The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and prostate cancer

Strang Cancer Prevention Center, New York, NY, USA.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (Impact Factor: 3.98). 12/1995; 28(1):97-104. DOI: 10.1097/00005768-199601000-00020


We conducted a prospective study to assess the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and prostate cancer. The subjects were men, aged 20-80 yr, who received a preventive medical exam at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, TX, during 1970-1989 and provided information on cardiorespiratory fitness and prostate cancer (N = 12,975). Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed at a baseline examination between 1971 and 1989 using a maximal exercise treadmill test. Questionnaires were mailed to the men in 1982 and 1990 to ascertain incident cases of prostate cancer. Ninety-four cases of incident prostate cancer were identified. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels were inversely associated with the probability of development of incident prostate cancer controlling for age, body mass index, and smoking habits; adjusted estimates of the incidence rate ratio declined from 1.1 (95% CI 0.63-1.77) to 0.73 (95% CI 0.41-1.29) to 0.26 (95% CI 0.10-0.63) across increasing quartiles of fitness (P for trend <0.004). This protective effect was limited to participants <60 yr old. Also, an inverse association was observed between physical activity and prostate cancer. Compared with expending <1000 kcal·wk-1, participants who expended 1000-<2000, 2000-<3000, or ≥3000 kcal·wk-1 had adjusted incidence rate ratios of 0.37 (95% CI 0.17-0.79), 0.62 (95% CI 0.27-1.41), and 0.37 (95% CI 0.14-0.98), respectively. The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels may protect against the development of incident prostate cancer.

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    • "Previous analyses from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) have examined the relationship between CRF and cancer mortality in a North American population. These studies showed inverse relationships between CRF and cancer incidence or mortality [9, 12, 13, 19]; smoking related cancer [14]; and digestive [17], breast [16], prostate [10, 15], and lung cancer [18]. In addition, Laukkanen et al. also reported an inverse relationship between CRF and cancer mortality among Finnish men [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of this study is to investigate the independent and joint effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body mass index (BMI) on cancer mortality in a low body mass index population. Methods We evaluated CRF and BMI in relation to cancer mortality in 8760 Japanese men. The median BMI was 22.6 kg/m2 (IQR: 21.0-24.3). The mean follow-up period was more than 20 years. Hazard ratios and 95% CI were obtained using a Cox proportional hazards model while adjusting for several confounding factors. Results Using the 2nd tertile of BMI (21.6-23.6 kg/m2) as reference, hazard ratios and 95% CI for the lowest tertile of BMI (18.5-21.5) were 1.26 (0.87–1.81), and 0.92 (0.64–1.34) for the highest tertile (23.7-37.4). Using the lowest tertile of CRF as reference, hazard ratios and 95% CIs for 2nd and highest tertiles of CRF were 0.78 (0.55–1.10) and 0.59 (0.40–0.88). We further calculated hazard ratios according to groups of men cross-tabulated by tertiles of CRF and BMI. Among men in the second tertile of BMI, those belonging to the lowest CRF tertile had a 53% lower risk of cancer mortality compared to those in the lowest CRF tertile (hazard ratio: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23-0.97). Among those in the highest BMI tertile, the corresponding hazard ratio was 0.54 (0.25-1.17). Conclusion These results suggest that high CRF is associated with lower cancer mortality in a Japanese population of men with low average BMI.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Public Health
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    • "Kohl et al . (1988) and Oliveria, Kohl, Trichopoulos, and Blair (1996) reported adequate levels of validity for this questionnaire . "
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    ABSTRACT: Self‐Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000) suggests that feeling autonomous towards a given behavior is important for mental well‐being. Despite evidence indicating that regular exercise can contribute to well‐being, little is known about the mechanisms involved. Few studies have examined the role of autonomy in exercise on improvement in well‐being. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the link between autonomy for exercise and well‐being in a sample of 769 non‐academic university employees. Questionnaires measuring exercise motivation, life satisfaction, self‐esteem, job‐related affect, physical self‐worth, and physical satisfaction were completed. Multiple regression analyses showed that autonomous motivation significantly predicted most of the well‐being indicators. Hence, health promoters designing interventions to enhance well‐being through exercise could attempt to increase feelings of autonomy in their participants.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
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    • "Probable risk factors for the disease include dietary fat intake, especially from red meat and dairy products; increasing age; and family history [3] [4] [5] [6]. Other potential risk factors more recently implicated are physical inactivity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. Causal processes by which these risk factors may influence prostate cancer are not fully understood. "
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    ABSTRACT: A number of risk factors have been implicated for prostate cancer, with dietary fat intake the most commonly accepted modifiable risk. To assess the relationship between health risk indicators (e.g., cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar, and percent body fat), which are related to dietary fat intake, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) scores. Relationships between demographics and select behaviors (e.g., cigarette smoking and physical activity) with PSA scores are also considered. The setting was the 1999 Huntsman World Senior Games in St. George, Utah. Subjects' analysis is based on 536 men aged 50 years and older completing a questionnaire and receiving free screening, including a PSA. Frequency distributions, multiple regression techniques, and the Spearman correlation coefficients. A positive relationship was observed between increasing age groups and mean PSA scores (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square: 53.8, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, none of the personal risk factor indicators (i.e., cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar, and percent body fat) were related to PSA scores. Other factors not related to PSA scores after adjusting for age were race, marital status, education, history of chronic disease, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity. Because risk indicators such as cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar, and percent body fat are associated with dietary fat intake, their failure to be related with PSA scores makes it further unclear how this commonly accepted modifiable risk factor for prostate cancer may influence the disease.
    Full-text · Article · May 2002 · Urologic Oncology
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