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Ginger: An Overview of Health Benefits

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Abstract

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a member of the Zingiberaceae family of plants. It has been a part of healing strategies in Asia, India, Europe, and the Middle East for centuries for treatment of such disorders as arthritis, stomach upset, asthma, diabetes, and menstrual irregularities, to name a few. There is scientific support that ginger may alleviate the symptoms of nausea and vomiting following pregnancy, surgery, cancer therapy, or motion sickness and suggestive evidence that ginger reduces inflammation and pain. Cell culture studies show that ginger has antioxidant properties. However, it is not known whether ginger antioxidant constituents are bioavailable in humans once ingested and whether they can affect markers of oxidative stress in human in vivo. There are preliminary data that ginger has antimicrobial potential, although there is little evidence supporting ginger's practical usefulness in combating infections in humans. Based on evidence primarily from animal and in vitro studies, ginger may have beneficial effects toward cardiovascular disease through its multiple actions counteracting inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Overall, based on the current body of scientific literature, more information is needed from clinical studies to confirm these promising multiple health benefits of ginger in human subjects and the doses that are most efficacious

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... It has the widest range of applications of any spice, including dietary supplements, beverages, and food products. For millennia, it has been used to cure a variety of ailments throughout Asia, India, Europe, and the Middle East, including arthritis, stomach distress, asthma, diabetes, and menstrual irregularities [18]. Although ginger extracts have been shown to inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism and have anti-inflammatory and/or anti-rheumatic properties, one of its traditional indications has been to treat rheumatic disorders [5]. ...
... Several of its chemical constituents, including gingerols, shogaols, paradols, zingerone, diarylheptanoids, and dialdehydediterpenes inhibit inflammatory prostaglandins. These compounds are dual eicosanoid production inhibitors, which makes them even more intriguing in the field of rheumatology [4,5,18]. Ginger extract has been shown to reduce joint swelling as well as relieve pain [37]. ...
... Ginger also suppresses prostaglandin synthesis through inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 and leukotriene biosynthesis by inhibiting 5lipoxygenase. The activation of various genes involved in encoding inflammatory response proteins such as cytokines and chemokines is also inhibited by ginger extract, demonstrating that ginger modifies biochemical pathways that are activated by chronic inflammation [15,16,18,20,50]. Gingerols inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), and Interleukin beta (IL-β) [6,15,49]. ...
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Ginger has been appreciated for over 2500-3000 years in many parts of the world due to its numerous scientific properties. The ginger plant (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) belongs to the Zingiberaceae family. It is a known food and flavoring ingredient reputed for its wide range of medicinal properties that have been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Unāni Tibb worldwide, since antiquity. Ginger has long been used to cure a variety of ailments, including diarrhea, stomach discomfort, indigestion, and nausea. It is a versatile herb with phenomenal phytotherapeutic and medicinal properties. Active ingredients available in ginger such as 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 6-paradol, and zingerone are responsible for upgrading enzyme actions and balancing circulation through rejuvenating the body with physical re-strengthening. Gingerols, the key phenolic plant secondary metabolites responsible for its distinct flavor and health benefits, are found in the rhizome of ginger Extensive study has been undertaken over the last two decades to uncover bioactive ingredients and the therapeutic potential of ginger. This review considers Review Article Khan et al.; JOCAMR, 15(3): 26-35, 2021; Article no.JOCAMR.72654 27 ginger's chemical composition and the most recent study findings on its possible health advantages, such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties due to its phytochemistry. Overall, clinical trials are needed to confirm these prospective various health advantages of ginger in human subjects and the most efficacious dosage, based on the current body of scientific literature.
... Zencefilin yapısında bulunan diğer bileşenleri ise oleoresinler, yağlar, mumlar, karbonhidratlar, vitaminler ve minerallerdir. Zencefil rizomları ayrıca zingibain adı verilen güçlü bir proteolitik enzim içerir [14][15][16]. ...
... Aynı zamanda tiamin, riboflavin, niasin ve vitamin C gibi vitaminleri de içerir. Zencefil rizomunun kimyasal bileşenleri, zencefilin ekim alanına ve ürünün taze, kurutulmuş veya işlenmiş olup olmadığına bağlı olarak önemli ölçüde değişiklik gösterebilir [15][16][17]. Taze zencefil diğer zencefil türleri ile kıyaslandığında, baharat aromasını tam olarak verebilen çeşididir. Düşük lif içeriğine sahip fakat keskin aroma, yağ ve protein bakımından zengin olması nedeniyle taze rizomlar; yeşil zencefil elde etmek amacıyla tercih edilir. ...
... Bunun dışında, hamilelik sırasında zencefil kullanımının, bilimsel veya tıbbi bir kontrendikasyonu bildirilmemiştir [12,30,32]. Zencefilin 4 gün ile 3 hafta arasında değişen dönemlerde kullanılmasının, tedavide olumlu etki gösterdiği ve yan etkisinin görülmediği bildirilmiştir [16]. Yapılan randomize kontrollü çalışmalardan Vutyavanich ve arkadaşlarının yaptığı çift-kör plasebo kontrollü bir çalışmada, hamileliğin <17. ...
... Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a perennial monocotyledonous herb belonging to the Zingiberaceae, a family comprised of 47 genera and 1400 species (Hogarth, 2000) [11] . The crop is native to either Asia in general (Singletary, 2010) [29] or specifically to India; however, its exact origin is still unclear (Zachariah, 2008) [36] . Today ginger is cultivated worldwide throughout the subtropics and tropics where it plays an important role in agricultural economic systems in these regions (Kavitha and Thomas, 2008) [a13] . ...
... Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a perennial monocotyledonous herb belonging to the Zingiberaceae, a family comprised of 47 genera and 1400 species (Hogarth, 2000) [11] . The crop is native to either Asia in general (Singletary, 2010) [29] or specifically to India; however, its exact origin is still unclear (Zachariah, 2008) [36] . Today ginger is cultivated worldwide throughout the subtropics and tropics where it plays an important role in agricultural economic systems in these regions (Kavitha and Thomas, 2008) [a13] . ...
... India is considered as "The Land of Spices" from ancient times and ginger is regarded as spice crop under the Indian Spice Act, 51. The country ranked first in terms of production, consumption and export of the ginger (Arya, 2000 andSingh, 2011) [2,29] . Cochin ginger is produced by Kerala which is leading export variety in international market. ...
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Ginger is a high value cash crop being cultivated all across the world including India. India is the highest producer and exporter of ginger. In India it is cultivated mainly in all states including Uttarakhand where it is mainly grown by small and marginal farmers on which their livelihood depends and cultivated in almost all the districts of Uttarakhand. Although it is a high value cash crop but its productivity is very low and the reason seems to be continuous use of degenerated seed rhizomes which are prone to various diseases, insect-pests and nematodes. Among these, rhizome rot caused by multitude of pathogens is a complex and one of the major limiting factors in successful cultivation of ginger. During present investigation, in order to establish the etiology of disease, infected rhizomes showing symptoms of rhizome rot were collected from the ginger growing areas of Kumaon region during crop season 2015 and brought to laboratory for isolation of pathogens. Fifteen isolates of Fusarium and two isolates of Pythium were isolated on Potato Dextrose Agar. Of the 17 isolates, isolate no. 6 of Fusarium sp. (Kotabagh isolate) and isolate no. 16 of Pythium sp. (Champawat isolate) were proved to be pathogenic under glasshouse conditions. These isolates were sent to Indian Type Culture Collection, Division of Plant Pathology, Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi for further confirmation and identification up to species level. These isolates were identified as Fusarium acuminatum (Ellis and Everh.,) and Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. In addition to these, six nematodes viz; Meloidogyne spp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus spp., Tylenchorhynchus spp., Haplolaimus spp. and Criconemoides spp. were also extracted from the soil collected from Kotabagh, Haldwani, Bindukhatta and Bazpur. During field visits maggots and white grub were also noticed in the soil near infected plants.
... Gingerols and shogaols are the most abundant active compounds of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes that are used since old times in the treatment of various symptoms and as dietary supplement in drinks and food products [290,291]. Gingerols differ in the length of their unbranched alkyl side chains, [6]-gingerol being the most abundant type in fresh ginger root, followed by [10]gingerol and [8]-gingerol ( Figure 9). Dehydration of these major gingerols generates the corresponding shogaols (Shao et al., 2010). ...
... Gingerols and shogaols are the most abundant active compounds of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes that are used since old times in the treatment of various symptoms and as dietary supplement in drinks and food products [290,291]. Gingerols differ in the length of their unbranched alkyl side chains, [6]-gingerol being the most abundant type in fresh ginger root, followed by [10]-gingerol and [8]-gingerol ( Figure 9). Dehydration of these major gingerols generates the corresponding shogaols (Shao et al., 2010). ...
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Atherosclerosis is the main process behind cardiovascular diseases (CVD), maladies which continue to be responsible for up to 70% of death worldwide. Despite the ongoing development of new and potent drugs, their incomplete efficacy, partial intolerance and numerous side effects make the search for new alternatives worthwhile. The focus of the scientific world turned to the potential of natural active compounds to prevent and treat CVD. Essential for effective prevention or treatment based on phytochemicals is to know their mechanisms of action according to their bioavailability and dosage. The present review is focused on the latest data about phenolic compounds and aims to collect and correlate the reliable existing knowledge concerning their molecular mechanisms of action to counteract important risk factors that contribute to the initiation and development of atherosclerosis: dyslipidemia, and oxidative and inflammatory-stress. The selection of phenolic compounds was made to prove their multiple benefic effects and endorse them as CVD remedies, complementary to allopathic drugs. The review also highlights some aspects that still need clear scientific explanations and draws up some new molecular approaches to validate phenolic compounds for CVD complementary therapy in the near future.
... further studies are needed before recommendations can be made (Singletary 2010). ...
... There are some differences in dosages of ginger and timing of outcome measurements (Chaiyakunapruk et al. 2006, Thompson and Potter 2006, Tavlan et al. 2006. In those studies demonstrated the activity of ginger, generally, no adverse effects were reported (Singletary 2010). ...
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Potential Benefits of Ginger in Maintenance of Oral Health
... Ginger could be used as an anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer agent. [2,3] ginger exerts many direct and indirect effects on blood pressure and heart rate, it can be used to treat migraine, diabetes, retinopathy, ulcer and cancer. it can also treat elephantiasis, its tonic helps in memory improvement, preserves liver health. ...
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Phytochemical and GC-MS analysis of zingiber offinale was carried out in the laboratory and with the aid of SHIMAZU Japan Gas Chromatography 5890-11 with a fused GC column OV 101 coated with polymethyl silicon (0.25 mm x 50 m). The result obtained confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins amd phenols in the plant. Twelve peaks were obtained from the he spectra of the GC-MS. peak 1 corresponds to Furan-3-carboxaldehyde with m/z 128 and molecular formulae C6H8O2, peak 2 was identified
... Ginger has GRAS status (Generally Recognized as Safe), and hence, it has a wide spectrum of applications. It is used, for example, for the production of dietary supplements and as an additive to beverages (e.g., beer) or food products (curry, soups, jams, bread, and confectionery) [54]. Most clinical trials used between 250 mg and 1 g of powdered root in a capsule form (up to four times a day). ...
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The biological activities of four aromatic plants, namely frankincense, myrrh, ginger, and turmeric, were reviewed in the current study. The volatile fraction (essential oil) as well as the nonvolatile fraction of these four plants showed different promising biological activities that are displayed in detail. These activities can include protection from and/or alleviation of some ailment, which is supported with different proposed mechanisms of action. This review aimed to finally help researchers to get a handle on the importance of considering these selected aromatic plants, which have not been thoroughly reviewed before, as a potential adjuvant to classical synthetic drugs to enhance their efficiency. Moreover, the results elicited in this review encourage the consumption of these medicinal plants as an integrated part of the diet to boost the body's overall health based on scientific evidence.
... Ginger can be grown on sandy loam and clay loam soil with good drainages and a lot of organic matter [1]. The chemical components of ginger rhizome can vary considerably depending on the location of the cultivation and whether the product is fresh, dried, or processed [2]. The rhizome contains 3 -6% fatty oil, 60 -70% carbohydrates, 9% protein, about 8% ash, 3 -8% fiber, 9 -12% water, and 2 -3% volatile oil [3]. ...
