Article

The Science and Practice of Periodization: A Brief Review

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Abstract

PERIODIZATION REPRESENTS AN OPTIMAL STRATEGY FOR ORGANIZING STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING PROGRAMS. THE SELECTED STRATEGY, HOWEVER, SHOULD BE BASED ON THE LEVEL OF THE ATHLETE AND THE CONSTRAINTS OF THE COMPETITIVE SEASON. A COMMON THEME THROUGHOUT ALL THE PERIODIZATION PROTOCOLS IS THE NEED TO MANIPULATE VOLUME LOADS, PROGRESS FROM GENERAL TO SPORT-SPECIFIC TRAINING, AND DISSIPATE FATIGUE. SIGNIFICANT TO THE LATTER, THE USE OF PRECOMPETITION TAPERS APPEARS EVIDENTLY BENEFICIAL. ALTHOUGH ENOUGH ANECDOTAL EVIDENCE EXISTS TO VALIDATE THE USE OF PERIODIZATION, FURTHER SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION IS REQUIRED TO UNDERSTAND ITS USE AND LIMITATIONS TO ELITE LEVEL ATHLETES ACROSS EXTENDED PERIODS (E.G., >4 YEARS). UNTIL SUCH TIME, HOWEVER, ITS USE IS RECOMMENDED AND ADVOCATED BY THE RESEARCH HEREIN.

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... The aim is to reach the best possible performance involving progressive cycling of various aspects of a training program during a specific period. The construction of a periodization model proposes a period of recuperative exercises after weeks of stress, gradually increasing the intensity with respective volume settings [27]. Besides being commonly used as a prescription for the training of athletes, this training model can be adapted to be used in the training of the general public. ...
... Between each station, there was a maximum of 30-s rest. This strategy was used to require the contraction of several muscle groups, with a short rest between stations, facilitating cardiovascular and metabolic benefits and greater reduction in adipose tissue, based on the concepts described by Turner (2011) [27,30]. ...
... Between each station, there was a maximum of 30-s rest. This strategy was used to require the contraction of several muscle groups, with a short rest between stations, facilitating cardiovascular and metabolic benefits and greater reduction in adipose tissue, based on the concepts described by Turner (2011) [27,30]. ...
Article
Objective To analyze the influence of a 14-week periodized circuit training (CT) protocol on thigh intermuscular fat and muscle quality (force per unit area of lean tissue) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Design Randomized controlled trial Methods Sixty-one selected participants with KOA grades 2 and 3, 40–65 years old, and BMI < 30 kg/m² were randomized into three groups: CT, conventional strength training (ST), and educational protocol (EP). The CT and ST protocols consisted of 14-week training protocols conducted 3 times a week. The CT group performed exercises stratified as light, moderate, and intense, arranged progressively in a circuit model. The ST group performed conventional strength exercises, and the EP group participated in lectures twice a month about healthy lifestyles. Baseline and follow-up (week 0 and week 14) evaluations were conducted for thigh intermuscular fat (computed tomography), knee extension maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), and muscle quality (knee extension MIVC/muscle mass cross-sectional area). Results Only the CT group presented significant reductions in thigh intermuscular fat (p = 0.003) and significantly lower values in week 14 compared with the EP (p = 0.032). Both trained groups presented significant increases in muscle mass area (p=0.002 for CT and p=0.008 for ST) and increments in knee extension MIVC (p=0,033 for CT nd p=0.019 for ST) in week 14 compared with the EP and increases in muscle quality (p = 0.004 and 0.042). Conclusion It can be concluded that a 14-week periodized CT protocol attenuates thigh intermuscular fat and improves muscle quality in patients with KOA. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02761590; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02761590 Key Points •Fourteen weeks of periodized circuit training attenuates thigh intermuscular fat in patients with knee osteoarthritis. •Circuit training is as effective as strength training for improving muscle mass, strength, and quality.
... These cycles (often referred to as "mesocycles") often involve periods of intensive training designed to stimulate an adaptive response (Mujika et al., 2018;Storey & Smith, 2012). However, since an increase in fatigue is a consequence of continuous, progressive training, periods of reduced training demand are also planned and might be necessary to facilitate physiological adaptations by reducing fatigue and mitigating the risk of maladaptation (Plisk & Stone, 2003;Turner, 2011). ...
... As such, a successful strength or hypertrophy training programme should emphasise the appropriate adaptation whilst being cognisant of the effects of prolonged or excessive training demand. Consequently, traditional periodised training incorporates periods of reduced training demand designed to reduce fatigue, avoid the deleterious effects of prolonged high training demand, and facilitate meaningful physiological adaptation (Mujika et al., 2018;Plisk & Stone, 2003;Turner, 2011). Such periods of reduced training can take place within the overall training macrocycle (e.g., during the off-season), during the training mesocycle (e.g., a lower training demand week) or within a training microcycle (e.g., lower demand training sessions or days off) (Stone et al., 2021). ...
... Deloading might enhance preparedness for successive training cycles by reducing fatigue and monotony (Nightingale, 2014) whilst facilitating recovery and physiological adaptation following periods of strenuous training (Israetel et al., 2020;Kirby et al., 2010;Vann et al., 2021). Sports scientists and practitioners have postulated that deloading is important for overall progression within the context of periodisation for strength and muscle hypertrophy, and therefore intermittent use of lighter training periods may be important for overall athletic development 33 (Israetel et al., 2020;Kirby et al., 2010;Plisk & Stone, 2003;Turner, 2011). There are very few studies that investigate the effects of continuous training (training over several weeks without deloading) versus periodic training (training followed by a detraining and retraining period). ...
... 2,3 Thus planning of physical fitness training during the preseason requires taking into consideration multiple factors such as the often limited length, the concurrent training of multiple attributes, the inevitable emphasis on technical/tactical sessions and the potential interference of aerobic training and strength/ power. [2][3][4][5] Realizing preseason physical fitness improvements necessitates both the need of a planned alternation of loading and unloading (progressive overloading and fatigue management) as well as a structured sequence of the physical abilities (i.e. strength, endurance, speed) to be 330 The JourNal of SporTS MediciNe aNd phySical fiTNeSS March 2020 ing sessions. ...
... The preseason consisted of 9 microcycles which followed a linear periodization approach, with the main emphasis on the potentiated progression of aerobic fitness and strength/ power (basic aerobic endurance → specific aerobic endurance; strength endurance → strength → power). 3,4 With the exception of gym-based training sessions, heart rate and player-tracking data were recorded on all other sessions during the whole pre-season via a short-range telemetry system (polar Team pro, polar electro oy, Kempele, finland) that integrated a heart rate monitor, a GpS unit sampling at 10hZ and a micro electro mechanical (MeMS) sensor (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer) sampling at 200hz. GpS devices have been shown to provide an acceptable level of accuracy and reliability for distance and speed measures during high-intensity, intermittent exercise. ...
... 42 Therefore, monitoring of internal/external Tl should not only serve on the establishment of a "dose-response" with aerobic fitness 10-12, 35-40 but can identify the possibility for an interference effect, 42 thus better informing training practice. [2][3][4][5][6][7] The association of training load with training outcomes is considered fundamental in the process of training monitoring. 6 it has been proposed that the prescribed external Tl interacts with the athlete's individual characteristics producing an internal Tl which represents the physiological stress imposed on the athlete and determines the train-aid in fine-tuning of the training process, prioritizing training goals and minimizing the potential for an interference effect between aerobic fitness and strength power adaptations especially during periods of accumulation of high training volume. ...
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Background: An association between training load and changes in aerobic fitness has been established but the effect of training load on changes in strength/power remains controversial. Methods: Internal (Banister's TRIMP) and external (total distance, high-speed running and sprint distance) training load was collected from sixteen professional soccer players during and aerobic fitness and strength/power variables were measured before and after a 9-week pre-season. Results: Banister's TRIMP had a moderate correlation with changes in maximal oxygen uptake (r=0.46, 90% CI: 0.04; 0.74). Total distance had a large and a moderate correlation with changes in velocity at 2M (r=0.60, 90% CI: 0.23; 0.82) and changes in velocity at 4M (r=0.42, 90% CI: -0.01; 0.72). High-speed running had moderate correlations with changes in maximal oxygen uptake (r=0.45, 90% CI: 0.03; 0.74), velocity at 2M (r=0.45, 90% CI: 0.03; 0.74) and velocity at 4M (r=0.39, 90% CI: -0.00; 0.70). Sprint distance had a large and a moderate correlation with changes in maximal oxygen uptake (r=0.58, 90% CI: 0.20; 0.81) and velocity at 4M (r=0.46, 90% CI: 0.00; 0.74 respectively). High versus low total distance was associated with lower changes in squat jump and countermovement jump (ES=-0.90, 90% CI: -1.57; -0.24 and ES=-1.06, 90% CI: -1.89; -0.24) respectively. High versus low high-speed running was associated with higher changes in maximal oxygen uptake (ES=0.36, 90% CI: 0.02; 0.70) but lower changes in squat jump (ES=-0.58, 90% CI: -1.32; 0.15). Conclusions: External rather internal training load had more pronounced correlations with changes in aerobic fitness. Higher compared with lower volumes of total distance and high-speed running were associated with lower gains in strength/power indices. Establishing a "dose-response" association between external/internal training load and endurance as well as strength adaptations, may maximize endurance gains with the least possible interference on strength/power gains, thus better informing soccer training practice.
... A constraints-led approach has been operationalized to include the determination of how particular constraints can be manipulated to achieve specific objectives (25,78). Periodization is the logical and sequential phasic manipulation of training objectives to achieve peak performance at a determined time, while managing fatigue and stagnation (28,49,86,94). Periodized plans are commonly divided into the preparatory phase (with subphases [i.e., general physical and special physical preparation phases]) and competitive phase (12), whereby general fitness Phase objectives Generally characterized by a greater volume, lower intensity, and reduced mechanical specificity; primary objectives include an improved work capacity (aerobic and anaerobic) and neuromuscular function and alterations in body composition (12,28,94) A relatively high volume and low-to-moderate intensity and a subsequent transition to a greater intensity with a reduction in volume and a concomitant increase in mechanical specificity to prepare for the competitive season (12,28,94) Generally denotes a low to moderate volume and a high to moderate intensity that is mechanically specific; primary objectives include the maintenance of fitness, while enhancing technical proficiency (12,28,94) Typically a short duration (;3-4 wk) in which volume is reduced and intensity is maintained and then decreased proximal to competition to dissipate fatigue and realize training residuals (12,28,94) Aquatic Lower-Body Aquatic Training (2021) 00:00 training progresses to sport-specific training as important competitions approach (12,94). ...
... Periodization is the logical and sequential phasic manipulation of training objectives to achieve peak performance at a determined time, while managing fatigue and stagnation (28,49,86,94). Periodized plans are commonly divided into the preparatory phase (with subphases [i.e., general physical and special physical preparation phases]) and competitive phase (12), whereby general fitness Phase objectives Generally characterized by a greater volume, lower intensity, and reduced mechanical specificity; primary objectives include an improved work capacity (aerobic and anaerobic) and neuromuscular function and alterations in body composition (12,28,94) A relatively high volume and low-to-moderate intensity and a subsequent transition to a greater intensity with a reduction in volume and a concomitant increase in mechanical specificity to prepare for the competitive season (12,28,94) Generally denotes a low to moderate volume and a high to moderate intensity that is mechanically specific; primary objectives include the maintenance of fitness, while enhancing technical proficiency (12,28,94) Typically a short duration (;3-4 wk) in which volume is reduced and intensity is maintained and then decreased proximal to competition to dissipate fatigue and realize training residuals (12,28,94) Aquatic Lower-Body Aquatic Training (2021) 00:00 training progresses to sport-specific training as important competitions approach (12,94). Because fatigue is accumulated from concentrated loading (i.e., monotonous workloads and training methods) (12,94), physical capacities may be diminished. ...
... Periodization is the logical and sequential phasic manipulation of training objectives to achieve peak performance at a determined time, while managing fatigue and stagnation (28,49,86,94). Periodized plans are commonly divided into the preparatory phase (with subphases [i.e., general physical and special physical preparation phases]) and competitive phase (12), whereby general fitness Phase objectives Generally characterized by a greater volume, lower intensity, and reduced mechanical specificity; primary objectives include an improved work capacity (aerobic and anaerobic) and neuromuscular function and alterations in body composition (12,28,94) A relatively high volume and low-to-moderate intensity and a subsequent transition to a greater intensity with a reduction in volume and a concomitant increase in mechanical specificity to prepare for the competitive season (12,28,94) Generally denotes a low to moderate volume and a high to moderate intensity that is mechanically specific; primary objectives include the maintenance of fitness, while enhancing technical proficiency (12,28,94) Typically a short duration (;3-4 wk) in which volume is reduced and intensity is maintained and then decreased proximal to competition to dissipate fatigue and realize training residuals (12,28,94) Aquatic Lower-Body Aquatic Training (2021) 00:00 training progresses to sport-specific training as important competitions approach (12,94). Because fatigue is accumulated from concentrated loading (i.e., monotonous workloads and training methods) (12,94), physical capacities may be diminished. ...
