Article

Collagen Hydrolysate Improves Joint Function in Adults with Mild Symptoms of Osteoarthritis of the Knee

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... In addition to these preclinical studies, open label, comparative, and prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials and experimental findings have been published, with several studies providing evidence of a beneficial effect on measurements of joint health from the administration of collagen hydrolysate in a variety of patient populations [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] . ...
... Most of these clinical studies have been conducted in patients diagnosed with OA [5][6][7][9][10][11] . In the majority of these studies, investigators were able to demonstrate that the administration of 7-10 g of collagen hydrolysate per day for 3 months produced an improvement in measure ments of joint health or function, such as reduction in pain, 5,6,9 decreased dependency on pain medications, 9 and improvement in leg strength 11 . ...
... Most of these clinical studies have been conducted in patients diagnosed with OA [5][6][7][9][10][11] . In the majority of these studies, investigators were able to demonstrate that the administration of 7-10 g of collagen hydrolysate per day for 3 months produced an improvement in measure ments of joint health or function, such as reduction in pain, 5,6,9 decreased dependency on pain medications, 9 and improvement in leg strength 11 . ...
Article
Collagen hydrolysate is a nutritional supplement that has been shown to exert an anabolic effect on cartilage tissue. Its administration appears beneficial in patients with osteoarthritis. To investigate the effect of collagen hydrolysate on activity-related joint pain in athletes who are physically active and have no evidence of joint disease. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted at Penn State University in University Park, Pennsylvania. Parameters including joint pain, mobility, and inflammation were evaluated with the use of a visual analogue scale during a 24-week study phase. Between September 2005 and June 2006, 147 subjects who competed on a varsity team or a club sport were recruited. Data from 97 of 147 subjects could be statistically evaluated. One hundred and forty-seven subjects (72 male, 75 female) were randomly assigned to two groups: a group (n = 73) receiving 25 mL of a liquid formulation that contained 10 g of collagen hydrolysate (CH-Alpha) and a group (n = 74) receiving a placebo, which consisted of 25 mL of liquid that contained xanthan. The primary efficacy parameter was the change in the visual analogue scales from baseline during the study phase in relation to the parameters referring to pain, mobility, and inflammation. When data from all subjects (n = 97) were evaluated, six parameters showed statistically significant changes with the dietary supplement collagen hydrolysate (CH) compared with placebo: joint pain at rest, assessed by the physician (CH vs. placebo (-1.37 +/- 1.78 vs. -0.90 +/- 1.74 (p = 0.025)) and five parameters assessed by study participants: joint pain when walking (-1.11 +/- 1.98 vs. -0.46 +/- 1.63, p = 0.007), joint pain when standing (-0.97 +/- 1.92 vs. -0.43 +/- 1.74, p = 0.011), joint pain at rest (-0.81 +/- 1.77 vs. -0.39 +/- 1.56, p = 0.039), joint pain when carrying objects (-1.45 +/- 2.11 vs. -0.83 +/- 1.71, p = 0.014) and joint pain when lifting (-1.79 +/- 2.11 vs. -1.26 +/- 2.09, p = 0.018). When a subgroup analysis of subjects with knee arthralgia (n = 63) was performed, the difference between the effect of collagen hydrolysate vs. placebo was more pronounced. The parameter joint pain at rest, assessed by the physician, had a statistical significance level of p = 0.001 (-1.67 +/- 1.89 vs. -0.86 +/- 1.77), while the other five parameters based on the participants' assessments were also statistically significant: joint pain when walking (p = 0.003 (-1.38 +/- 2.12 vs. -0.54 +/- 1.65)), joint pain when standing (p = 0.015 (-1.17 +/- 2.06 vs. -0.50 +/- 1.68)), joint pain at rest with (p = 0.021 (-1.01 +/-1.92 vs. -0.47 +/- 1.63)), joint pain when running a straight line (p = 0.027 (-1.50 +/- 1.97 vs. -0.80 +/- 1.66)) and joint pain when changing direction (p = 0.026 (-1.87 +/- 2.18 vs. -1.20 +/- 2.10)). This was the first clinical trial of 24-weeks duration to show improvement of joint pain in athletes who were treated with the dietary supplement collagen hydrolysate. The results of this study have implications for the use of collagen hydrolysate to support joint health and possibly reduce the risk of joint deterioration in a high-risk group. Despite the study's size and limitations, the results suggest that athletes consuming collagen hydrolysate can reduce parameters (such as pain) that have a negative impact on athletic performance. Future studies are needed to support these findings.