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Dual (cushion and spring) compartment ginger slicing machine was developed to address the dificulties associaed with manual slicing of ginger. However, there is no establisbed operational perfomance on record for this particular machine; thus, the need for this study. To achieve this, the machine perfomance was evaluated at the Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi in April, 2019 interms of Slicing Efficiency and Percent Broken and Bruises at a ginger moisture content of 80.2 and 78.5%, using completely randomized Design (CRD) with 5 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment. The experiment was conducted with one horse power petrol engine. The data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for significance level of the experimental factors and their interactions and those found significant were further analyzed using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) for mean separations at (P0.05), respectively. The results showed that, the highest mean Slicing Efficiencies for cushion and spring compartments were: 61.2 and 45.1%, respectively. The lowest mean Percent Broken and Bruises was with cushion compartment as 38.8% and 54.9% spring compartment, respectively.
... It is connected to an elevated circulating inflammatory cytokines resulting in an increased insulin resistance in the liver, skeletal muscles, and vascular endothelium (Simin et al., 2007). The inhibitions of cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX); inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (a reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolite-metabolizing enzymes) and lipoxygenase (oxidative enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism activity), may be linked to the presence of phenolic compounds (gingerols, shogaols, and diarylheptanoids) in ginger, responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of ginger (Singletary, 2010). Ginger rhizomes are consumed as vegetable and/ or spices and condiments in food preparations in Nigeria. ...
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The global prevalence of hyperglycemia has been attributed to unhealthy lifestyle and diet. The study assessed the antioxidant properties, glycemic indices, and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes activities of ginger‐based fruit drinks. Drinks prepared from blends of ginger (G), pineapple (P), and apple (A) at varied ratios—G50:P40:A10, G50:P30:A20, G50:P20:A30, G50:P10:A40, G100, and a commercial ginger drink (control) were analyzed for phenolic distribution and antioxidant properties using 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] and 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) [ABTS] radical scavenging abilities. The ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP), the glycemic indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes activities were also investigated. G50:P10:A40 exhibited the highest phenolic distribution, highest DPPH●, ABTS●+ scavenging abilities as well as FRAP. All formulated ginger‐based drinks exhibited low glycemic indices, the G50:P10:A40 showed the strongest inhibition against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. G50:P10:A40 blend may be suitable for the control of hyperglycemia and some degenerative conditions linked with oxidative stress. Practical applications Unchecked activities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are linked to health disorders such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, neurodegenerative, and inflammatory diseases. A practical approach to the management of the deleterious effect of ROS is through the consumption of foods rich in nutritional antioxidants. Ginger (Zingiber officinale ) is grown globally for its edible rhizome which has varied utilization in culinary and medicinal applications. Drinks produced from blends of ginger, pineapple, and apple were able to scavenge free radicals and able to exhibit hypoglycemic effects by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. The Ginger‐based fruit drinks would, therefore, be an effective functional dietary drink in the management and prevention of diabetes mellitus.
... Ginger Ginger is widely used as spice and contains adequate bioactive compounds with promising antimicrobial activities. Available studies have revealed the use of ginger as anti-carcinogenic, anti-diabetic, arthritis, stomach upset, asthma, diabetes, menstrual irregularities and anti-tumor (Mele, 2019, Singletary, 2010. Additional report shows that ginger has tendency to alleviate the feelings to vomit during pregnancy, surgery, cancer therapy, or motion sickness. ...
... The bioactive components of ginger are phenolics such as gingerols, shogaols, and paradols and terpenes such as β-bisabiolene, α-cucrcumene, zingiberne, α-farnesen and β-sequiphellandrene. Apart from these, many other phenolic compounds are present, such as quercetin, zingerone, gingerenone-A and 6-dehydrogingedione, as well as polysaccharides, lipids, organic acids, and fiber [203][204][205][206]. ...
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Tea is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide, and possesses numerous potential health benefits. Herbal teas are well-known to contain an abundance of poly-phenol antioxidants and other ingredients, thereby implicating protection and treatment against various ailments, and maintaining overall health in humans, although their mechanisms of action have not yet been fully identified. Autophagy is a conserved mechanism present in organisms that maintains basal cellular homeostasis and is essential in mediating the pathogenesis of several diseases , including cancer, type II diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. The increasing prevalence of these diseases, which could be attributed to the imbalance in the level of autophagy, presents a considerable challenge in the healthcare industry. Natural medicine stands as an effective, safe, and economical alternative in balancing autophagy and maintaining homeostasis. Tea is a part of the diet for many people, and it could mediate autophagy as well. Here, we aim to provide an updated overview of popular herbal teas' health-promoting and disease healing properties and in-depth information on their relation to autophagy and its related signaling molecules. The present review sheds more light on the significance of herbal teas in regulating autophagy, thereby improving overall health.
... , and this may possibly be attributed to the absence of virulent strains of aflatoxin producing mycoflora on the ginger rhizome; it may also be due to the ability of the drying techniques used to rapidly dry the ginger slices, thus preventing the creation of conducive environment for toxin production. Studies have also reported the antimicrobial activities of ginger(Sa-Nguanpuag, Kankyanarat, Sriloang, Tanprasert, & Techavuthporm, 2011;Singletary, 2010), and this may have also hindered the production of aflatoxins by the associated moulds. This notwithstanding, a few studies have shown aflatoxin content lower than the allowable limits of 10 ppb in ginger while some findings have also shown levels of aflatoxins higher than 10 ppb in ginger(Menon & Zavier, 2010;Mwangi, Nguta, & Muriuki, 2014).Rajarajan et al. (2013) andThirumala-Devi et al. (2001) in their works recorded aflatoxin levels of 23 and 80 mg/kg and 15.5-25 μg/kg, respectively. ...
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Pretreatment of fruit and vegetables is necessary to reduce microbial proliferation and to preserve color of the produce. The effect of drying and pretreatment with potassium metabisulfite (KMBS) of concentrations 0.0%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%, and 1.0% and blanching at 100°C and 50°C using a tent‐like concrete solar (CSD) dryer as compared to open‐sun drying (OSD) of yellow ginger rhizomes was investigated using routine methods. The total color change and residual sulfur dioxide (SO2) were analyzed. KMBS reduced the yeast and mould load significantly from 3.6 × 104 ± 1.4 × 103 CFU/g in 0.0% (control) to <10 CFU/g in 1.0% KMBS and 100°C blanched fresh samples. Drying of the fresh samples for 5 days increased the yeast and mould load of all the treatments to as high as 1.15 × 105 ± 2.12 × 104 CFU/g for the 1.0% KMBS. Overall, the CSD had fewer microbial loads than the OSD but it was not significant. Aflatoxins and Salmonella sp. were not detected in any of the samples. The sulfur dioxide residue (SO2) for KMBS pretreated samples increased as the concentration of KMBS increased with the CSD retaining slightly higher amount than the OSD. The total color change index increased with increase in KMBS, and drying further increased the total color change index. On the whole, the blanched samples had the least color change among the pretreatments with 100°C CSD showing the least change among the dried samples. Pretreatment of ginger rhizome with increasing concentration of potassium metabisulfite reduced microbial load significantly while drying increased it again. Blanching of the ginger slices at 1,000 C had minimum color deviation and concrete solar dried ginger preserved the color better.
... Rhizome of Zingiber officinale, a very commonly used culinary ingredient last for thirteenth century[209]. Akinyemi et al. reported that ginger's aqueous extract can reduce ACE and lipid peroxidation ...
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Hypertension is a critical health problem and worse other cardiovascular diseases. It is mainly of two types: Primary or essential hypertension and Secondary hypertension. Hypertension is the primary possibility feature for coronary heart disease, stroke and renal vascular disease. Herbal medicines have been used for millions of years for the management and treatment of hypertension with minimum side effects. Over aim to write this review is to collect information on the anti-hypertensive effects of natural herbs in animal studies and human involvement as well as to recapitulate the underlying mechanisms, from the bottom of cell culture and ex-vivo tissue data. According to WHO, natural herbs/shrubs are widely used in increasing order to treat almost all the ailments of the human body. Plants are the regular industrial units for the invention of chemical constituents, they used as immunity booster to enhance the natural capacity of the body to fight against different health problems as well as herbal medicines and food products also. Eighty percent population of the world (around 5.6 billion people) consume medicines from natural plants for major health concerns. This review provides a bird’s eye analysis primarily on the traditional utilization, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological values of medicinal herbs used to normalize hypertension i.e. Hibiscus sabdariffa , Allium sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Apium graveolens, Bidenspilosa, Camellia sinensis, Coptis chinensis, Coriandrum sativum, Crataegus spp., Crocus sativus, Cymbopogon citrates, Nigella sativa, Panax ginseng,Salviaemiltiorrhizae, Zingiber officinale, Tribulus terrestris, Rauwolfiaserpentina, Terminalia arjuna etc. Graphic Abstract
... In this regard, evidence is accumulating that would suggest some mind and body approaches to yield favourable results. As for example, research showed that acupuncture [2,3], yoga [4-7], massage therapy [8-10], music therapy [11][12][13], meditation and mindfulness-based stress reduction [14][15][16][17], ginger [18], and biofeedback [19,20] may help as supportive therapies in ameliorating some symptoms of cancer and side effects of conventional treatment. The same is true for homeopathy [21][22][23][24], Ayurveda [25,26], Siddha [27] and Unani [28], too. ...
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The current scenario of incidence and major treatment modalities adopted by the conventional or modern medical stream in the control and management of cancer has been briefly narrated. The role played by various evidence-based complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) and traditional medicines in combating cancer and ameliorating conventional therapy-generated side-effects has been elucidated. The possible scope for integration of some of these traditional and CAM modalities along with the conventional treatment in rendering better control and management of cancer, and to give the patients a better quality and a longer life by reducing toxicity and side-effects generated by the conventional treatment have been discussed.
... Rhizome of Zingiber officinale, a very commonly used culinary ingredient last for thirteenth century[209]. Akinyemi et al. reported that ginger's aqueous extract can reduce ACE and lipid peroxidation ...
Article
Hypertension is a critical health problem and worse other cardiovascular diseases. It is mainly of two types: Primary or essential hypertension and Secondary hypertension. Hypertension is the primary possibility feature for coronary heart disease, stroke and renal vascular disease. Herbal medicines have been used for millions of years for the management and treatment of hypertension with minimum side effects. Over aim to write this review is to collect information on the anti-hypertensive effects of natural herbs in animal studies and human involvement as well as to recapitulate the underlying mechanisms, from the bottom of cell culture and ex-vivo tissue data. According to WHO, natural herbs/shrubs are widely used in increasing order to treat almost all the ailments of the human body. Plants are the regular industrial units for the invention of chemical constituents, they used as immunity booster to enhance the natural capacity of the body to fight against different health problems as well as herbal medicines and food products also. Eighty percent population of the world (around 5.6 billion people) consume medicines from natural plants for major health concerns. This review provides a bird's eye analysis primarily on the traditional utilization, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological values of medicinal herbs used to normalize hypertension i.e.
... Ginger are not only used as spice from the age old period, they are one among the natural digestive medicine that can be included in the daily food we consume. Ginger contains number of bioactive compounds that have been proven to be alleviating for various health problems [28] . The primary constituents of ginger includes gingerols, anthocynanins and tannins in its roots [29]. ...
Article
In India there are several underutilized herbal plants that are of vital importance. Those under-utilized herbal plants can be very well naturally processed and used for consumption. The purpose of this study is aimed at developing an instant healthy herbal soup mix using various under-utilized herbal plants such as A.indica leaf powder, moringa leaf powder along with various other herbal ingredients. The major ingredients neem and moringa leaves are profoundly known for their enormous health benefits. Other ingredients such as onion, garlic, ginger, pepper species; are known to impart great flavor for the cooked product. Drying is one of the most effective method of preserving foods and powdered products are considered best in various aspects such as storage, package, consumption etc. Drying was done over different stages for each ingredients and the best was selected based on minimal loss in the nutrients. Physio-chemical tests and organoleptic test were carried out for the developed soup mix.
... Preclinical evidence shows herbs and spices affect glucose and lipid metabolism and have antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] Despite in vitro and animal research suggestive of cardiometabolic benefit, it is less well established how intake of herbs and spices affects risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases in humans. ...
