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Cinnamon: Overview of Health Benefits

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Abstract

Cinnamon is a spice that has been used for thousands of years both for its enhancement of taste and for its potential medicinal benefits. It has a history of use for medicinal purposes as far back as China in the third millennium BC, ancient Egypt, and medieval Europe. It is derived from the brown bark of the cinnamon tree and comes in 2 principal varieties, Chinese and Ceylon. The purported health benefits from cinnamon have been linked to a variety of constituents. The scientific literature provides emerging evidence that cinnamon may have health benefits, particularly in improving problematic blood glucose regulation that is a consequence of type 2 diabetes and obesity. A brief summary of potential health benefits, an evaluation of the quality of the scientific research, and suggestions for future research are presented in this article

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... 36 True cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanium N.) originates from Sri Lanka. 37 Many varieties exist and a close relative, Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia Presi), originally sourced from China, Indonesia or Vietnam, is often mistaken for cinnamon. Cinnamon oil makes up 1-8% of cinnamon and provides the characteristic flavour. ...
... 38 Cinnamaldehyde also occurs naturally in blueberries and cranberries. 37 Other components of cinnamon and cassia include phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, 39 proanthocyanidins, 39,40 cinnamyl alcohol, terpenes, carbohydrates, coumarin and tannins. 37 Cassia, however, contains less cinnamaldehyde than cinnamon but is high in coumarin, of which cinnamon contains only a trace. ...
... 37 Other components of cinnamon and cassia include phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, 39 proanthocyanidins, 39,40 cinnamyl alcohol, terpenes, carbohydrates, coumarin and tannins. 37 Cassia, however, contains less cinnamaldehyde than cinnamon but is high in coumarin, of which cinnamon contains only a trace. 41,42 Both cinnamon and cassia are widely used in the food and cosmetics industries as flavourings, preservatives and perfumes. ...
Article
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Orofacial granulomatosis is a rare chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of the lips, face and mouth. The aetiology remains unclear but may involve an allergic component. Improvements have been reported with cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets. To explore the prevalence of compound and food sensitivity and examine the dietary treatments used in orofacial granulomatosis. A comprehensive literature search was carried out and relevant studies from January 1933 to January 2010 were identified using the electronic database search engines; AGRIS 1991-2008, AMED 1985-2008, British Nursing and Index archive 1985-2008, EMBASE 1980-2008, evidence based medicine review databases (e.g. Cochrane DSR), International Pharmaceutical and Medline 1950-2008. Common sensitivities identified, predominantly through patch testing, were to benzoic acid (36%) food additives (33%), perfumes and flavourings (28%), cinnamaldehyde (27%), cinnamon (17%), benzoates (17%) and chocolate (11%). The cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet has been shown to provide benefit in 54-78% of patients with 23% requiring no adjunctive therapies. A negative or positive patch test result to cinnamaldehyde, and benzoates did not predict dietary outcome. The most concentrated source of benzoate exposure is from food preservatives. Use of liquid enteral formulas can offer a further dietary therapy, particularly in children with orofacial granulomatosis. Management of orofacial granulomatosis is challenging but cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets appear to have a definite role to play.
... Działanie hipolipemizujące dobrze udokumentowano w badaniach wykonanych przez Rekha i wsp., w których za model doświadczalny posłużyły szczury z wywołaną streptozotocyną cukrzycą typu 2. Stwierdzono, że przyjmowanie 200 mg/kg m.c. wodnego ekstraktu z C. zeylanicum przez 15 dni obniżyło stężenia cholesterolu Cynamon Cynamon jest jedną z najbardziej rozpowszechnionych przypraw na świecie, otrzymywany z suszonej kory wiecznie zielonych drzew, rosnących głównie w południowej części Azji (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) oraz Azji Południowo-Wschodniej (Cinnamomum cassium) [80]. Ogółem, do rodzaju Cinnamomum należy ponad 250 gatunków [69]. ...
... Dodaje się go także do gum do żucia, ze względu na jego działanie odświeżające [69]. Olejek otrzymywany z kory znajduje również zastosowanie w wytwarzaniu perfum, kosmetyków i mydła [80]. Głównym związkiem występującym w korze jest aldehyd cynamonowy. ...
... Głównym związkiem występującym w korze jest aldehyd cynamonowy. Cynamon zawiera również związki, takie jak: alkohol cynamonowy, kumaryny, kwasy fenolowe, terpeny, węglowodany i garbniki [80]. Istnieje wiele dowodów wskazujących na dobroczynne działanie cynamonu na układ krążenia. ...
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Literature data indicate that, due to these diseases, approximately 17.5 million people died in 2012. Types of cardiovascular disease include ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia. Proper nutrition is an important factor in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. An interesting element of our diets is spices. For thousands of years, they have been used in the treatment of many diseases: bacterial infections, coughs, colds, and liver diseases. Many studies also demonstrate their antioxidant, chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. This paper focuses on discussing the importance of selected spices (garlic, cinnamon, ginger, coriander and turmeric) in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
... Due to the increasing prevalence of PCOS and its association with physical and mental problems, this study aimed to review and document the effects of cinnamon extract on serum levels of lipid profile, insulin resistance, and sex hormones as well as ovarian tissue in women with PCOS. Cinnamon has benefits in improving problematic blood glucose regulation resulting from type 2 diabetes and obesity, improved insulin resistance, lower blood cholesterol concentrations, and blood pressure (27). Also, cinnamon's antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antimicrobial activity have been shown previously (27). ...
... Cinnamon has benefits in improving problematic blood glucose regulation resulting from type 2 diabetes and obesity, improved insulin resistance, lower blood cholesterol concentrations, and blood pressure (27). Also, cinnamon's antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antimicrobial activity have been shown previously (27). Cinnamon spp can reduce the adverse effects of PCOS. ...
Article
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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a common female gynecological endocrinopathy disorder with ages ranging from 18 to 45 years. PCOS significantly increases the risk of infertility, cardiovascular diseases, and type II diabetes in women. Cinnamon has a strong history of decreasing insulin resistance and treatment of PCOS. Therefore, we aim to review the effects of the cinnamon herb and extract on changes in the serum levels of sex hormones and ovarian tissue, metabolic activity, lipid profile, and insulin resistance.
... Cinnamon, one of the most commonly used spices worldwide next to black pepper for centuries, is primarily grown in South Asia and Southeast Asia (Singletary, 2008). It is obtained from the dried inner brown bark of trees from the genus Cinnamomum and known to have high dietary fibre content. ...
... Results from several in vitro experiments have demonstrated that cinnamon may act as an insulin mimetic which potentiates insulin activity and stimulates cellular glucose metabolism (Jarvill-Taylor, Anderson & Graves, 2001;Anderson et al., 2004). In foods, it conveys a sense of warmth and sweetness and thus has been used as flavouring agent in various products such as baked goods, meat dishes, fruit preparations and beverages such as tea and coffee (Singletary, 2008). ...
... Cinnamon, one of the most commonly used spices worldwide next to black pepper for centuries, is primarily grown in South Asia and Southeast Asia (Singletary, 2008). It is obtained from the dried inner brown bark of trees from the genus Cinnamomum and known to have high dietary fibre content. ...
... Results from several in vitro experiments have demonstrated that cinnamon may act as an insulin mimetic which potentiates insulin activity and stimulates cellular glucose metabolism (Jarvill-Taylor, Anderson & Graves, 2001;Anderson et al., 2004). In foods, it conveys a sense of warmth and sweetness and thus has been used as flavouring agent in various products such as baked goods, meat dishes, fruit preparations and beverages such as tea and coffee (Singletary, 2008). ...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Glycaemic index (GI) is the value given to carbohydrate-containing foods indicating the blood glucose response they elicit. Reduced GI is believed to prevent diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC) is an excellent edible oyster mushroom featuring high nutritional values and medicinal properties. This study aimed to determine glycaemic index as well as the nutritional values and sensory properties of cinnamon biscuit formulated with PSC powder. Methods: Four formulations of cinnamon biscuit formulated with different levels of PSC powder were developed and their nutritional values including proximate, sucrose, dietary fibre (DF) compositions and β-glucan were analysed according to AOAC method. Based on international-recognised GI methodology (WHO), a controlled crossover clinical trial involving seven experiment sessions was carried out to determine GI of the test foods by eleven healthy participants. Sensory properties of the biscuits were also evaluated using 7-hedonic scaling method. Results: The DF, β-glucan, protein and ash content of cinnamon biscuits were increased proportional to the levels of PSC powder incorporated. The GI of cinnamon biscuit was also markedly reduced by the addition of 8 (GI=49) and 12% (GI=47) PSC powder as compared to control cinnamon biscuit. From the aspects of colour, aroma, appearance and flavour, incorporation level of PSC into cinnamon biscuit could be up to 8% to obtain sensory acceptable biscuit. Conclusion: Incorporation of 8% PSC powder in cinnamon biscuit could be an effective way to develop nutritious and low-GI cinnamon biscuit without jeopardizing apparently its desirable sensorial properties. Keyword: Pleurotus sajor saju; cinnamon biscuit; glycaemic index, nutritional values, sensory acceptability
... The pungent taste and smell comes from cinnamaldehyde, an antimicrobial agent [10]. Cinnamaldehyde can also be found naturally in blueberries and cranberries [11]. Other components of cinnamon and cassia include phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins [12,13], cinnamyl alcohol, terpenes, carbohydrates, coumarin, and tannins [11]. ...