... 15,16 In addition to these preclinical studies, open-label or placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials have been conducted. Several data showed the bene cial effects of CH on joint health in different populations particularly comprising individuals with OA. 17,18,19,20,21,22 The daily administration of CH for 3 months improved joint health or function. That is, there was a decrease in pain 11,12,14 and dependency on pain relievers 14 and improvement in leg strength. ...
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Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability among elderly individuals. Medical and surgical treatments are expensive and have side effects. The current study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of FlexC-II ® , a type II collagen hydrolysate, and BRAND'S Essence of Chicken with FlexC-II ® (BEC-FlexC-II ® ) on joint, muscle, and bone functions among elderly adults with OA.Methods Patients (n = 160) with grade 1–3 knee OA based on the Kellgren–Lawrence classification system, joint pain for ≥3 months, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score of >6 were considered eligible in this study. The participants were randomized into four groups (BEC-FlexC-II ® , FlexC-II ® , glucosamine hydrochloride [HCl], and placebo) and were instructed to perform resistance training for 24 weeks. The outcomes included WOMAC score, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, hand grip strength, fat-free mass (FFM), bone mass, and 36-Item Short-form Survey score. ResultsThe WOMAC scores of all groups improved after 24 weeks. However, the results did not significantly differ. Meanwhile, there was a remarkable difference in the VAS score between groups (P = 0.039). The FlexC-II ® group had a greater reduction in pain than the placebo group (mean ± standard error: −1.3 ± 0.45, P = 0.021). In the FlexC-II ® group, the VAS score significantly reduced by 0.9 ± 1.89 (P = 0.034) after 14 days. In the adjusted analyses, the BEC-FlexC-II ® group had a significantly higher FFM than the glucosamine HCl (P = 0.02) and placebo (P = 0.017) groups and hand grip strength than the glucosamine HCl group (P = 0.002). Further, on the basis of a subgroup analysis, participants with poor training compliance in the BEC-FlexC-II ® group had a significantly higher left hip bone mass than those in the placebo (P = 0.01) and glucosamine HCl (P = 0.049) groups.Conclusions FlexC-II ® relieves OA-associated pain within 14 days, and BEC-FlexC-II ® increases muscle mass and strength after 24 weeks. Thus, BEC-Flex-CII ® is a promising novel, holistic supplement that can improve mobility by promoting joint, muscle, and bone functions among elderly individuals. However, full-scale studies should be conducted in the future to validate these findings.Trial registrationThis clinical trial was retrospectively registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with the ID NCT04483024 on July 20, 2020. URL: https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol?sid=S0008FK4&selectaction=Edit&uid=U0004BM2&ts=2&cx=-5y1oh4
... As per Simon., et al. [50], and based on current data, more cases with osteoarthritis than not would be expected to experience some form of pain relief through the effective administration of optimal collagen supplementary doses, especially those with more severe, rather than less severe disease. The promising observations reported here and elsewhere [51,52] also imply that research to tease out responsive or non-responsive osteoarthritis patient subgroupings, along with efforts to examine the impact of oral collagen supplements on the osteoarthritis disease processes in all affected joint tissues [54], including muscle and bone [55] will undoubtedly help to advance practice options. The careful analysis of the current data in the interim tends to imply that well designed insightful research of oral collagen supplements in the future might strengthen the case for why this possible therapeutic approach should not be discarded as one that is clinically irrelevant, especially on the basis of very weak evidence [56]. ...