Article
Herbs and spices are recommended to increase flavor and displace salt in the diet. Accumulating evidence suggests herbs and spices may improve risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. In this narrative review, an overview of evidence from human clinical trials examining the effect of herbs and spices on risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases is provided. Human clinical trials examining supplemental doses of individual spices and herbs, or the active compounds, have yielded some evidence showing improvements to lipid and lipoprotein levels, glycemic control, blood pressure, adiposity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. However, cautious interpretation is warranted because of methodological limitations and substantial between-trial heterogeneity in the findings. Evidence from acute studies suggests intake of mixed herbs and spices as part of a high-saturated fat, high-carbohydrate meal reduces postprandial metabolic impairments, including lipemia, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. Limited studies have examined the postprandial metabolic effects of incorporating mixed herbs and spices into healthy meals, and, to our knowledge, no trials have assessed the effect of longer-term intake of mixed herbs and spices on risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. To inform evidence-based guidelines for intake of herbs and spices for general health and cardiometabolic disease risk reduction, rigorously conducted randomized controlled trials are needed, particularly trials examining herb and spice doses that can be incorporated into healthy dietary patterns.
... In addition to flavoring application, cinnamon also has several properties as, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, controller action in glucose intolerance and diabetes together with its flavoring action [15]. Ginger also has several biological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial etc. bringing it a potential use against a variety of health problems [16]. Ginger is commonly used as a seasoning and flavoring agent in Asian cuisine, and flavoring for cookies, crackers, cakes, ginger ale, beer, and bread. ...
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The scope of the study is to determine the influence of the addition of different amounts of carob (CP), cinnamon (CNP), and ginger (GP) powders and fluidized bed agglomeration process on the moisture content, water activity and powder properties of milk powders as well as powder yield and the energy consumption of the drying and agglomeration operations. CP, CNP, and GP were directly added to whole milk at different concentrations (1-8 % by weight), mixed for 30min and filtered by crude filter paper. Then, the filtrate was spray dried at the inlet and outlet air temperatures of 160 and 80 °C respectively. The powder yield ranged between 55.57-67.07% for milk powder with CP (MPCP), 45.48-61.04% for milk powder with CNP (MPCNP), and 42.42-46.93% for milk powder with GP (MPGP). The addition of the powders decreased the total drying time and energy consumption of the drying process (p
... Ginger is the most widely consumed spice in Asian countries. Besides spices, it has also been used as a traditional and herbal medicine in many parts of the world particularly for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, cough, arthritis, muscle pain, and asthma (Niebyl & Goodwin 2002;White 2007;Singletary 2010;Li et al. 2019). It is one of the major high-value cash crops and high-value exportable commodities grown in the mid-hills of Nepal. ...
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the major high-value cash crops in Nepal. Low yield, conventional farming, and limited access to production resources such as improved cultivars, production technologies, and extension services are the existing problems of Nepali ginger farmers. In this study, we conducted community based-participatory research in Ilam district, Nepal, in 2015–2017. This research aimed to explore the appropriate ginger farming technology considering yield, income, and environment. We compared the effect of four different ginger production technologies on ginger yield and net farm income that include: i) traditional practice with mother rhizome harvest, ii) traditional practice without mother rhizome harvest, iii) good agricultural practice (GAP) with mother rhizome harvest, and iv) GAP without mother rhizome harvest. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with five replications. The yield of ginger under GAP and without mother rhizome harvest was observed 17.9 t·ha−1, which was 39.8% higher than the farmers’ existing practices and 45.5% higher than the national average. The cost of production was almost the same in all treatments; however, the GAP with mother rhizome-harvested treatment gave the highest benefit–cost ratio (1.5) along with the maximum net farm income ($2072.6·ha−1·year−1). Thus, we suggest ginger producers adopting GAP rules to obtain a higher yield and harvesting mother rhizomes earlier for obtaining maximum profit. The GAP rules will additionally protect the environment. This study also suggests policymakers and related stakeholders promoting GAP as a sustainable production technology in agriculture-based countries like Nepal.
... This could be because the aqueous extract of ginger has antimicrobial properties (Singletary, 2010). The main nutraceutical of functional significance in fresh ginger is gingerol (Cho et. ...
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This study evaluated the influence of 10% vinegar and solar drying using two solar dryers and open‐sun drying on the microbiological quality of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome. The rhizomes were analyzed for bacterial, mold, and Salmonella populations in the raw state, which were water‐washed and soaked in 10% vinegar, and in dried form. The fungal population was isolated and identified. Fresh and dried ginger rhizome contained both bacterial and fungal population in the range of 3.0 x 10² ± 1.14 x 10² to 2,180 x 10⁹ ± 70.7 x 10⁹ CFU/g. The stainless steel solar dryer had fewer fungal loads among the drying methods. Aspergillus and Penicillium species of mycotoxin‐producing potential were identified. The 10% vinegar as pretreatment showed no significant difference (p ≤ .05) in the bacterial population reduction but in the fungal population reduction. Growth of fungi in fresh and dried ginger extracts was lower compared with growth in Potato Dextrose Broth.
... Ginger could be used as an anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer agent. [2,3] ginger exerts many direct and indirect effects on blood pressure and heart rate, it can be used to treat migraine, diabetes, retinopathy, ulcer and cancer. it can also treat elephantiasis, its tonic helps in memory improvement, preserves liver health. ...
... T2DM is characterized by lowgrade inflammation and increased circulation of inflammatory cytokines, contributing to insulin resistance [293]. Thus, the gingerols, shogaols, and diarylheptanoids in ginger may alleviate inflammation by inhibiting COX, decreasing the production of prostaglandins and cytokines [294]. T2DM patients were randomized for 12 weeks to receive either 1600 mg/day of ginger or placebo [77]. ...
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Background and aim: Recently, optimal immune function has become a primary focus of worldwide attention not only in the prevention of chronic disease but also as one strategy to reduce the severity of acute illness. Inflammation, a process largely controlled by the immune system, has long been studied and recognized for its role in chronic disease. Optimizing immune function or managing inflammation using individual nutrients and phytonutrients is not well understood by the average person. Thus, this narrative literature review summarizes many of the more recent findings about how certain nutrients and phytonutrients affect immune function and inflammation, and how they may best be utilized considering the growing worldwide interest in this topic. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed was performed to find clinical trials in humans that assessed the effect of nutrients and phytonutrients on immune function and inflammation, in individuals with acute and chronic health conditions, published in English between 2000 and 2020. Two independent reviewers evaluated the articles for their inclusion. Results: Eighty-seven articles were summarized in this narrative review. In total 24 nutrients and phytonutrients were included in the study, that is, acetyl-L-carnitine, Aloe vera polysaccharides, beta-glucans, bilberry, black seed oil, coenzyme Q10, curcumin (turmeric), frankincense, garlic, ginger, hydrolyzed rice bran, isoflavones, lipoic acid, mistletoe, N-acetyl cysteine, omega-3 fatty acids, resveratrol, selenium, shiitake mushroom and its derivatives, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), Vitamin E (d-alpha- and gamma-tocopherol), and zinc. Some of the noteworthy immune function and anti-inflammatory responses to these interventions included modulation of nuclear factor-Kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-a, interferon-g, interleukin-6, and CD4+ T cells, among others. These findings are not completely consistent or ubiquitous across all patient populations or health status. Conclusions: Based on this review, many nutrients and phytonutrients are capable of significantly modulating immune function and reducing inflammation, according to multiple biomarkers in clinical trials in different populations of adults with varying health statuses. Thus, dietary supplementation may serve as an adjunct to conventional pharmaceutical or medical therapies, but evaluation of risks and benefits for each person and health status is necessary. Additional larger studies are also needed to investigate the safety and efficacy of nutritional compounds in various health conditions, with emphases on potential drug-supplement interactions and clinical endpoints. Relevance for patients: As demonstrated in the reviewed clinical trials, patients of various health challenges with a wide range of severity may benefit from select nutrients and phytonutrients to improve their immune function and reduce inflammation.
... Ginger, a member of the Zingiberaceae family, consists of several components, including gingerol, zingerone, shogaol, paradols, and β-bisabolene. This plant is used as a spice in both foods and beverages in Asian countries for thousands of years (Sahebkar 2011;Singletary 2010). This herb exhibits several unique beneficial effects on human health, such as its antioxidant, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, anticancer, antiemetic, chemopreventive, and gastroprotective (Ali et al. 2008;Baliga et al. 2011;Panahi et al. 2012). ...
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Obesity is abnormal fat accumulation in the body which acts as a risk factor for various cardiometabolic states. Adipose tissue in excess can release inflammatory factors, including TNF-α and IL-6, and suppress adiponectin production. TNF-α increases the levels of IL-6 and acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein. Inflammation has a crucial role in developing and progressing various cardiometabolic diseases and a wide range of obesity-related complications. It has been shown that TNF-α has a significant role in the development of insulin resistance. Recently, a growing body of evidence has focused on herbal medicine, phytochemicals and natural bioactive compounds as inexpensive, relatively easy accessible agents with low adverse effects to reduce inflammatory markers such as TNF-α and simultaneously decrease insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia in obesity. The main focus of the current review is to summarize the results of the studies, which assessed the effects of phytochemicals and herbal bio-active compounds on serum TNF-α in subjects with overweight or obesity. This review suggests that herbal medicine have favorable effects on the reduction of TNF-α concentration; however, the results were not uniform for different products. Among the reviewed plants, ginger, ginseng, resveratrol, and flaxseed had more promising effects.
... Its consumption is usually due to the health beneficial activities of different metabolites. The health benefits include neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects, antinausea, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, antimicrobial, and anti-cancer effects (Singletary, 2010;Ma et al., 2021). The unique flavor of the ginger is due to a group of volatile phenolic compounds known as gingerols (Chen et al., 2020a). ...
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Ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is known for its unique pungent taste and useability in traditional Chinese medicine. The main compounds in ginger rhizome can be classified as gingerols, diarylheptanoids, and volatile oils. The composition and concentrations of the bioactive compounds in ginger rhizome might vary according to the age of the rhizome. In this regard, the knowledge on the transcriptomic signatures and accumulation of metabolites in young (Y), mature (M), and old (O) ginger rhizomes is scarce. This study used HiSeq Illumina Sequencing and UPLC-MS/MS analyses to delineate how the expression of key genes changes in Y, M, and O ginger rhizome tissues and how it affects the accumulation of metabolites in key pathways. The transcriptome sequencing identified 238,157 genes of which 13,976, 11,243, and 24,498 were differentially expressed (DEGs) in Y vs. M, M vs. O, and Y vs. O, respectively. These DEGs were significantly enriched in stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid, and gingerol biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, plant-hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, and α-linoleic acid metabolism pathways. The metabolome profiling identified 661 metabolites of which 311, 386, and 296 metabolites were differentially accumulated in Y vs. M, Y vs. O, and M vs. O, respectively. These metabolites were also enriched in the pathways mentioned above. The DEGs and DAMs enrichment showed that the gingerol content is higher in Y rhizome, whereas the Y, M, and O tissues differ in linoleic and α-linoleic acid accumulation. Similarly, the starch and sucrose metabolism pathway is variably regulated in Y, M, and O rhizome tissues. Our results showed that ginger rhizome growth slows down (Y > M > O) probably due to changes in phytohormone signaling. Young ginger rhizome is the most transcriptionally and metabolically active tissue as compared to M and O. The transitioning from Y to M and O affects the gingerol, sugars, linoleic acid, and α-linoleic acid concentrations and related gene expressions.
... Its rhizome is commonly consumed as folk medicine or as a spice in food. Based on scientific evidence ginger can be used as an Antiplatelet, antimicrobial, anticancer agent [1]. The ginger extract can be used to prevent autoxidation of fat at an earlier stage i.e. as an antioxidant agent [2]. ...
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Objective: This study was aimed to analyze the inhibitory effect of the flavonoid class of phytochemicals present in ginger (Zingiber Officinale), garlic (Allium sativum), and curry leaf (Murrayakoenigii) against some receptors of type-2 diabetes such as human aldose reductase receptor, mitogen synthase kinase receptor, as well as dipeptidyl peptidase receptor by implementing several in silico analysis techniques. Methods: The 3D structures of the flavonoid class of phytochemicals of all the three plants were retrieved from the PubChem database in 3D SDF format and were converted to PDB format using PyMol software. These phytochemicals were subjected to in silico tools such as SwissADME, Pre-ADMET, and iMODS web server. The PDB-IDs of the targeted receptors human aldose reductase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, and mitogen synthase kinase were retrieved from Protein Data Bank in PDB format. All these receptors were then prepared for docking procedure using Autodock Tools. Now, both the prepared proteins and ligands were subjected to docking analysis using Pyrex (AutodockVina). Results: Naringenin and kaempferol showed excellent docking results with the aldose reductase receptor. On the other hand, rutin showed the best docking score with dipeptidyl peptidase receptor-IV, whereas, epigallocatechin showed the best docking results with mitogen synthase kinase receptor. The ADME analysis showed that resveratrol had the best gastrointestinal absorption as well as high blood-brain barrier permeability. Conclusion: Overall, the molecular docking results when analyzed showed a good binding affinity with the targeted receptors of diabetes. The ADME analysis and molecular docking results of the phytochemicals concluded that these compounds can be used as a potential cure for treating diabetes.
