BJ. Efficacy of combined general, special, and specific resistance training on pace bowling skill in club-standard cricketers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study investigated the efficacy of combined "general," "special," and "specific" resistance training on pace bowling skill. Twelve male, club-standard pace bowlers were randomly allocated to a combined resistance training (CRT) program or traditional cricket training (TCT) program for 8 weeks. The CRT group (n = 6) trained with 300, 250-g, and standard cricket balls; performed 20-m sprints with +20% and +15% body mass resistance (but also unresisted); and completed chin-up and pull-up training. The TCT group (n = 6) trained with standard balls and performed unresisted 20-m sprints. No statistically significant GROUP × TIME interactions were identified. The CRT group demonstrated a "clear moderate" enhancement in peak ball release speed (mean ±95% confidence limits [CLs]: 1.2 ± 1.5 m·s, d = 0.66 ± 0.83), a "clear large" increase in mean radial error (mean ±95% CLs: 7.1 ± 6.5 cm, d = 0.94 ± 0.87), and a "clear large" rise in bivariate variable error (mean ±95% CLs: 7.2 ± 7.8 cm, d = 0.97 ± 1.05). The TCT group exhibited "unclear" changes across all pace bowling skill measures. Both groups displayed "unclear" changes in approach speed, 20-m sprint time, and 1 repetition maximum pull-up strength. In 8 weeks, the CRT program improved peak ball release speed, but at the cost of poorer bowling accuracy and consistency of bowling accuracy. These findings could be attributed to bowling with the heavier balls. The inclusion of "specific" resistance training does not seem to be effective in enhancing all-round pace bowling skill in club-standard cricketers.
... This included drills to learn and improve the technique of the handball throwing task using normal balls, without loads around the upper limb segments. After this period, a throwing training protocol was based on previous studies (DeRenne et al. 1994) concerning baseball and assessed as described in detail previously . In summary, each training session was performed 3 times a week and included 9-13 sets of 6 maximal throws using competition handballs (58 cm circumference and 425 g mass) and loaded forearm and arm with 84 and 107 g (Kotzamanidis et al. 2003). ...
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the upper limb segment loading on the throwing velocity of novice handball players during the training and detraining period. After a familiarization period for handball throwing, 21 players were examined during a 10-week training period, followed by a 10-week detraining period. Loads were applied on the arm and forearm resulting to an additional loading of 20% of the ball mass around the shoulder joint. Measurements of the ball velocity were assessed with a radar gun with and without the external loads. The results showed that the throwing velocity with loaded limbs was lower only up to the 5 th week of training and this difference was diminished after 10 weeks of training with loads. This adaptation was retained after 5 weeks of detraining and recovered after 10 weeks of detraining. The above mentioned changes are attributed mainly to neural and biomechanical factors that affect the activation of the agonist and antagonist muscles during throwing, taking into consideration the proprioceptive feedback. In conclusion it is suggested that loading the upper limb (a) may prohibit a high rate of decrement in throwing velocity without loads during the detraining period and (b) may be an efficient and safe method of training with many advantages compared to other methods.
... These studies have reported statistically significant improvements in bowling or throwing velocity ranging from 2.4-6.0% (3,5). The combination of general, special, and specific resistance exercises in one mesocycle however, has been shown to significantly improve baseball throwing velocity by 5.6% (6). ...
Poster
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This poster highlights that a combined training approach can result in small improvements in peak and mean bowling speed. However, a large reduction in bowling accuracy results. The heavy-ball bowling within the combined training approach is to be questioned for its negative transfer to bowling accuracy.
... Several studies have shown that weighted baseball training programs are effective at enhancing velocity. [6][7][8]11 Fleisig et al 13 reported kinematic and kinetic differences between pitching with regulation 5-ounce baseballs and underweight and overweight baseball balls ranging from 4 to 7 ounces. The authors found steady decreases in arm velocities, trunk velocities, and arm forces as ball weight increased from 5 to 7 ounces. ...