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Holmberg, PM, Gorman, AD, Jenkins, DG, and Kelly, VG. Lower-body aquatic training prescription for athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Traditionally prescribed to manage various medical ailments and promote healing, aquatic immersion may provide a favorable environment to undertake preparatory training tasks given its profound biological effects that extend across most homeostatic systems. In addition to understanding these effects, which are related to the fundamental principles of hydrodynamics, there is a need to consider the acute physiomechanical responses to alterations of key constraints associated with particular preparatory tasks. Evidence suggests that the manipulation of different constraints during aquatic training can enable a unique setting to complement, supplement, or supplant land-based programming to maintain or improve physical capacities in athletes without exacerbating physiological stress. Thus, this article focuses on the interplay of constraints and their associated outcomes to provide information that can be used to program lower-body aquatic training for athletes. In addition, the aim of the article is to summarize the literature on aquatic training to highlight the outcomes that occur when certain constraints are manipulated.
... undulierende Periodisierung bezeichnet. Sie folgen einem ähnlichen Grundgedanken und sollen nachfolgend zusammenfassend beschrieben werden [143,[164][165][166]]. ...
... Es wird weiter postuliert, die undulierenden Modelle eignen sich besonders dann, wenn während langer Wettkampfperioden verschiedene Komponenten der Kondition gleichzeitig entwickelt, bzw. erhalten werden müssen [143,174]. Außerdem sind Haff [149] und Kraemer et al. [175] der Meinung, dass bei Trainingseinheiten mit niedriger bis mittlerer Intensität höherschwellige motorische Einheiten geschont werden und so auf die Trainingswoche gesehen mehr Zeit zur Regeneration bekommen. Dies wäre jedoch nur der Fall, wenn innerhalb der Trainingseinheiten mit niedriger bis mittlerer Intensität nicht bis zum Punkt des konzentrischen Muskelversagens trainiert wird, wie es im Muskelaufbau häufig praktiziert wird [154]. ...
... Es ist jedoch bekannt, dass Untrainierte im Allgemeinen einfacher Fortschritte erzielen als Trainierte und hier die Periodisierung eine untergeordnete Rolle spielt[88]. Daher werden im Gegensatz zu Trainingsanfängern gerade für Hochtrainierte fortgeschrittenere Periodisierungsstrategien empfohlen[143]. Die Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Periodisierungsstudien mit Untrainierten lassen sich folglich nur bedingt auf Leistungssportler übertragen.Ferner basieren die im Kapitel 2.3 beschriebenen Periodisierungsmodelle mehr auf zeitlichen Verläufen der Anpassung[147] und zu einem großen Teil auf Theorien und Meinungen von Autoren und Praktikern[146,194,335], statt auf den zugrundeliegenden zellulären Mechanismen. Dies ist der Tatsache geschuldet, dass die Periodisierungsmodelle unter dem Einfluss des jeweiligen Sportsystems, der Sportart, des Klimas, des Wettkampfkalenders als auch der derzeitigen sportphysiologischen Kenntnisse entstanden[147,149,155,156,181,194]. ...
Thesis
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Summary of the doctoral thesis Introduction: In many sports, strength is considered an important basis for performance. One factor affecting strength is muscle mass. Therefore, it may be necessary to increase muscle mass in athletes through resistance training. However, the most effective strategy to gain muscle mass has not yet been clearly identified. Many methods used in practice are based on anecdotal evidence rather than empirical data. For this reason, different approaches to hypertrophy training were examined in this thesis based on three studies. The methods and most important results of these studies are summarized in the following. Methods: In the first study, adolescent American football players completed a 12-week resistance training program with three total-body training sessions per week using either Block Periodization (BLOCK) or Daily Undulating Periodization (DUP). The aim was to investigate the effects of the different periodization strategies on muscle mass and athletic performance. The second study assessed the impact of a three-week detraining period (DTR) on anthropometric measures and sport performance. In a third study, highly trained male subjects completed a six-week low-intensity calf resistance training intervention either without (noBFR) or with blood flow restriction (BFR). Before and after the intervention, 1-RM calf raise, calf volume, muscle thickness of the gastrocnemius, and leg stiffness were recorded. Results: At the end of the first intervention, both periodization groups showed significantly higher muscle mass and thickness, as well as athletic performance without differences between groups. Following DTR, fat mass increased significantly, and fat-free mass was reduced. All other measures were unchanged after DTR. Both BFR and NoBFR training resulted in significant increases in 1-RM and muscle thickness without differences between groups. Calf volume and leg stiffness remained unchanged in both conditions. Conclusions: In adolescent American football players, the structure of periodization does not appear to have any effect on muscle growth. Furthermore, a three weeks DTR does not result in negative effects. Both results provide new insights that can be helpful when creating training programs as well as for planning training-free periods. The currently frequently investigated BFR training does not show higher effects on muscle growth of the lower extremities than conventional low-intensity resistance training.
... Despite the well evidenced role of training load periodisation [43], the training observed in the present cohort of athletes did not change between weekly microcycles. Reported here for the first time, the weekly training duration of~3-6 hours per week is less than that reported in judo [44] and boxing [45], and only half the weekly duration reported in non-combat sports [10,13]. ...
... Over the 5 comparable weeks, the only reduction in training duration or load was seen in the week of the bout. Rather than employing an exponential taper over the final 14 days [43] participants reduced training load by more than 2/3 in an abrupt stepwise manner 7 days prior. With no comparable reduction in fatigue in the week of the bout or the week after, it is possible that this approach did not improve athlete readiness or performance. ...
... High load weeks might consist of one day of striking or BJJ drills, with several days of wrestling, BJJ and MMA sparring. This would allow clear delineation between weeks of high, moderate and low load, enabling functional overreaching to occur followed by restitution weeks [43]. This process may elicit the physiological improvements associated with spending <10% of weekly and total training time at high intensity [57], alongside the performance benefits of shock or overloading weeks [58]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to quantify typical training load and periodisation practices of MMA athletes. MMA competitors (n = 14; age = 22.4 ± 4.4 years; body mass = 71.3 ± 7.7 kg; stature = 171 ±9.9 cm) were observed during training for 8 consecutive weeks without intervention. Seven athletes were training for competitive bouts whilst the remaining 7 were not. Daily training duration, intensity (RPE), load (sRPE and segRPE), fatigue (short questionnaire of fatigue) and body region soreness (CR10 scale) were recorded. Using Bayesian analyses (BF 10 ≥3), data demonstrate that training duration (weekly mean range = 3.9–5.3 hours), sRPE (weekly mean range = 1,287–1,791 AU), strain (weekly mean range = 1,143–1,819 AU), monotony (weekly mean range = 0.63–0.83 AU), fatigue (weekly mean range = 16–20 AU) and soreness did not change within or between weeks. Between weeks monotony (2.3 ± 0.7 AU) supported little variance in weekly training load. There were no differences in any variable between participants who competed and those who did not with the except of the final week before the bout, where an abrupt step taper occurred leading to no between group differences in fatigue. Training intensity distribution corresponding to high, moderate and low was 20, 33 and 47%, respectively. Striking drills accounted for the largest portion of weekly training time (20–32%), with MMA sparring the least (2–7%). Only striking sparring and wrestling sparring displayed statistical weekly differences in duration or load. Athletes reported MMA sparring and wrestling sparring as high intensity (RPE≥7), BJJ sparring, striking sparring and wrestling drills as moderate intensity (RPE 5–6), and striking drills and BJJ drills as low intensity (RPE≤4). We conclude that periodisation of training load was largely absent in this cohort of MMA athletes, as is the case within and between weekly microcycles.
... Theoretical aspects of training, such as, the fitness-fatigue paradigm and general adaptation syndrome, provide a helpful conceptual framework for coaches balancing various training stressors throughout a season [49][50][51]. Based on the fitness-fatigue paradigm; preparedness represents the difference between an athlete's fitness (a generalized positive response) and fatigue (a generalized negative response), and describes an athletes' ability to express their cumulative adaptations [49]. ...
... Theoretical aspects of training, such as, the fitness-fatigue paradigm and general adaptation syndrome, provide a helpful conceptual framework for coaches balancing various training stressors throughout a season [49][50][51]. Based on the fitness-fatigue paradigm; preparedness represents the difference between an athlete's fitness (a generalized positive response) and fatigue (a generalized negative response), and describes an athletes' ability to express their cumulative adaptations [49]. Preparedness has been referred to as "performance potential" and is suggestive of a higher likelihood of performing well when potential is elevated. ...
... Preparedness has been referred to as "performance potential" and is suggestive of a higher likelihood of performing well when potential is elevated. Contrastingly, fatigue can mask an athlete's fitness [49]; when accumulated fatigue exceeds a specific threshold, performance decrements and injury are of higher probability [52]. Poor fatigue management and non-functional overreaching can lead to mal-adaptations and unplanned, undesired diminished performance [50][51][52]. ...
Article
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As sports technology has continued to develop, monitoring athlete workloads, performance , and recovery has demonstrated boundless benefits for athlete and team success. Specifically, technologies such as global positioning systems (GPS) and heart rate (HR) monitors have granted the opportunity to delve deeper into performance contributors, and how variations may exist based upon context. A team of NCAA Division I women's soccer athletes were monitored during games throughout one competitive season. Individual athlete, positional groups, and team external and internal workloads were explored for differences based upon game location, opponent ranking, game result, and the final score differential. Game location and opponent ranking were found to have no effect on team-wide absolute or relative external workloads, whereas game result and score differential did. Internal workloads across the team tended to only vary by game half, independent of game context; however, the HR of defenders was determined to be higher during losses as compared to wins (p = 0.0256). Notably, the games that resulted in losses also represented the games with the fewest number of substitutions. These findings suggest high value in monitoring performance and workloads that are characteristic of varying, often multifaceted, contexts. It is hoped that this information can lead to more informed approaches to vital game-time and coaching decisions.
... For example, it is recognized that general and sport-specific strength training is commonly integrated into S&C training programs using periodization strategies, with the aim of improving elite athletes' sports performance and resilience to injury [15]. However, given the difficulties in conducting such research at the elite level and scarcity of available data [15][16][17], it is proposed that researchers may need to use alternative methods to explore and understand the use and efficacy of S&C training methods [15]. ...
... This is logical given periodization provides the ability to systematically and sequentially integrate training interventions to maximize performance (e.g., strength) at specific time-points (e.g., competition) [21]. But within athletic populations, there is a need for further research to elucidate the usage and long-term effects of periodization, particularly when implementing tapering and unloading strategies [16,[22][23]. In fact, in elite sport relatively ...
... However, within these studies, S&C coaches also acknowledged that the implementation of periodization strategies was one of their biggest issues, due to limited time, condensed schedule/fixtures, and training volume. Particularly in professional cricket, applying periodization strategies is problematic due little is known regarding the use of periodization, where it is believed that sports and S&C coaches may anecdotally employ periodization strategies based on their philosophies, coaching experience, and available data [16][17]. In this review, American football S&C coaches used periodization the least [6]. ...
Article
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The practices of strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches have been reported in various professional sports. This study aims to comprehensively assess this available evidence to help establish whether theoretical, practical, and evidence-based guidelines align with the practices employed by these experienced S&C coaches. Three databases were searched (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane) until November 2020. Studies surveying the practices of S&C coaches in professional sports using a survey design with common questions, written in English, and published in peer-reviewed journals were reviewed. Eight studies (n = 318 S&C coaches) were finally included. All studies adapted a similar survey, providing a strong basis for comparison between sports. Periodization strategies were widely used (89%), with training volume consistently reduced during the in-season period. Olympic weightlifting was commonly used across sports, except in baseball (29%). Plyometric exercises were predominantly prescribed for speed development (74%) and lower body power (68%), which were mostly programed as complex training (45%) and conducted all year round (52%). Flexibility exercises were mostly performed before practice (83%) for 6-10 min (40%). Physical tests were mainly conducted during the pre-season period (66%), with body composition (86%) being the most used test. S&C coaches generally adhered to current guidelines and research in S&C concerning training prescription and physical testing. Whereas, inter-sport differences were also noted and further discussed. Results of this study can be used by S&C coaches to plan, implement, and review their professional practices. Furthermore, may inform the development of general and sport-specific guidelines, and future research in S&C.
... Taekwondo is a high-impact, contact sport with athletes requiring an intense training program to develop specific physical techniques to perform best and reduce the risk of injury [1,2]. These taekwondo physical attributes need to be developed through a well-planned, regular training program [2]. ...
... Taekwondo is a high-impact, contact sport with athletes requiring an intense training program to develop specific physical techniques to perform best and reduce the risk of injury [1,2]. These taekwondo physical attributes need to be developed through a well-planned, regular training program [2]. However, the spread of coronavirus disease has led to a global pandemic from 2020 to the present. ...