Article
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This mini review aimed to examine support for the alternate hypothesis that collagen supplements can help to ameliorate osteoarthritis pain significantly and effectively.
... Glucosamine has been extensively studied [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] showing positive results in the clinical management of pain and structural improvements [19]. Chondroitin sulfate coupled to Glucosamine, or by itself, has been the center of significant studies [20], but many other compounds synthetic or natural have been investigated, including Vitamin C [21][22][23][24][25]. Particular interest has been paid to Collagen Hydrolysates (CHs) and Fucoidans [26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44]. CH is obtained by the enzymatic hydrolysis of collage nous tissues from mammals. ...
... This product is generally recognized as a safe food ingredient by regulatory agencies. There are only three randomized controlled trials in the literature [14][15][16] . All of them showed that the use of a collagen hydrosylate dietary supplement improves joint pain, mobility and reduces the need for analgesic medication. ...
Article
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Recent major guidelines to osteoarthritis treatment have ceased to recommend the use of chondroprotective drugs; this new standing is based on new data, but comes mostly from a reassessment of existing information through methods of evidence-based medicine; these were more rigorous, with significant changes in the search and inclusion criteria, minimum follow-up requirement and the use of the concept of minimum clinically important improvement. However, currently available data includes a wealth of high quality studies demonstrating long term symptomatic relief and additional benefits such as global efficacy that match results described for non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is an undisputed concept that osteoarthritis should be managed as an integrated package of care rather than through single treatments, ministered alone or in succession. Thus, when osteoarthritis is in fact managed through any single treatment in order to conduct a controlled trial, it logically follows that it would be difficult to produce significant symptomatic improvements. Moreover, it is well established that positive placebo effects are a significant entity in osteoarthritis research. Therefore, it seems unreasonable to disqualify statistically significant results favoring chondroprotective agents used as monotherapy vs. a powerful placebo and consider them to be "not clinically relevant". We performed a review of the literature and found high quality data showing that chondroprotective agents are safe, effective and decrease the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. We therefore suggest that recent guidelines are overly dogmatic.
... Moreover, human studies have also been carried out with positive results, especially those related to the capacity shown by collagen and gelatin hydrolysates to improve joint conditions. Because of this ability, collagen and gelatin hydrolysates, mainly obtained from mammalian sources, have long been used in pharmaceutical and dietary supplements (Adam, 1991;Benito-Ruiz et al., 2009;Beuker & Rosenfeld, 1996;Krug, 1979;Moskowitz, 2000;Zuckley et al., 2004). Fish skin collagen hydrolysates have been reported to affect lipid absorption and metabolism in rats (Saito, Kiyose, Higuchi, Uchida, & Suzuki, 2009). ...
Article
The rising interest in the valorisation of industrial by-products is one of the main reasons why exploring different species and optimizing the extracting conditions of collagen and gelatin has attracted the attention of researchers in the last decade. The most abundant sources of gelatin are pig skin, bovine hide and, pork and cattle bones, however, the industrial use of collagen or gelatin obtained from non-mammalian species is growing in importance. The classical food, photographic, cosmetic and pharmaceutical application of gelatin is based mainly on its gel-forming properties. Recently, and especially in the food industry, an increasing number of new applications have been found for gelatin in products such as emulsifiers, foaming agents, colloid stabilizers, biodegradable film-forming materials and micro-encapsulating agents, in line with the growing trend to replace synthetic agents with more natural ones. In the last decade, a large number of studies have dealt with the enzymatic hydrolysis of collagen or gelatin for the production of bioactive peptides. Besides exploring diverse types of bioactivities, of an antimicrobial, antioxidant or antihypertensive nature, studies have also focused on the effect of oral intake in both animal and human models, revealing the excellent absorption and metabolism of Hyp-containing peptides. The present work is a compilation of recent information on collagen and gelatin extraction from new sources, as well as new processing conditions and potential novel or improved applications, many of which are largely based on induced cross-linking, blending with other biopolymers or enzymatic hydrolysis.