Article
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Background: Emphasis on enhancing baseball pitch velocity has become popular, especially through weighted-ball throwing. However, little is known about the physical effects or safety of these programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training with weighted baseballs on pitch velocity, passive range of motion (PROM), muscle strength, elbow torque, and injury rates. Hypothesis: A 6-week weighted ball training program would result in a change in pitching biomechanical and physical characteristics. Study design: Randomized controlled trial. Level of evidence: Level 1. Methods: During the baseball offseason, 38 healthy baseball pitchers were randomized into a control group and an experimental group. Pitch velocity, shoulder and elbow PROM, shoulder strength, elbow varus torque, and shoulder internal rotation velocity were measured in both groups. The experimental group then performed a 6-week weighted ball throwing program 3 times per week using balls ranging from 2 to 32 ounces while the control group only used a 5-ounce regulation baseball. Both groups performed a strength training program. Measurements were then repeated after the 6-week period. Injuries were tracked over the 6-week training program and the subsequent baseball season. The effect of training with a weighted ball program was assessed using 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance at an a priori significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Mean age, height, mass, and pretesting throwing velocity were 15.3 ± 1.2 years (range, 13-18 years), 1.73 ± 0.28 m, 68.3 ± 11 kg, and 30.3 ± 0.7 m/s, respectively. Pitch velocity showed a statistically significant increase (3.3%) in the experimental group ( P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase of 4.3° of shoulder external rotation in the experimental group. The overall injury rate was 24% in the experimental group. Four participants in the experimental group suffered elbow injuries, 2 during the training program and 2 in the season after training. No pitchers in the control group were injured at any time during the study. Conclusion: Performing a 6-week weighted ball throwing program increased pitch velocity. However, the program resulted in increased shoulder external rotation PROM and increased injury rate. Clinical relevance: Although weighted-ball training may increase pitch velocity, caution is warranted because of the notable increase in injuries and physical changes observed in this cohort.
... A nivel de rendimiento deportivo, se han investigado diversos métodos y medios de entrenamiento para mejorar la velocidad de lanzamiento del balón, ya sea en balonmano o en otros deportes como el béisbol, el waterpolo o la disciplina de la jabalina ( Van den Tillaar, 2004). Desde un punto de vista científico, se han realizado investigaciones para comprobar el efecto sobre la velocidad de lanzamiento con balones sobre pesados-lastrados (DeRenne, Buxton, Hetzler, & Ho, 1994), balones por debajo de su peso normal (Van Muijen, Joris, Kemper, & Van Ingen Schenau, 1991), con combinaciones de ambos métodos (DeRenne, Ho, & Blitzblau, 1990) o con entrenamiento con resistencias externas (Souhail Hermassi, Chelly, Tabka, Shephard, & Chamari, 2011;McEvoy & Newton, 1998). Centrándonos en este último entrenamiento, los ejercicios por excelencia para mejorar la velocidad de lanzamiento son el press de banca y el pullover. ...