... Cinnamaldehyde can also be found naturally in blueberries and cranberries [11]. Other components of cinnamon and cassia include phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins [12,13], cinnamyl alcohol, terpenes, carbohydrates, coumarin, and tannins [11]. Although cassia contains much less cinnamaldehyde than cinnamon, it is much richer in coumarin [14,15]. ...
Article
Objectives: The effect of cinnamaldehyde on the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) was investigated in rat model. Methods: Twenty-eight female Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (control) (C), Group 2 (AR with no treatment) (AR+NoTr), Group 3 (AR+Azelastine HCl) (AR+Aze), and Group 4 (AR+cinnamaldehyde) (AR+Cin). At day 21, AR+Aze rats were given an Azelastine HCl drop, and AR+Cin rats were given cinnamaldehyde intranasally. In all groups, allergic symptoms histopathological results were evaluated. Results: The AR+NoTr group showed the worst allergic symptoms, cilia loss and greater inflammation. In the AR+Aze and AR+Cin groups, allergic symptom scores were higher than those in the control group. However, between AR+Aze and AR+Cin groups, there were no significant differences in the allergic symptom scores Histopathological analysis revealed vascular congestion and an increase in goblet cell numbers in the AR+Cin group. However, AR+Cin rat nasal mucosa had less plasma cell infiltration compared with the AR+NoTr group. In rats from the AR+Aze group, analysis of the nasal mucosa revealed less eosinophil infiltration than that seen in the AR+NoTr group. A lower score for mast cell (MC) infiltration was observed in the nasal mucosa of rats treated with Azelastine HCl compared with cinnamaldehyde. Conclusions: In this study we observed that both Azelastine HCl and cinnamaldehyde reduced allergic symptoms in an AR rat model. Cinnamaldehyde decreased vascular congestion as well as plasma cell, eosinophil, and inflammatory cell infiltration into the lamina propria.
... Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Verum) is one of the spices that has been used for thousands of years for its enhancement of taste and its potential medical benefits [5]. It is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. ...
... Cinnamon is one of the most commonly used spices worldwide. It is prepared from the dried inner bark of evergreen trees grown in South Asia (Ceylon cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and Southeast Asia (Chinese cinnamon or cassia, Cinnamomum cassia) (Singletary, 2008). The bark or oil has been used to combat microorganisms, diarrhea and other GI disorders and dysmenorrhea. ...
Article
A variety of herbs has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. However, evidence is limited regarding the efficacy of individual herbs for glycemic control. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of herbal supplement on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Randomized controlled trials were identified through electronic searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) up until February 2011, historical searches of relevant articles and personal contact with experts in the area. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they were (1) randomized placebo-controlled trial of single herb aimed at assessing glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, (2) of at least 8 weeks duration, and (3) reporting HbA(1c). Treatment effect was estimated with mean difference in the final value of HbA(1c) and FBG between the treatment and the placebo groups. Nine randomized, placebo-controlled trials (n = 487 patients) were identified. Ipomoea batatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum significantly improved glycemic control, whereas Cinnamomum cassia did not. The pooled mean differences in HbA(1c) were -0.30% (95% CI -0.04% to -0.57%; P = 0.02), -1.92% (95% CI -0.51% to -3.32%; P = 0.008), and -1.13% (95% CI -0.11% to -2.14%; P = 0.03), respectively, for Ipomoea batatas, Silybum marianum, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The corresponding values for FBG were -10.20mg/dL (95% CI -5.32 mg/dL to -15.08 mg/dL; P<0.0001) and -38.05 mg/dL (95% CI -9.54 mg/dL to -66.57 mg/dL; P = 0.009), respectively, for Ipomoea batatas and Silybum marianum. The current evidence suggests that supplementation with Ipomoea batatas, Silybum marianum, and Trigonella foenum-graecum may improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Such effect was not observed with Cinnamomum cassia. Given the limitations of the available studies and high heterogeneity of the study results for milk thistle and fenugreek, further high quality, large controlled trials using standardized preparation are warranted to better elucidate the effects of these herbs on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients.
... Głównym związkiem występującym w korze jest aldehyd cynamonowy. Cynamon zawiera również alkohol cynamonowy, kumaryny, kwasy fenolowe, terpeny, węglowodany i garbniki [13]. Występuje w formie sproszkowanej oraz w postaci zwiniętych w rulon kawałków, ma barwę rdzawą i dzięki zawartemu w nim olejkowi cynamonowemu ma silny aromat i charakterystyczny słodkawo-korzenny, lekko piekący smak. ...
Article
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Celem pracy było określenie wpływu dodatku cynamonu na przeżywalność dwóch potencjalnie probiotycznych szczepów bakterii: Lactobacillis rhamnosus K3, Lactobacillus brevis O24 oraz na jakość sensoryczną probiotycznych musów dyniowo-jabłkowych, przechowywanych w temp. 5 ºC przez 21 dni. Zakres pracy obejmował produkcję probiotycznych musów dyniowo-jabłkowych w warunkach laboratoryjnych, oznaczenie liczby bakterii dwóch wymienionych szczepów, pomiar wartości pH oraz ocenę jakości sensorycznej produktów. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono istotny wpływ czasu przechowywania na liczbę bakterii Lactobacillis rhamnosus K3 i Lactobacillus brevis O24 w musach jabłkowo-dyniowych bez względu na poziom dodawanego cynamonu. Po upływie 7 dni przechowywania produktów w temp. 5 ºC odnotowano statystycznie istotne zwiększenie liczby bakterii we wszystkich produktach z wyjątkiem musu zawierającego szczep bakterii Lactobacillis rhamnosus K3 i dodatek przyprawy na poziomie 3 % przy jednoczesnym obniżeniu wartości pH. Liczba bakterii potencjalnie probiotycznych szczepów Lactobacillis rhamnosus K3 oraz Lactobacillus brevis O24 utrzymywała się na wysokim poziomie, tj. powyżej 7 log jtk/g produktu przez cały okres chłodniczego przechowywania musów dyniowo-jabłkowych. Dodatek sproszkowanego cynamonu na poziomie 6 %, wpływał na nieznaczne obniżenie ogólnej jakości sensorycznej musów. W produktach tych zaobserwowano wyższą intensywność odczucia smaku i zapachu innego, określanego jako „cynamonowy”. Przez cały okres przechowywania produkty charakteryzowały się wysoką jakością sensoryczną (średnia ogólna jakość sensoryczna wynosiła powyżej 6,3 j.u). Szczepy potencjalnie probiotycznych bakterii Lactobacillis rhamnosus K3 i Lactobacillus brevis O24 mogą być wykorzystywane do produkcji musów dyniowo-jabłkowych o akceptowanej jakości sensorycznej i odpowiedniej liczbie komórek bakterii warunkujących właściwości probiotyczne produktu finalnego.
... Cinnamon is spice derived from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum, which has been used for thousands of years as a food flavoring with potential health effects [29]. Due to cinnamon having several potential health benefits such as antioxidant and insulin-sensitizing properties, this natural botanical product has recently become the subject of numerous studies conducted by many scientists around the world [30,31]. ...
Article
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver diseases, and is closely related to metabolic syndrome and its related conditions, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. On the other hand, NAFLD as a multisystem disease increases the risk of several chronic diseases include type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and chronic kidney disease. The main objective was to review the efficacy of bioactive natural compounds assessed by clinical trials. Search literature using four databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Ovid Medline) to review publications that focused on the impact of bioactive natural compounds in NAFLD treatment. Due to the lack of effective pharmacological treatments available for NAFLD, lifestyle modifications such as following a healthy diet, vigorous physical activity, and weight reduction remain the first line of treatment for NAFLD. However, due to the poor adherence to this type of treatment, especially for long-term weight loss diets some of which may have harmful effects on the liver, finding novel therapeutic agents for NAFLD treatment and/or preventing NAFLD progression has garnered significant interest. Although the therapeutic agents of NAFLD treatment have been reviewed previously, to date, no summary has been conducted of clinical trials examining the effects of herbal compounds on NAFLD-related biomarkers. This review highlights the beneficial role of herbal bioactives and medicinal plants in NAFLD treatment, particularly as complementary to a healthy lifestyle. All natural products described in this review seem to have some benefits to improve oxidative stress, cellular inflammation and insulin-resistance, which always remain as the "primum movens" of NAFLD pathogenesis.
... Cinnamon is well known for its flavoring and aromatic properties and is used in various foods, bakeries, sweets, and drinks as a flavoring agent. [13,20] Cinnamon is also used as a flavoring agent in pharmaceutical preparations such as toothpastes, mouth fresheners, and mouthwashes. Cinnamon is used in the Western cuisine with other natural products such as clove, anise, and nutmeg in baked gingerbread. ...