... The content of bioactive metabolites has anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, and antiemetic properties [4]. [5] In vitro studies show that ginger is beneficial for cardiovascular disease, inflammation, hyperlipidemia, thrombocytopenia aggregation, and hypertension [6]. ...
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale), a member of the Zingiberaceae family, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-nausea/antiemetic, antibacterial, cytotoxic, and antidiabetic effects. Red ginger rhizome has been used as a spice, culinary flavoring, and herbal medicine. Our research shows that gingerol has the potential to be an anti-oxidant. The Assay of Antioxidant Activity using FRAP method is used to screen potential activity. The gingerol concentration of Ginger-Ethanolic extract (MGE) was 2.8 %, and the antioxidant activity was 1.96 mmol Fe(II)/100g, to the antioxidant activity of gallic acid that is 9.34 mmol Fe (II)/100 g. The equation for the standard calibration curve for comparison (6)-gingerol obtained is Y = 23.124 X + 1509.65. It can be concluded that MGE has antioxidant potential activity.
... Ginger could be used as an anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer agent. [2,3] ginger exerts many direct and indirect effects on blood pressure and heart rate, it can be used to treat migraine, diabetes, retinopathy, ulcer and cancer. it can also treat elephantiasis, its tonic helps in memory improvement, preserves liver health. ...
... Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has a widespread use as a spice and as an orthodox medicine (Makanjuola, Enujiugha, Omoba, & Sanni, 2015). Ginger root has many health benefits, which are credited to its presence of polyphenolic compounds majority of which include gingerols and shogaols (Singletary, 2010). Both gingerols and shogaols possess biological activities including anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities to various central nervous system activities (Semwal, Semwal, Combrinck, & Viljoen, 2015). ...
Article
This study sought to produce a functional drink using green tea and ginger extracts. The mixing ratios used for the Tea- Ginger blends are: Tea 100% (T1), Ginger 100% (G1), TeaGinger 50%: 50% (T1G1), TeaGinger 33.33%: 66.67% (T1G2) and TeaGinger 66.67: 33.33 (T2G1). The assays carried out include Total Phenols Content (TPC), Total Flavonoids Content (TFC), Condensed Tannins Content (CTC), FRAP Assay, ABTS Radical scavenging assay, %DPPH Radical scavenging assay and Plasma Protein Carbonyl Concentration (PC). Results obtained shows that G1 exhibited the lowest antioxidant property for %ABTS, and FRAP. T1 and T1G2 exhibited the highest antioxidant property for %DPPH and PC, while G1 and T2G1 exhibited the lowest effect for %DPPH, and G1 & T2G1 exhibited the lowest effect for PC. T1 exhibited the lowest antioxidant effect for CTC, while the other samples exhibited high antioxidant effect for CTC. G1 and T2G1 exhibited lowest antioxidant effect for TPC, while T1G2 and T1 exhibited the highest effect. T1 exhibited the highest effect for TFC, while G1, T1G1 and T2G1 exhibited the lowest effect. This study contributes to a better understanding of how a combination of potentially anti-oxidative food materials like tea and ginger might influence the potency of the product.
... Ginger relieves pain caused by arthritis by lowering prostaglandin levels. Some studies show that ginger can reduce pain and inflammation more effectively than non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin [31,32]. ...
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Medicinal plants are considered as a major asset in any society. The role of these plants is more visible today than ever before and requires a stronger position every day. In recent years, research on their effects in various areas, including the fight against disease. Today’s lifestyle changes have caused various foods to cause more serious harm to humans by having substances and plaques that destroy oral tissue health. Viral and bacterial as well as using like mouthwashes and cleaners, fight against cancer and dietary supplements are developing and evolving. Chemical drugs, due to their side effects, sometimes damage other parts of the body. They need to be researched more in the future. In this short review paper, the effects of some of the most important medicinal plants like Curcuma longa, Ananas comosus, Zingiber offinale, Salvia rosmarinus, Mentha piperita and Syzygium aromaticum, that are used today to treat and improve oral health issues are introduced. Finally, suggestions for better and more use are given.
... Ginger has different medicinal benefits such as anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetics (White, 2007). Further, ginger is used to treat cardiovascular problems, asthma, arthritis and menstrual irregularity (Singletary, 2010;Karna et al., 2011). The national and international demand for ginger is increasing day by day in the country due to its nutritive value, food additive and medicinal value. ...
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The study was conducted in two wards (Triveni 6 and Triveni 7) of Triveni municipality of Western Rukum district of Nepal to know the socioeconomic condition of the ginger producers. The data were collected from 30 farmers of each ward by interviewing the respondents. In both wards, the majority of the respondents were male and educated up to the primary level. The majority of the respondents were Janajati (43.28%) and Chhetri (43.32%) in Triveni 6 and Triveni 7 respectively. In both wards, the majority of the houses were mud thatched. In Triveni 6, 46.65% and Triveni 7, 51.73% of respondents belong to the age group of 36-50. The total expense, total revenue, net profit and benefit cost ratio per ropani were more in Triveni 6 than Triveni 7. Lack of agriculture loan was ranked as the first production problem with a 1.15 index value while the variable market price was ranked as the first marketing problem with a 0.79 index value. Among various suggestions, increment in agriculture loan availability was ranked as first for solving production problems with a 0.80 index value while making fixed market price was ranked as first for solving marketing problems with a 0.82 index value.
... Propõe-se que o consumo total de um grama aconteça antes da exposição da mulher aos gatilhos conhecidos. Sugere-se a realização de pesquisas adicionais, com objetivo de determinar a segurança e a eficácia de diferentes do-ses de gengibre durante a gravidez, antes que se possa recomendá-lo por longos períodos (SINGLETARY, 2010). ...
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) is the plant that today is used in abundance all around the world. In the past, this plant had been an important part of Chinese medicine, Hindi traditional medicine and Greek medicine. It was used in the treatment of various diseases like flu, rheumatism, nervous diseases, gingivitis, toothache, asthma, stroke, constipation and diabetes. To date, several animal and human studies have investigated the effect of ginger on blood glucose and lipids. The information of this article is obtained based on the results of our search in pubmed and elsevier databases. According to the findings of most studies in this basis, it seems that ginger probably can decrease blood glucose and insulin, increase insulin sensitivity and improves lipid profile, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this review, we represent some of these studies and discuss the possible mechanisms of the effect of ginger on glycemia and lipid profile.
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) which belongs to the Zingiberaceae family, was first cultivated in Asia (Indonesia and Malaysia). This plant is one of the most commonly used herbal supplements taken by many patients to treat various conditions. Z.officinale has three varieties based on its size, colors of rhizome and chemical constituents i.e. .Z. officinale var. officinale (big white ginger or giant ginger, badak or gajah), Z. officinale var. amarum (small white ginger, emprit), and Z. officinale var. rubrum (small red ginger, merah or beureum). These three varieties may partly be deferred from their essential oil contents and are used for different purposes. The essential oils contained in Z. officinale var. rubrum are higher than the other types of ginger, which makes stronger in its pungency smell and taste. There are many studies that confirm beneficial effects of red ginger against the symptoms of diseases, i.e. anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antiemetic, antibacterial and antidiabetics. Z.officinale var. rubrum is considered to be a safe herbal medicine with only few and insignificant adverse/side effects. Although the medicinal properties of red ginger have been known, further trials in humans are required to determine the efficacy of red ginger (or one or more of its constituents) and to establish what, if any, adverse effects are observed.
Article
Background: Migraine sufferers seek a range of treatments according to the frequency and severity of their symptoms. Just a few research studies have shown the effectiveness of ginger derivatives for migraine treatment. Ginger has analgesic properties and is effective for the acute treatment of migraines, and there is anecdotal evidence of its effectiveness in migraine prevention. Objectives: The goal of this research was to see whether ginger may help prophylaxis of migraine episodes. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was done in the Neurology Clinic of Golestan Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran). This research enrolled 103 individuals with episodic migraine aged 18 to 50 years. Randomization was used to divide the participants into two groups: control and intervention. For three months, patients were given 500 mg dry extract of ginger (5% active component) or placebo (starch) tablets twice a day. At the baseline and end of the study, MIDAS score, the number and duration of migraine attacks, headache severity, demographic data, dietary intakes, and anthropometric indices were collected. The data were statistically analyzed using the SPSS (version 26). In all tests, a P < 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. Results: At the end of the study, MIDAS score, duration of migraine attacks, and headache severity decreased significantly in the ginger group compared to the placebo group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference in the number of migraine episodes between the two groups. Conclusions: Compared to the placebo, ginger has a stronger efficacy in the prevention of migraine.
Article
Purpose Postoperative nausea and vomiting is one of the most common side effects associated with anesthesia. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of ginger on severity and incidence of nausea and vomiting after lower and upper limb surgery. Design This was a triple-blinded clinical trial. Methods Sixty eligible patients were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. The intervention group received four 250 mg ginger capsules and the control group received four placebo capsules 2 hours before surgery. Incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting immediately after the surgery and 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after the surgery were evaluated. Findings The results of this study showed that the use of ginger capsules significantly reduces the incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting at different hours after surgery compared to placebo, P < .05, irrespective of the gender and the age of the patients. Conclusions Use of ginger is effective in decreasing postoperative nausea and vomiting. However, further studies in comorbid patients are required to verify these outcomes.
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Consumer acceptance of ice cream depends largely on its structure, textural quality, resistance to melting, nutritional composition and flavour. Incorporation of fruits and spices is one of the choices to increase consumer acceptance. The study was focused to develop a nutritional and flavour rich palmyra pulp ice cream with selected spices and jaggery. Eight sensory evaluation tests were carried out with 30 semi-trained panellist using 5 point hedonic scales. Initial sensory evaluation test results reveals pulp which is less bitter and added in overrun combination was selected for both natural and commercial pulp. Then 25% of pulp was selected for both type of pulp. By using the combination which is selected in previous sensory evaluation natural pulp ice cream and commercial pulp ice cream were developed. From that; natural pulp ice cream was preferred as best. Then for the selected ice cream, 125 ppm level of ginger and cinnamon oleoresins incorporated products were selected as best outputs. When comparing cinnamon natural pulp ice cream and ginger natural pulp ice cream, the first was preferred due to bitterness masking property of ginger. Finaly, jaggery added ginger flavoured natural palmyra ice cream was developed without adding artificial colours and preservatives. Cite as: Ratnasingam. P., Jayasinghe. M., A., 2021 sensory variation analysis in ice cream made by palmyra (borassus flabellifer) pulp with jaggery and selected spices. Agric. Sci. J. 3(2): 35-50.
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Primary hypothyroidism is a common disease. Some patients have persistent symptoms despite normal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Ginger is reported to be beneficial in relieving similar symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of ginger supplementation in relieving persistent symptoms in these patients. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 60 hypothyroid patients aged 20–60 years with normal serum TSH concentrations were randomly allocated to two equal parallel study groups of ginger (500 mg twice a day) or placebo for 30 days. Hypothyroid symptoms were evaluated as the primary outcome using the Thyroid Symptom Rating Questionnaire (ThySRQ) before and after the intervention. Anthropometric measures and laboratory indices including TSH, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TChol), and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were considered as secondary outcomes. A significant lower mean total ThySRQ score (8.63 ± 5.47 vs. 15.76 ± 6.09, P < 0.001 ) was observed in the ginger group compared to the control group. Ginger led to significant improvements in the mean scores of the weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, dry skin, appetite, memory loss, concentration disturbance, and feeling giddy or dizzy domains ( P < 0.001 ). However, no significant improvements were observed in hair loss, nail fragility, hearing, hoarseness, speech, and depression or feeling down ( P > 0.05 ). Ginger supplementation also led to a significant decrease in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, serum TSH, FBS, TG, and TChol levels compared to the placebo. In summary according to preliminary results of this study, ginger supplementation can help relieve persistent hypothyroid symptoms. Also, it may have beneficial effects in terms of weight reduction and regulation of the FBS and lipid profile in hypothyroid patients.