Article
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Los objetivos de este estudio fueron (a) analizar la relación existente entre la una repetición máxima (1-RM) en press de banca y la velocidad de lanzamiento en jugadores de balonmano U18 de nivel internacional y, (b) analizar qué variables del ejercicio del press de banca son más relevantes en el rendimiento específico (velocidad de lanzamiento del balón) durante el test de velocidad de lanzamiento (T3-Step). Dieciséis jugadores de la Selección Española de Balonmano Juvenil participaron en la presente investigación. Todos los sujetos realizaron un protocolo incremental en el ejercicio del press de banca, además del T3-Step de velocidad de lanzamiento del balón. Por un lado, se analizó la relación existente entre la velocidad media (Velmedia), velocidad media de la fase propulsiva (VelMFP), velocidad pico (Velpico), potencia media (Potmedia), potencia media de la fase propulsiva (PotMFP), y potencia pico (Potpico) en todo el espectro de cargas en relación con la velocidad de lanzamiento. También se realizaron los mismos análisis con la carga en donde se obtuvo la máxima potencia media (CargaMP). Los resultados mostraron, por un lado que el rango de correlación de la CargaMP, PotmediaMP, PotMFPMP y PotpicoMP y la velocidad de lanzamiento fueron de .61 (p= .012), .702 (p< .01), .734 (p< .01) y .63 (p< .01), respectivamente. El coeficiente de correlación de Pearson entre la 1-RM y la velocidad de lanzamiento fue de r = .61 (p < .01). En conclusión, las variables relevantes a nivel de rendimiento específico con la velocidad de lanzamiento fueron la 1RM, la CargaMP, la PotMFPMP y la VelMFPMP. Todas estas analizadas en función del 60% de la 1-RM. Abstract. The objectives of this study were (a) to analyze the relationship between one repetition maximum (1-RM) in free bench press exercise and ball throwing velocity in handball players U18 of international level and, (b) to analyze which variables of bench press exercise are more relevant in the specific performance during the ball throwing velocity test (T3-Step). Sixteen (n = 16) players of the Spanish Youth Handball Team participated in the present investigation. All subjects included performed an incremental protocol bench press exercise, in addition to the T3-Step. On the one hand, it analyzed the relationship between the mean velocity (Velmean), the mean velocity of propulsive phase (VelmeanPP), peak velocity (Velpeak), the average power (Powermean), the average power of the propulsive phase (PowermeanPP), and peak power (Powerpeak) over the entire spectrum of charges in relation to the launch speed. The same analyzes were also obtained with the load where the maximum average power (LoadMP). The results obtained, on the one hand that the correlation range of the LoadMP, PowermeanPP, PowerMPPMP and PowerpeakPP and ball throwing velocity were .61 (p = .012), .70 (p < .01), .73 (p < .01) and 0.63 (p < .01), respectively. The correlation coefficient between the 1-RM and ball throwing velocity was r = 0.61 (p< .01). In conclusion, the relevant variables at the specific performance level with the ball throwing velocity were 1-RM, LoadMP, PowerMFPMP and VelMFPMP. All these analyzed according to 60% of the 1-RM.
... Many precedent studies have reported that training with light and heavy balls can help increase the pitch velocity (DeRenne et al., 1994;DeRenne and Szymanski, 2009;Escamilla et al., 2000;Pavlovich, 2014); not only amateur players who are starting their training, but also even major league baseball teams have developed, and applied training methods based on weighted balls (Cressey, 2009;DriveLine Baseball, 2011). ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in the muscle activation of high school and college baseball pitchers during throwing of the ball with maximum effort (TBME) using a regular baseball (RB) subsequent to using a light baseball (LB), RB, and overweight baseball (OB) during warm-up (WU) and the resulting changes in the pitch velocity. The study aimed to use the findings in providing basic data for a training program designed to increase the pitch velocity of baseball pitchers. The study population consisted of 12 high school and college baseball players. The study measured and analyzed the upper extremity muscle activation and ball velocity in the stride, arm cocking, and acceleration phases during TBME using an RB subsequent to using an LB, RB, and OB during WU. During WU, the ball velocity was higher when pitching with an LB than with an RB or OB and when pitching with an RB than with an OB. However, there were no significant differences in the ball velocity when pitching with an RB during TBME. In conclusion, WU using weighted baseballs resulted in varying muscle activations, and although the velocity decreased when pitching with an OB, no difference was found during TBME using an RB. Therefore, it is believed that using weighted baseballs during WU does not have an effect on the ball velocity during TBME; future studies are needed on the effects through long-term training.
... This MTS value was then used as a benchmark to 'validate' the subsequent three throws which focused on accuracy. TS was measured using a radar gun (Stalker Pro, Applied Concepts, Inc. Texas, USA) (accurate to 0.1 km/h; r = 0.96 (De Renne, Buxton, Hetzler, & Ho, 1994). The tester stood directly behind the participant and aimed the gun at the height of the participant's throwing hand. ...