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Background: The global coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) has had a considerable impact on athletic competition and team sports training. Athletes have been forced to train alone at home. However, the isolation training model effects are still unknown. Purpose: This study compared the effects of personal isolation training (PIT) and detraining (DT) on specific sport performances (flexibility, power, reaction time, acceleration, and aerobic capacity) and body composition in elite taekwondo athletes. Methods: Eleven elite taekwondo athletes were recruited as voluntary subjects. Athletes were randomly paired by weight into the personal isolation training group (PIT group: N = 5, age: 21.2 ± 0.4 years, BMI: 22.2 ± 0.8 kg/m2) or detraining group (DT group: N = 6, age: 19.8 ± 0.3 years, BMI: 23.1 ± 1.0 kg/m2). All subjects performed the same training content prior to the pre-test (T1). When the pre-test was completed, all subjects underwent 12 weeks of PIT or DT. Athletes were then administrated the post-test (T2). The athlete's sport performances and body composition were measured to compare the differences between the two groups (PIT and DT) and two phases (T1 and T2). Results: There were no significant differences in kicking reaction time and flexibility in both groups (p > 0.05). The PIT showed significant improvements in 10 m (10M) sprint performance (p < 0.05), and displayed a progress trend in Abalakov jump performance. In addition, the PIT resulted in a better change response in 10M sprint performance (PIT: -4.2%, DT: +2.1%), aerobic endurance performance (PIT: -10.2%, DT: -18.4%), right arm muscle mass (PIT: +2.9%, DT: -3.8%), and trunk muscle mass (PIT: +2.2%, DT: -1.9%) than DT (p < 0.05). The fat mass percentage showed a negative change from T1 to T2 in both groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: PIT showed a trend toward better body composition (arm and trunk muscle) and sport performances (10M sprint and aerobic capacity) compared to DT. This finding may provide information on the effectiveness of a personal isolation training model for optimal preparation for taekwondo athletes and coaches. It may also serve as a useful and safe guideline for training recommendations during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19).
... Training at maximum power output predominantly effects the curve at the region corresponding best to the exercise used ( Figure 2C). These findings explain why a mixed-methods approach to training is generally advised, where strength and power are trained simultaneously, but one is subject to greater emphasis during a particular training block (15,44). Furthermore, the use of multiple exercises (and not just multiple loads within the same exercise) can be a useful training tool because the kinematics of some exercises is better matched to certain loads. ...
... It is apparent therefore that maximum strength is a key factor in developing high-power outputs and that, to fully develop an athlete's power potential, strength and conditioning coaches should include strength training within their periodized programs. Of note, because strength levels may only be maintained for 2 weeks (22), it is prudent to incorporate strength sessions throughout the entirety of a periodized program so as to optimize and maintain high levels of power output through training and come the time of competition (44). Suchomel et al. (41) nicely surmise that strength should be perceived as a "vehicle" for driving the enhancement of power and RFD, and we recommend reading (42) for a more in-depth analysis of the significance of strength and how it may be trained. ...
... Die Trainingszyklen, die in einem periodisierten Plan aufgenommen werden, bestehen aus einem Makrozyklus, der normalerweise ein Jahr dauert, einem Mesozyklus, der einen Monat dauern kann und einem Mikrozyklus, der eine Woche dauern kann (Turner, 2011 ...
... ). Wie vonTurner (2011) festgestellt wurde, bestehen erhebliche Schwankungen zwischen den Längen der einzelnen Trainingszyklen, die sowohl von den Zielen des Athleten, als auch seinem Wettkampfplan abhängig sind. Darüber hinaus sind in den Trainingsplänen häufig eine so genannte Taperphase mit inbegriffen, um dem Athleten die Möglichkeit zu geben, seine Wettkampfbereitschaft bzw. ...
... A nonlinear approach can allow the practitioner to tailor each session based on how the athlete is feeling on that day (59) and be more receptive to individual coaching plans to support the development of physical qualities on an interindividual basis. Thus, an integrative, periodized training program may reduce the risk of injury and create a more resilient athlete on the field of play (169). Practitioners may use an undulating nonlinear periodized approach for in-season resistance training (53). ...
... The CP block may last from 4 to 24 weeks depending on how the team progresses through the All-Ireland series, which culminates in the All-Ireland Final in the first weekend of September each year (Table 10). The objective of this phase is to preserve the athlete as close to their physical peak as possible (169). The maintenance of inseason strength is an important biomotor quality and should always be considered in the longer-term planning of the CP phase. ...
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Camogie (kuh$mow$gee) is a traditional, amateur Gaelic sport played by female athletes. This invasion-based field sport involves high-intensity intermittent physical demands. There is currently a dearth of available research in intercounty despite the prevalence of research in the male version of the game (hurling). The aims of this article are to provide strength and conditioning recommendations for the sport of camogie, specifically at intercounty level. These recommendations include considerations working with intercounty female camogie athletes, specific camogie injury epidemiology, physiological demands, and practical strength and conditioning for implementation by practitioners. Moreover, a sport-specific testing battery; development of physical attributes to enhance match-play performance; a proposed annual periodization cycle; and sample strength, speed and agility programs will be discussed.
... A nonlinear approach can allow the practitioner to tailor each session based on how the athlete is feeling on that day (59) and be more receptive to individual coaching plans to support the development of physical qualities on an interindividual basis. Thus, an integrative, periodized training program may reduce the risk of injury and create a more resilient athlete on the field of play (169). Practitioners may use an undulating nonlinear periodized approach for in-season resistance training (53). ...
... The CP block may last from 4 to 24 weeks depending on how the team progresses through the All-Ireland series, which culminates in the All-Ireland Final in the first weekend of September each year (Table 10). The objective of this phase is to preserve the athlete as close to their physical peak as possible (169). The maintenance of inseason strength is an important biomotor quality and should always be considered in the longer-term planning of the CP phase. ...
Article
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Camogie (kuh$mow$gee) is a traditional , amateur Gaelic sport played by female athletes. This invasion-based field sport involves high-intensity intermittent physical demands. There is currently a dearth of available research in intercounty despite the prevalence of research in the male version of the game (hurling). The aims of this article are to provide strength and conditioning recommendations for the sport of camogie, specifically at intercounty level. These recommendations include considerations working with inter-county female camogie athletes, specific camogie injury epidemiology, physiological demands, and practical strength and conditioning for implementation by practitioners. Moreover, a sport-specific testing battery; development of physical attributes to enhance match-play performance; a proposed annual periodization cycle; and sample strength, speed and agility programs will be discussed.
... The FFM is arguably the most influential model used to conceptualise the physical training process [48]. Originally developed by Banister et al. [49], the underlying principles of the FFM have become thoroughly engrained in sport and exercise science and provide the basic rationale behind a large body of contemporary practice [48]. ...
... The FFM is arguably the most influential model used to conceptualise the physical training process [48]. Originally developed by Banister et al. [49], the underlying principles of the FFM have become thoroughly engrained in sport and exercise science and provide the basic rationale behind a large body of contemporary practice [48]. In its most basic form, the FFM posits that a single bout of training creates two antagonistic after-effects including a long-lasting and low-magnitude positive fitness effect, and a negative shortlasting and high-magnitude fatigue effect [50]. ...
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Autoregulation is a process that is used to manipulate training based primarily on the measurement of an individual's performance or their perceived capability to perform. Despite being established as a training framework since the 1940s, there has been limited systematic research investigating its broad utility. Instead, researchers have focused on disparate practices that can be considered specific examples of the broader autoregulation training framework. A primary limitation of previous research includes inconsistent use of key terminology (e.g., adaptation, readiness, fatigue, and response) and associated ambiguity of how to implement different autoregulation strategies. Crucially, this ambiguity in terminology and failure to provide a holistic overview of autoregulation limits the synthesis of existing research findings and their dissemination to practitioners working in both performance and health contexts. Therefore, the purpose of the current review was threefold: first, we provide a broad overview of various autoregulation strategies and their development in both research and practice whilst highlighting the inconsistencies in definitions and terminology that currently exist. Second, we present an overarching conceptual framework that can be used to generate operational definitions and contextualise autoregulation within broader training theory. Finally, we show how previous definitions of autoregulation fit within the proposed framework and provide specific examples of how common practices may be viewed, highlighting their individual subtleties.
... Según algunos expertos, el formato de cargas progresivas más utilizado y universalmente aceptado es el paradigma 3:1. El número tres representa el número de microciclos de aumento progresivo de cargas, y el número uno está relacionado con el microciclo con característica estabilizadora o regenerativa (Turner, 2011;Bompa & Haff, 2012;Naclerio et al, 2013). ...
... Aparentemente, cuanto mayor sea el número de microciclos con cargas progresivamente crecientes, mayor será la necesidad de microciclos con pasos regenerativos. Esta regla se aplica para evitar la fatiga acumulada, la monotonía o incluso el estancamiento del rendimiento (Turner, 2011). ...
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La modulación de las cargas de entrenamiento es una tarea básica para los preparadores físicos en el contexto del baloncesto competitivo. Por ello, el objetivo de esta investigación es presentar cinco estrategias para modular las cargas de entrenamiento en baloncesto. En un rastreo bibliográfico, fue posible identificar cinco estrategias principales de modulación de carga que pueden ser utilizadas durante la prescripción de programas de entrenamiento, a saber: cargas progresivas, cargas concentradas, cargas de secuencia conjugada, cargas lineales y cargas ondulatorias. Cada enfoque de modulación de carga tiene particularidades específicas que se discuten a lo largo del texto y que deben analizarse cuidadosamente al construir un modelo de periodización particular. Si bien en la actualidad existe una fuerte tendencia a prescribir programas a corto plazo, es necesario observar la implementación de las cargas a mediano y largo plazo. Por tanto, se puede decir que es necesario saber seleccionar con cuidado la estrategia moduladora más adecuada en relación con el calendario competitivo de la temporada. Con el enfoque modulativo de cargas correctamente utilizado, la planificación sistemática se vuelve más efectiva para la mejora de las diferentes capacidades biomotoras y, consecuentemente, la optimización del desempeño. PALABRAS CLAVE: Baloncesto, Cargas de Entrenamiento, Periodización, Entrenamiento Deportivo.
... 2 Reverse engineering is similarly adopted in systems biology (36) and likely extends to the field of strength and conditioning. In this regard, practitioners will design a series of training programs following a periodized and systematic approach, all of which stemmed from futurerelated competition or performance related goals (9,16,26,30), whereby the coach considers the question "where would we like to be this time next year"? In this scenario, a coach may work backward, first identifying the key performance indicators of their sport, determine the physical attributes that map back to them, and then finally distribute the development of those capacities over the allocated timeframe (26,32). ...
... In this scenario, a coach may work backward, first identifying the key performance indicators of their sport, determine the physical attributes that map back to them, and then finally distribute the development of those capacities over the allocated timeframe (26,32). Therefore, exercise selection, frequency, repetitions, sets, and rest, can be manipulated in such a way that ultimately maximizes sporting performance via the use of phase potentiation (9,16,23,30). ...
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Typically, a coach may follow a process in which they first identify the key performance indicators of their sport, determine the physical attributes that map back to them, and then distribute the development of those capacities over the allocated timeframe. Furthermore, effective training plans are based on a theoretical or biological basis for how we move and adapt to exercise stimuli, coupled with an understanding of how these are best sequenced, such that one stimulus and subsequent adaptation can potentiate the next. Thus, reverse or backward engineering, when appropriately converged with the plans of those devised around nutrition, conditioning, technical, and tactical training for example likely gives athletes the best chance of attaining their performance goals. The aim of this paper is to describe the application of reverse engineering, exampling it within the context of developing an athlete who can demonstrate a high level of agility.
... Como el objetivo de la periodización del entrenamiento en la formación de base está enfocado en el desarrollo integral, la adquisición de valores y el gusto por el deporte, diseñar una estructura de trabajo a partir de mesociclos es una buena opción. Un mesociclo es el conjunto de tres a seis microciclos, siendo los más habitual cuatro microciclos (Turner, 2011), ya que en este periodo de tiempo se pueden introducir, Los microciclos son unidades que establecen objetivos específicos de una a dos semanas de entrenamiento, siendo más común los 7 días (Turner, 2011), en cada microciclo surgen objetivos concretos que le dan sentido al plan de entrenamiento y que interactúan con los ciclos macro. Se distinguen diferentes tipos de microciclo: introductorio, duración, la densidad y la intensidad. ...
... Como el objetivo de la periodización del entrenamiento en la formación de base está enfocado en el desarrollo integral, la adquisición de valores y el gusto por el deporte, diseñar una estructura de trabajo a partir de mesociclos es una buena opción. Un mesociclo es el conjunto de tres a seis microciclos, siendo los más habitual cuatro microciclos (Turner, 2011), ya que en este periodo de tiempo se pueden introducir, Los microciclos son unidades que establecen objetivos específicos de una a dos semanas de entrenamiento, siendo más común los 7 días (Turner, 2011), en cada microciclo surgen objetivos concretos que le dan sentido al plan de entrenamiento y que interactúan con los ciclos macro. Se distinguen diferentes tipos de microciclo: introductorio, duración, la densidad y la intensidad. ...
... With seasonal fluctuations in physical demands, workload, stress levels, and musculoskeletal disorders [7], seasonal workers like WTs may benefit from an altered periodization schedule than the linear approach assessed with the IPET concept until now [26]. Like within competitive sport and physical performance optimization, where supportive strength and conditioning programs are usually planned to support peak physical capacity and injury prevention during specific competitive seasons [59], similar approaches may be adopted by seasonal work industries like offshore wind. Accordingly, workplace exercise could be initiated before season start (for example 1 month prior), and vary in terms of volume, intensity, frequency etc., throughout the year to better fit the offshore service season, peak exposures, and required physical performance [59]. ...