Article
Background Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) is a herb that is used traditionally as a flavoring agent as well as for its health benefits in different parts of the world. Its use may vary among cultures. Aim To observe the knowledge and uses regarding cinnamon in the Saudi population. Materials and Methods A 2-month cross-sectional study was conducted in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, using a novel questionnaire in Arabic language. Results A total of 585 responses were collected. Most respondents were female (91.5%), adults (74.4%), married (65.6%), and had bachelor’s degree (58.1%). A total of 84.3% knew about cinnamon and used cinnamon as bark (38.6%) and as a flavoring agent (74.7%). Most common reason for use was to ease menstruation and menstrual pain (49.9%), as antidiabetic (35.9%), and for weight loss (5.6%). The source of information for cinnamon use and its knowledge was family and relatives who were using cinnamon (75.9%), that is, folkloric use. Conclusion Folkloric use of cinnamon was found to influence the knowledge and usage of cinnamon in the Saudi population.
... Cinnamon is well known for its flavoring and aromatic properties and is used in various foods, bakeries, sweets, and drinks as a flavoring agent. [13,20] Cinnamon is also used as a flavoring agent in pharmaceutical preparations such as toothpastes, mouth fresheners, and mouthwashes. Cinnamon is used in the Western cuisine with other natural products such as clove, anise, and nutmeg in baked gingerbread. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) is a herb that is used traditionally as a flavoring agent as well as for its health benefits in different parts of the world. Its use may vary among cultures. Aim: To observe the knowledge and uses regarding cinnamon in the Saudi population. Materials and Methods: A 2-month cross-sectional study was conducted in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, using a novel questionnaire in Arabic language. Results: A total of 585 responses were collected. Most respondents were female (91.5%), adults (74.4%), married (65.6%), and had bachelor's degree (58.1%). A total of 84.3% knew about cinnamon and used cinnamon as bark (38.6%) and as a flavoring agent (74.7%). Most common reason for use was to ease menstruation and menstrual pain (49.9%), as antidiabetic (35.9%), and for weight loss (5.6%). The source of information for cinnamon use and its knowledge was family and relatives who were using cinnamon (75.9%), that is, folkloric use. Conclusion: Folkloric use of cinnamon was found to influence the knowledge and usage of cinnamon in the Saudi population.
... Cinnamon has excellent anti-fungal properties. Cinnamon has been reported to reduces blood sugar levels, improve stability against insulin hormone and protect against HIV as well as it lower risk of heart diseases (Singletary 2008). A drink was developed by the consolidation of ginger and carbon dioxide. ...
Article
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The need for production of more health‐promoting, nutraceutical properties and affordable drinks prompted the idea of establishing ginger‐based beverages. This study is aimed to produce a new innovative ready to drink splash of ginger. Standard methods were applied for sensory analysis and physicochemical (proximate) analysis. Among the various combinations, the newly developed ginger-based beverage containing 2.0g/10ml ginger extract was found to be better for its nutritional quality and sensory evaluation. Both of the products, control and newly established ginger-based beverage have been found highly acceptable according to sensory evaluation. The acidity, pH, brix, ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity and IC50 of newly developed ginger-based beverage were found to be 26%, 3.0, 9.4%, 18.1%, and 85.65ppm respectively. On the sensory and microbiological point of view, the presently developed ginger-based beverage was found highly acceptable. Analysis during storage for a period 60 days shows good quality attributes of ginger splash. A reducing trend was observed in ascorbic acid and in acidity content during storage. The pH has been observed increased by the passage of time. Ascorbic acid content of ginger splash was observed to be changes significantly during storage period. The newly developed ginger splash also has the market competent price therefore the product is likely to gain the attraction of consumer and improves the market trends.
... Cinnamomumverum Possesses antioxidant, antifungal, antibiotic, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties, and is even effective against some drug-resistant fungi; fights diabetes and reduces heart disease is anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antidiabetic [26]. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has halted activities in the global tourism industry, and the situation has only been worsened by the general air of uncertainty and lack of effective vaccinations. Consequently, people have begun testing various remedies to enhance their immunity, primarily turning to traditional medical practices and home remedies. The medicinal use of spices, given their immune-boosting properties, is increasingly popular globally and has enhanced global awareness of spices and their products. In light of this surging popularity, this study examines spice tourism as a concept of niche tourism. This study proposes spice tourism as a valuable post-COVID-19 strategy by providing four different approaches to position spice tourism within special interest tourism. This paper also suggests a tourism development plan for spice tourism and proposes a strategy for its resilience post-COVID-19.
... [13] Cinnamon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Verum) is one of the spices that has been used for thousands of years for its enhancement of taste and its potential medical benefits. [14] It is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum) comes from the spruce that classified in Myrtaceae family. ...
Article
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Hair colour is one of the oldest and most well-known cosmetics that have been used by many ancient cultures in different parts of the world for not only women but also for men. Synthetic oxidative hair dyes available in the market contain combination of peroxide and ammonia which damage hair and causes allergic reactions. Also, Further the people using synthetic dyes are exposed the risk of breast cancer, urinary bladder cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Hair dyes derived from plants to solve these problems and are safe to use. A few of these natural herbals are henna, clove, cinnamon, beets, fenugreek seeds, walnuts¸ etc. The developed oil hair colour may provide multifunctional effects such as softening¸ conditioning effect, promotion of growth and density of hair¸ etc. In this article, the types of used plants for hair colour and hair care products are discussed. [1]
... These compounds make cinnamon one of the most beneficial spices with antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-microbial, immune and anticancer activity. Cinnamaldehyde is the major constituent of the cinnamon bark (Today, 2016). The antioxidants such as polyphenols and proanthocyanidins which present in cinnamon cause to improve the immune system and has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. ...
Article
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Traditional Sri Lankan medicine system has been around for over 3000 years. Despite the lack of substantial scientific evidence, Sri Lanka's traditional medicines have gained impressive acceptability over their more western counterparts. One well traditional soup the "lunukanda" is an herbal soup that has found its way to modern times. However scientific researches on its effectiveness against disease conditions is scarce. Its position as a herbal beverage which generally imparts aspects of health and wellness. The "lunukanda" is a spicy soup consist of many ingredients, mainly rice(Oryza sativa), cumin(Cuminum cyminum), coriander(Coriandrum sativum), fenugreek(Trigonella Foenum), garlic(Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), tamarind(Tamarindus indica), ginger(Zingiber officinale), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii), rampe(Pandanus amaryllifolius), lemongrass(Cymbopogon citratus), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), cloves(Syzygium aromaticum), Cardamom (Elettaria cardmomum), black pepper(Piper nigrum) and water. Those have many kinds of macro and micronutrients such as carbohydrate, protein, vitamins, minerals, etc. and herbs active ingredients like compounds that beneficial to human health. Therefore the lunukanda soup have antidiabetic and anticancer effect and good for the human gastrointestinal system. It increase the immunity system and also have antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and diuretic activities. So that lunukanda is a traditional functional beverage in Sri Lanka.
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Background: Dioxins and other environmental pollutants are toxic and remain in biological tissues for a long time leading to various levels of oxidative stress. Although the toxicity of these agents has been linked to activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), no effective treatment has been developed. Objective: To explore novel phytochemicals that inhibit AHR activation in keratinocytes. Methods: Keratinocytes were used in this study because the skin is one of the organs most affected by dioxin and other environmental pollutants. HaCaT cells, which are a human keratinocyte cell line, and normal human epidermal keratinocytes were stimulated with benzo[a]pyrene to induce AHR activation, and the effects of traditional Japanese Kampo herbal formulae were analyzed. Quantification of mRNA, western blotting, immunofluorescence localization of molecules, siRNA silencing, and visualization of oxidative stress were performed. Results: Cinnamomum cassia extract and its major constituent cinnamaldehyde significantly inhibited the activation of AHR. Cinnamaldehyde also activated the NRF2/HO1 pathway and significantly alleviated the production of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes. The inhibition of AHR signaling and the activation of antioxidant activity by cinnamaldehyde operated in a mutually independent manner as assessed by siRNA methods In addition, AHR signaling was effectively inhibited by traditional Kampo formulae containing C. cassia. Conclusion: Cinnamaldehyde has two independent biological activities; namely, an inhibitory action on AHR activation and an antioxidant effect mediated by NRF2/HO1 signaling. Through these dual functions, cinnamaldehyde may be beneficial for the treatment of disorders related to oxidative stress such as dioxin intoxication, acne, and vitiligo.