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Kunnu is an infamous non-alcoholic beverage among the inhabitants of Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a fermented product commonly made from millet, sorghum or corn and relatively cheap when compared to carbonated beverages. This study targets value addition of kunnu by fortification with tigernut extracts and coconut milk to further boost the consumption and acceptance among people of all ages. The beverages were then evaluated for the physicochemical properties, phytochemical content and colour analyses. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to measure the total phenolic content while the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The unfortified kunnu sample had the lowest pH of 3.24 which was significantly increased upon fortification with tigernut extract and coconut milk. Kunnu samples fortified with tigernut had the highest vitamin contents (28.07 mg/ml) and soluble fiber (8%) when compared to the other samples. The total phenol (0.85 mg GAE/ml) and flavonoids (4.59 mg RE/ml) were also highest when the kunnu beverages were fortified with tigernut extract. Fortification with tigernut and/or coconut milk result in elevated antioxidant potentials determined by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP. There was no significant difference in the taste, viscosity, colour and overall acceptability of the beverages when fortified with tigernut extract. The study revealed that fortification with tigernut and/or coconut milk improves the antioxidative potential of the beverages with very good acceptability. The beverage could serve as a healthy replacement for sugar-laden fizzy drinks.
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Ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) is one of the most widely used natural products consumed as a spice and medicine for treating diabetes, flatulent intestinal colic, indigestion, infertility, inflammation, insomnia, a memory booster, nausea, rheumatism, stomach ache, and urinary tract infections. To date, over 400 bioactive components, such as diarylheptanoids, gingerol analogues, phenylalkanoids, sulfonates, monoterpenoid glycosides, steroids, and terpene compounds have been derived from ginger. Increasing evidence has revealed that ginger possesses a broad range of biological activities, especially protective effects against male infertility, nausea and vomiting, analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and other effects. The pharmacological activities of ginger were mainly attributed to its active phytoconstituents such as 6-gingerol, gingerdiol, gingerol, gingerdione, paradols, shogaols, sesquiterpenes, zingerone, besides other phenolics and flavonoids. In recent years, in silico molecular docking studies revealed that gingerol (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol) and Shogaol (6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol) had the best binding affinities to the receptor protein in disease conditions such as diabetes, inflammation, obesity, and SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, some clinical trials have indicated that ginger can be consumed for alleviation of nausea and vomiting induced by surgery, pain, diabetes, obesity, inflammation, male infertility. This review provides an updated understanding of the scientific evidence on the development of ginger and its active compounds as health beneficial agents in future clinical trials.
Article
BACKGROUND Ginger stem (GS) is a by‐product from ginger processing. It can not straightly be edible as a feed or food, which leads to it discarded as wastes or burned. So it is it is very important to develop the new functional products in food or feed industry due to high nutritional and medicinal values. In this paper, the structure and physicochemical properties of ginger stem (GS) powders with different sizes were evaluated after ultrafine grinding by vibrating mill. RESULT The ultrafine powders exhibited the smaller particle size and uniform distribution. The higher values in bulk density (from1.07 ± 0.06 to 1.62 ± 0.08 g/mL), oil holding capacity (from 3.427 ± 0.04 to 4.83 ± 0.03 g/mL) and repose and slide angles (from 42.33 ± 1.52 to 54.36 ± 1.15 ° and 33.62 ± 0.75 to 47.27 ± 1.34°, respectively) of ultrafine GS powders were exhibited compared with coarse powders. With reducing particle size, the solubility of ultrafine powders increased significantly (P < 0.05), while water holding and swelling capacities decreased with particle size reduce and then increased. FTIR analysis showed that the ultrafine grinding did not damage the main cellular structure of GS powder. The reduce of fiber length and particle size in GS was observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The X‐ray diffraction patterns showed that the crystallinity and intensity of peak in in superfine GS powders. CONCLUSION The study suggested that the ultrafine grinding treatments influenced the structures and physicochemical properties of GS powders, the changes would improve the effective utilization of GS in food or feed industry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Zingiber officinale Rosc is known as one of the most common medicinal-spice herbs with anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-cancer effects. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ethanol and aqueous fresh ginger rhizome extracts on some types of secondary metabolites and radical-scavenging activity. In addition, an investigation on ginger extract for the inhibition of colorectal cancer HCT-116 cell line was performed as well as studying KRAS and MMP-2 marker genes expressions. In this regard, ethanol and aqueous extraction methods were compared by GC–MS and DPPH trials. Moreover, MTT assay was accomplished for toxicity of Ginger extract at 10 concentrations of (80-100-150-200-250-300-350-400-450-and500 μg/ml) on HCT-116 cell line after 16 and 24 h. The expressions of KRAS and MMP-2 genes in treatment by 150 and 300 μg/ml of the ethanol ginger extract were evaluated for 16 h and 24 h by Real time-PCR. Besides, GC–MS chromatogram detected Zingerone and Gingerol in both of the extracts, more than Paradol ingredient that was only in the ethanol extract. Anti-proliferation screening by MTT assay showed that the ethanol extract can prevent proliferation with IC¹50 = 300 μg/ml. Finally, Real time-PCR showed a significant increase in the expression of MMP-2 at 150 μg/ml of the ginger ethanol extract in 16 h and 24 h. Moreover, the expressions of KRAS and MMP-2 have significantly reduced under the treatment by 300 μg/ml concentration of the ginger extract for 16 h. In contrast, the treatment by 300 μg/ml of the extract for 24 h significantly increased the expressions of KRAS and MMP-2 (p < .05).
Article
Due to many therapeutic effects, Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is the most widely used spice around the world, including in Iran. Due to its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, ginger may protect against neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of 6-gingerol (the main bioactive compound in ginger) on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death in PC12 cells. Cell viability, cell apoptosis, and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and survivin expression were measured using resazurin, propidium iodide (PI) and flow cytometry, and western blot analysis. 6-OHDA (100 μM) reduced the cell viability, increased apoptosis, increased the active form of SAPK/JNK, and decreased survivin protein level in PC12 exposed cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with 6-gingerol significantly increased the viability and reduced apoptosis (2.5 and 5 µM). Also, pretreatment with 6-gingerol at 2.5 and 5 µM increased survivin whereas, 6-gingerol at 2.5 µM reduced (P-SAPK/JNK):(SAPK/JNK) levels to a level near that of the related control. According to the results, 6-gingerol blocks 6-OHDA-induced cell damage by suppressing oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic activity. Thus, 6-gingerol may process beneficial protective effects in slowing the progression of Parkinson's disease.
Article
The efficacy of using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is supported by the literature to decrease preoperative anxiety, postoperative pain and opioid requirements, as well as nausea and vomiting and to improve severity of headaches and increase wound healing. Nursing care includes interventions using CAs for treatment of a range of patient needs. Being supportive while educating parents and patients demonstrates altruism, which also is beneficial for improving health outcomes with CAM.
Thesis
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The obesity epidemic is a growing health, social and economic problem worldwide. Aside from being a social stigma, obesity is frequently associated with insulin resistance, in turn linked to development of type II diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis – the so-called metabolic syndrome (Alberti et al., 2006). Obesity and metabolic syndrome have earned the name “the silent disease” because their adverse effects are insidious (Abraham et al., 2016). According to World Health Organization (WHO), Obesity is defined as a profuse accumulation of fat caused by an imbalance in intake and consumption of energy accompanied by insufficient physical activity (WHO, 2017). Obesity is considered as a complex neuroendocrine disorder in which genetic predisposition and environmental factors act in concern (Walley et al., 2009, and Hebebrand et al, 2009). The brain plays a relevant role in the regulation of appetite, body weight, and physical activity. The hypothalamus [via regulatory neuropeptides such as cholecystokinin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y] is a brain region that chiefly regulates hemostasis food intake (Dietrich et al, 2009) and is implicated in obesity (Belgardt et al., 2009). Also, Adipocytes secrete a variety of bioactive peptide hormones called adipokines [e.g. leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6], which play a role in energy regulation (Garg, 2006). A unifying mechanism behind the pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases has given birth of the concept of "meta-inflammation" which describes the chronic low grade inflammatory response to obesity (Lumeng et al, 2011).WNT-inducible signaling pathway protein-1(WISP1), also known as CCN4, is a novel adipokine which is a member of secreted extracellular matrix-associated proteins of the CCN family and a target gene of Wingless type (WNT) signaling pathway. Growing evidence links the WNT signaling pathway to the regulation of adipogenesis and meta-inflammation in obesity (Murahovschi et al., 2015). WNT signaling family members are secreted glycoproteins that act in both autocrine and paracrine fashions to regulate cell proliferation, cell fate and differentiation (Logan et al, 2004). The WNT signaling network comprises multiple so-called "canonical' and "non-canonical" pathways that lead to tightly controlled cell remodeling. WISP1 is a downstream target gene of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway (Katoh et al, 2007) and acts anti-apoptotically through the phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PIK) and Akt pathways (Maiese et al., 2012). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), the rate-limiting enzyme (EC 1.14.99.3) in heme degradation, catalyzes the oxidation of heme to generate several biologically active molecules: carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and ferrous ion (Maines, 1988). Li et al. (2007) reported that induction of HO1 enhances cell survival and moderates diabetes and obesity. Furthermore, Vanella et al. (2013) showed that increased HO1 expression and activity decreased adipocyte hypertrophy and TNF-α level, and increased adiponectin level and expression of the genes central to the canonical WNT signaling cascade. HO1 acted as upstream regulator of canonical WNT signaling cascade decreasing lipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation.The medicinal properties of ginger have been used since ancient times in India for various biomedical applications especially obesity. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is the rhizome of the plant, which belongs to the family Zingiberaceae, and is consumed as a medicine or spice (Ali et al., 2008). The major chemical constituents of the ginger rhizome include a volatile oil and non-volatile pungent compounds e.g. gingerols, shagols and zingerones (Tapsell et al., 2006). Various well-reported pharmacological activities of ginger and its constituents include anti-ulcer, antiplatelet, hypotensive and hypolipidemic actions (González-Castejón et al, 2011).
Technical Report
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Dans le but de valoriser le vin de gingembre, nous nous sommes intéressés à l’implication des bactéries du genre Bacillus dans la bioconversion du jus de gingembre. Sur les 44 isolats de Bacillus testés, 45% présentent une activité amylolytique, 40% ont une activité cellulolytique, 59 % ont une activité pectinolytique et 89 % ont une activité protéolytique. Ces résultats seraient la preuve de l’implication des Bacillus dans la bioconversion de cette boisson en facilitant la libération des biomolécules comme les polyphénols au cours de la fermentation. Les bactéries ont été identifiées par la technologie de PCR en ciblant le gène fibE comme biomarqueur. Trois espèces ont été identifiées notamment B. licheniformis, B. pumilus et B. safensis. Ce travail ouvre la voie de la caractérisation des aliments fermentés en République du Congo.
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The present entire investigation was carried out to study effect of storage period on chemical and sensory characteristics of ginger candy over different storage period like 0, 30, 60 and 90 days. The ginger was soaked with different seven treatments. Among the seven different treatments the blanched ginger candy was having good chemical and sensory characteristics. The ginger candy was prepared by using two different methods like cold and vacuum syruping methods. During the 0 to 90 days storage of ginger candy with two different methods it was observed that, there was decrease in moisture content, acidity, crude fiber, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus whereas, increase in T.S.S and total sugar. The acidity, moisture, crude fiber content was decreased from 11.29 to 7.00 percent, 1.98 to 1.05 percent, 1.89 to 0.95 per cent, 12.95 to 8.63 mg/100g, 25.92 to 29.06 mg/100g and 21.82 to 23.58 mg/100g. During 0 to 90 days storage period whereas, total soluble solids and total sugars were increased from 61.13 to 65.66 per cent and 68.27 to 72.04 0 Brix over 0 to 90 days storage period. It was also found that the blanched sample of ginger with vacuum syruping was having highest sensory score over the cold syruping.