... Like within competitive sport and physical performance optimization, where supportive strength and conditioning programs are usually planned to support peak physical capacity and injury prevention during specific competitive seasons [59], similar approaches may be adopted by seasonal work industries like offshore wind. Accordingly, workplace exercise could be initiated before season start (for example 1 month prior), and vary in terms of volume, intensity, frequency etc., throughout the year to better fit the offshore service season, peak exposures, and required physical performance [59]. These insights may offer practical implications and opportunities for companies' planning of physical capacity tests and physical exercise implementation at the workplace. ...
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Background: Good physical health and capacity is a requirement for offshore wind service technicians (WTs) who have substantial physical work demands and are exposed to numerous health hazards. Workplace physical exercise has shown promise for improving physical health and work ability among various occupational groups. Therefore, we aimed to assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training (IPET) among WTs in the offshore wind industry. Methods: A within-subject design was used to assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of IPET (one hour/week individualized exercise during working hours). The intervention period was 12 weeks, with the first eight weeks performed on site as supervised or partly supervised exercise during work hours and the last four weeks planned as home-administered exercise after the seasonal offshore service period. Three assessments, T1 (six months prior to intervention start), T2 (start of intervention) and T3 (end of intervention), of physical health and capacity (self-reported and objective measurements) were conducted and the period between T1 and T2 served as a within-subject control period. Primary outcome was feasibility measured as compliance, adherence, adverse events, and participant acceptability. Descriptive statistics were used to present feasibility outcomes. Preliminary efficacy was reported as mean differences with 95% confidence intervals for health and physical capacity outcomes between T1 and T2, between T2 and T3 and between T1 and T3. Results: All WTs at the included wind farm (n=24, age: 40 years (SD±8)) participated in the study. No serious adverse events were reported. Compliance and adherence of 95 and 80% respectively, were reached in the eight-week supervised part, but were lower when exercise was home-administered (<20%). Acceptability was high for the supervised part, with 83% indicating that the exercise program worked well and 100% that exercise should be implemented as an integrated part of the working structure. Changes in physical capacity and health indicators, such as VO2max (ml O2/kg/min) at T1 (38.6 (SD±7.2)), T2 (44.1 (SD±9)) and T3 (45.8 (SD±6.5)), may indicate seasonal fluctuations as well as improvements from the intervention. Conclusion: On-site Intelligent Physical Exercise Training during working hours was feasible and well received among WTs in the offshore wind industry. The proceeding of larger-scale evaluation and implementation is therefore recommended. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04995718 ). Retrospectively registered on August 6, 2021.
... With seasonal uctuations in physical demands, workload, stress levels and musculoskeletal disorders [7], seasonal workers like WTs may bene t from an altered periodization schedule than the linear approach assessed with the IPET concept until now [26]. Like within competitive sport and physical performance optimization, where supportive strength and conditioning programs are usually planned to support peak physical capacity and injury prevention during speci c competitive seasons [57], similar approaches may be adopted by seasonal work industries like offshore wind. Accordingly, workplace exercise could be initiated before season start (for example 1 month prior), and vary in terms of volume, intensity, frequency etc. throughout the year to better t the offshore service season, peak exposures and required physical performance [57]. ...
... Like within competitive sport and physical performance optimization, where supportive strength and conditioning programs are usually planned to support peak physical capacity and injury prevention during speci c competitive seasons [57], similar approaches may be adopted by seasonal work industries like offshore wind. Accordingly, workplace exercise could be initiated before season start (for example 1 month prior), and vary in terms of volume, intensity, frequency etc. throughout the year to better t the offshore service season, peak exposures and required physical performance [57]. These insights may offer practical implications and opportunities for companies' planning of physical capacity tests and physical exercise implementation at the workplace. ...
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Background: Good physical health and capacity is a requirement for offshore wind service technicians (WTs) who have substantial physical work demands and are exposed to numerous health hazards. Workplace physical exercise has shown promising results as a strategy for maintaining and improving physical health and work ability among various types of workers. Therefore, we aimed to assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the Intelligent Physical Exercise Training (IPET) concept among WTs in the offshore wind industry. Methods: The present study used a within-subject design to assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of IPET (one hour/week individualized exercise during working hours). The intervention period was 12 weeks, with the first eight weeks performed on site as supervised or partly supervised exercise during work hours and the last four weeks planned as home-administered exercise after termination of the seasonal offshore service period. Three assessments, T1 (six months prior to intervention start), T2 (start of intervention) and T3 (end of intervention), of physical health and capacity (self-reported and objective measurements) were conducted and the period between T1 and T2 served as a within-subject control period. Primary outcome was feasibility measured as compliance, adherence, adverse events, and participant acceptability. Descriptive statistics were used to present feasibility outcomes and pairwise comparisons were performed to assess for differences in outcomes between T1, T2 and T3. Results: All WTs at the included wind farm (n=24, age: 40 years (SD±8)) participated in the study. No serious adverse events were reported. Compliance and adherence of 95 and 80% respectively, were reached in the eight-week supervised part, but lower when exercise was home-administered (<20%). Acceptability was high for the supervised part, with 83% indicating that the exercise program worked well and 100% that exercise should be implemented as an integrated part of the working structure. Physical capacity and health parameters collected at T1, T2 and T3 increased before and during the intervention period, indicating seasonal fluctuations in addition to possible improvements caused by the intervention. Conclusion: Implementation of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training on site and during working hours seems to be feasible and well received among WTs in the offshore wind industry. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04995718). Retrospectively registered on August 6, 2021, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04995718?term=NCT04995718&draw=2&rank=1
... Once a globally optimal solution is found, or the algorithm can not improve on the current solution after a set J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f number of attempts, the best solution thus far is returned. 15 [18][19][20] The simulation experiment was conducted using a custom program written in the python programming language. To simulate a deviation away from an optimal training plan, individual training session load values were subject to added random noise generated from a Gaussian distribution with a mean of zero and a standard deviation equal to 50% of the original optimal training session load value. ...
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Objectives The planning and control of team sport training activities is an extremely important aspect of athletic development and team performance. This research introduces a novel system which leverages techniques from the fields of control systems theory and artificial intelligence (AI) to construct optimal future training plans when unexpected disturbances and deviations from a training plan goal occur. Design Simulation-based experimental design. Methods The adaptation of training load prescriptions was formulated as an optimal control problem where we seek to minimize the difference between a desired training plan goal and an observed training outcome. To determine the most suitable approach to optimise future training loads the performance of an AI based feedback controller was compared to random and proportional controllers. Robust computational simulations (N = 1800) were conducted using a non-linear training plan spanning 60 days over a 12-week period, the control strategies were assessed on their ability to adapt future training loads when disturbances and deviations from an optimal planning policy have occurred. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine if significant difference existed between the three control strategies. Results The results of a repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that an intelligent feedback controller significantly outperforms the random (p < .001, ES = 7.41, very large) and proportional control (p < .001, ES = 7.41, very large) strategies at reducing the deviations from a training plan goal. Conclusions This system can be used to support the decision making of practitioners across several areas considered important for the effective planning and adaption of athletic training.
... HIFT session attendance will be organized to ensure between 2 and 5 people at each scheduled time. The training protocol will be divided into three 4-week phases where exercise is progressed in both intensity and volume during each phase, with the last week of each phase being digressed to 60-70% of the volume [80,81]. Progression of volume will follow the characteristics in Table 1. ...
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Background Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are at a greater risk for developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) than those without MetS, due to underlying endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Exercise is an effective primary and secondary prevention strategy for MetS; however, less than 25% of adults meet the minimum stated public recommendations. Barriers often identified are lack of enjoyment and lack of time. High-intensity functional training (HIFT), a time-efficient modality of exercise, has shown some potential to elicit positive affectivity and elicit increased fitness and improved glucose metabolism. However, the effects of HIFT on dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction have not been explored nor have the effects been explored in a population with MetS. Additionally, no studies have investigated the minimal dose of HIFT per week to see clinically meaningful changes in cardiometabolic health. The purpose of this study is to (1) determine the dose-response effect of HIFT on blood lipids, insulin resistance, and endothelial function and (2) determine the dose-response effect of HIFT on body composition, fitness, and perceived enjoyment and intention to continue the exercise. Methods/design In this randomized, dose-response trial, participants will undergo a 12-week HIFT intervention of either 1 day/week, 2 days/week, or 3 days/week of supervised, progressive exercise. Outcomes assessed at baseline and post-intervention will be multiple cardiometabolic markers, and fitness. Additionally, the participant’s affective response will be measured after the intervention. Discussion The findings of this research will provide evidence on the minimal dose of HIFT per week to see clinically meaningful improvements in the risk factors of MetS, as well as whether this modality is likely to mitigate the barriers to exercise. If an effective dose of HIFT per week is determined and if this modality is perceived positively, it may provide exercise specialists and health care providers a tool to prevent and treat MetS. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05001126 . August 11, 2021.
... Likewise, comparing the findings of the variation in training loads on muscular endurance with other studies in the literature are difficult to establish since no studies investigating periodized with non-periodized programs have been identified. However, considering the recommendation to progress from general to specific (13,37), the most appropriate load organization to be applied to improve muscular endurance would be to increase volume and reduce the intensity (reverse linear organization). Rhea et al. (26) compared the reverse linear, daily undulatory and linear load organizations and, although no significant differences were observed between groups (RLP = 73%, LP = 56%, DUP = 55%; p = International Journal of Exercise Science http://www.intjexersci.com ...
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The purpose of this study was to compare a periodized versus a non-periodized protocol of kettlebell (KTB) swings over six weeks on strength, power, and muscular endurance. Twenty-eight high intensity functional training (HIFT) practitioners were assigned to non-periodized (NPG = 11), periodized (PG = 11), or control groups (CG = 6). NPG used the same load (20 kg) throughout the training period while the PG used a step loading progression (with an added four kilograms every two weeks). Measures of strength and muscular endurance in the deadlift exercise, and power in the countermovement jump were assessed before and after six weeks. A two-way ANOVA was used to verify pre-to post-test differences in strength, power, and muscular endurance. An analysis of the effect size was also incorporated. For strength and power, statistical differences from pre-to post-test were found for both the NPG (p < 0.001; 1-RM improvement = 8.7%; jump height improvement = 8.7%) and PG (p < 0.001; 1-RM improvement = 7.8%; jump height improvement = 10.1%), with no difference between groups. For muscular endurance, only the PG showed significant differences from pre-to post-test (p = 0.013; muscular endurance improvement = 23.8%). In conclusion, when the goal is to increase strength and power performances in HIFT practitioners, periodized and non-periodized KTB models appear to be equally effective, and this can simplify the strength coach's practice in programming KTB swing training periods. For muscular endurance, the addition of KTB swing on a periodized basis seems to be a more effective strategy.
... Periodization is defined as a training program that achieves the peak of performance by strengthening training and accommodation and managing fatigue. [1] The periodization is classified into three main cycles, and each cycle has its own characteristics in training objectives and goals to be achieved. The cycles, as Plisk and Stone [2] suggested, are the macrocycle, which refers to a year, mesocycle which is about a month, and the microcycle which is around a week. ...
... Possivelmente, o gradual retorno da rigidez da unidade músculo tendínea 14,17 e da atividade mioelétrica 12,13 podem ter minimizado os efeitos imediatos do alongamento estático. Entretanto, tais estudos diferem consideravelmente da prática de indivíduos recreacionalmente treinados, os quais utilizam três a quatro exercícios ou de três a cinco séries para o mesmo grupo muscular por exercício em cada sessão, como ocorre em rotinas divididas [18][19][20] . ...
Article
A execução de protocolos de alongamento estático reduz o desempenho de atividades máximas dependentes de força e potência tais como saltos, arremessos e levantamentos (ex. 1RM). Entretanto, seu efeito em repetições submáximas levadas até a falha concêntrica de grupos musculares sinérgicos é pouco conhecido. Portanto o objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito agudo do AE na amplitude de movimento passiva (ADMP) e no volume absoluto em uma sessão de treinamento de força para o peitoral maior (PM) e deltoide anterior (DA). A amostra foi composta por 11 homens saudáveis (idade: 24,4 ± 3,6 anos; estatura: 174,8 ± 4,4 cm; massa: 83,4 ± 9,8 kg). Os sujeitos foram testados em duas condições experimentais. Em sessões aleatorizadas os sujeitos realizaram uma sessão de treinamento de força após realizarem um protocolo de alongamento de 6 séries de 45” e 15” de intervalo a 70-90% da percepção subjetiva de desconforto para os adutores horizontais do ombro (Com Alongamento [COMA]) ou após permanecerem sentados pelo mesmo período de tempo (Sem Alongamento [SEMA]). A sessão para o PM e DA foi composta de 5 séries de 10RM com 1’ de intervalo entre as séries e 2’ entre os exercícios pecdeck, crossover e crucifixo com halteres. Os resultados mostram que na condição COM-A foi observado maior ADMP pré-sessão comparada com basal (P=0,0380) e pós-sessão de treinamento (P=0,001). Na condição SEM-A foi observada redução da ADMP pós-sessão de treinamento quando comparado ao basal (P=0,037) e pré-sessão (P=0,016). O volume absoluto do primeiro exercício e da sessão não diferiu significantemente entre condições (P=0,184). Conclui-se que a realização do alongamento estático não afetou o volume absoluto na sessão de treinamento para o peitoral maior e deltoide anterior, aumentou a ADMP da abdução horizontal do ombro e evitou a queda de ADMP Pós-sessão observada na condição SEM-A.