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Over the last decades, an exponential increase of efforts concerning the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been practiced. Phytochemicals preparations have a millenary background to combat various pathological conditions. Various cinnamon species and their biologically active ingredients have renewed the interest towards the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate AD through the inhibition of tau protein aggregation and prevention of the formation and accumulation of amyloid-β peptides into the neurotoxic oligomeric inclusions, both of which are considered to be the AD trademarks. In this review, we presented comprehensive data on the interactions of a number of cinnamon polyphenols (PPs) with oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory signaling pathways in the brain. In addition, we discussed the potential association between AD and diabetes mellitus (DM), vis-à-vis the effluence of cinnamon PPs. Further, an upcoming prospect of AD epigenetic pathophysiological conditions and cinnamon has been sighted. Data was retrieved from the scientific databases such as PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine, Scopus and Google Scholar without any time limitation. The extract of cinnamon efficiently inhibits tau accumulations, Aβ aggregation and toxicity in vivo and in vitro models. Indeed, cinnamon possesses neuroprotective effects interfering multiple oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory pathways. Besides, cinnamon modulates endothelial functions and attenuates the vascular cell adhesion molecules. Cinnamon PPs may induce AD epigenetic modifications. Cinnamon and in particular, cinnamaldehyde seem to be effective and safe approaches for treatment and prevention of AD onset and/or progression. However, further molecular and translational research studies as well as prolonged clinical trials are required to establish the therapeutic safety and efficacy in different cinnamon spp.
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The study evaluated the recovery performance of any home herbs group as first aid in some emergency cases. The study involved 10 items of herbs (chamomile, black pepper, cloves, cinnamon, and anise) which used in acute cases such as cold, colic, inflammation of the intestine and tonsillitis, and (hibiscus, catnip, dried lime, cress seed, and ginger) were used for chronic cases such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and arthritis. The results showed the herbs had healing power and efficiency in the primary remedy for the above-mentioned diseases. The side effects, the contradictions, and the overdoses of these substances were discussed. It was concluded that home herbs could be used for treatment in emergency cases until modern medical assistance is obtained, if use is made within the limits of the permissible and recommended amounts by approved health organizations and departments.
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The term 'orofacial granulomatosis' (OFG) is a descriptor for the presentation of granulomatous inflammation which affects, most noticeably, the lips and face but invariably intraoral features are also present and can include swelling, erythema, nodules, tags and ulcers. The diagnosis is made through oral examination and the gold standard histological diagnostic criteria require the presence of noncasaeating granulomas observed in the biopsies taken from the disease sites. Dietary treatments have involved exclusion diets and have demonstrated some resolution when the offending food can be readily identified. The most frequently used dietary treatment avoids cinnamon and benzoate. This chapter outlines mechanisms involved in dietary avoidance of cinnamon and benzoates in OFG, and tabulates sources of cinnamon and benzoates. It considers the other dietary factors include flavourings, chocolate, tomato and soya.
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Crude aqueous bark extract of Cinnamon loureiroi. was evaluated for counter irritant activity. Irritation was induced by the clockwise frictional movement of fine sand paper to the ear of rabbits of average 1.5 kg body weight. The counter-irritant activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in redness and erythma with those of control. cinnamon extract (25, 50, 75, 100µg / 10 ml) showed counter irritant when compared with standard drug dexamethasone. All the extracts, showed the counter irritant activity. Highest (91.97% inhibition) and the lowest (41.39 % inhibition) respectively.
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Crude aqueous bark extract of Cinnamon loureiroi. was evaluated for anti-emetic potential. Emesis was induced by the oral administration of copper sulphate and fresh aqueous extract of Brassica compestris to male chicks of fifteen days age. The anti-emetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in number of retching in contrast with those of control. Cinnamon (3 and 6 mg / kg body weight orally) showed anti-emetic activity when compared with standard drugs Chlorpromazine , Domperidone and Metoclopramide. Both the extracts, showed the antiemetic activity, highest (79.22% inhibition) and the lowest (58. 94 % inhibition) in copper sulphate induced emesis and highest (81.91%) and the lowest(59.57%) in Brassica compestris induced emesis .
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Labneh cheese is a concentrated yoghurt based cheese with 40% solids, generally stored in olive oil at room temperature for extended shelf life. It is mostly served in Middle Eastern countries with shredded herbs on consumer demand which are excellent source of vitamins, minerals and biologically active compounds. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of four culinary herbs (mint, poppy seeds, cinnamon and basil) on the properties and shelf life of labneh cheese prepared from whole buffalo milk. Five samples were prepared (one with each herb as four treatments and one without herb as a control) and were coated with sufficient quantity of olive oil for preservation. The samples were analyzed on weekly basis for physicochemical (pH, acidity), compositional (moisture, ash, fat, protein fractions (total protein, non-protein nitrogen and non- casein nitrogen), total solids, lactose, mineral contents), rheological (texture-firmness), microbiological (total viable count, coliforms) and organoleptic properties during storage period of 21 days at 4±1°C. The least pH decrease was observed in basil added cheese i.e. 1.46 whereas the highest was in cinnamon added cheese i.e. 2.15 after 21 days. The highest increase in acidity was observed in control i.e. 0.64% as compared to culinary added cheese samples which showed increase in the range of 0.3-0.4%. The moisture, fat, total protein, non-casein nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, total solids and lactose contents showed slight differences during storage. A slight decrease in ash contents was observed throughout the storage period in all samples, the least in poppy seeds added cheese i.e. 0.02% whereas the highest in control and cinnamon added cheese i.e. 0.14%. The calcium contents of labneh cheese samples decreased with the addition of herbs; whereas the phosphorous contents increased. Firmness of labneh cheese samples decreased significantly during storage may be due to penetration of oil into the product. Total viable counts started to decrease from second week of storage. Culinary herbs and storage time influenced the organoleptic scores as well. Results indicated that culinary herbs significantly affected the overall quality of labneh cheese during storage and covering with olive oil after further concentration upto 40% total solids improved its keeping quality by preserving the nutrients.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this review is to address the consumer’s preferences that have varied greatly in the past decade appraising the use of flavor and aroma compounds in the development of functional foods rather than consuming artificial additives. A growing interest in natural flavoring agents and preservatives have made the researchers to explore the other bio-functional properties of natural flavors beyond their ability to give a remarkable flavor to the food. Design/methodology/approach In this review, five major flavoring agents used significantly in food industries have been discussed for their bioactive profile and promising health benefits. Vanilla, coffee, cardamom, saffron and cinnamon, despite being appreciated as natural flavors, have got impressive health benefits due to functional ingredients, which are being used for the development of nutraceuticals. Findings Flavoring and coloring compounds of these products have shown positive results in the prevention of several diseases including carcinoma and neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Such effects are attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds, which possesses free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory antiviral and antimicrobial properties. These properties not only show a preventive mechanism against diseases but also makes the food product shelf-stable by imparting antimicrobial effects. Originality/value This paper highlights the opportunities to increase the use of such natural flavoring agents over synthetic aroma compounds to develop novel functional foods. Phenols, carotenoids and flavonoids are the major health-promoting components of these highly valued aroma ingredients.
Chapter
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is exponentially increasing serious chronic liver disease around the world, characterized by abnormal accumulation of triglycerides in the liver with no or little alcohol consumption, affecting about one-third of the population in western countries. In the US, NAFLD is the second leading cause of liver transplantation and is becoming the second cause of death in the general population [2]. NAFLD is an umbrella term encompassing a range of hepatic disorders, leading from simple hepatic steatosis to NASH, and fibrosis to cirrhosis [3]. A sedentary lifestyle along with high caloric diet intake remains the main cause of NAFLD in industrialized countries. Various studies have shown that NAFLD is a multisystem disorder augmenting the risk of many other diseases, including T2D, kidney diseases, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Notably, among NAFLD patients, CVD remains the main cause of demise [4]. The multifactorial nature of NAFLD is associated with multiplex pathogenesis[1,5]. The physiopathology of disease (NAFLD) was earlier elucidated based on the “two-hit hypothesis” proposing that accumulation of TG’s or the steatosis is the first hit and the inflammation triggered by the cytokines and the adipokines leading to NASH or fibrosis is the second hit [6]. The “multiple-hit hypothesis” proposes numerous insults acting simultaneously on predisposed genetic subjects promoting NAFLD. Multiple factors like nutritional factors, insulin resistance, hormones secreted by adipose tissue, gut microbiota, epigenetic along with genetic factors are included in multiple
Article
The potential health benefits of spices, used as flavor enhancers since ancient times, are being explored more and more by researchers in animal and in vitro models. The application of mood and emotion constructs to understand the consumer psyche is a relatively new area of study in food science. The main objective of our study was to determine if spices (a blend of cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves) that have high antioxidant properties evoke/change emotions in consumers. The carrier food, an extruded apple-based cereal-like product, was selected because cereals are convenient and consumed by many. Three cereal-like products containing 0, 4, or a 5% spice blend were extruded at Kansas State University. Four consumer tests, one day of hedonic and just-about-right evaluations (n= 100), followed by three days of emotion testing were carried out. For the emotion tests, 25 consumers saw the control sample three times, 25 consumers saw the 4% blend sample three times, 25 consumers saw the 5% blend sample three times, and 25 consumers saw all three samples once. In a clinical trial (n=10), total antioxidant capacity and blood glucose levels were determined from two samples (control and the 4% blend). The data were subjected to analysis of variance and principal components analysis to determine significant effects and trends in the data, respectively. ‘Calm’ was the only emotion that was significantly different in all three samples, which decreased over time (pre-consumption to 1-hour post consumption). The emotion ‘Satisfied’ increased significantly in the 5% blend showing that there might have been an effect because of the higher spice content. The PCAs showed that for the 4% and 5% blends, the movement of the consumers was towards emotions such as active, energetic, and enthusiastic. There were no trends for the control. For the clinical trial, the 4% blend was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in total antioxidant capacity than the baseline, although the differences in absolute terms are debatable. Blood glucose levels were not significantly different. Future research needs to be done to better understand how individual emotions affect overall liking and product acceptance. Master of Science Masters Food Science Institute, Human Ecology Koushik Adhikari
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The present study was designed to investigate whether cinnamon bark extract (CBEt) mitigates the adverse effects of fructose loading on glucose metabolism and lipid profile in rats. Adult male albino rats of body weight 150-170 g were divided into five groups and fed with either control or high fructose diet (HFD). CBEt was administered to HFD-fed rats orally at two doses (a low and a high dose) while the control diet-fed rats were treated with a high dose of CBEt. The treatment protocol was carried out for 60 days after which the oral glucose tolerance test was carried out. Biochemical parameters related to glucose metabolism and lipid profile were assayed. The levels of glucose, insulin and protein-bound sugars were higher and activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism were altered in HFD-fed rats, as compared to control animals. The levels were brought back to near-normal when administered with CBEt at high dose. CBEt also prevented the hyperlipidaemia observed in fructose-fed rats and improved glucose tolerance. CBEt did not show any significant effect in fructose-fed rats when administered at low dose. These findings indicate the improvement of glucose metabolism in-vivo by CBEt in fructose-fed rats.