Article
Traditionally, crude extracts from various plants were used for treatment of diseases and ailments, while spices have been used for flavour, as preservatives, in rituals and as medicines for treating infectious diseases. The essential oils of 12 medicinal plants and spices were extracted and tested against Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (EHEC) to determine the antimicrobial properties. The selected plants and spices are Eugenia caryophyllata (F), Jasminium (F), Eucalyptus globulus (L), Zingiber officinale (R), Allium sativum (L), Occimum sanctum (L), Azadirachta indica (L), Psidium guajava (L), Citrus limon (L), Carica papaya (L), Morinda citrifolia (L) and Azadirachta indica (seed). These plants and spices were chosen due to their dependence by local households as a means of traditional medicine. Essential oils extracted from the plant and spices showed growth inhibition of E. coli 0157:H7, whereas the highest antimicrobial activity was recorded for clove oil. Jasmine, pawpaw and neem (seed oil) had the lowest growth respectively. All other extracts had moderate activity. Additionally, the aqueous and ethanol extracts of each plant were used to determine the total phenolic content (TPC). From the plants tested, the TPC of aqueous extract varied from 612±3.15 to 2.67±0.11 (mg GAE/100gdw), while TPC of ethanol extract varied from 434±2.87 to 1.02±0.09 (mg GAE/100gdw). The highest TPC was recorded for noni aqueous extract and the lowest was for jasmine ethanol extract. This study reports the inhibitory effects and phenolic content of 12 herbs and spices and thus its potential use for developing safe pharmaceutical agents.
Article
Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers and the second most common cause of cancer mortality in women. Some natural ingredients, including 6-gingerol (an active pharmaceutical agent in ginger), have shown significant anticancer effects against cancer cells. In this study, to find the role of ginger in breast cancer therapy, ginger ethanolic extract was injected into cancer mice. Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-11, and MMP-13 genes was analyzed in the blood and liver, as two primary target tissues for metastasis, by the qRT-PCR method. It was found the MMP-9 is a significant target gene that is affected by the treatment, and is downregulated in both tissue. Also, it was shown, other MMPs not have the expression profile, the same as MMP-9, and then, they cannot be considered as specific significant target genes for the ginger extract to treat breast cancer in mice. The results show that ginger extract can affect breast cancer and its metastasis to other organs through influence on MMPs genes, especially MMP-9.
Chapter
Aging is a universally natural phenomenon which is associated with cognitive decline and several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease. As this phenomenon is inevitable, many factors affect the progression and development of age-associated cognitive decline. Among these factors, lifestyle pattern such as exercise and diet plays a major role in contributing to neurological fitness. In this chapter, we discuss the relationship and effects of food and nutrition over aging and Alzheimer disease. Mediterranean diet rich in antioxidants and bioactive compounds is most efficient in delaying the onset and progression of age-related neurological disorders. Flavonoids and polyphenols are the major antiaging food component which also serves as antioxidants. These effectively reduce the generation of stress-induced reactive oxygen species. Also, omega-3 fatty acid such as docosahexaenoic acid is an essential fatty acid whose supplementation in the diet improves mental health.
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The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ginger in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. This was a single blind clinical trial study. The study was conducted in a selected prenatal care clinic of Isfahan City hospitals. The subjects included 67 pregnant women who complained of nausea and vomiting from Isfahan city hospitals participated in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups, an experimental group and a control group. The groups were matched according to the age, gestational age, parity, occupational status, and educational level of the participants. The experimental group received ginger 250 mg capsules for 4 days, and the control group received placebo with the same prescription form. Effects of treatment of nausea were evaluated twice daily for 4 days by a before-and-after treatment questionnaire. The mean ages of the experimental and control groups were 24.1 +/- 4.8 and 23.3 +/- 5 years, respectively. The mean gestational age was 13 +/- 3 weeks, and the mean parity was 1.6 +/- 0.8. The ginger users demonstrated a higher rate of improvement than the placebo users did (85% versus 56%; p < 0.01). The decrease in vomiting times among ginger users was also significantly greater than among the women who received the placebo (50% versus 9%; p < 0.05). A daily total of 1000 mg of ginger in a capsule preparation can be suggested by care providers as a means of decreasing pregnancy nausea and vomiting in women who tend to herbal medicines. Ginger is an effective herbal remedy for decreasing nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.
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Ginger has known hypoalgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The effects of an oral dose of ginger on quadriceps muscle pain, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and recovery of oxygen consumption were examined during and after moderate-intensity cycling exercise. Twenty-five college-age participants ingested a 2-g dose of ginger or placebo in a double-blind, crossover design and 30 min later completed 30 min of cycling at 60% of VO2peak. Quadriceps muscle pain, RPE, work rate, heart rate (HR), and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded every 5 min during exercise, and HR and VO2 were recorded for 20 min after exercise. Compared with placebo, ginger had no clinically meaningful or statistically significant effect on perceptions of muscle pain, RPE, work rate, HR, or VO2 during exercise. Recovery of VO2 and HR after the 30-min exercise bout followed a similar time course in the ginger and placebo conditions. The results were consistent with related findings showing that ingesting a large dose of aspirin does not acutely alter quadriceps muscle pain during cycling, and this suggests that prostaglandins do not play a large role in this type of exercise-induced skeletal-muscle pain. Ginger consumption has also been shown to improve VO2 recovery in an equine exercise model, but these results show that this is not the case in humans.
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To evaluate the effect of ginger extract on the expression of NFkappaB and TNF-alpha in liver cancer-induced rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups based on diet: i) control (given normal rat chow), ii) olive oil, iii) ginger extract (100mg/kg body weight), iv) choline-deficient diet + 0.1% ethionine to induce liver cancer and v) choline-deficient diet + ginger extract (100mg/kg body weight). Tissue samples obtained at eight weeks were fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin wax, followed by immunohistochemistry staining for NFkappaB and TNF-alpha. The expression of NFkappaB was detected in the choline-deficient diet group, with 88.3 +/- 1.83% of samples showing positive staining, while in the choline-deficient diet supplemented with ginger group, the expression of NFkappaB was significantly reduced, to 32.35 +/- 1.34% (p<0.05). In the choline-deficient diet group, 83.3 +/- 4.52% of samples showed positive staining of TNF-alpha, which was significantly reduced to 7.94 +/- 1.32% (p<0.05) when treated with ginger. There was a significant correlation demonstrated between NFkappaB and TNF-alpha in the choline-deficient diet group but not in the choline-deficient diet treated with ginger extract group. In conclusion, ginger extract significantly reduced the elevated expression of NFkappaB and TNF-alpha in rats with liver cancer. Ginger may act as an anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent by inactivating NFkappaB through the suppression of the pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha.
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Ginger has been used to treat numerous types of nausea and vomiting. Ginger has also been studied for its efficacy for acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). However, its efficacy for delayed CINV in a diverse oncology population is unknown. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 162 patients with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy and had experienced CINV during at least one previous round of chemotherapy. All participants were receiving a 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and/or aprepitant. Participants were randomized to receive either 1.0 g ginger, 2.0 g ginger daily, or matching placebo for 3 days. The primary outcome was change in the prevalence of delayed CINV. Secondary outcomes included acute prevalence of CINV, acute and delayed severity of CINV, and assessment of blinding. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of delayed nausea or vomiting, prevalence of acute CINV, or severity of delayed vomiting or acute nausea and vomiting. Participants who took both ginger and aprepitant had more severe acute nausea than participants who took only aprepitant. Participants were able to accurately guess which treatment they had received. Ginger appeared well tolerated, with no difference in all adverse events (AEs) and significantly less fatigue and miscellaneous AEs in the ginger group. Ginger provides no additional benefit for reduction of the prevalence or severity of acute or delayed CINV when given with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and/or aprepitant.
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The present study evaluated functional properties of lactic-fermented ginger products. Three Zingiberaceae species were used as the substrate for fermentation using three lactic acid bacteria. The fermentation process ended 35-40 h after inoculation and reached a pH value of 3.5-4.0. Total antioxidant performances were 68-75%, and were best observed using Bifidobacterium longum as the starter in three ginger samples. DPPH scavenging was on average 70%, with free radical anion scavenging and peroxide removal effects of 30.6% and 43.7%, respectively. The product acceptance survey showed that the 100% fermented juice without a mixture with non-fermented ginger juice obtained the highest score in overall performance. The lactic-fermented Vanoverberghia and Hedychium ginger species retained an antioxidant activity and DPPH scavenging activity of on average 70%. This study may suggest a new way of ginger food processing with high functionality. Also, it may help to popularize the growing and processing of endemic ginger plants in Taiwan.
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Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) has been used for centuries to treat dementia in South Asia. This study was undertaken to possibly justify its use. A 70% aqueous/methanolic extract of dried ginger (Zo.Cr) was used. Zo.Cr tested positive for the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, secondary amines, phenols, alkaloids and saponins. When tested on isolated rat stomach fundus, Zo.Cr showed a spasmogenic effect (0.03-5.00 mg mL(-1)); it relaxed the tissue at concentrations > or =5 mg mL(-1). The stimulant effect was resistant to blockade by hexamethonium and methysergide, but sensitive to atropine, indicating activity via muscarinic receptors. In atropinized (0.1 microM) preparations, Zo.Cr (0.3-3.0 mg mL(-1)) relaxed high K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions, indicating Ca(++) antagonism in addition to the muscarinic effect. This possible Ca(++) antagonist activity was investigated in Ca(++)-free conditions, with the inhibitory effect of the extract tested against contractions induced by externally administered Ca(++). Zo.Cr (0.1-0.3 mg mL(-1)), similar to verapamil (0.03-0.10 microM), shifted the contractions induced by externally administered Ca(++) to the right, thus suggesting an inhibitory interaction between Zo.Cr and voltage-operated Ca(++) channels. Zo.Cr (0.1-3.0 microg mL(-1)) also potentiated acetylcholine peak responses in stomach fundus, similar to physostigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor. Zo.Cr, in an in-vitro assay, showed specific inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) rather than acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Different pure compounds of ginger also showed spasmolytic activity in stomach fundus, with 6-gingerol being the most potent. 6-Gingerol also showed a specific anti-BuChE effect. This study shows a unique combination of muscarinic, possible Ca(++) antagonist and BuChE inhibitory activities of dried ginger, indicating its benefit in dementia, including Alzheimer's disease.
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The conventional procedure for screening bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicine is time-consuming, expensive and low efficient. Therefore, some alternative strategies are needed urgently. A novel method for screening anti-platelet aggregation components from oleoresins was developed using chicken thrombocyte extract and high performance liquid chromatography. The anti-platelet aggregation components of oleoresins were combined with receptors, channels and enzymes of chicken thrombocytes under physiological environment. Unbound substances were washed away and bound compounds were eluted using specific phosphate buffered solution (PBS). Compounds released from target sites were collected and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and LC-MS. The activity of three compounds which were screened from this model was confirmed using platelet aggregation pharmacology in vivo. There were four typical compounds that bound to the thrombocytes: 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol and 10-gingerol, and all had shown anti-platelet aggregation activities. Eight-gingerol displayed the best anti-platelet aggregation effect. Chicken thrombocyte extract can be used to isolate chemicals that are ligands of the receptor or other bio-targets on the platelet. This may therefore be a simple and efficient method to screen for anti-platelet aggregation compounds from traditional Chinese medicine.
Article
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Ginger shows promising anticancer properties. No research has examined the pharmacokinetics of the ginger constituents 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol in humans. We conducted a clinical trial with 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol, examining the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of these analytes and their conjugate metabolites. Human volunteers were given ginger at doses from 100 mg to 2.0 g (N = 27), and blood samples were obtained at 15 minutes to 72 hours after a single p.o. dose. The participants were allocated in a dose-escalation manner starting with 100 mg. There was a total of three participants at each dose except for 1.0 g (N = 6) and 2.0 g (N = 9). No participant had detectable free 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, or 6-shogaol, but 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol glucuronides were detected. The 6-gingerol sulfate conjugate was detected above the 1.0-g dose, but there were no detectable 10-gingerol or 6-shogaol sulfates except for one participant with detectable 8-gingerol sulfate. The C(max) and area under the curve values (mean +/- SE) estimated for the 2.0-g dose are 0.85 +/- 0.43, 0.23 +/- 0.16, 0.53 +/- 0.40, and 0.15 +/- 0.12 microg/mL; and 65.6.33 +/- 44.4, 18.1 +/- 20.3, 50.1 +/- 49.3, and 10.9 +/- 13.0 microg x hr/mL for 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol. The corresponding t(max) values are 65.6 +/- 44.4, 73.1 +/- 29.4, 75.0 +/- 27.8, and 65.6 +/- 22.6 minutes, and the analytes had elimination half-lives <2 hours. The 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol conjugates were present as either glucuronide or sulfate conjugates, not as mixed conjugates, although 6-gingerol and 10-gingerol were an exception. Six-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol are absorbed after p.o. dosing and can be detected as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates.