... The exercises began at a beginner level, targeted at those with a low level of fitness who were not previously exercising. Exercises became progressively more difficult each week in order to build participants' fitness, except for weeks 4 and 8, which prescribed easier 'deload' exercise sessions in order to reduce fatigue and improve training adaptation [11]. ...
Article
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Background: Instagram provides an opportunity to deliver low cost, accessible and appealing physical activity content. This study evaluated the feasibility of delivering an exercise program for young women using Instagram. Methods: A single-group pre- and post-intervention trial examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 12-week Instagram-delivered program with young inactive women (n = 16; M = 23 years), which prescribed running and body weight exercises to complete three times per week. Daily Instagram posts delivered the exercises, video demonstrations and motivational content. Feasibility was evaluated by examining exposure (Instagram posts viewed per week), engagement (likes, comments and tags on Instagram posts; number of exercise sessions completed per week; retention, defined as completion of the online survey at weeks 6 and 12), and acceptability [whether the program increased participants' motivation to exercise (1 = strongly disagree-5 = strongly agree); satisfaction with the program (1 = not satisfied-5 = very satisfied)]. Preliminary efficacy was evaluated by comparing baseline and 12-week self-reported physical activity (IPAQ short-form) and fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscle strength; 1 = very poor-5 = very good, International Fitness Scale) using the Exact sign test. Results: On average, participants reported seeing six posts in their Instagram feed per week. Posts received an average of five likes (IQR = 3-6). A total of four comments and one tag were observed across all posts. On average, participants reported completing two exercise sessions per week. Retention was 88% at 6 weeks but dropped to 56% at 12 weeks. Participants reported increased motivation to exercise (Mdn = 4, IQR = 3-4) and were satisfied with the program (Mdn = 4, IQR = 3-4). Only self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness showed a meaningful, though nonsignificant, improvement (MdnΔ = 1, IQR = 0-1, p = .06). Conclusions: Although Instagram has the potential to deliver a low cost, convenient exercise program for young women, additional research is needed to identify methods of improving engagement (interaction with the Instagram content, exercise sessions completed, and retention in the program). Future research could examine the use of behaviour change theory and provide information that enables participants to tailor the exercises to their interests and needs. Additionally, the use of objective assessments of physical activity and fitness among a larger participants sample is needed.
... How does one manipulate training variables from week to week in a plan designed to grow muscle as its number one priority? Traditionally, the default progression has simply been to increase the load being lifted, in both formal studies and in much field practice (5,25). But this practice occurs in part because it was simply inherited from strength training (as opposed to purposeful hypertrophy training). ...
... Within each four-week mesocycle, training load should be progressed across weeks one and three by gradually increasing total foot contacts, before then being reduced in week four. This 3:1 wave loading pattern adheres to the principles of the fitness-fatigue paradigm, by providing a progressive stimulus that induces fatigue and a subsequent recovery period that restores fitness and overall preparedness (29). ...
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This article provides guidance on designing strength and conditioning programs for male collegiate trampolinists by combining the available sport science with practical coaching experience.
... In the present study, peaks of the game IRs were observed in the pre-season, early in-season, and late in-season, respectively. For this reason, we need to review the training plan using periodization [24] and introduce a 2-week tapering [25] to reduce the game IR each season, and it is a future task to consider injury prevention measures. ...
Article
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Objective: Despite the increase in soccer injuries as the population of women's soccer grows, few sports injury studies of women's soccer have been conducted in Japan. The purpose was to prospectively examine the incidence, sites, types, and situations of injuries in Japanese collegiate women's soccer players during games and practices for three seasons. Methods: Eighty-nine players participated in this study. Data on all game and practice injuries were collected using an injury sheet. Injury rates (IRs) were calculated by month, position, injury site, injury type, and injury situation.
... Esse objetivo é alcançado, principalmente, com a variação adequada dos métodos e carga de treinamento. Nesse aspecto, a carga de treinamento se divide, basicamente, entre volume e intensidade de treino, sendo que estas duas variáveis possuem uma relação/dinâmica inversa (exceto em breves períodos de overreaching, i.e., em que se trabalha intencionalmente com altos volumes e/ ou intensidades de treino, o que leva à queda de desempenho transitória do atleta, na tentativa de se potencializar o aumento de desempenho durante o taper, quando se diminui drasticamente o volume do treinamento) 6 . Tradicionalmente, a periodização pode ser dividida em 4 períodos: período preparatório; período pré-competitivo (ou taper); período competitivo; período de transição. ...
Article
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The role of nutrition in exercise-induced organic adaptations is becoming increasingly clear. A large body of evidence suggests that nutritional strategies can influence molecular adaptations, physiological responses and sports performance if properly planned in conjunction with training periodization. The purpose of this review is to compile current evidence on the main nutritional strategies that can potentiate the adaptations of endurance training, in addition to conceptualizing periodized nutrition, as well as aspects of training periodization. We chose not to discuss each strategy in detail, but to provide a broad and practical view of the application of periodized nutrition in the training context of the endurance athlete. Before the positive molecular responses, due to the manipulation of muscle glycogen stores, the strategy called train low, compete high was proposed. However, despite studies having generally shown beneficial effects in terms of signaling and transcription, only a few studies have been able to show any effects on performance. This is probably due to the fact that sports training interactions, desired physiological adaptations, sports performance and nutrition must be continuously adjusted and adapted to the athlete's context. Choosing train low method depends heavily on the set objectives and the individual responses. Therefore, there is no method or diet that will address all needs/and goals, but rather a combination of different nutritional strategies throughout the training process.
... In combat simulations, the aerobic, anaerobic alactic, and anaerobic lactic metabolisms provide 66 ± 6%, 30 ± 6%, and 4 ± 2%, respectively, of the total energy required (Campos et al., 2012). As with other modalities, combat sports training includes a period destined for special physical preparation, which aims at practicing exercises in similar conditions to those of competition, considering their biomechanical and physiological specificity (Turner, 2011;Lyakh et al., 2014). Due to the difficulty of controlling training intensity in combat sports, protocols based on time-motion analysis are frequently used to mimic the demands found in combat (Vasconcelos et al., 2020). ...
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Background Taekwondo is an intermittent Olympic combat sport, which shows an aerobic predominance in matches and high participation of alactic metabolism for actions that determine competitive success. However, there is no information on energetic contribution systems in different high-intensity intermittent exercises for metabolic conditioning with specific movements. The study aimed to measure the physiological demands, mainly the energy expenditure, in taekwondo-specific high-intensity intermittent exercises (HIIE). Methods This study recruited ten male black belt athletes with a mean age of 20.2 ± 4 years, body mass of 62.8 ± 10.5 kg and height of 170.6 ± 7.8 cm, and total practice time of 11.8 ± 5.4 years. Subjects performed an incremental specific test and three different HIIE protocols on nonconsecutive days, and all comprised three 2-min rounds and 1 min of recovery between rounds. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, and blood lactate were measured. Energetic expenditure of aerobic, alactic, and lactic metabolisms was estimated through oxygen consumption, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, and peak blood lactate after each round. Results For the mean of the three rounds, the TKDtest100 resulted in higher absolute and relative contribution from the aerobic metabolism (52.4 ± 4%; p = 0.01) and lower than the 35:5 relative alactic contribution (48.7 ± 5.4%; p = 0.03). Conclusion The mean of the three rounds for 35:5 and 15:10:5 presented similar absolute and relative contributions of aerobic and alactic metabolisms, whereas the TKDtest100 was a predominantly aerobic activity. We emphasize that aerobic metabolism was predominant from the second round in the 15:10:5 and 100%TKDtest protocols and in the last round of the 35:5 protocol.
... transition to maximum velocity (Vmax) phase in baseball or basketball). A linear periodized model of training is recommended for those with a lower training age, such as inexperienced, pre-PHV athletes, to allow for ample recovery and adaptation to the desired stimulus147 . It is generally recommended to progress from a general preparation phase (GPP) to more specific preparation phase (SPP) during an annual training plan, 147 with greater time spent in GPP for less experienced and less mature individuals.Figure 5shows a traditional linear periodization model consisting of three weeks of increasing volume (meters per session) followed by a one-week de-load. ...
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Speed is an important athletic quality and needs to be developed in young athletes, this may be best achieved using specific forms of sprint training. Resisted sled training is a sprint specific form of training widely used by coaches and practitioners. The two modes of resisted sled training that exist are sled pushing and pulling, with limited research available for pulling and little, if any, available for pushing in any population. The overarching question that guided this thesis was “what are the acute and chronic training responses to sled pushing and pulling in young athletes?” The aims of the thesis were to: review existing literature related to acute and chronic training responses to resisted sled pushing and pulling; examine the reliability, linearity, and utility of individual load-velocity profiles to prescribe training loads during sled pushing and pulling in young athletes; assess the effectiveness of unresisted and resisted sled pull and sled push training on short distance sprint performance across a wide array of individualised loads; and, provide practical programming guidelines on how to integrate resisted sled training into an athlete’s training. The main findings of this thesis were: 1) across existing literature little uniformity exists with regard to prescription of load for resisted sled training although heavier loads appeared to provide a stimulus for higher horizontal force application. Loads can be applied across different zones of training such as technical competency, speed-strength, power and strength-speed. 2) Sled pushing and pulling produce a highly linear relationship (r > 0.95) between load and velocity. The slope of the load-velocity relationship was found to be reliable (CV = 3.1%), with the loads that cause a decrement in velocity of 25, 50 and 75% also found to be reliable (CVs = <5%). However, there was large between-participant variation (95%CI) in the load that caused a given Vdec in both sled pushing and pulling. Loads of 14-21, 36-53, 71-107 and 107-160% body mass (%BM) caused a Vdec of 10, 25, 50 and 75% in sled pulling. Loads of 23-42, 45-85 and 69-131% body mass (%BM) caused a Vdec of 25, 50 and 75% in sled pushing. 3) Both forms of resisted sprint training demonstrated a clear trend for greater and more consistent improvements in sprinting force, power and performance over short distances when training with heavier sled loads (as compared to a lighter load or unresisted sprint training). Several practical applications may be offered from the findings. Due to the linearity and reliability of the load-velocity relationship, coaches are urged to prescribe individualised sled loads based on a target decrement in velocity rather than simply prescribing all athletes the same load as a set percentage of body mass. Both sled pushing and pulling were effective sprint specific modes of training to enhance overall sprint performance, with the latter found to be more sprint specific due to the use of the arms. Heavier loads during both forms of resisted sled training appeared to yield the greatest benefit to young athletes in short distance sprint performance, however a targeted approach to sled loading may influence different phases of the sprint.
... Participants performed the training programme utilising sets and repetition ranges typically used for developing maximal strength (Bird, Tarpenning & Marino, 2005). Participants followed two 4-week mesocycles using a 3:1 loading paradigm, with a progressive increase in load for the first 3 weeks followed by a reduction in load in the fourth week (Turner, 2011). This was considered important as the swimmers were still maintaining high volumes of swimming training throughout the intervention. ...
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Background The block phase in the swimming start requires a quick reaction to the starting signal and a large take-off velocity that is primarily horizontal in direction. Due to the principle of specificity of training, there is a potential benefit of performing a greater proportion of horizontal force production exercises in a swimmers’ dry-land resistance training sessions. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to provide an insight into the effects of a horizontal- (HF) vs vertical-force (VF) training intervention on swim start performance. Methods Eleven competitive swimmers (six males (age 20.9 ± 1.8 years, body mass 77.3 ± 9.7 kg, height 1.78 ± 0.05 m) and five females (age 21.4 ± 2.0 years, body mass 67.5 ± 7.4 kg, height 1.69 ± 0.05 m)) completed 2 weekly sessions of either a horizontal- or vertical-force focused resistance training programme for 8 weeks. Squat jump force-time characteristics and swim start kinetic and kinematic parameters were collected pre- and post-intervention. Results Across the study duration, the swimmers completed an average of nine swimming sessions per week with an average weekly swim volume of 45.5 ± 17.7 km (HF group) and 53 ± 20.0 km (VF group), but little practice of the swim start per week ( n = 9). Within-group analyses indicated a significant increase in predicted one repetition maximum (1RM) hip thrust strength in the HF group, as well as significant increases in grab resultant peak force but reductions in resultant peak force of the block phase for the VF group. No significant between-group differences in predicted 1RM hip thrust and back squat strength, squat jump force-time and swim start performance measures were observed after 8 weeks of training. Significant correlations in the change scores of five block kinetic variables to time to 5 m were observed, whereby increased block kinetic outputs were associated with a reduced time to 5 m. This may be indicative of individual responses to the different training programmes. Discussion The results of this current study have been unable to determine whether a horizontal- or vertical-force training programme enhances swim start performance after an 8-week training intervention. Some reasons for the lack of within and between group effects may reflect the large volume of concurrent training and the relative lack of any deliberate practice of the swim start. Larger samples and longer training duration may be required to determine whether significant differences occur between these training approaches. Such research should also look to investigate how a reduction in the concurrent training loads and/or an increase in the deliberate practice of the swim start may influence the potential changes in swim start performance.