... The CH supplementation can then improve knee function during joint-stressing activities. These observations were also reported in a scientific communication 54 in patients with symptomatic mild OA patients. The second report of medium methodological quality (score: 9) 55 mentioned a better effect of CH compared to placebo in severe OA patients than in the overall studied population. ...
Article
The aim of this first global systematic review on selected nutraceuticals was to synthesize and evaluate scientific relevant data available in the literature. Evidences that can support health, physiological or functional benefit on osteoarthritis (OA) were gathered and the level of evidence relative to each of these ingredients was highlighted. Relevant scientific data (positive or not) regarding OA were searched for five groups of compounds (avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, collagen hydrosylates (CHs), vitamin D, polyphenols) within preclinical (in vitro and in vivo), epidemiological, and clinical studies. The following criteria were evaluated to assess the methodology quality of each study: (1) study question; (2) study population; (3) primary endpoint; (4) study design (randomization, control, blinding, duration of follow up); (5) data analysis and interpretation. A scientific consensus was determined for all studied nutraceuticals to evaluate their efficacy in OA. The studied compounds demonstrated different potencies in preclinical studies. Most of them have demonstrated anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory effects by various inhibitory activities on different mediators. Vitamin D showed a pro-catabolic effect in vitro and the polyphenol, Genistein, had only anti-inflammatory potency. The evaluation of the clinical data showed that ASU was the only one of the studied ingredients to present a good evidence of efficacy, but the efficient formulation was considered as a drug in some countries. Pycnogenol showed moderate evidence of efficacy, and vitamin D and collagen hydrolysate demonstrated a suggestive evidence of efficacy, whereas curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and resveratrol had only preclinical evidence of efficacy due to the lack of clinical data. The literature gathered for n-3 PUFA, nobiletin and genistein was insufficient to conclude for their efficacy in OA. Additional data are needed for most of the studied nutraceuticals. Studies of good quality are needed to draw solid conclusions regarding their efficacy but nutraceuticals could represent good alternates for OA management. Their use should be driven by any recommendations.
Article
In this study, acid soluble collagens (ASCs) from different by-products of loach including skin, head, fins and bone were isolated, characterized and compared. As a result, the highest yield (on wet weight basis) was obtained for ASC from skin (ASC-S, 9.73%) compared with those from fins (ASC-F, 2.01%), head (ASC-H, 1.12%) and bone (ASC-B, 0.84%). By SDS-PAGE, these collagens were classified as type I collagens with slight difference of molecular weight. Glycine was the major amino acid in all ASCs with relatively high contents of alanine, hydroxyproline and proline. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that triple helical structures of all ASCs were well preserved and scanning electron microscope exhibited fibrillary structure of ASC-B while sheet structure in others. Thermal stability of ASCs was determined by differential scanning calorimetry, rheometer and thermogravimetric (TG), respectively. It was concluded that all ASCs had different maximum transition (Tmax), denaturation (Td) and onset decomposition (To) temperatures. Besides, film-forming properties of ASCs from loach were also evaluated with ASC-F film showing strong tensile strength, best extensibility and barrier property compared with others, which suggested that ASCs from different by-products of loach had tremendous potential for applications in food packaging and coating in future.