Article
In traditional medicine the rhizome of ginger was held to possess medicinal properties. The scientific investigations relating to consumption of fresh or powdered rhizome by humans and in vitro effects of aqueous and organic extracts and of volatile oils are reviewed. Pungent components of ginger inhibit cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activity in the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway and thereby probably reduce inflammation and relieve pain in rheumatic disorders and migraine headache. Consumption of ginger reduces plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2) levels in humans. Ginger is reported to reduce nausea vertigo and vomiting for which the mechanism of action is however not yet understood. Effects on the gastrointestinal system include increase in bile secretion and anti-emetic action. An acetone extract of ginger and (6)-shogaol given orally, accelerate gastroinstestinal movement in mice while given i.v. (6)-shogaol inhibits such movement. Galanolactone antagonises 5-HT3 receptors which may explain the anti-emetic and gastrointestinal movement enhancing effects. Zingiberone and(6)-gingerol are reported to protect against gastric mucosal lesions. (6)-Shogaol is known to reduce blood pressure by both a central and a peripheral action. (8)-Gingerol has a cardiotonic action via enhancement of the Ca-ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Ginger contains mutagenic (gingerol and shogaol) and anti-mutagenic (zingiberone) compounds. Ginger extract exhibits cytotoxic effects in cultured plant cells but it is not known whether ginger can suppress tumour growth in experimental animals or humans. Some of the chemical compounds from ginger may prove to have anti-inflammatory, anti-emetic, cardiotonic and gastroprotective properties in humans without side effects.
Article
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the prophylactic effects of dexamethasone plus ginger and dexamethasone alone on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients undergoing general anaesthesia for thyroidectomy were enrolled in this randomised, double-blind study. Patients received oral diazepam 10mg with either oral placebo (group I) or 0.5g of ginger (group II) as premedication 1 hour prior to surgery. Standard general anaesthetic techniques and postoperative analgesia were employed. Both group I and group II received intravenous dexamethasone 150 μg/kg immediately before the induction of anaesthesia. Data were recorded over a 24-hour observation period after surgery. Results: In the dexamethasone-treated group, 14 patients experienced nausea, two patients retched, three patients vomited once, two patients vomited repeatedly, and 14 patients required a rescue antiemetic. In the dexamethasone-plus-gingertreated group, 12 patients experienced nausea, one patient retched, four patients vomited once, no patients vomited repeatedly, and 13 patients required a rescue antiemetic. Dexamethasone plus ginger did not significantly reduce nausea and vomiting compared with dexamethasone alone during the observation period. Conclusion: In conclusion, the prophylactic combination of antiemetic treatment with dexamethasone and ginger was not clinically or statistically superior to dexamethasone alone in preventing PONV in patients undergoing thyroidectomy.
Article
The pharmacological effects of crude drugs and other plant extracts on the contractile responses to serotonin (5-HT) in isolated guinea pig ileum were examined. The acetone extract of giner was found to possess an anti-serotonergic effect. The extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and results showed that [6]-, [8]- and [10]-gingerol were the active components exhibiting anti-5-HT action.
Article
Mild-to-moderate nausea and vomiting of pregnancy affects up to 80% of all pregnancies. Concern about antiemetic use and the time-limited nature of symptoms has restrained the development of effective treatment approaches, yet supportive, dietary, and lifestyle changes may be ineffective. This article reviews 4 recent well-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical studies that provide convincing evidence for the effectiveness of ginger in treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. It also provides a dosage update for the various forms of ginger.
Article
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) continues to be used as an important cooking spice and herbal medicine around the world. Scientific research has gradually verified the antidiabetic effects of ginger. Especially gingerols, which are the major components of ginger, are known to improve diabetes including the effect of enhancement against insulin-sensitivity. Aldose reductase inhibitors have considerable potential for the treatment of diabetes, without increased risk of hypoglycemia. The assay for aldose reductase inhibitors in ginger led to the isolation of five active compounds including 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol (2) and 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanoic acid (3). Compounds 2 and 3 were good inhibitors of recombinant human aldose reductase, with IC50 values of 19.2 ± 1.9 and 18.5 ± 1.1 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds significantly suppressed not only sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes but also lens galactitol accumulation in 30% of galactose-fed cataract rat model. A structure−activity relationship study revealed that the applicable side alkyl chain length and the presence of a C3 OCH3 group in the aromatic ring are essential features for enzyme recognition and binding. These results suggested that it would contribute to the protection against or improvement of diabetic complications for a dietary supplement of ginger or its extract containing aldose reductase inhibitors.
Article
Antioxidants minimize oxidation of the lipid components in foods. There is an increasing interest in the use of natural and/or synthetic antioxidants in food preservation, but it is important to evaluate such compounds fully for both antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties. The properties of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol, hydroxytyrosol and zingerone were characterized in detail. Thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol and hydroxytyrosol decreased peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes in the presence of iron(III) and ascorbate, but zingerone had only a weak inhibitory effect on the system. The compounds were good scavengers of peroxyl radicals (CCl3O2; calculated rate constants > 106m−1 sec−1) generated by pulse radiolysis. Thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol and zingerone were not able to accelerate DNA damage in the bleomycin-Fe(III) system. Hydroxytyrosol promoted deoxyribose damage in the deoxyribose assay and also promoted DNA damage in the bleomycin-Fe(III) system. This promotion was inhibited strongly in the deoxyribose assay by the addition of bovine serum albumin to the reaction mixtures. Our data suggest that thymol, carvacrol and 6-gingerol possess useful antioxidant properties and may become important in the search for ‘natural’ replacements for ‘synthetic’ antioxidant food additives.
Article
Despite the widespread use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist antiemetics such as ondansetron and granistron, up to 70% of patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy agents experience postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting. Delayed postchemotherapy nausea (nausea that occurs >/= 24 hours after chemotherapy administration) and anticipatory nausea (nausea that develops before chemotherapy administration, in anticipation of it) are poorly controlled by currently available antiemetic agents. Scientific studies suggest that ginger (Zingiber officinale) might have beneficial effects on nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, surgery, and pregnancy. In 2 small studies of patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy, addition of ginger to standard antiemetic medication further reduced the severity of postchemotherapy nausea. This article describes a phase II/III randomized, dose-finding, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of ginger for nausea associated with chemotherapy for cancer. The study is currently being conducted by private practice oncology groups that are funded by the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and affiliated with the University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program Research Base.
Article
Alternative medicine is used extensively by patients with chronic pain due to e.g., osteoarthritis. Only few of these drugs have be tested in a controlled setting and the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of ginger extract, one of the most popular herbal medications. Ginger extract was compared to placebo and Ibuprofen in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee in a controlled, double blind, double dummy, cross-over study with a wash-out period of one week followed by three treatment periods in a randomized sequence, each of three weeks duration. Acetaminophen was used as rescue medication throughout the study. The study was conducted in accordance with Good Clinical Practice (European Guideline for GCP). A ranking of efficacy of the three treatment periods: Ibuprofen>ginger extract>placebo was found for visual analogue scale of pain (Friedman test: 24.65, P< 0.00001) and the Lequesne-index (Friedman test: 20.76, P< 0.00005). In the cross-over study, no significant difference between placebo and ginger extract could be demonstrated (Siegel-Castellan test), while explorative tests of differences in the first treatment period showed a better effect of both Ibuprofen and ginger extract than placebo (Chi-square, P< 0.05). There were no serious adverse events reported during the periods with active medications. In the present study a statistically significant effect of ginger extract could only be demonstrated by explorative statistical methods in the first period of treatment before cross-over, while a significant difference was not observed in the study as a whole.
Article
Ginger, the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), has widely been used as a spice and condiment in different societies. Besides its food-additive functions, ginger has a long history of medicinal use for the treatment of a variety of human ailments including common colds, fever, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal complications, motion sickness, diabetes, cancer, etc. Ginger contains several nonvolatile pungent principles viz. gingerols, shogaols, paradols and zingerone, which account for many of its health beneficial effects. Studies conducted in cultured cells as well as in experimental animals revealed that these pungent phenolics possess anticarcinogenic properties. This chapter summarizes updated information on chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of ginger-derived phenolic substances and their underlying mechanisms.
Article
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is one of the most commonly used spices around the world and a traditional medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Unani-Tibb medicines for several thousand years. However, there was still lack of systemic safety evaluation. We conducted a 35-day toxicity study on ginger in rats. Both male and female rats were daily treated with ginger powder at the dosages of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight by a gavage method for 35 days. The results demonstrated that this chronic administration of ginger was not associated with any mortalities and abnormalities in general conditions, behavior, growth, and food and water consumption. Except for dose-related decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in males, ginger treatment induced similar hematological and blood biochemical parameters to those of controlled animals. In general, ginger treatment caused no overt organ abnormality. Only at a very high dose (2000 mg/kg), ginger led to slightly reduced absolute and relative weights of testes (by 14.4% and 11.5%, respectively). This study provides a new understanding of the toxicological properties of ginger.
Article
Magnolia bark and ginger rhizome is a drug pair in many prescriptions for treatment of mental disorders in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, compatibility and synergism mechanism of two herbs on antidepressant actions have not been reported. The aim of this study was to approach the rationale of the drug pair in TCM. We evaluated antidepressant-like effects of mixture of honokiol and magnolol (HMM), polysaccharides (PMB) from magnolia bark, essential oil (OGR) and polysaccharides (PGR) from ginger rhizome alone, and the possibility of synergistic interactions in their combinations in the mouse forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE) levels in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum were also examined. 30 mg/kg HMM decreased immobility in the FST and TST in mice after one- and two-week treatment. OGR (19.5 or 39 mg/kg) alone was ineffective. The combination of an ineffective dose of 39 mg/kg OGR with 15 mg/kg HMM was the most effective and produced a synergistic action on behaviors after two-week treatment. Significant increase in 5-HT and synergistic increase in NE in prefrontal cortex were observed after co-administration of HMM with OGR. These results demonstrated that HMM was the principal component of this drug pair, whereas OGR served as adjuvant fraction. Compatibility of HMM with OGR was suggested to exert synergistic antidepressant actions by attenuating abnormalities in serotonergic and noradrenergic system functions. Therefore, we confirmed the rationality of drug pair in clinical application and provided a novel perspective in drug pair of TCM researches.
Article
Vomiting in pregnancy is a very common phenomenon, though not well understood. The extreme form, hyperemesis gravidarum can lead to severe complications. Articles published in the last decade in this field were searched and studied. Various aetiological factors were identified, the recent ones being the association of Helicobacter. pylori with hyperemesis, as well as the presence of cell free fetal DNA. The management of the condition involves symptomatic treatment along with antiemetic, pyridoxine and thiamine. Important role of alternative therapies like ginger and P6 acupoint stimulation in the treatment of hyperemesis has been identified.
Article
Excessive production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) from activated microglia contributes to uncontrolled inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. It seems possible that treatment with anti-inflammatory agents, including plants used in Oriental medicine, might delay the progression of neurodegeneration through the inhibition of microglial activation. The present study is focused on the inhibitory effect of the rhizome hexane fraction extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger hexan extract; GHE) on the production of inflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE(2), and proinflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 cells, a mouse microglial cell line. GHE significantly inhibited the excessive production of NO, PGE(2), TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. In addition, GHE attenuated the mRNA expressions and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and proinflammatory cytokines. The molecular mechanisms that underlie GHE-mediated attenuation are related to the inhibition of the phosphorylation of three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Our results indicate that GHE exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by suppressing the transcription of inflammatory mediator genes through the MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. The anti-inflammatory properties of GHE may make it useful as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of human neurodegenerative diseases.
Article
To compare the effects of ginger, mefenamic acid, and ibuprofen on pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea. This was a double-blind comparative clinical trial conducted from September 2006 to February 2007. Participants were 150 students (18 years old and over) with primary dysmenorrhea from the dormitories of two medical universities who were alternately divided into three equal groups. Students in the ginger group took 250 mg capsules of ginger rhizome powder four times a day for three days from the start of their menstrual period. Members of the other groups received 250 mg mefenamic acid or 400 mg ibuprofen capsules, respectively, on the same protocol. A verbal multidimensional scoring system was used for assessing the severity of primary dysmenorrhea. Severity of disease, pain relief, and satisfaction with the treatment were compared between the groups after one menstruation. There were not significant differences between groups in baseline characteristics, p > 0.05. At the end of treatment, severity of dysmenorrhea decreased in all groups and no differences were found between the groups in severity of dysmenorrhea, pain relief, or satisfaction with the treatment, p > 0.05. No severe side effects occurred. Ginger was as effective as mefenamic acid and ibuprofen in relieving pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea. Further studies regarding the effects of ginger on other symptoms associated with dysmenorrhea and efficacy and safety of various doses and treatment durations of ginger are warranted.