... When the athlete exercises the organism has physiological reactions that are explained by the general adaptation syndrome (Zakharov, 1992). The training load causes a break of the homeostasis in the athlete and this stimulus causes stress in the athlete`s body with a little discomfort, this was the alarm phase (Turner, 2011). The athlete continues the exercise in the session and the human organism has an adaptation of the stress of the load training, this was the resistance phase. ...
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The type of periodization can influence how the coach should structure the training load of the ball training. Load of the ball training is difficult for the coach to measures with precision every session. In training load innovation, the coach uses two different contents (injury and effort) for structure the ball training. The objective of the review was to explain the difference between the traditional training load and the training load innovation of the specific periodization for volleyball. The training load of the ball training has different modes of organization, for example, the constant load, the increasing load, the varied load. But a systematic review detected that 27% of the injury risk is related with the training load. Therefore, the organization of the training load is important due to less injury risk for athletes. The acute effect of the load training is explained based on the general adaptation syndrome and the chronic effect explained on the super-compensation. In training load innovation of the specific periodization for volleyball the objective is to improve the technical and tactical condition of the volleyball player. In conclusion, training load innovation is new content for the sports, but it is necessary more studies about this topic.
... This finding is in accordance with the results of another study on elite male volleyball players [35]. The strategy of using a 3:1 step loading paradigm seems to have eliminated excessive fatigue, and the reduced stimuli at the end of the week enabled adaptations to occur [36]. However, that strategy was not reflected in the s-RPE values, as no meaningful differences were registered between training days. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) characterize the external and internal training load of professional volleyball players with a focus on intra-week changes and (ii) test the relationships between internal and external load measures. Eight male professional players (age: 23.0±5.22 yo; body mass: 84.5 ± 7.58 kg; height: 193.0±9.71 cm; BMI: 22.0±0.02 kg/m2) were monitored daily over 15 weeks. The monitoring process included both internal (rate of perceived exertion [RPE] and session-RPE [s-RPE]) and external load variables, which were measured by an inertial measurement unit. Results revealed that, within-week variations revealed that RPE was significantly higher during MD-2 (d=0.59) and MD-3 (d=0.56) than MD-1. A significantly higher number of jumps was observed on MD-2 than MD-1 (d=0.69). Considering the relationships between internal and external load measures, small positive correlations were found between RPE and the number of jumps (r=0.17) and between s-RPE and the number of jumps (r=0.49). In conclusion, a tapering strategy was observed on the day before a match, as internal and external loads decreased. Both internal and external load measures are necessary to provide an accurate perception of the impact of training stimuli on players.
... The dry-land resistance training program consistently used a progressive overload approach using a 3:1 loading paradigm, with a progressive increase in load for the first three weeks followed by a reduction in load in the fourth week. 24 Each resistance training session typically consisted of multi-joint free-weight and bodyweight exercises, machines, plyometrics and swimming-specific rehabilitation exercises. The resistance training session generally comprised of strength and power oriented exercises for the upper and lower body, ranging from 3 to 8 repetitions per set, for a total of 8 to 12 sets per session, depending on the phases of the season. ...
Article
This study aimed to (1) track changes in body composition, lower body force-time characteristics, and swim start performance over a competitive season, and (2) investigate the intra-individual associations between changes in body composition and lower body force-time characteristics to swim start performance in five high performance swimmers (three males, two females). Over a ∼12-month period, body composition, lower body force-time characteristics and swim start performance were assessed at three time points via DXA scan, squat jump and swim start performance test (start times to 5 and 15 m and several kinematic and kinetic outputs). Throughout a competitive season of concurrent swimming and dry-land resistance training, improvements in lower body lean mass and squat jump force-time characteristics were observed. However, changes in start times varied between athletes. Total body and lower body lean mass both displayed large negative correlations with the time spent in the entry and propulsive underwater phases ( r = –0.57 to –0.66), along with a large positive correlations with glide time ( r = 0.56–0.53). Additionally, lower body lean mass exhibited large to very large positive correlations with the flight phase ( r = 0.70–0.73). Overall, these findings provide some insight into the potential magnitude of change in body composition, lower body force-time characteristics and swim start performance in high performance swimmers within a season. The large to very large correlations between increased lower body lean mass and SJ force-time metrics to improvements in aspects of start performance may provide useful information to coaches and sports scientists.
... The competitive phase is when the athletes need to peak for a competition. Athletes may engage in mono-, bi-or tri-phasic periodized programs depending on the priority of competitions within a given year [8]. Three distinctive peaks of total load were identified, the main aim of the first macrocycle was to develop TABLE 1. Training contents detailing sequence and level of priority of training macrocycle for a world-class 400-m individual medley swimmer. ...
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We present a case study of the periodized training by a world-class 400-m Individual Medley (IM) swimmer (4th in 2019 World Championships) in the season leading to a bronze medal in the 2018 European Championship. The complexity of this IM preparation was based on the experiences, observations and innovations of an Olympic swimming coach. Over 52 weeks, a traditional periodization model was employed using three macrocycles. A total of 15 competitions were completed in the season increasing in frequency in the third macrocycle. The training intensity distribution (TID) followed the pattern of a traditional pyramidal model in general training and polarized and threshold models during specific training before competitions. Weekly training volume ranged from 25 to 79 km, 24 to 87 km, and 25 to 90 km in each of the three macrocyles. Altitude training comprised 23% of total training weeks. Haemoglobin [Hb] increased from 14.9 to 16.0 g/100 ml and haematocrit from 45.1 to 48.1% after altitude training. Heart rate (HR) and [La-] decreased at submaximal swimming intensities, while swimming velocity increased in the 8 × 100 m incremental swimming test in A2 (1.4%) and in AT (0.6%). Pull up power was increased 10% through the season.
... The purpose of the general preparation period is to improve the athlete's general fitness level and work capacity and to maximize adaptability in preparation for a high level of training. In addition, excessive high-intensity training and a large volume of training during the preparation period can cause muscle injury and overtraining; therefore, it is necessary to plan appropriate and detailed scientific training [26][27][28][29][30]. ...
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This study aimed to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of polarized training on body composition, cardiorespiratory function, and upper-body power of male and female cross-country skiers during the general preparation period. A total of 16 national cross-country skiers (8 male and 8 female; 8 national cross-country skiers and 8 national biathlon athletes) participated. Polarization training was conducted for 12 weeks from May to July in 2019 during the general preparation period for cross-country skiers. The low-weight, high-repetition method was used for strength training. The effect of the polarized training on body composition, maximum oxygen intake (VO2max), respiratory exchange rate, all-out time, and ski ergometer exercise time was assessed. There was no change in weight, BMI, and muscle mass in male and female cross-country skiers following the 12 weeks of polarized training (p > 0.05). Male body fat percentage (pre 18.1%, post 12.7%) and female body fat percentage (pre 29.1%, post 21.4%) showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05). After training, VO2max increased by 7.72% in male athletes (pre 71.05 mL/kg/min, post 77.0 mL/kg/min) and 6.32% in female athletes (pre 60.26 mL/kg/min, post 64.33 mL/kg/min). Treadmill exercise time increased by 5.39% for male athletes (pre 1038 s, post 1064 s) and 2.23% for female athletes (pre 855 s, post 874 s). However, there was no significant difference between male and female athletes (p > 0.05). The 50% recovery time from the maximum heart rate to the target heart rate decreased by 64.52% in males (pre 168.8 s, post 102.6 s) and 6.48% in females (pre 135 s, post 129.6 s). Significant differences were found only in male athletes (p < 0.05). The double-pole 500 m exercise duration for the ski ergometer significantly decreased after the training for both sexes (p < 0.05). In this study, the 12 weeks of polarized training improved the body composition and athletic performance of all cross-country skiers. Interestingly, in this study, we confirmed that polarized training had a better effect on cardiorespiratory function in male cross-country skiers than in female cross-country skiers. Conversely, we found that the outcomes of the ski ergometer exercise factors were more effective in female athletes than in male athletes. Therefore, we insist that when applying a polarized training program to athletes, it should be planned in detail by sex, exercise amount, intensity, and type of training.
... Periodization is a methodological strategy which divides the year-round training into training cycles (macrocycle, mesocycle, and microcycle), aiming to optimize performance outcomes at specific time points. Periodized year-round training is structured with training phases including the preparation (general and specific), the competition (precompetitive, competitive, and peaking), and the transition phase (5,16,25). During these training phases, coaches design specific training programs to enhance the technical, biomechanical, and the biological characteristics of the athletes leading to a significant increase in physical abilities and competitive track and field throwing performance (2,22,29). ...
Article
Anousaki, E, Zaras, N, Stasinaki A-N, Panidi, I, Terzis, T, and Karampatsos, G. Effects of a 25-week periodized training macrocycle on muscle strength, power, muscle architecture, and performance in well-trained track and field throwers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of a 25-week macrocycle on strength, power, vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, and competitive track and field throwing performance, in well-trained track and field throwers. Twelve well-trained throwers (age: 24.3 ± 5.5 years, mass: 96.6 ± 9.9 kg, and height: 1.82 ± 0.02 m), participated in the study. All athletes followed a 25-week periodized training program divided into 3 training phases: the hypertrophy/maximum strength phase, the maximum strength/power phase, and the power/speed phase. Measurements were performed at the beginning of the training period (T1), after the first training phase (T2), and after the end of the training period (T3). Measurements included the following: competitive track and field throwing performance; shot put throws; maximum strength (1-RM) in snatch, clean, and squat; countermovement jump (CMJ); and VL muscle architecture. Competitive track and field throwing performance and shot put throws increased from T1 to T3 by 10.9 ± 3.2% (p = 0.001) and 5.1 ± 6.4% (P = 0.049), respectively. 1 RM strength in snatch and squat increased significantly from T1 to T3 by 9.7 ± 8.9% (p = 0.001) and 9.9 ± 7.1% (p = 0.002), respectively. Countermovement jump height increased only from T1 to T2 by 10.9 ± 11.8% (p = 0.026). A significant increase was found for VL fascicle length between T1 and T3 (9.6 ± 11.1%, p = 0.049). Strong correlations were found between the percentage increase of competitive track and field throwing performance with 1 RM snatch (r = 0.571, p = 0.046) and with shot put throws (r = 0.715, p = 0.001). Twenty five weeks of training may increase performance and VL fascicle length, whereas increases in 1 RM snatch and in shot put throws are associated with competitive track and field throwing performance in well-trained throwers.
... To prevent overtraining, it can be done by making an exercise program that is progressive and systematic, wherein in the training program there is no sudden increase in intensity or volume, avoiding giving high volumes in a row, increase the variety of exercises so as not to be monotonous, and certainly provide a sufficient recovery period. If it is needed, it can be done by creating an individual training program for each athlete [21]. ...
... The athletes trained 5 times a week (Monday to Friday) using training methodologies (continuous, interval, and fartlek training or rest periods) that varied according to the periodization phase as following: (1) base: high volumes and low intensities, (2) specific: sport-specific training, (3) shock: intend to increase 10% to 20% of the load, (4) regenerative: low volume and moderate intensity, and (5) competitive: low week load. 4,17,18 Total training outcomes for 36 weeks of training are demonstrated in Supplementary Table S1 (available online), and, for analysis, the periodization phases were compared. The athletes performed the same training and periodization prepared and supervised by a level 2 technician from the Brazilian Paracanoe Confederation. ...
Article
Context: Paracanoeing is one of the adapted sports eligible for different motor impairments. The acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) is an index between acute and chronic training workload. However, no studies have analyzed this variable in paracanoeing, relating it with training recovery markers. Objective: This study aimed to quantify the internal (session rating of perceived exertion) and external (distance traveled and total training time) training workloads in 4 experienced paracanoe athletes over 9 months and 5 canoeing events. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Rehabilitation Hospital Network, Paralympic Program. Participants: Four experienced paracanoe athletes participated in 36 weeks of training for 5 events. Main outcomes measures: The daily and weekly training workload, monotony, ACWR, distance, and total training time were described for all the training phases. The perceived recovery status scale (PRS) and medicine ball throw (MBT) were used to quantify recovery. Results: The average daily and weekly training workload varied from 213.1 to 239.3 and 767.3 to 1036.8 arbitrary units, respectively. Average ACWR results ranged from 0.96 to 1.10 in the 4 athletes, findings that were outside the safety zone in 38% of the training weeks. All the correlations between MBT and PRS were classified as weak (ρ between .20 and .39, P > .05). ACWR showed a very weak correlation with MBT and moderately and highly significant correlations with PRS in 2 athletes, respectively. Conclusions: The training workloads of 4 paracanoe athletes may serve as a comparison with other periodization models. Pretraining recovery assessments (MBT and PRS) exhibited a low, nonsignificant correlation. However, ACWR correlated significantly with PRS in 2 athletes and might be a suitable tool for daily training adjustments.