Article
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Introduction: hydrolysate Collagen (HC) consists of small peptides with a molecular weight lower than 5.000 Da. produced from gelatinization and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of native collagen which is found in rich collagenic animal tissues. There is much evidence about the HC ingestion positive effect over degenerative joint and bones diseases. Objective: the aim of this article is to review the present scientific studies about HC and to evaluate the HC ingestion therapeutical effects on some collagenic tissues as cartilage, bones and skin. Results: up to date, there are more than 60 scientific studies (in vitro, in vivo, clinics and on bioavailability) about HC ingestion efficacy on reducing collagen damage and loss consequences as joint pain and erosion (osteoarthritis), bone density loss (osteoporosis) and skin ageing Conclusions: preclinical studies show that HC stimulates collagenic tissue regeneration by increasing not only collagen synthesis but minor components (glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid) synthesis as well. Clinical studies show that HC continual ingestion helps to reduce and prevent joint pain, bone density loss and skin ageing. These results as well as its high level of tolerance and safety make HC ingestion attractive for a long-term use in bone and joint degenerative diseases and in fight against skin ageing.
Article
IntroductionTo study the efficacy and tolerance of the daily administration of an oral chondroprotector based on hyaluronate (HA) and hydrolysed collagen (HC) on joint function and pain in active adults suffering from knee osteoarthritis.
Article
Current options to promote joint comfort are limited to medicines that can reduce pain but can also have adverse effects. Collagen, a major component of joint cartilage, is found in the diet, particularly in meat. Its hydrolysed form, collagen hydrolysate (CH), is well absorbed. CH may stimulate the joint matrix cells to synthesize collagen, so helping to maintain the structure of the joint and potentially to aid joint comfort. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled multicentre trial, 250 subjects with primary osteoarthritis of the knee were given 10 g CH daily for 6 months. There was a significant improvement in knee joint comfort as assessed by visual analogue scales to assess pain and the Womac pain subscale. Subjects with the greatest joint deterioration, and with least intake of meat protein in their habitual diets, benefited most. CH is safe and effective and warrants further consideration as a food ingredient.
Article
There is a need for an effective treatment for the millions of people in the United States with osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative joint disease. The demand for treatments, both traditional and non-traditional, will continue to grow as the population ages. This article reviews the medical literature on the preclinical and clinical research on a unique compound, collagen hydrolysate. Articles were obtained through searches of the PubMed database (www.pubmed.gov) through May 2006 using several pairs of key words (collagen hydrolysate and osteoarthritis; collagen hydrolysate and cartilage; collagen hydrolysate and chondrocytes; collagen hydrolysate and clinical trial) without date limits. In addition, other sources of information, such as abstracts presented at scientific congresses and articles in the German medical literature not available on PubMed, were reviewed and included based on the authors' judgment of their relevance to the topic of the review. According to published research, orally administered collagen hydrolysate has been shown to be absorbed intestinally and to accumulate in cartilage. Collagen hydrolysate ingestion stimulates a statistically significant increase in synthesis of extracellular matrix macromolecules by chondrocytes (p < 0.05 compared with untreated controls). These findings suggest mechanisms that might help patients affected by joint disorders such as OA. Four open-label and three double-blind studies were identified and reviewed; although many of these studies did not provide key information--such as the statistical significance of the findings--they showed collagen hydrolysate to be safe and to provide improvement in some measures of pain and function in some men and women with OA or other arthritic conditions. A growing body of evidence provides a rationale for the use of collagen hydrolysate for patients with OA. It is hoped that ongoing and future research will clarify how collagen hydrolysate provides its clinical effects and determine which populations are most appropriate for treatment with this supplement.
Article
Osteoarthritis, a debilitating joint disorder, is the most common form of arthritis in the United States, where it affects an estimated 21 million people. In 2004, the direct and indirect health care costs associated with all forms of arthritis were approximately 86 billion dollars. Joint discomfort from osteoarthritis and other joint disorders may reduce physical activity in individuals experiencing this condition, resulting in energy imbalance and weight gain. Increased weight can exacerbate existing problems, as additional stress on joints stimulates risk of additional joint disorders. Dietitians play a role in preventing or reversing the problem of joint disorders by promoting nutrient-rich diets that support joint health through improvement in cartilage metabolism. In addition, counseling individuals on weight management and active lifestyles are key strategies for the management of joint health.
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