Article
Optimal throwing speed and accuracy is built on a complex interaction of multiple variables. Although strength and power has been associated with throwing speed in cricketers, the individual muscles that contribute to optimal function of the shoulder-complex has not been adequately explored in connection with throwing performance. Consequently, this study aimed to investigate the correlation between musculoskeletal variables and overhead throwing performance in cricketers. Thirty-two amateur male cricketers were tested using a battery of 16 tests (strength, flexibility, scapula positioning) as well as a throwing speed (TS) and a novel accuracy test (TA). Only two of the sixteen tests were correlated with throwing performance in the multiple regression analysis. Non-dominant hip abduction strength correlated positively with TS (p < 0.05): on average, a strength increase of 10 newtons (N) was associated with an increase in TS of 0.60 km/h (95% CI: 0.12-1.08). Non-dominant pectoralis minor length correlated positively with TA (p < 0.01): on average, a one-centimetre increase in the length correlated to an increase, of 0.633 points (95% CI: 0.225-1.041). This cross-sectional study demonstrated that from an array of musculoskeletal variables, only non-dominant hip abduction strength correlated with TS, while only non-dominant pectoralis minor length correlated with TA in amateur cricketers.
Chapter
Recently, there has been an alarming increase in the rate of elbow injuries in throwers of all ages. In fact, injury to the medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) has increased in both amateur and professional players, with one study demonstrating a 50% increase in UCL reconstructions in high school athletes between 1988 and 2003. Injury to the ulnar collateral ligament results in a significant loss of participation time. While these injuries are not completely avoidable, there are modifiable risks factors and preventative strategies to decrease their incidence. This chapter reviews the risk factors for and preventative strategies to avoid injury to the medial ulnar collateral ligament at the youth, adolescent, and professional level.
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Purpose: This study investigated the acute warm-up effects of modified-implement bowling on bowling speed, accuracy, perceived rhythm and perceived sensation with a regular ball. Methods: A total of 13 male amateur pace bowlers completed 3 sessions in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Each session comprised a warm-up of 21 progressive-effort deliveries with either a regular (156 g), 10% heavier (171.6 g), or 10% lighter (140.4 g) cricket ball followed by a 4-over pace-bowling assessment with a regular ball. Bowling speed was assessed with a radar gun, while accuracy was calculated via the radial error. Subjects rated their perceived exertion (0%-100%), rhythm (1-5 Likert scale), and sensation (1-5 Likert scale) after each delivery. Results: The linear mixed models revealed a significant effect for warm-up condition on perceived delivery sensation (F2,916.404 = 24.137, P < .001), with a significant pairwise difference between the regular- and heavier-ball warm-up conditions of 0.20 ± 0.07 points (estimated marginal mean ± 95% confidence interval, P < .001). There were no statistically significant effects for warm-up condition on bowling speed, accuracy, and perceived delivery rhythm. Conclusions: These findings indicate that although the regular ball felt lighter to bowl with after using the heavier ball, there were no overall potentiating or detrimental effects of using this particular modified-implement warm-up on bowling speed, accuracy, and perceived rhythm in amateur pace bowlers. Future research is encouraged to trial other protocols for eliciting potentiation to ultimately enhance bowling speed in training or in shorter match formats (eg, Twenty20).