... It may consequently be preferable for athletes to undergo repetitive WBC treatments throughout training phases when there is higher priority on general strength development than explosive power. For instance, strength development would be prioritized for many sports during the general adaptation phase where there would be more focus on taking advantage of the general adaptation syndrome via supercompensation (Turner, 2011). Alternatively, repetitive WBC can be applied during competitive or tapering phases of athletic training programming, when athletes are more concerned with exercise recovery as opposed to training adaptations. ...
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Despite its potential merit in sport and exercise recovery, the implications of repetitive Whole Body Cryotherapy (WBC) during training programmes require further review due to the possibility of repetitive cold interfering with long term adaptations. This study investigated the impact of two weekly 3 min WBC sessions (30 s at −60 • C, 150 s at −120 • C) on adaptations to a 6 week strength and endurance training programme. Sixteen male participants (mean ± SD age 33.4 ± 9.8 years, body mass 82.3 ± 9.8 kg) randomly allocated into WBC (n = 7) and non-cryotherapy control (CON, n=9) groups completed the programme consisting of two weekly strength and plyometric training sessions and two weekly 30 min runs (70% VO 2 max). Participants were assessed for body fat, VO2 max, muscle torque, three repetition maximum barbell squat and countermovement jump height before and after the programme. Resistance and running intensities were progressed after 3 weeks. Participants in both groups significantly improved muscle torque (WBC: 277.1 ± 63.2 Nm vs. 318.1 ± 83.4 Nm, p < 0.01, d = 0.56; CON: 244.6 ± 50.6 Nm vs. 268.0 ± 71.8 Nm, p = 0.05, d = 0.38) and barbell squat (WBC: 86.4 ± 19.5 kg vs. 98.9 ± 15.2 kg, p = 0.03, d = 0.69; CON: 91.1 ± 28.7 kg vs. 106.1 ± 30.0 kg, p<0.01, d=0.51) following the 6 week programme. For the CON group, there was also a significant reduction in body fat percentage (p = 0.01) and significant increase in jump height (p = 0.01). There was no significant increase in VO2 max for either group (both p > 0.2). There was no difference between WBC and CON for responses in muscle torque, 3RM barbell squat and body fat, however WBC participants did not increase their jump height (p = 0.23). Repetitive WBC does not appear to blunt adaptations to a concurrent training programme, although there may be an interference effect in the development of explosive power. Sports practitioners can cautiously apply repetitive WBC to support recovery post-exercise without undue concern on athletes' fitness gains or long term performance, particularly throughout training phases focused more on general strength development than explosive power.
Chapter
The cause of injury is often multifactorial and rarely the preserve of one independent factor. Inconsistency in the use of injury terminology, data collection procedures, calculation of exposure, and operational measures of performance by researchers exist. Standardising the criteria used to attribute injury and climbing activity, coupled with more accurate methods of calculating exposure, will overcome such limitations.Injury prevention in sport should therefore be governed by logical principles that provide the athlete, healthcare professional and coaching team with direction. In the sport of climbing, athletes need to be physically prepared to fully meet the demands imposed upon them. Athletic development and physical preparation strategies are a cornerstone of climbing performance and injury prevention. The ability of musculoskeletal tissues to adapt its material, morphological and physiological properties provide a performance advantage. Although there is a paucity of empirical research evidence in climbing populations, the use of injury surveillance, work load monitoring protocols, and physical preparation strategies may facilitate better future injury prevention planning.KeywordsWorkload monitoringInjury surveillanceAthletic developmentPhysical preparation
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This article serves to highlight the potential role of Movement Therapy for Sports (MTS®) in addressing significant gaps in current athletic training methods. Movement Therapy for Sports is a training system, developed by the author, which, building on dance/movement therapy principles, identifies, analyses, and offers solutions for overcoming numerous physical, mental, and emotional barriers that impede effective movement. Engagement with MTS® is hypothesized to offer elite athletes in particular a means of transforming attitudes and improving sports performance.
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Over the past several decades, periodization has been widely accepted as the gold standard of training theory. Within the literature, there are numerous definitions for periodization, which makes it difficult to study. When examining the proposed definitions and related studies on periodization, problems arise in the following domains: (1) periodization has been proposed to serve as the macro-management of the training process concerning the annual plan, yet research on long-term effects is scarce; (2) periodization and programming are being used interchangeably in research; and (3) training is not periodized alongside other stressors such as sport (i.e., only resistance training is being performed without the inclusion of sport). Overall, the state of the literature suggests that the inability to define periodization makes the statement of its superiority difficult to experimentally test. This paper discusses the proposed definitions of periodization and the study designs which have been employed to examine the concept.
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Martinez, GJ and Abel, MG. Effect of a law enforcement academy training program on validated fitness outcomes of cadets. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The purpose of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of a law enforcement training program on physical fitness outcomes in police cadets. A convenience sample of 138 male and 8 female police cadets participated in a 23-week law enforcement training academy with validated fitness assessments conducted at entrance, midpoint, and exit from the academy. Demographic, anthropometric, and fitness data (i.e., 1.5-mile run, 1 repetition maximum bench press, sit-up repetitions, push-up repetitions, and 300-m run) were retrospectively collected. Analysis of variance was used to identify the influence of training on fitness outcomes over time and between cadet subgroup stratifications. Statistical significance for this study was set at p ≤ 0.05. All cadet subgroups (specialty-stratified and sex-stratified cohorts) exceeded the validated fitness standards on academy entrance and exit (p ≤ 0.01). The entire cohort significantly improved all fitness outcomes throughout the training program. Furthermore, improvements in all fitness outcomes were significantly greater from entrance to midpoint (4.4-35.7%, p ≤ 0.001) vs. midpoint to exit (1.2-15.4%, p < 0.05). Specifically, there were greater relative improvements in push-ups and sit-ups (57.5 and 28.7%, respectively; p < 0.001) compared with bench press (13.8%, p < 0.001), 300-m run (5.8%, p < 0.001), and 1.5-mile run (12.1%, p < 0.001). Regarding female cadets, the average relative improvement in fitness outcomes from entrance to exit assessments was superior compared to male counterparts for all fitness tests except sit-ups. Moreover, the specialty cadets produced lower 1.5-mile run times than nonspecialty cadets throughout the academy. Overall, the academy improved occupationally relevant fitness outcomes, with greater improvements occurring earlier in the academy.
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RESUMO: Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo apresentar através de uma revisão literária como o treinamento físico impacta no sistema imunológico dos jogadores de basquetebol competitivos e, discutir a importância do gerenciamento adequado das cargas durante o treinamento, para preservar o estado de saúde dos atletas e melhorar o seu desempenho. A metodologia empregada consistiu na consulta em base de dados do Google Acadêmico, PubMed, e Scielo, sendo selecionados 29 artigos sobre sistema imunológico e exercício, envolvendo basquetebolistas e as cargas de treinamento, 08 livros, e 02 trabalhos de conclusão de curso. O sistema imunológico é uma entidade de proteção orgânica adaptável que no esforço físico é modulada pelo eixo imunoneuroendócrino. Assim, as cargas crônicas que são aplicadas, se extrapolarem a tolerância orgânica e\ou se houver recuperação insuficiente, podem provocar imunossupressão que induziria ao risco de infecções. O condicionamento físico deve estar atrelado a um equilíbrio na saúde global pela busca no rendimento atlético, controlando as cargas psicofisiológicas impostas. A vulnerabilidade imunológica pode ser reduzida educando os atletas a desenvolverem uma imunocompetência. Uma estratégia pedagógica para soluções mais assertivas no controle dos estímulos de treinamento e os seus efeitos multifatoriais na função imune seria adotar uma visão holística. Palavras-chave: Basquetebol, Treinamento Físico, Sistema Imunológico, Fisiologia do Exercício.
Chapter
While injuries to track and field throwing athletes are less common, these athletes are susceptible to injuries throughout the entire body. As such, it is important to understand the biomechanics, common injuries, and preventative measures to ensure career longevity and optimal throwing performance.
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To compare the physiological and performance adaptations between periodized and nonperiodized resistance training in women collegiate tennis athletes. Thirty women (19 +/- 1 yr) were assigned to either a periodized resistance training group (P), nonperiodized training group (NV), or a control group (C). Assessments for body composition, anaerobic power, VO2(max), speed, agility, maximal strength, jump height, tennis-service velocity, and resting serum hormonal concentrations were performed before and after 4, 6, and 9 months of resistance training performed 2-3 d.wk (-1). Nine months of resistance training resulted in significant increases in fat-free mass; anaerobic power; grip strength; jump height; one-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press, bench press, and shoulder press; serve, forehand, and backhand ball velocities; and resting serum insulin-like growth factor-1, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations. Percent body fat and VO2(max) decreased significantly in the P and NV groups after training. During the first 6 months, periodized resistance training elicited significantly greater increases in 1-RM leg press (9 +/- 2 vs 4.5 +/- 2%), bench press (22 +/- 5 vs 11 +/- 8%), and shoulder press (24 +/- 7 vs 18 +/- 6%) than the NV group. The absolute 1-RM leg press and shoulder press values in the P group were greater than the NV group after 9 months. Periodized resistance training also resulted in significantly greater improvements in jump height (50 +/- 9 vs 37 +/- 7%) and serve (29 +/- 5 vs 16 +/- 4%), forehand (22 +/- 3 vs 17 +/- 3%), and backhand ball velocities (36 +/- 4 vs 14 +/- 4%) as compared with nonperiodized training after 9 months. These data demonstrated that periodization of resistance training over 9 months was superior for enhancing strength and motor performance in collegiate women tennis players.
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In brief: Seventeen male collegiate swimmers were studied before, during, and after 14 days of reduced training (tapering). Maximal arm power was measured using a bio- kinetic swim bench and during a tethered (power) swim test, and each swimmer also swam 200 yards (182.9 meters) at an evenly paced velocity corresponding to 90% of his best performance of the season. Tapering had no influence on postexercise acid-base balance, but there was a significant increase (p <.05) in power output on both the biokinetic swim bench and the power swim test. Performance times improved an average of 3.1%. The improvements are in part due to significant gains in muscular power.
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The concept of periodization is important for strength and conditioning professionals. This roundtable covers several aspects of periodization strategies.
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summary: The intricacies of team sports competition pose unique challenges for metabolic conditioning. The unpredictability and intermittent nature of competitive matches leads to great variability in the order, duration, and intensity of the various modes of locomotion and game-related activities players are required to perform. This article describes novel sport-specific solutions to metabolic conditioning for team sports players. The practicalities of implementing these game-related approaches are examined. (C) 2007 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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Elite and nonelite junior weightlifters (nonelite: n = 14, X +/- SE, age = 17.2 +/- 0.4 years; elite: n = 8, age = 18.4 +/- 0.4 years) performed identical training programs for 4 weeks. Pre-and postexercise serum samples were collected before and after 1 week of high-volume training and after 3 weeks of normal-volume training. The percent change (%D) in preexercise testosterone/cortisol exhibited different correlations (p <0.05), with %D weightlifting performance for each training phase and each group (high volume nonelite: r =-0.70; high volume elite: r = 0.00; normal volume nonelite: r = 0.51; normal volume elite: r = 0.92). Correlations for %D testosterone or cortisol and weightlifting performance exhibited no discernible pattern. These data indicate that preexercise testosterone/cortisol of these weightlifters reflect the short-term training volumes and is correlated to changes in competitive weightlifting performances. Furthermore, based on hormonal profiles and weightlifting performances, elite weightlifters appeared to better tolerate high-volume training than nonelite weightlifters. (C) 2000 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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summary: Training variation and periodization is widely acknowledged as crucial to optimizing training responses. Applying periodized planning to team sports poses unique challenges due to the variety of training goals, volume of concurrent training and practices, and extended season of competition. Practical suggestions are offered in this article to address these considerations and apply periodization in training design for different phases of physical preparation for team sports athletes. (C) 2006 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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Competitive swimmers progressively reduce training volume or "taper" prior to an important competition in an effort to improve performance capabilities. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of taper upon factors associated with swim performance. Twelve intercollegiate swimmers were tested before and after taper in preparation for their season-ending meet. Power during a tethered sprint swim increased significantly (P < 0.05) by approximately 5% with taper. No significant changes occurred in distance per stroke, oxygen consumption, and post-exercise blood lactate level during a 182.9-m submaximal swim with taper. Five swimmers were additionally tested after shaving exposed body hair upon completion of taper. Swim power did not increase further with hair removal. In contrast, shaving significantly increased distance per stroke (P < 0.05) by approximately 5%. These data indicate that reduced training specifically improves swim power; however, removing exposed body hair after taper may additionally enhance performance capabilities by increasing distance per stroke.
