Article

Comparative Effects of Deep Versus Shallow Squat and Leg-Press Training on Vertical Jumping Ability and Related Factors

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Abstract

Young, previously untrained healthy men (n = 10) and women (n = 8) completed 9 weeks of periodized, machine-based squat training to determine if manipulating range of motion would have a differential effect on vertical jumping ability and related measures. Subjects were pretested and then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (a) deep squats (n = 6), (b) shallow squats (n = 6), and (c) controls (n = 6). Training took place 3 days per week. Pre-and posttesting included standing (RVJ) and depth (DVJ) vertical jumps for distance; machine deep and shallow squats for 1RM (1 repetition maximum) relative strength; and velocity-controlled squats at 0.51 m[middle dot]s-1 for relative peak force and at 1.43 m[middle dot]s-1 for relative peak power. Based on ANCOVA posttest results, the training protocols were ineffective in eliciting improved performance (p > 0.05) in VJ, slow-velocity squatting force, and moderately fast squatting power when performance was compared with the performance of control subjects. Conversely, the group training with deep squats was the only group to perform significantly (p <0.05) better than controls for 1RM shallow squats and significantly (p <0.05) better than both shallow-squat and control groups for 1RM deep squats. Furthermore, the coefficient of transfer for deep squats to both RVJ (2.32) and DVJ (1.68) was substantially greater than for shallow squats (0.31 and 0.11, respectively). It was concluded that deep-squat training appears to elicit the best improvement for both shallow-and deep-squatting performance. However, 9 weeks of machine-based, periodized squat training, regardless of depth, does not appear to appreciably enhance slow-velocity squatting force, moderately fast squatting power, or vertical jumping distance in previously untrained men and women. (C) 2000 National Strength and Conditioning Association