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The objective of this study was to determine whether cinnamon improves blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes. A total of 60 people with type 2 diabetes, 30 men and 30 women aged 52.2 +/- 6.32 years, were divided randomly into six groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 consumed 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon daily, respectively, and groups 4, 5, and 6 were given placebo capsules corresponding to the number of capsules consumed for the three levels of cinnamon. The cinnamon was consumed for 40 days followed by a 20-day washout period. After 40 days, all three levels of cinnamon reduced the mean fasting serum glucose (18-29%), triglyceride (23-30%), LDL cholesterol (7-27%), and total cholesterol (12-26%) levels; no significant changes were noted in the placebo groups. Changes in HDL cholesterol were not significant. The results of this study demonstrate that intake of 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes and suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
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The causes and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus are not clear, but there is strong evidence that dietary factors are involved in its regulation and prevention. We have shown that extracts from cinnamon enhance the activity of insulin. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize insulin-enhancing complexes from cinnamon that may be involved in the alleviation or possible prevention and control of glucose intolerance and diabetes. Water-soluble polyphenol polymers from cinnamon that increase insulin-dependent in vitro glucose metabolism roughly 20-fold and display antioxidant activity were isolated and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. The polymers were composed of monomeric units with a molecular mass of 288. Two trimers with a molecular mass of 864 and a tetramer with a mass of 1152 were isolated. Their protonated molecular masses indicated that they are A type doubly linked procyanidin oligomers of the catechins and/or epicatechins. These polyphenolic polymers found in cinnamon may function as antioxidants, potentiate insulin action, and may be beneficial in the control of glucose intolerance and diabetes.
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In vitro and in vivo animal studies have reported strong insulin-like or insulin-potentiating effects after cinnamon administration. Recently, a human intervention study showed that cinnamon supplementation (1 g/d) strongly reduced fasting blood glucose concentration (30%) and improved the blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon supplementation on insulin sensitivity and/or glucose tolerance and blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, a total of 25 postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes (aged 62.9 +/- 1.5 y, BMI 30.4 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) participated in a 6-wk intervention during which they were supplemented with either cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia, 1.5 g/d) or a placebo. Before and after 2 and 6 wk of supplementation, arterialized blood samples were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Blood lipid profiles and multiple indices of whole-body insulin sensitivity were determined. There were no time x treatment interactions for whole-body insulin sensitivity or oral glucose tolerance. The blood lipid profile of fasting subjects did not change after cinnamon supplementation. We conclude that cinnamon supplementation (1.5 g/d) does not improve whole-body insulin sensitivity or oral glucose tolerance and does not modulate blood lipid profile in postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes. More research on the proposed health benefits of cinnamon supplementation is warranted before health claims should be made.
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Redox sensitive, pro-inflammatory nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a key role in both inflammation and aging processes. In a redox state disrupted by oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory genes are upregulated by the activation of NF-kappaB through diverse kinases. Thus, the search and characterization of new substances that modulate NF-kappaB are of recent research interest. Cinnamaldehyde (CNA) is the major component of cinnamon bark oil, which has been widely used as a flavoring agent in foodstuffs such as beverages and ice cream. In the present study, CNA was examined for its molecular modulation of inflammatory NF-kappaB activation via the redox-related NIK/IKK and MAPK pathways through the reduction of oxidative stress. Results show that age-related NF-kappaB activation upregulated NF-kappaB targeting genes, inflammatory iNOS, and COX-2, all of which were inhibited effectively by CNA. Our study further shows that CNA inhibited the activation of NF-kappaB via three signal transduction pathways, NIK/IKK, ERK, and p38 MAPK. Our results indicate that CNA's antioxidative effect and the restoration of redox balance were responsible for its anti-inflammatory action. Thus, the significance of the current study is the new information revealing the anti-inflammatory properties of CNA and the role it plays in the regulation of age-related alterations in signal transduction pathways.
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Previous studies of patients with type 2 diabetes showed that cinnamon lowers fasting serum glucose, triacylglycerol, and LDL- and total cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to study the effect of cinnamon on the rate of gastric emptying, the postprandial blood glucose response, and satiety in healthy subjects. The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured by using standardized real-time ultrasonography. Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed by using a crossover trial. The subjects were examined after an 8-h fast if they had normal fasting blood glucose concentrations. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15-90 min after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding (GER1) or 300 g rice pudding and 6 g cinnamon (GER2). The median value of GER1 was 37%, and that of GER2 was 34.5%. The addition of cinnamon to the rice pudding significantly delayed gastric emptying and lowered the postprandial glucose response (P < 0.05 for both). The reduction in the postprandial blood glucose concentration was much more noticeable and pronounced than was the lowering of the GER. The effect of cinnamon on satiety was not significant. The intake of 6 g cinnamon with rice pudding reduces postprandial blood glucose and delays gastric emptying without affecting satiety. Inclusion of cinnamon in the diet lowers the postprandial glucose response, a change that is at least partially explained by a delayed GER.
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To perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cinnamon to better characterize its impact on glucose and plasma lipids. A systematic literature search through July 2007 was conducted to identify randomized placebo-controlled trials of cinnamon that reported data on A1C, fasting blood glucose (FBG), or lipid parameters. The mean change in each study end point from baseline was treated as a continuous variable, and the weighted mean difference was calculated as the difference between the mean value in the treatment and control groups. A random-effects model was used. Five prospective randomized controlled trials (n = 282) were identified. Upon meta-analysis, the use of cinnamon did not significantly alter A1C, FBG, or lipid parameters. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses did not significantly change the results. Cinnamon does not appear to improve A1C, FBG, or lipid parameters in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
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Common (Cinnamomum verum, C. zeylanicum) and cassia (C. aromaticum) cinnamon have a long history of use as spices and flavouring agents. A number of pharmacological and clinical effects have been observed with their use. The objective of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature for preclinical and clinical evidence of safety, efficacy, and pharmacological activity of common and cassia cinnamon. Using the principles of evidence-based practice, we searched 9 electronic databases and compiled data according to the grade of evidence found. One pharmacological study on antioxidant activity and 7 clinical studies on various medical conditions were reported in the scientific literature including type 2 diabetes (3), Helicobacter pylori infection (1), activation of olfactory cortex of the brain (1), oral candidiasis in HIV (1), and chronic salmonellosis (1). Two of 3 randomized clinical trials on type 2 diabetes provided strong scientific evidence that cassia cinnamon demonstrates a therapeutic effect in reducing fasting blood glucose by 10.3%-29%; the third clinical trial did not observe this effect. Cassia cinnamon, however, did not have an effect at lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). One randomized clinical trial reported that cassia cinnamon lowered total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides; the other 2 trials, however, did not observe this effect. There was good scientific evidence that a species of cinnamon was not effective at eradicating H. pylori infection. Common cinnamon showed weak to very weak evidence of efficacy in treating oral candidiasis in HIV patients and chronic salmonellosis.