Article
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Purpose of Review Weighted baseball throwing programs have gained significant attention recently. They have been promoted as proven option for pitchers wishing to increase their throwing velocity and improve throwing mechanics. However, there is some concern that, if not applied properly, they may increase injury risk. In this review, we aim to (1) give a brief description of the potential mechanisms through with weighed ball programs that could improve throwing velocity, (2) summarize the available evidence regarding their effectiveness in increasing throwing velocity, (3) summarize the evidence on injury risk, and (4) propose directions for future studies. Recent Findings Initial research on weighted ball programs was published in the 1960s. Recently there has been an increase in research as interest from baseball organizations, instructors, players, and medical providers has grown. A recent randomized controlled trial demonstrated that pitching velocity can be increased through a 6-week weighted ball program; however, with that, they found that the rate of injury also increased. An earlier systematic review outlined 10 studies that evaluated weighted ball programs effect on pitching velocity and reported that 7 studies described increases in throwing velocity, while most studies did not comment on injury risk. They note that the results on rate of injury have been variable, likely secondary to the variability in time and intensity of different programs. Summary The inconsistency in the methodology of weighted ball programs and studies has made it challenging to draw (scientifically) meaningful conclusions. Nevertheless, several studies have offered empirical evidence in support of the claim that weighted ball programs can increase pitching velocity through improved throwing mechanics. At the same time, these studies have emphasized the improvements in performance, while the potential effects on injury mechanisms have been less well understood. There is a need for improved standardization of these programs to allow for future study and subsequent modification to optimize performance.
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It is known that stimuli are presented during training, which lead to biological and functional adaptations, as well as to morphological alterations. There are no relevant studies for water polo referring to the differences presented as to the anthropometric, performance related, physiological and technical characteristics affected by training for female water polo players. The purpose of this study was to determine which of the above characteristics make athletes of the senior women's national team differ from those of the junior women's national team. The two samples of the present study were composed, respectively, of 13 athletes of the women's national team with 9.8 ± 3 years of training experience in the 26.3 ± 4.4 age group (2 nd position in the Athens Olympics of 2004) and 13 athletes of the junior women's national team with 6.5 ± 1.7 years of training experience in the 17 ± 1.2 age group (4 th position in the Junior European Championship of 2005). Senior female water polo players didn't differ in basic anthropometric variables when compared to the junior female players but only in limited variables. While considerably, they differed more in VO 2max (50.3 ± 4.5 vs 45.3 ± 6.8 ml·kg -1 ·min -1), in performance in 400 m free swimming (5:24 ± 0:16 vs 5:36 ± 0:12 min:sec), in maximal lactate accumulation (8.4 ± 0.7 vs 6.4 ± 1.8 mmol·l -1), in performance in 25 free swimming (13.8 ± 0.4 vs 14.7 ± 0.8 sec), in overhead throwing velocity (16.0 ± 0.6 vs 15.1 ± 0.5 m·s -1) and on water vertical jump (62.0 ± 2.7 vs 59.3 ± 3.0 cm), probably due to more intense and more specialised training.
Article
THE SPORT OF LACROSSE HAS HAD A STEADY INCREASE IN PARTICIPATION AT ALL LEVELS OF COMPETITION (I.E., HIGH SCHOOL, COLLEGE, CLUB SPORT). SPORT-SPECIFIC TRAINING PROGRAMS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED FOR ALL PHASES OF TRAINING, INCLUDING OFF-SEASON, PRE-SEASON, AND IN-SEASON. THE FOLLOWING STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES WERE DEVELOPED FOLLOWING AN IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF THE MOVEMENT PATTERNS PERFORMED DURING A COLLEGIATE LACROSSE GAME AND ARE INTENDED FOR ATHLETES TRAINING AT THE COLLEGIATE LEVEL. THESE EXERCISES, PERFORMED DURING PRE-SEASON TRAINING, CAN AID ATHLETES IN PREPARING FOR THE COMING COMPETITIVE SEASON BY ADDRESSING THE MOVEMENT PATTERNS PERFORMED DURING COMPETITION.