Article
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplements are being promoted for arthritis treatment in western societies on the basis of ginger's traditional use as an anti-inflammatory in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. However, scientific evidence of ginger's antiarthritic effects is sparse, and its bioactive joint-protective components have not been identified. Therefore, the ability of a well-characterized crude ginger extract to inhibit joint swelling in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis, was compared to that of a fraction containing only gingerols and their derivatives. Both extracts were efficacious in preventing joint inflammation. However, the crude dichloromethane extract, which also contained essential oils and more polar compounds, was more efficacious (when normalized to gingerol content) in preventing both joint inflammation and destruction. In conclusion, these data document a very significant joint-protective effect of these ginger samples and suggest that nongingerol components are bioactive and can enhance the antiarthritic effects of the more widely studied gingerols.
Article
A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol in rat plasma after oral administration of ginger oleoresin. Plasma samples extracted with a liquid-liquid extraction procedure were separated on an Agilent Zorbax StableBond-C(18) column (4.6 mm x 50 mm, 1.8 microm) and detected by MS with electrospray ionization interface in positive selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Calibration curves (1/x(2) weighted) offered satisfactory linearity (r(2)>0.995) in a wide linear range (0.0104-13.0 microg/mL for 6-gingerol, 0.00357-4.46 microg/mL for 8-gingerol, 0.00920-11.5 microg/mL for 10-gingerol and 0.00738-9.22 microg/mL for 6-shogaol). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was in a range of 3.57-10.4 ng/mL. The analytes and internal standard can be baseline separated within 6 min. Inter- and intra-day assay variation was less than 15%. This developed method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of ginger oleoresin after oral administration to rats. Glucuronide of 6-gingerol was determined after beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis for more information, and the intestinal glucuronidation was further confirmed by comparison of plasma samples of hepatic portal vein and femoral vein.
Article
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL) has emerged as a major mediator of bone resorption, commonly associated with cancer and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Inhibitors of RANKL signaling thus have potential in preventing bone loss. In the present report, the potential of zerumbone, a sesquiterpene derived from subtropical ginger, to modulate osteoclastogenesis induced by RANKL and breast cancer was examined. We found that zerumbone inhibited RANKL-induced NF-kappaB activation in mouse monocyte, an osteoclast precursor cell, through inhibition of activation of IkappaBalpha kinase, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, and IkappaBalpha degradation. Zerumbone also suppressed RANKL-induced differentiation of these cells to osteoclasts. This sesquiterpene also inhibited the osteoclast formation induced by human breast tumor cells and by multiple myeloma cells. Finally, we examined whether zerumbone could prevent human breast cancer-induced bone loss in animals. We found that zerumbone decreased osteolysis in a dose-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer tumor-bearing athymic nude mice. These results indicate that zerumbone is an effective blocker of RANKL-induced NF-kappaB activation and of osteoclastogenesis induced by RANKL and tumor cells, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis and cancer-associated bone loss.
Article
Patients with chronic, painful diseases often seek alternative therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes (Z. officinale extract) to ameliorate inflammatory process in rat collagen-induced arthritis. Our results show that Z. officinale extract in doses higher than 50 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally starting from the dose of booster immunization and for 26 days can ameliorate the clinical scores, disease incidence, joint temperature and swelling, and cartilage destruction, together with reduction of serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and anti-CII antibodies. Moreover, Z. officinale extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg/day was superior to 2 mg/kg/day of indomethacin at most of the measured parameters. These observations might make Z. officinale extract a good alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Article
To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of medicinal herbs, as well as clinical evidence of herb-drug interactions. Electronic searches were conducted in multiple databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, NAPRALERT, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, CANCERLIT, CISCOM, and HerbMed. Search terms used included common names, scientific names, and synonyms for the herbs and their primary active constituents. Bibliographies of relevant articles were also searched by hand to obtain additional references. No restrictions were placed on language or quality of publications. All literature collected pertained to adverse effects, pharmacokinetics, and suspected or confirmed cases of herb-drug interactions. Over 80 herbs or botanicals (including plants, fungi, algae, and common constituents) were identified that had clinically significant interactions with prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Interestingly, herbs beginning with the letter "g" (garlic, ginger, ginkgo, and grapefruit) were among the herbs most commonly involved in herb-drug interactions. Drugs with anticoagulant/antiplatelet activity (e.g. warfarin, aspirin) were frequently implicated in herb-drug interactions, with documented interactions with over 30 herbs and herbal products. Because many herbs have demonstrated adverse effects on the liver, the potential for interaction with hepatotoxic agents (such as acetaminophen) is also significant. Clinical outcomes of reported herb-drug interactions ranged from mild to severe. Of note, fatalities (though rare) have occurred with concomitant ephedra and caffeine use. As herbal products (and dietary supplements in general) continue to grow in popularity, patients and health care providers should be vigilant of potential herb-drug interactions.
Article
[6]-Gingerol is one of the pungent components in ginger which has been found to possess various pharmacological effects. However, there is insufficient information on the properties of [6]-gingerol based on controlled pharmacokinetic studies. The aim of this study was to clarify distribution profiles of [6]-gingerol in blood and biological tissues of experimental rats. Rats were administered a 240 mg/kg dose of Gs (a ginger extract, containing 53% [6]-gingerol) by oral ingestion. Plasma samples were collected at 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45 min, and 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 h after dosing (eight samples per time point), and brain, heart, lung, spleen, liver, kidney, stomach and small intestine tissues were collected at 5, 15, 30 min and 1, 2, 4 h after dosing (five animals per time point). Samples were prepared by a liquid-liquid extraction procedure and the extracts were assayed by HPLC-UV. After per oral application, [6]-gingerol was absorbed rapidly into the plasma, and the maximal concentration (4.23 microg/ml) was reached after 10 min post dosing. [6]-Gingerol plasma concentrations declined with time in a biexponential pattern. The elimination half-time at the terminal phase was 1.77 h and the apparent total body clearance was 40.8 l/h. When administered orally, [6]-gingerol was well distributed to the tissues examined, with the highest concentrations found in the gastrointestinal tract. Maximal concentrations of [6]-gingerol were reached in most tissues at 0.5 h post-dosing. The concentrations of [6]-gingerol in tissues all were higher than in plasma with corresponding tissue to plasma ratios greater than 1 after 0.25 h post-dose, showing high tissue partitioning and extensive distribution.
Article
This study was designed to test whether Alpinia pricei (AP), a member of the ginger family indigenous to Taiwan, reduced metabolic syndrome induced by sucrose-containing drinking water in C57BL/6J mice. Mice given a chow diet were divided into a control group (C) or a test group given 30% sucrose water (SW) to drink ad libitum. After 22 weeks, mice in the SW group were subdivided into SW and SW + AP groups, the latter receiving a chow diet with an ethanol extract of AP (1500 mg/kg dosage). Four weeks later, bio-indexes associated with metabolic syndrome were measured. Compared with the C group, the SW group had significantly higher body weight, visceral fat weights, serum and tissue lipid, serum insulin level and the area under the curve for blood glucose of the insulin tolerance test (p < 0.05). These indicators in the SW + AP group were lower than in the SW group except for serum lipid, although slightly higher than the C group. The SW + AP group also showed significantly lower serum levels of leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and a significantly higher level of adiponectin than the SW group. These results indicated that visceral adiposity and insulin resistance induced by sucrose water drinking might be alleviated by AP supplementation.
Article
Zerumbone (ZER), present in subtropical ginger Zingiber zerumbet Smith, possesses anti-growth and anti-inflammatory properties in several human cancer cell lines. ZER also down-regulates the cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression via modulation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation in cell culture systems. These findings led us to investigate whether ZER is able to inhibit carcinogenesis in the colon and lung, using 2 different preclinical mouse models. In Exp. 1, a total of 85 male ICR mice were initiated using a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg bw) and promoted by 1.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days for rapid induction of colonic neoplasms. Animals were then fed the diet containing 100, 250 or 500 ppm ZER for 17 weeks. In Exp. 2, a total of 50 female A/J mice were given a single i.p. injection of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (10 micromol/mouse) to induce lung proliferative lesions. They were then fed the diet mixed with 100, 250 or 500 ppm ZER for 21 weeks. At the termination of the experiments (wk 20 of Exp. 1 and wk 22 of Exp. 2), all animals were subjected to complete necropsy examination to determine the pathological lesions in both tissues. Oral administration of ZER at 100, 250 and 500 ppm significantly inhibited the multiplicity of colonic adenocarcinomas. The treatment also suppressed colonic inflammation. In the lung carcinogenesis, ZER feeding at 250 and 500 ppm significantly inhibited the multiplicity of lung adenomas in a dose-dependent manner. Feeding with ZER resulted in inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and suppression of NFkappaB and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression in tumors developed in both tissues. Our findings suggest that dietary administration of ZER effectively suppresses mouse colon and lung carcinogenesis through multiple modulatory mechanisms of growth, apoptosis, inflammation and expression of NFkappaB and HO-1 that are involved in carcinogenesis in the colon and lung.
Article
In the present study, the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants used as spices was evaluated against both fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. The Candida species studied were Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. For comparison purposes, they were arranged in groups as C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans. The essential oils were obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn, Lippia graveolens HBK, Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., and Zingiber officinale. The susceptibility tests were based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and by retention indices. The results showed that cinnamon, Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. Oregano and ginger essential oils were found to be the most and the least efficient, respectively. The main finding was that the susceptibilities of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans to Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils were higher than those of the fluconazole-susceptible yeasts (P<0.05). In contrast, fluconazole-resistant C. albicans and Candida non-albicans were less susceptible to cinnamon essential oil than their fluconazole-susceptible counterparts (P<0.05). A relationship between the yeasts' susceptibilities and the chemical composition of the essential oils studied was apparent when these 2 parameters were compared. Finally, basil, rosemary, and sage essential oils did not show antifungal activity against Candida isolates at the tested concentrations.
Article
Colon cancer incidence is higher in developed countries than in developing countries. We determined the effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) on fecal bacterial enzyme activities in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into 6 groups and all animals were fed with a high-fat diet (20% fat in the diet). Group 1 served as control and group 2 animals received 60 mg.kg(-1) body weight (b.w.) oregano daily for 15 weeks. To induce colon cancer, DMH (20 mg.kg(-1) b.w.) was injected subcutaneously once a week for the first 4 weeks (groups 3-6). In addition, oregano was administered at 20, 40, or 60 mg.kg(-1) b.w. each day orally for the entire 15 weeks (groups 4-6). We analyzed the fecal bacterial enzyme activities and found it to be significantly higher in the group treated with DMH alone than in the control group. Oregano supplementation at all 3 doses significantly suppressed the bacterial enzyme activities and modulated oxidative stress significantly compared with the unsupplemented DMH-treated group. Results of our present investigation therefore revealed that oregano markedly inhibited DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis and that the optimal dose of 40 mg.kg(-1) b.w. was more effective than either the higher or lower doses.
Article
Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, is a traditional medicine with carminative effect, antinausea, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of 6-shogaol and a related compound, 6-gingerol, on the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in murine RAW 264.7 cells activated with LPS. Western blotting and reverse transcription-PCR analyses demonstrated that 6-shogaol significantly blocked protein and mRNA expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) and COX-2 in LPS-induced macrophages. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by a topical 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) application to mouse skin. When applied topically onto the shaven backs of mice prior to TPA, 6-shogaol markedly inhibited the expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Treatment with 6-shogaol resulted in the reduction of LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF kappaB) subunit and the dependent transcriptional activity of NF kappaB by blocking phosphorylation of inhibitor kappaB (I kappaB)alpha and p65 and subsequent degradation of I kappaB alpha. Transient transfection experiments using NF kappaB reporter constructs indicated that 6-shogaol inhibits the transcriptional activity of NF kappaB in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophages. We found that 6-shogaol also inhibited LPS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Taken together, these results show that 6-shogaol downregulates inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 gene expression in macrophages by inhibiting the activation of NF kappaB by interfering with the activation PI3K/Akt/I kappaB kinases IKK and MAPK.