Article
In vitro and in vivo animal studies have reported strong insulin-like or insulin-potentiating effects after cinnamon administration. Recently, a human intervention study showed that cinnamon supplementation (1 g/d) strongly reduced fasting blood glucose concentration (30%) and improved the blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon supplementation on insulin sensitivity and/or glucose tolerance and blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, a total of 25 postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes (aged 62.9 +/- 1.5 y, BMI 30.4 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2)) participated in a 6-wk intervention during which they were supplemented with either cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia, 1.5 g/d) or a placebo. Before and after 2 and 6 wk of supplementation, arterialized blood samples were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Blood lipid profiles and multiple indices of whole-body insulin sensitivity were determined. There were no time X treatment interactions for whole-body insulin sensitivity or oral glucose tolerance. The blood lipid profile of fasting subjects did not change after cinnamon supplementation. We conclude that cinnamon supplementation (1.5 g/d) does not improve whole-body insulin sensitivity or oral glucose tolerance and does not modulate blood lipid profile in postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes. More research on the proposed health benefits of cinnamon supplementation is warranted before health claims should be made.
Conference Paper
Thousands of chemical structures have been identified in plant foods. Many are found in spices. Typically, spices are the dried aromatic parts of plants-generally the seeds, berries, roots, pods, and sometimes leaves-that mainly, but not invariably, grow in hot countries. Given the wide range of botanical species and plant parts from which spices are derived, they can contribute significant variety and complexity to the human diet. In the past, the medicinal uses of spices and herbs were often indistinguishable from their culinary uses, and for good reason: people have recognized for centuries both the inherent value, as well as the potential toxicity, of phytochemicals in relation to human health. Plants have the capacity to synthesize a diverse array of chemicals, and understanding how phytochemicals function in plants may further our understanding of the mechanisms by which they benefit humans. In plants, these compounds function to attract beneficial and repel harmful organisms, serve as photoprotectants, and respond to environmental changes. In humans, they can have complementary and overlapping actions, including antioxidant effects, modulation of detoxification enzymes, stimulation of the immune system, reduction of inflammation, modulation of steroid metabolism, and antibacterial and antiviral effects. Embracing a cuisine rich in spice, as well as in fruit and vegetables, may further enhance the chemopreventive capacity of one's diet.
Article
Sixteen patients developed a variety of oral lesions following a change in the toothpaste they used. Mucosal biopsy demonstrated features consistent with application of a topical medicament and patch testing, towards the constituents of the toothpastes, indicated the flavouring agent cinnamonaldehyde as being the likely responsible agent. Avoidance of the implicated toothpastes resulted in a considerable improvement in clinical signs and symptoms, whereas rechallenge in ten patients resulted in recurrence of symptoms in eight patients. It is concluded that sensitivity to the cinnamonaldehyde constituent of certain toothpastes, although uncommon, should be considered as a possible aetiological factor in patients presenting with non-specific oral changes.
Article
Bioactive compound(s) extracted from cinnamon potentiate insulin activity, as measured by glucose oxidation in the rat epididymal fat cell assay. Wortmannin, a potent PI 3'-kinase inhibitor, decreases the biological response to insulin and bioactive compound(s) from cinnamon similarly, indicating that cinnamon is affecting an element(s) upstream of PI 3'-kinase. Enzyme studies done in vitro show that the bioactive compound(s) can stimulate autophosphorylation of a truncated form of the insulin receptor and can inhibit PTP-1, a rat homolog of a tyrosine phosphatase (PTP-1B) that inactivates the insulin receptor. No inhibition was found with alkaline phosphate or calcineurin suggesting that the active material is not a general phosphatase inhibitor. It is suggested, then, that a cinnamon compound(s), like insulin, affects protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions in the intact adipocyte. Bioactive cinnamon compounds may find further use in studies of insulin resistance in adult-onset diabetes.
Article
Helicobacter pylori has been associated with the pathogenesis of antral gastritis, duodenal ulcer, and gastric lymphoma. Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reverse or prevent relapse of these diseases. Antimicrobials employed in the eradication of H. pylori are not without adverse effects. Newer treatment modalities, therefore, are required. In vitro studies have shown the effectiveness of cinnamon extract against H. pylori and its urease. In this pilot study, we tested the activity of an alcoholic extract of cinnamon in a group of patients infected with H. pylori. Fifteen patients (11 women, 4 men) aged 16 to 79 years were given 40 mg of an alcoholic cinnamon extract twice daily for 4 weeks; eight patients aged 35 to 79 (7 women, 1 man) received placebo. The amount of H. pylori colonization was measured by the 13C urea breath test before and after therapy. The mean urea breath test counts in the study and control groups before and after therapy were 22.1 and 23.9 versus 24.4 and 25.9, respectively. The cinnamon extract was well tolerated, and side effects were minimal. We concluded that cinnamon extract, at a concentration of 80 mg /day as a single agent, is ineffective in eradicating H. pylori. Combination of cinnamon with other antimicrobials, or cinnamon extract at a higher concentration, however, may prove useful.
Article
trans-Cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic alcohol have been commonly reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in humans. Cinnamaldehyde is a more potent skin sensitizer than cinnamic alcohol. It has been hypothesized that cinnamic alcohol is a "prohapten" that requires metabolic activation, presumably by oxidoreductase enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), to the protein-reactive cinnamaldehyde (a hapten). In this study, the in vitro percutaneous absorption and metabolism of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic alcohol (78 micromol dose) has been examined using freshly excised, metabolically viable, full-thickness breast and abdomen skin from six female donors. Penetration rates and total cumulative recoveries of cinnamic compounds that were present in receptor fluid, extracted from within the skin, evaporated from the skin surface, or remained unabsorbed on the skin surface after 24 h were quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Biotransformation of cinnamaldehyde to both cinnamic alcohol and cinnamic acid was observed. Topically applied cinnamic alcohol was converted to cinnamaldehyde (found on the skin surface only) and cinnamic acid. To establish whether these biotransformations were enzymatic, experiments were performed in the absence and presence of varying concentrations (80-320 micromol) of the ADH/CYP2E1 inhibitors pyrazole or 4-methylpyrazole. The observation that pyrazole significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the total penetration of cinnamic metabolites into receptor fluid, following either cinnamaldehyde or cinnamic alcohol treatment, but did not significantly affect parent chemical penetration, suggests that we are measuring cutaneous metabolic products of ADH activity. The skin absorption and metabolism of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic alcohol will play an important role in the manifestation of ACD following topical exposure to these compounds.
Article
Thousands of chemical structures have been identified in plant foods. Many are found in spices. Typically, spices are the dried aromatic parts of plants-generally the seeds, berries, roots, pods, and sometimes leaves-that mainly, but not invariably, grow in hot countries. Given the wide range of botanical species and plant parts from which spices are derived, they can contribute significant variety and complexity to the human diet. In the past, the medicinal uses of spices and herbs were often indistinguishable from their culinary uses, and for good reason: people have recognized for centuries both the inherent value, as well as the potential toxicity, of phytochemicals in relation to human health. Plants have the capacity to synthesize a diverse array of chemicals, and understanding how phytochemicals function in plants may further our understanding of the mechanisms by which they benefit humans. In plants, these compounds function to attract beneficial and repel harmful organisms, serve as photoprotectants, and respond to environmental changes. In humans, they can have complementary and overlapping actions, including antioxidant effects, modulation of detoxification enzymes, stimulation of the immune system, reduction of inflammation, modulation of steroid metabolism, and antibacterial and antiviral effects. Embracing a cuisine rich in spice, as well as in fruit and vegetables, may further enhance the chemopreventive capacity of one's diet.
Article
Insulin resistance and its most severe form type 2 diabetes mellitus are rapidly increasing throughout the world. It is generally recognized that natural products with a long history of safety can increase insulin sensitivity. The present investigation examined the ability of various combinations of essential oils such as fenugreek, cinnamon, cumin, oregano, etc. to enhance insulin sensitivity. As a first approximation, we examined the effects of these natural products on Zucker fatty rats (ZFRs), a model of obesity and insulin resistance, and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a model of genetic hypertension. Water or essential oils were given orally via droplets, and insulin sensitivity was estimated by systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes and circulating glucose and/or insulin concentrations. We have found that the ability to alter SBP in rat models is the most sensitive early index of insulin sensitivity. The combined essential oils lowered circulating glucose levels and SBP in both ZFRs and SHRs, suggesting that these natural products are enhancing insulin sensitivity. The second series of studies examined two additional combinations of essential oils along with the original formula. The major differences were in the types and proportions of individual oils contributing to a given formula. Although all the three formulae decreased SBP in ZFRs, one of the formulae was more effective than the others in lowering circulating glucose in the glucose tolerance testing. Accordingly, some essential oils may be added to the long list of natural products that can affect insulin sensitivity.
Article
Total equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and phenolic content of 26 common spice extracts from 12 botanical families were investigated. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of major phenolics in the spice extracts were systematically conducted by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Many spices contained high levels of phenolics and demonstrated high antioxidant capacity. Wide variation in TEAC values (0.55-168.7 mmol/100 g) and total phenolic content (0.04-14.38 g of gallic acid equivalent/100 g) was observed. A highly positive linear relationship (R2= 0.95) obtained between TEAC values and total phenolic content showed that phenolic compounds in the tested spices contributed significantly to their antioxidant capacity. Major types of phenolic constituents identified in the spice extracts were phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids, and volatile oils (e.g., aromatic compounds). Rosmarinic acid was the dominant phenolic compound in the six spices of the family Labiatae. Phenolic volatile oils were the principal active ingredients in most spices. The spices and related families with the highest antioxidant capacity were screened, e.g., clove in the Myrtaceae, cinnamon in the Lauraceae, oregano in the Labiatae, etc., representing potential sources of potent natural antioxidants for commercial exploitation. This study provides direct comparative data on antioxidant capacity and total and individual phenolics contents of the 26 spice extracts.