Article
Compared to regulation-weight baseballs, lightweight baseballs generate lower torque on the shoulder and elbow joints without altering the pitching movement and timing. This study investigates the throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and maximum shoulder external rotation (MSER) of adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate lightweight baseballs. We assigned 24 adolescent players to a lightweight baseball group (Group L) and a regulation-weight baseball group (Group R) based on their pre-training throwing velocity. Both groups received pitching training 3 times per week for 10 weeks with 4.4-oz and 5-oz baseballs. The players' throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and MSER were measured from 10 maximum efforts throws using a regulation-weight baseball before and after undergoing the pitching training. The results showed that the players in Group L significantly increased their throwing velocity and arm swing velocity (p < .05) after 10 weeks of pitching training with 4.4-oz baseball, whereas Group R did not (p > .05). Furthermore, the percentage change in the throwing velocity and arm swing velocity of Group L was significantly superior to that of Group R (p <.05). Thus, we concluded that the 10 weeks of pitching training with an appropriate lightweight baseball substantially enhanced the arm swing velocity and throwing velocity of the adolescent baseball players. These findings suggest that using a lightweight baseball, which can reduce the risk of injury without altering pitching patterns, has positive training effects on players in the rapid physical growth and technique development stage.
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Background Weighted-baseball training programs are used at the high school, collegiate, and professional levels of baseball. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a six-week training period consisting of weighted implements, manual therapy, weightlifting, and other modalities on shoulder external rotation, elbow valgus stress, pitching velocity, and kinematics. Hypothesis A six-week training program that includes weighted implements will increase pitching velocity along with concomitant increases in arm angular velocities, joint kinetics, and shoulder external rotation. Methods Seventeen collegiate and professional baseball pitchers (age range 18–23, average: 19.9 ± 1.3) training at Driveline Baseball were evaluated via a combination of an eight-camera motion-capture system, range-of-motion measurements and radar- and pitch-tracking equipment, both before and after a six-week training period. Each participant received individualized training programs, with significant overlap in training methods for all athletes. Twenty-eight biomechanical parameters were computed for each bullpen trial, four arm range-of-motion measurements were taken, and pitching velocities were recorded before and after the training period. Pre- and post-training period data were compared via post-hoc paired t tests. Results There was no change in pitching velocity across the seventeen subjects. Four biomechanical parameters for the holistic group were significantly changed after the training period: internal rotational velocity was higher (from 4,527 ± 470 to 4,759 ± 542 degrees/second), shoulder abduction was lower at ball release (96 ± 7.6 to 93 ± 5.4°), the shoulder was less externally rotated at ball release (95 ± 15 to 86 ± 18°) and shoulder adduction torque was higher (from 103 ± 39 to 138 ± 53 N-m). Among the arm range of motion measurements, four were significantly different after the training period: the shoulder internal rotation range of motion and total range of motion for both the dominant and non-dominant arm. When the group was divided into those who gained pitching velocity and those who did not, neither group showed a significant increase in shoulder external rotation, or elbow valgus stress. Conclusions Following a six-week weighted implement program, pitchers did not show a significant change in velocity, joint kinetics, or shoulder external rotation range of motion. When comparing pitchers who gained velocity versus pitchers who did not, no statistically significant changes were seen in joint kinetics and shoulder range of motion.
Chapter
Training for Strength Explosive Force Production Rate of Force Development Training to Maximize RFD Short Response Training - Reactivity Training Long Response Training Isometric Training Intensity Timing Adaptation Potential Training Parameters Rate of Adaptation Detraining Specificity Injury Prevention Integrating Strength and Conditioning into a Rehabilitation Programme References
Book
Strength and Conditioning for Team Sports is designed to help trainers and coaches to devise more effective high-performance training programs for team sports. This remains the only evidence-based study of sport-specific practice to focus on team sports and features all-new chapters covering neuromuscular training, injury prevention and specific injury risks for different team sports. Fully revised and updated throughout, the new edition also includes over two hundred new references from the current research literature. The bookintroduces the core science underpinning different facets of physical preparation, covering all aspects of training prescription and the key components of any degree-level strength and conditioning course, including: ○ physiological and performance testing. ○ strength training. ○ metabolic conditioning. ○ power training. ○ agility and speed development. ○ training for core stability. ○ training periodisation. ○ training for injury prevention. Bridging the traditional gap between sports science research and practice, each chapter features guidelines for evidence-based best practice as well as recommendations for approaches to physical preparation to meet the specific needs of team sports players. This new edition also includes an appendix that provides detailed examples of training programmes for a range of team sports. Fully illustrated throughout, it is essential reading for all serious students of strength and conditioning, and for any practitioner seeking to extend their professional practice.