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The present investigation compared the effects of three selected mesocycle-length weight training programs using partially equated volumes on upper and 10wer body strength. Ninety-two previously weight-trained males were tested at five intervals (T1 through T5) on free- weight bench press and parallel back squat strength before, during, and after 16 weeks of training. Groups 1 and 2 trained with programs consisting of 5×10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM and 6×8-RM at 83.3% of 1-RM, respectively, while keeping the amount of sets, repetitions, and training resistance (relative intensity) constant. Group 3 trained with a periodization program involving 4 weeks of 5×10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 6×8-RM with 83.3% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 3×6-RM with 87.6% of 1-RM, and 4 weeks of 3×4-RM with 92.4% of 1-RM. Group 4 served as a non-weight-training control group. A 4×5 (Group × Test) MANOVA with repeated measures on test revealed that pretest normalized bench press and squat strength values were statistically equal when the study began. For the bench press at T2, results revealed that Groups 1,2, and 3 were significantly different from Group 4 but not from each other. At T3, T4, and T5, Group 3 demonstrated significantly different strength levels in the bench press from Groups 1,2, and 4. Groups 1 and 2 were not significantly different from Group 4. For the squat exercise at T2, T3, and T4, Groups 2 and 3 were significantly different from Groups 1 and 2 but not from each other. At T5, Group 3 was significantly different from Groups 1, 2, and 4. Group 2 was significantly different from Groups 1 and 4, and Group 1 was only significantly different from Group 4. It was concluded that a mesocycle-length weight training program incorporating periodization is superior in eliciting upper. and 10wer body strength gains when compared to programs with partially equated volumes.
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summary: The concept of periodization is important for strength and conditioning professionals. This roundtable covers several aspects of periodization strategies.
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As is the case with plays comprising a game plan or assets comprising a portfolio, a periodized training program is more than the sum of its parts. Indeed, short-yardage plays can set up long-yardage plays; high-risk investments can improve overall risk/return; and nonspecific training methods can enhance the effects of specific ones. The key is to establish a playbook of fundamentally sound tactics and then skillfully combine them into appropriate strategies. Although relatively simple plans may be effective for novices, more sophisticated training and recovery methods are applicable in intermediate or advanced situations. The practical challenge is to direct adaptation toward specific targets by prescribing a band-width of stimuli appropriate for the athlete's sport and developmental status.
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The purpose of this study was to determine if 3 weeks of high relative intensity (percent one repetition maximum [1RM]) free-weight resistance training using the parallel barbell squat results in overtraining and to determine what types of performance would be affected. Six weight-trained males (X̄ ± SD; age = 27.5 ± 5.4 year) trained 2 d·wk-1 for 4 weeks with a normal protocol (Monday, 3 X 10 repetition maximum [RM]; Thursday, 3 X 5 RM), followed by 3 weeks of high-intensity training 3 d·wk-1 (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) using 2 X 1 95% 1RM and 3 X 1 90% 1RM. A time-series study design was utilized, with each subject serving as his own control (pretest [Pre] - test 1 = normal training; tests 1-4 = high-intensity training; test 4 - posttest [Post] = recovery). One repetition maximum increased (p < 0.05) during normal training but did not change during high-intensity or recovery training (Pre = 139.5 ± 29.9 kg; test 1 = 154.6 ± 27.7 kg; test 2 = 160.3 ± 26.9 kg; test 3 = 163.7 ± 27.9 kg; test 4 = 161.0 ± 27.2 kg; Post = 161.7 ± 33.3 kg). Muscular and joint pain and soreness were not evident according to self-report training questionnaires. Also during the high-intensity phase, sprint times for 9.1 m increased (test 1 = 1.75 ± 0.12 seconds; test 4 = 1.86 ± 0.12 seconds) and peak isokinetic squat force at 0.20 m·s-1 decreased (test 1 = 2,473.2 ± 685.6 N; test 4 = 2,193.3 ± 534.5 N). In general, no changes were observed for body composition, flexibility, lower body reaction time, vertical jumps, 36.6-m sprints, lateral agility, isokinetic squat force at 0.82 and 1.43 m·s-1, or isokinetic back extension at 0.17 and 1.05 rad·s-1. Although use of single repetitions at a high relative intensity is often used to increase 1RM, this was not observed in the present study. While 1RM performance did not decrease, other performance measures were adversely affected, suggestive of an excessive use of high relative intensity resistance exercise.
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Information concerning frequency of training for resistance trained individuals is relatively unknown. Problems in designing training programs for student athletes are frequently encountered due to differential time constraints placed upon them. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-selection of resistance training frequency on muscular strength. Sixty-one members of an NCAA. Division IAA football team participated in a 10-week winter conditioning program. Each subject was given the option of choosing from a three-day (3d, n=12) four-day (4d, n=15), five-day (5d, n=23) or six-day (6d, n=ll) per week resistance training program. In addition to the strength training, the subjects participated in a football conditioning program twice a week. Testing was conducted before and after the 10-week training program. Field tests common to football off-season conditioning programs were utilized to evaluate strength (1 RM squat and bench press), speed (40-yard sprint), endurance (two-mile run), vertical jump and anthropometric measurements. Posttests revealed significant changes for the 3d group in decreased time for the two-mile run (2mi), decreased sum of skinfolds (SF) and an increased chest girth (CH). The 4d program revealed significant decreases in body weight, 2mi, SF, and increases in 1 RM squat, CH and thigh girths (TH). The 5d group significantly decreased 2mi, and SF, and increased both 1 RM squat and bench press and CH and TH. The 6d group revealed significant decreases in 2mi, and SF, and an increase in 1 RM squat. Of the total variables measured, 4d and 5d frequency groups revealed the greatest amount of improvement. In conclusion, when resistance training frequency is self-selected by athletes (i.e., college football players) it appears that four or five days per week are the optimal choices for developing strength, endurance and muscle mass. (C) 1990 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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Variation or periodization of training is an important concept in designing weight-training programs. To date, the majority of studies examining periodization of weight training have used a traditional strength/power training model of decreasing training volume and increasing training intensity as the program progresses. The majority of these studies have used males as subjects and do support the contention that periodized programs can result in greater changes in strength, motor performance, total body weight, lean body mass, and percent body fat than nonperiodized programs. However, studies are needed examining why periodized training is more beneficial than nonperiodized training. Studies are also needed examining the response of females, children, and seniors to periodized weight-training programs and the response to periodized models other than the traditional strength/power training model. (C) 1999 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
The present investigation compared the effects of three selected mesocycle-length weight training programs using partially equated volumes on upper and lower body strength. Ninety-two previously weight-trained males were tested at five intervals (T1 through T5) on freeweight bench press and parallel back squat strength before, during, and after 16 weeks of training. Groups 1 and 2 trained with programs consisting of 5x10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM and 6x8-RM at 83.3% of 1-RM, respectively, while keeping the amount of sets, repetitions, and training resistance (relative intensity) constant. Group 3 trained with a periodization program involving 4 weeks of 5x10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 6x8-RM with 83.3% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 3x6-RM with 87.6% of 1-RM, and 4 weeks of 3x4-RM with 92.4% of 1-RM. Group 4 served as a non-weight-training control group. A 4x5 (Group x Test) MANOVA with repeated measures on test revealed that pretest normalized bench press and squat strength values were statistically equal when the study began. For the bench press at T2, results revealed that Groups 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different from Group 4 but not from each other. At T3, T4, and T5, Group 3 demonstrated significantly different strength levels in the bench press from Groups 1, 2, and 4. Groups 1 and 2 were not significantly different from Group 4. For the squat exercise at T2, T3, and T4, Groups 2 and 3 were significantly different from Groups 1 and 2 but not from each other. At T5, Group 3 was significantly different from Groups 1, 2, and 4. Group 2 was significantly different from Groups 1 and 4, and Group 1 was only significantly different from Group 4. It was concluded that a mesocycle-length weight training program. incorporating periodization is superior in eliciting upper and lower body strength gains when compared to programs with partially equated volumes. (C) 1993 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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MUAY THAI WAS DEVELOPED IN THAILAND AND IS A COMBAT SPORT IN WHICH CONTESTANTS CAN KICK, PUNCH, KNEE, ELBOW, AND GRAPPLE WITH THEIR OPPONENTS. LIKE MOST MARTIAL ARTS, MUAY THAI ATHLETES TEND TO PLAY THEMSELVES FIT, OFTEN BECAUSE THIS HAS LONG BEEN THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH BUT ALSO BECAUSE OF THE MANY MYTHS THAT SURROUND GYM-BASED TRAINING EXERCISES. THIS PAPER THEREFORE AIMS TO JUSTIFY THE INCLUSION OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING WITHIN MUAY THAI AS AN INTERVENTION TO FURTHER ENHANCE ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE. IN ADDITION, AN EVIDENCE-BASED PROGRAM IS SUGGESTED.
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THE PRINCIPLES OF PERIODIZATION ARE COMMONLY USED IN THE DESIGN OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING REGIMENS FOR ATHLETES. RESEARCHERS EXAMINING ITS EFFECTIVENESS HAVE FOUND IT TO BE MORE EFFECTIVE THAN NONPERIODIZED APPROACHES TO TRAINING. HOWEVER, RESEARCH ON PERIODIZATION IS SURPRISINGLY LIMITED IN SCOPE AND THIS MAKES ITS APPLICATION CHALLENGING. BY BROADENING SUBJECT SELECTION, INCORPORATING LONGER TERM STUDIES, INCORPORATING MULTIPLE MODES OF EXERCISE, AND BY CONDUCTING OBSERVATIONAL AND SURVEY STUDIES, THE RESEARCH CAN BE MADE MORE APPLICABLE TO REAL-WORLD COACHING.
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High-level human performance requires years of diligent training. Coaches and athletes should not leave performance adaptations to chance. Proper planning and organization of training results in the desired performance outcomes, and empirical and scientific evidence is in support of modeling training after the fitness-fatigue theory. From the design of the yearly training structure to each individual training session, an athlete's training plan should account for fitness and fatigue after-effects in an effort to maximize the effects of training.
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Incorporating the 4 main phases (hypertrophy, strength, power, and peaking) of periodization during the in-season may result in regaining losses in muscle mass and increase strength and power as the season continues. Trappe et al. (7) reported that it required less time to maintain an achieved strength level than it took to initially achieve it (7). In consideration of this, overall volume may be reduced by maintaining volume for core exercises and reducing, or eliminating, the volume for assist exercises. Primary reasons overall volume is decreased is because available training time is greatly reduced, as well as the physical stress of practices and games. Microcycles for core exercises may progress from high volume/low intensity to low volume/very high intensity. This is in contrast to a program that utilizes low-volume/high-intensity exercise throughout the in-season.
Article
This study compares the effects of 3 weight-training programs on the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat (SQ). Subjects were 21 college-age men. The criteria for subject inclusion was initial 1RM > 110 kg and > 1.3 x body mass and the ability to complete > 80% of the programmed repetitions. The groups were Group 1 (n = 5) 5 x 6RM, Group 2 (n = 9) stepwise periodized model, and Group 3 (n = 7) overreaching periodized model. Groups 1 and 2 were equalized on programmed repetitions (720 and 732), and Group 3 was programmed at 18 and 19.4% fewer repetitions (590). Actual repetitions achieved for Groups 1-3 were 619, 629, and 529, respectively. The 1RM squat was measured before and after 12 weeks. Within-group analysis showed that only Groups 2 and 3 increased significantly (p <0.05) in the 1RM (kg +/- SD): Group 1, 141.4 +/- 28.1-155.4 +/- 23.7; Group 2, 124.8 +/- 12.0-143.4 +/- 12.1; and Group 3, 132.8 +/- 17.0-153.3 +/- 19.3. Derived variables were squat (SQ) x body mass-1 and SQ gain score x Sinclair coefficient (the method of obviating differences in body mass). Percent differences between groups for Groups 1 and 2 were SQ = 33, SQ x body mass = 53, and Sinclair formula = 33. For Group 3, SQ = 46, SQ x body mass = 67, and Sinclair formula = 109. These data indicate that periodized models increased the 1RM squat to a greater extent than a constant repetition scheme, even when the repetitions were equalized (Group 1 vs. Group 2) or when the repetitions were substantially fewer (Group 1 vs. Group 3). (C) 2000 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
There is not a strong research basis for current views of the importance of individual training variables in strength training protocol design. This study compared 1 day versus 3 days of resistance training per week in recreational weight trainers with the training volume held constant between the treatments. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 1 day per week of 3 sets to failure (1DAY) or 3 days per week of 1 set to failure (3DAY). Relative intensity (percent of initial 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) was varied throughout the study in both groups by using a periodized repetition range of 3-10. Volume (repetitions x mass) did not differ (p <= 0.05) between the groups over the 12 weeks. The 1RMs of various upper-and lower-body exercises were assessed at baseline and at weeks 6 and 12. The 1RMs increased (p <= 0.05) significantly for the combined groups over time. The 1DAY group achieved ~62% of the 1RM increases observed in the 3DAY group in both upper-body and lower-body lifts. Larger increases in lean body mass were apparent in the 3DAY group. The findings suggest that a higher frequency of resistance training, even when volume is held constant, produces superior gains in 1RM. However, training only 1 day per week was an effective means of increasing strength, even in experienced recreational weight trainers. From a dose-response perspective, with the total volume of exercise held constant, spreading the training frequency to 3 doses per week produced superior results. (C) 2000 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
summary: The concept of periodization is important for strength and conditioning professionals. This roundtable covers several aspects of periodization strategies. (C) 2004 National Strength and Conditioning Association