Article
The anti-diabetic effect of Cinnamomi cassiae extract (Cinnamon bark: Lauraceae) in a type II diabetic animal model (C57BIKsj db/db) was studied. Cinnamon extract was administered at different dosages (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. It was found that blood glucose concentration is significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.001) with the most in the 200 mg/kg group compared with the control. In addition, serum insulin levels and HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher (P<0.01) and the concentration of triglyceride, total cholesterol and intestinal alpha-glycosidase activity were significantly lower after 6 weeks of the administration. These results suggest that cinnamon extract has a regulatory role in blood glucose level and lipids and it may also exert a blood glucose-suppressing effect by improving insulin sensitivity or slowing absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine.
Article
To explore possible anti-cancer properties of water-soluble, polymeric polyphenols from cinnamon, three myeloid cell lines (Jurkat, Wurzburg, and U937) were exposed to increasing concentrations of an aqueous extract prepared from cinnamon (CE) for 24 h. Cell growth and cell cycle distribution patterns responded in a dose-dependent manner to CE. That is, an increase in the percentage of cells distributed in G2/M was observed in all three cell lines as the amount of CE increased. At the highest dose of CE, the percentage of Wurzburg cells in G2/M was 1.5- and 2.0-fold higher than those observed for Jurkat and U937 cells, respectively. Wurzburg cells lack the CD45 phosphatase and may be more sensitive to imbalances in signaling through kinase/phosphatase networks that promote growth. The results suggest the potential of CE to interact with phosphorylation/dephosphorylation signaling activities to reduce cellular proliferation in tandem with a block at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle.
Article
Defatted cinnamon fruit powder was successively extracted with benzene ethyl acetate, acetone, MeOH, and water. The concentrated water extract contained the maximum amount of phenolics and showed the highest antioxidant activities. Hence, it was fractionated by Diaion HP-20SS, Diaion HP-20, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. It gave five purified compounds, the purities of which were analyzed by HPLC. Compounds 1-5 were identified as 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (protocatechuic acid), epicatechin-(2beta-->O-7,4beta-->8)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin (cinnamtannin B-1), 4-[2,3-dihydro-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-(methoxy)benzofuranyl]-2-methoxyphenyl beta-d-glucopyranoside (urolignoside), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (rutin), and quercetin-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside by using extensive spectral studies. The antioxidant activities of purified compounds were screened for their antioxidative potential using beta-carotene-linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl model systems. All of the compounds showed antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. This is the first report of the isolation and identification of nonvolatile constituents and as well as antioxidant activities from cinnamon fruits.
Article
Many agents (nutrients, nutraceuticals, and drugs) that enhance insulin sensitivity and/or reduce circulating insulin concentrations lower blood pressure (BP). Recently, it was reported that cinnamon has the potential to favorably influence the glucose/insulin system. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary cinnamon on systolic BP (SBP), and various glucose- and insulin-related parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In a series of three experiments, treated SHR eating sucrose and non sucrose containing diets were given various amounts of cinnamon, cinnamon extracts, or chromium. Then various parameters such as: body weight, systolic blood pressure, hematology and blood chemistries were followed for three to four weeks. Diets high in sucrose content are associated with insulin resistance and the elevation of SBP. Addition to diets of cinnamon (8% w/w) reduced the SBP of rats eating sucrose containing diets to virtually the same levels as SHR consuming non sucrose containing (only starch) diets. The presence of cinnamon in the diet also decreased the SBP of SHR consuming a non sucrose-containing diet, suggesting that cinnamon reduces more than just sucrose-induced SBP elevations--perhaps a genetic component(s) of the elevated BP as well. The effects of cinnamon on SBP tended to be dose-dependent. Cinnamon did not decrease the levels of blood glucose, but did lower circulating insulin concentrations. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon also decreased SBP and lowered the circulating levels of fructosamine. Cinnamon is used for flavor and taste in food preparation, but cinnamon may have additional roles in glucose metabolism and BP regulation. Therefore, BP regulation may not only be influenced favorably by limiting the amounts of dietary substances that have negative effects on BP and insulin function but also by the addition of beneficial ones, such as cinnamon, that have positive effects.
Article
According to previous studies, cinnamon may have a positive effect on the glycaemic control and the lipid profile in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. The aim of this trial was to determine whether an aqueous cinnamon purified extract improves glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triacylglycerol concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 79 patients with diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 not on insulin therapy but treated with oral antidiabetics or diet were randomly assigned to take either a cinnamon extract or a placebo capsule three times a day for 4 months in a double-blind study. The amount of aqueous cinnamon extract corresponded to 3 g of cinnamon powder per day. The mean absolute and percentage differences between the pre- and post-intervention fasting plasma glucose level of the cinnamon and placebo groups were significantly different. There was a significantly higher reduction in the cinnamon group (10.3%) than in the placebo group (3.4%). No significant intragroup or intergroup differences were observed regarding HbA1c, lipid profiles or differences between the pre- and postintervention levels of these variables. The decrease in plasma glucose correlated significantly with the baseline concentrations, indicating that subjects with a higher initial plasma glucose level may benefit more from cinnamon intake. No adverse effects were observed. The cinnamon extract seems to have a moderate effect in reducing fasting plasma glucose concentrations in diabetic patients with poor glycaemic control.
Article
Cinnamon has been shown to potentiate the insulin effect through upregulation of the glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the cinnamon extract on the insulin action in awaked rats by the euglycemic clamp and further analyzed possible changes in insulin signaling occurred in skeletal muscle. The rats were divided into saline and cinnamon extract (30 and 300 mg/kg BW-doses: C30 and C300) oral administration groups. After 3-weeks, cinnamon extract treated rats showed a significantly higher glucose infusion rate (GIR) at 3 mU/kg per min insulin infusions compared with controls (118 and 146% of controls for C30 and C300, respectively). At 30 mU/kg per min insulin infusions, the GIR in C300 rats was increased 17% over controls. There were no significant differences in insulin receptor (IR)-beta, IR substrate (IRS)-1, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase protein content between C300 rats and controls. However, the skeletal muscle insulin-stimulated IR-beta and the IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation levels in C300 rats were 18 and 33% higher, respectively, added to 41% higher IRS-1/PI 3-kinase association. These results suggest that the cinnamon extract would improve insulin action via increasing glucose uptake in vivo, at least in part through enhancing the insulin-signaling pathway in skeletal muscle.
Article
Cinnamonum zeylanicum (cinnamon) is widely used in traditional system of medicine to treat diabetes in India. The present study was carried out to isolate and identify the putative antidiabetic compounds based on bioassay-guided fractionation; the compound identified decreased the plasma glucose levels. The active compound was purified by repeat column and structure of cinnamaldehyde was determined on the basis of chemical and physiochemical evidence. The LD(50) value of cinnamaldehyde was determined as 1850+/-37 mg/kg bw. Cinnamaldehyde was administered at different doses (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg bw) for 45 days to streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg bw)-induced male diabetic wistar rats. It was found that plasma glucose concentration was significantly (p<0.05) decreased in a dose-dependent manner (63.29%) compared to the control. In addition, oral administration of cinnamaldehyde (20 mg/kg bw) significantly decreased glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1C)), serum total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and at the same time markedly increased plasma insulin, hepatic glycogen and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Also cinnamaldehyde restored the altered plasma enzyme (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase) levels to near normal. Administration of glibenclamide, a reference drug (0.6 mg/kg bw) also produced a significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose concentration in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The results of this experimental study indicate that cinnamaldehyde possesses hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Article
Cinnamon extract has been shown to reduce insulin resistance in in vitro and in vivo studies by increasing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in the insulin signaling pathway and thus potentiating insulin action. Fifteen women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were randomized to daily oral cinnamon and placebo for 8 weeks. Comparisons of post-treatment to baseline insulin sensitivity indices using fasting and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance tests showed significant reductions in insulin resistance in the cinnamon group but not in the placebo group. A larger trial is needed to confirm the findings of this pilot study and to evaluate the effect of cinnamon extract on menstrual cyclicity.