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The physical demands of the overhead throw require an athlete to powerfully contract the muscles of the hip, trunk, and shoulder in a proximal-to-distal sequence. This article provides exercises for overhead-throwing athletes, designed to closely mirror those physical demands.
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Throwing performance is vital within the sport of cricket. However, little published evidence exists regarding methods to improve throwing velocity and/or accuracy in any cricket-playing population. This study, therefore, assessed the efficacy of progressive velocity throwing training on throwing velocity and accuracy in a cricket-specific test. Eighteen sub-elite male cricket players were assessed for maximal throwing velocity and throwing accuracy at four different throwing velocities relative to maximal throwing velocity. The participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n=9) or control (n=9) group. Both groups performed usual pre-season activities for 8 weeks, during which the intervention group performed two additional specific throwing training sessions per week. Maximal throwing velocity was re-assessed at 4 weeks and the progressive velocity throwing programme was adjusted accordingly. The 8-week progressive velocity throwing training significantly increased peak and mean maximal throwing velocity (P = 0.01). Absolute changes in peak and mean maximal throwing velocity were negatively and significantly correlated with initial maximal throwing velocity at 4 weeks (r=−0.805, P = 0.01 and r=−0.806, P = 0.01 respectively) but not at 8 weeks. No significant difference was observed in accuracy for either group at any time. This is the first published study to describe the effectiveness of a progressive velocity throwing training programme on throwing performance in a group of sub-elite cricket players. The addition of two specific throwing training sessions per week can increase maximal throwing velocity without detriment to throwing accuracy.
Article
Release velocity and accuracy are vital components of throwing performance. However, there is no published research on these parameters for throwing in cricket. In this study, we investigated the throwing performance of 110 cricket players from six different populations: elite senior males, elite under-19 junior males, elite under-17 junior males, elite senior females, elite under-19 junior females, and sub-elite senior males. Based on a specifically designed cricket throwing test, participants were assessed for (1) maximal throwing velocity and (2) throwing accuracy at maximal velocity and at three sub-maximal velocities. Elite senior males exhibited the highest peak and mean maximal throwing velocities (P≤0.001). Furthermore, the groups of males had significantly higher peak and mean maximal throwing velocities than the groups of females (P≤0.01). A speed–accuracy trade-off existed such that all groups demonstrated improved accuracy scores at velocities between 75% and 85% maximal throwing velocity compared with 50% maximal throwing velocity and 100% perceived maximal exertion. The results indicate that sex, training experience (years training), and training volume (training time per week) may contribute to throwing performance in cricket players. Further research should focus on understanding the mechanisms behind the observed differences between these groups. This is the first study to describe the inherent throwing profiles of different cricket playing populations. Potentially, we have identified stimulus material for future training developments.
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Background: Weighted-ball throwing programs are commonly used in training baseball pitchers to increase ball velocity. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematics and kinetics among weighted-ball exercises with values from standard pitching (ie, pitching standard 5-oz baseballs from a mound). Hypothesis: Ball and arm velocities would be greater with lighter balls and joint kinetics would be greater with heavier balls. Study design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty-five high school and collegiate baseball pitchers experienced with weighted-ball throwing were tested with an automated motion capture system. Each participant performed 3 trials of 10 different exercises: pitching 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-oz baseballs from a mound; flat-ground crow hop throws with 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-oz baseballs; and flat-ground hold exercises with 14- and 32-oz balls. Twenty-six biomechanical parameters were computed for each trial. Data among the 10 exercises were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance and post hoc paired t tests against the standard pitching data. Results: Ball velocity increased as ball mass decreased. There were no differences in arm and trunk velocities between throwing a standard baseball and an underweight baseball (4 oz), while arm and trunk velocities steadily decreased as ball weight increased from 5 to 32 oz. Compared with values pitching from a mound, velocities of the pelvis, shoulder, and ball were increased for flat-ground throws. In general, as ball mass increased arm torques and forces decreased; the exception was elbow flexion torque, which was significantly greater for the flat-ground holds. There were significant differences in body positions when pitching on the mound, flat-ground throws, and holds. Conclusions: While ball velocity was greatest throwing underweight baseballs, results from the study did not support the rest of the hypothesis. Kinematics and kinetics were similar between underweight and standard baseballs, while overweight balls correlated with decreased arm forces, torques, and velocities. Increased ball velocity and joint velocities were produced with crow hop throws, likely because of running forward while throwing. Clinical relevance: As pitching slightly underweight and overweight baseballs produces variations in kinematics without increased arm kinetics, these exercises seem reasonable for training pitchers. As flat-ground throwing produces increased shoulder internal rotation velocity and elbow varus torque, these exercises may be beneficial but may also be stressful and risky. Flat-ground holds with heavy balls should not be viewed as enhancing pitching biomechanics, but rather as hybrid exercises between throwing and resistance training.
Article
Kinematic and kinetic aspects of baseball pitching and football passing were compared. Twenty-six high school and collegiate pitchers and 26 high school and collegiate quarterbacks were analyzed using three-dimensional high-speed motion analysis. Although maximum shoulder external rotation occurred earlier for quarterbacks, maximum angular velocity of pelvis rotation, upper torso rotation, elbow extension, and shoulder internal rotation occurred earlier and achieved greater magnitude for pitchers. Quarterbacks had shorter strides and stood more erect at ball release. During arm cocking, quarterbacks demonstrated greater elbow flexion and shoulder horizontal adduction. To decelerate the arm, pitchers generated greater compressive force at the elbow and greater compressive force and adduction torque at the shoulder. These results may help explain differences in performance and injury rates between the two sports.
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The acquisition of ballistic motor skills including striking, throwing and kicking is fundamental for participation in many sports and games. Answering the question of how to most effectively promote skill acquisition in ballistic skills has not been methodically addressed, in part due to their inherent complex coordination patterns involving multiple segments. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on ballistic skill acquisition, describe and explain different intervention strategies that have been used to promote skill acquisition and alter coordination patterns and discuss their relative effects and limitations. This review will allow us to understand better how we can effectively and efficiently promote the acquisition of ballistic motor skills.
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The purpose of this investigation was to compare the dynamic and performance characteristics of wooden and aluminum baseball bats. Field data collected during batting practice by accomplished college athletes revealed a 3.85 mph mean difference favoring balls batted with the aluminum bat. Laboratory data indicated that the aluminum bats possessed a greater contact area wherein reaction forces at the bat handle were small. This finding indicates that the aluminum bat has a larger center of percussion and offers a possible explanation for the significant mean difference found in the field.
Article
This investigation was conducted in order to determine if there were differences in the degree to which accuracy in throwing with the nonpreferred hand was developed when practice with projectiles of varying weights was used during the learning period. The effects of transfer of learning from the throwing of a ball of one weight to performance with a ball of another weight was also studied. The result indicated that practice with a light ball was as effective as practice with a heavier ball in developing skill to throw a heavier ball. Practice with the heavier ball when transferred to the lighter ball did not demonstrate a corresponding effect.
Article
The relationship between load and maximum velocity in throwing a ball was investigated. A velocity measurement was constructed making use of cadmium sulfide. The subjects were seven adults and six boys. They threw hand rubber balls of different weights in a horizontal plane, using their best efforts. Ball velocity decreased as ball weight increased. The experimental equation was obtained by a least squares method. Energy of the thrown ball was calculated. There was a great difference in performance among ages.