Article
Diabetes mellitus is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and most patients with the disease have type 2 diabetes. The effectiveness of cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes has received a great deal of media attention after a study was published in 2003. Although the efficacy of cinnamon in patients with diabetes has not been established, many patients seek other therapies and supplement their prescribed pharmacologic therapy with cinnamon. We conducted a literature search, limited to English-language human studies, using MEDLINE (1966-August 2006), EMBASE (1980-August 2006), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-August 2006), and Iowa Drug Information Service (1966-August 2006). References from articles and clinical trials were reviewed for additional sources; no abstracts were reviewed. We found two prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed clinical trials and one prospective, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed clinical trial that evaluated the efficacy of cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes; a total of 164 patients were involved in these trials. Two of the studies reported modest improvements in lowering blood glucose levels with cinnamon supplementation in small patient samples. One trial showed no significant difference between cinnamon and placebo in lowering blood glucose levels. Overall, cinnamon was well tolerated. These data suggest that cinnamon has a possible modest effect in lowering plasma glucose levels in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. However, clinicians are strongly urged to refrain from recommending cinnamon supplementation in place of the proven standard of care, which includes lifestyle modifications, oral antidiabetic agents, and insulin therapy.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cinnamon on glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Using a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 72 adolescent type 1 diabetic subjects were treated in an outpatient setting with cinnamon (1 g/day) or an equivalent-appearing placebo for 90 days. A1C, total daily insulin intake, and adverse events were recorded and compared between groups. There were no significant differences in final A1C (8.8 vs. 8.7, P = 0.88), change in A1C (0.3 vs. 0.0, P = 0.13), total daily insulin intake, or number of hypoglycemic episodes between the cinnamon and placebo arms. Cinnamon is not effective for improving glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
Article
The antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial potentials of volatile oils and oleoresin of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (leaf and bark) were investigated in the present study. The oleoresins have shown excellent activity for the inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation products in mustard oil added at the concentration of 0.02% which were evaluated using peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, p-anisidine and carbonyl values. Moreover, it was further supported by other complementary antioxidant assays such as ferric thiocyanate method in linoleic acid system, reducing power, chelating and scavenging effects on 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals. In antimicrobial investigations, using inverted petriplate and food poison techniques, the leaf and bark volatile oils has been found to be highly effective against all the tested fungi except Aspergillus ochraceus. However, leaf oleoresin has shown inhibition only for Penicillium citrinum whereas bark oleoresin has caused complete mycelial zone inhibition for Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus along with Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, P. citrinum and Penicillium viridicatum at 6 microL. Using agar well diffusion method, leaf volatile oil and oleoresin have shown better results in comparison with bark volatile oil, oleoresin and commercial bactericide, i.e., ampicillin. Gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy studies on leaf volatile oil and oleoresin resulted in the identification of 19 and 25 components, which accounts for the 99.4% and 97.1%, respectively of the total amount and the major component was eugenol with 87.3% and 87.2%, respectively. The analysis of cinnamon bark volatile oil showed the presence of 13 components accounting for 100% of the total amount. (E)-cinnamaldehyde was found as the major component along with delta-cadinene (0.9%), whereas its bark oleoresin showed the presence of 17 components accounting for 92.3% of the total amount. The major components were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (49.9%), along with several other components.
Article
Diabetes mellitus is a serious, chronic medical condition that affects an estimated 20.8 million people in the United States.[1][1] Up to one third of people are undiagnosed. There were also an estimated 1.5 million new cases diagnosed in 2005.[1][1] Complications of diabetes include heart disease
Article
Interest in cinnamon as a potentially useful treatment for type 2 diabetes began with the discovery almost 20 years ago of cinnamon's insulin-sensitizing properties (1). Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated cinnamon's effect on insulin signal transduction (2–6). A study in diabetic mice showed that cinnamon lowered blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels while raising HDL cholesterol levels (7). The first clinical trial to evaluate the effect of cinnamon in individuals with type 2 diabetes was conducted in Pakistan (8). It showed that cinnamon powder ( Cinnamomum cassia ), taken over a 40-day period, reduced mean fasting serum glucose (18–29%), triglyceride (23–30%), LDL cholesterol (7–27%), and total cholesterol (12–26%) levels. Three different doses of cinnamon were administered: 1, 3, and 6 g daily. All were equally effective. These findings led to widespread cinnamon use, although no study had yet evaluated the effects of cinnamon in Western diabetic populations with likely differences in diet, BMI, baseline glucose levels, and prescribed medication. We report the first U.S. study examining the effects of cinnamon on glucose and lipid levels in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Participants were recruited through e-mail announcements to campus employees and through an article in the local newspaper. Individuals of any age with type 2 diabetes, based on criteria …
Article
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder and the incidence of cardiovascular is increased two- to fourfold in its complications. Cinnamon is expected to have some degree of anti-diabetic efficacy without troublesome side effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of cinnamon cassia powder in type 2 diabetic patients Sixty type 2 diabetic patients were randomized either 1.5 g/d of cinnamon cassia powder or placebo. Both groups were in combination with their current treatment (metformin or sulfonylurea) according to single blind randomized, placebo-control trial in a 12-week period. Efficacy was evaluated by HbA1c fasting plasma glucose, Lipid profile, BUN, creatinine, liver function test and adverse effects were recorded. After a 12-week period, HbA1c was decreased similarly in both groups from 8.14% to 7.76% in the cinnamon group and from 8.06% to 7.87% in the placebo group. This was not found statistically significantly different. However the proportion of patients achieving HbA1c < or = 7% was also greater in patients receiving cinnamon compared with patients receiving placebo, nevertheless, it was not found statistically significantly different (35% vs 15%, x2 = 3.14, p > 0.05). No significant intergroup differences were observed in lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose except in SGOT 27.1 (8.75) to 22.1 (5) in cinnamon group and 24.08 (8.5) to 23.63 (8.88) in the placebo group (p = 0.001). The cinnamon cassia powder 1.5 g/d did not have any significant difference in reducing fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and serum lipid profile in type 2 diabetes patients who had mean fasting plasma glucose 154.40 +/- 24.72 mg/dl.
Article
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in induction of innate immune and inflammatory responses by recognizing invading pathogens or non-microbial endogenous molecules. TLRs have two major downstream signaling pathways, MyD88- and TRIF-dependent pathways leading to the activation of NFkappaB and IRF3 and the expression of inflammatory mediators. Deregulation of TLR activation is known to be closely linked to the increased risk of many chronic diseases. Cinnamaldehyde (3-phenyl-2-propenal) has been reported to inhibit NFkappaB activation induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli and to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. However, the underlying mechanism has not been clearly identified. Our results showed that cinnamaldehyde suppressed the activation of NFkappaB and IRF3 induced by LPS, a TLR4 agonist, leading to the decreased expression of target genes such as COX-2 and IFNbeta in macrophages (RAW264.7). Cinnamaldehyde did not inhibit the activation of NFkappaB or IRF3 induced by MyD88-dependent (MyD88, IKKbeta) or TRIF-dependent (TRIF, TBK1) downstream signaling components. However, oligomerization of TLR4 induced by LPS was suppressed by cinnamaldehyde resulting in the downregulation of NFkappaB activation. Further, cinnamaldehyde inhibited ligand-independent NFkappaB activation induced by constitutively active TLR4 or wild-type TLR4. Our results demonstrated that the molecular target of cinnamaldehyde in TLR4 signaling is oligomerization process of receptor, but not downstream signaling molecules suggesting a novel mechanism for anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamaldehyde.
Article
Various spices display insulin-potentiating activity in vitro, and in particular, cinnamon spice and its phenolic extracts have been shown to exhibit these capabilities. In vivo study shows that cinnamon may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis; therefore the aim of this study was to further investigate this phenomenon in humans. Seven lean healthy male volunteers, aged 26 +/- 1 years, body mass index 24.5 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2) (mean +/- s.e.m.), underwent three oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) supplemented with either a 5 g placebo (OGTT(control)), 5 g of cinnamon (OGTT(cin)), or 5 g of cinnamon taken 12 h before (OGTT(cin12hpre)) in a randomized-crossover design. Cinnamon ingestion reduced total plasma glucose responses (AUC) to oral glucose ingestion [-13% and -10% for OGTT(cin) (p < 0.05) and OGTT(cin12hpre) (p < 0.05), respectively], as well as improving insulin sensitivity as assessed by insulin sensitivity index measures based on Matsuda's model in both OGTT(cin) (p < 0.05) and OGTT(cin12hpre) (p < 0.05) trials compared with OGTT(control). These data illustrate that cinnamon spice supplementation may be important to in vivo glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in humans, and not only are its effects immediate, they also appear to be sustained for 12 h.
Effects of short-term cinnamon ingestion on in vivo glucose tolerance Effect of cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects
  • T Solomon
  • A Blannin
  • G Darwiche
  • O Bjorgell
  • Almer
Solomon T, Blannin A. Effects of short-term cinnamon ingestion on in vivo glucose tolerance. Diabetes Obesity Metabol. 2007;9:895Y901. 16. Hlebowicz J, Darwiche G, Bjorgell O, Almer L. Effect of cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:1552Y1556.
Spicing up a vegetarian diet: chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals):579SY583S. Food and Nutrition Cinnamon and Health 266 Nutrition Today, Volume 43 Number 6 November/December Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited
  • J Lampe
Lampe J. Spicing up a vegetarian diet: chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78(suppl):579SY583S. Food and Nutrition Cinnamon and Health 266 Nutrition Today, Volume 43 Number 6 November/December, 2008 Copyright @ 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
Cinnamon bark extract improves glucose metabolism and lipid profile in the fructose-fed rat.
  • Kannapan