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... These inconsistencies typically manifest in three ways. Firstly, there are often conflicting findings regarding whether training with a given exercise can actually improve CMJ jump height or not Weiss et al. 2000). Secondly, even when several studies find an exercise has significantly improved CMJ jump height the magnitude of enhancement can vary quite dramatically across studies (Lyttle et al. 1996;Wilson et al 1993). ...
... Some authors have questioned the use of heavy weight squat training as a means of enhancing CMJ jump height (Baker 1996;Stone et al. 2003;Weiss et al. 2000). ...
... thus with a greater rate of force development and power. found statistically significant post-training improvements in jump height (Adams et al. 1992;Wilson et al. 1993;Wilson et al. 1996), two found no notable changes (Weiss et al. 1999;Weiss et al. 2000) while another study found a statistically significant improvement for one training group (fast squat) but not for another (slow squat) [Morrisey et al. 1998]. In addition, the studies that found a posttraining improvement in CMJ jump height report substantially different percentage improvements ranging from 5-21%. ...
Article
Background: Countermovement jump (CMJ) ability is an important contributor to successful performance in many sports. While the drop jump, squat, jump squat and power clean training exercises are each purported to enhance maximal CMJ jump height, there are generally inconsistent findings regarding their effectiveness at doing so. The resounding implication of this is that a coach cannot be sure as to which training exercise will be most effective at enhancing their athletes’ CMJ jump height. In an attempt to address this issue a biomechanical diagnostic and prescriptive pathway has been proposed that may allow the pre-training identification of the most effective exercise to enhance a given group’s, subgroup’s or individual’s CMJ jump height. The current study aims to test the efficacy of the proposed pathway with a single acute research study and two training studies. Methods: All three studies required a kinetic and kinematic analysis of the CMJ and each training exercise under examination (study 1: drop jump, jump squat, squat and power clean; study 2: low amplitude drop jump; study 3: larger amplitude drop jump). From ground reaction force and motion data, kinetic, kinematic and coordination parameters were calculated at the whole body, hip, knee and ankle. Correlation analysis was used to identify CMJ performance related factors (PRFs) while tests of statistical difference were used to identify the acute training stress experienced by CMJ PRFs. Findings: Study one indicated that the proposed pathway may provide a means by which to identify the most effective exercise to enhance a given group’s, subgroup’s or individual’s CMJ jump height. However, these findings were based on the results (statistical relationships and differences) of an acute study, which required verification with training studies. The combined results of study two and study three (drop jump training intervention studies) did not support the efficacy of the proposed pathway. This was due to the fact that (a) CMJ PRFs were not necessarily true CMJ performance determining factors, and (b) the acute pretraining stress experienced by a given CMJ PRF did not necessarily give an insight into its subsequent post-training change. Conclusion: Based on findings ‘a’ and ‘b’ (above) the use of the proposed pathway to identify the most effective exercise to enhance a given group’s, subgroup’s or individual’s CMJ jump height cannot be supported.
... Initial work on the topic was carried out using isometric exercise, with results consistently showing strength increases most apparent within several degrees adjacent to the angle of training. [3][4][5] Subsequently, Weiss et al. 6 showed that these findings translated to dynamic exercise as well. In the Weiss et al. 6 study, training with quarter squats resulted in higher increases in quarter squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength while training using half squats resulted in greater 1RM improvements in the half squat exercise. ...
... [3][4][5] Subsequently, Weiss et al. 6 showed that these findings translated to dynamic exercise as well. In the Weiss et al. 6 study, training with quarter squats resulted in higher increases in quarter squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength while training using half squats resulted in greater 1RM improvements in the half squat exercise. Similar results were found by Rhea et al., 7 who observed that increases in 1RM squat pursuant to performing 16 weeks of quarter squats, half squats or full squats were greatest at the ROM used in training. ...
... Training was carried out using at angular velocities varying between 60° and 180° s -1 in a periodized fashion across the 15-week study period. Training volume was equalized based on the time under tension (TUT) by increasing the number of sets (2-7) and/or repetitions (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15) for the partial condition. Results showed that the changes in muscle volume of the vastus lateralis were similar between conditions (7.6% vs. 6.7% for the full and partial ROM conditions, respectively). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature as to the effects of performing exercise with a full vs. partial range of motion (ROM) during dynamic, longitudinal resistance training (RT) programs on changes in muscle hypertrophy. Based on the available evidence, we aimed to draw evidence-based recommendations for RT prescription. Six studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria: four of these studies involved RT for the lower limbs while the other two focused on the upper extremities. The total combined sample of the studies was n = 135, which comprised 127 men and 8 women. The methodological quality of all included studies was deemed to be “excellent” based on the modified PEDro scale. When assessing the current body of literature, it can be inferred that performing RT through a full ROM confers beneficial effects on hypertrophy of the lower body musculature vs. training with a partial ROM. Alternatively, research on the effects of ROM for the upper limbs is limited and conflicting, precluding the ability to draw strong practical inferences. No study to date has investigated how ROM influences muscle growth of the trunk musculature. Finally, some evidence indicates that the response to variations in ROM may be muscle-specific; however, this hypothesis also warrants further study.
... Conversely, other studies have shown machine training to be inferior to free weights for performance. In a study utilizing periodized, machine-based squat training [10], researchers reported the training to be ineffective in eliciting improved functional performance in untrained men and women when compared with control subjects. More recently, Wirth et al. [11] studied the effects of squat and leg-press training on jump performance and strength measurements in athletes. ...
... Early increases in strength in untrained individuals are mostly attributable to neural factors, with the contribution of skeletal muscle hypertrophy becoming more important as training continues [12]. Thus, an important consideration when trying to compare these studies is the training status of the subject population [13], which may explain some, but not all, of the mixed results previously reported [8,10,11]. ...
... It should be noted that others have reported machine-based squat training to be ineffective in eliciting improved jumping performance when compared with subjects completing no training [10]. Hence, more research is needed to explore the factors determining the transfer of machine training to performance outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine differences between a free-weight squat (FWS) and machine squat (MS) during an initial resistance training phase for augmentation of performance tests in recreationally active women. Twenty-seven women (22.7 ± 3.5 years) were block-randomized to three groups: FWS, MS, or control (CON) and completed pre- and post-testing sessions consisting of the squat one-repetition maximum (1-RM), vertical jump, pro-agility test, zig-zag change-of-direction (COD) test, and 30-meter sprint. Participants trained two sessions per week for six weeks by performing jumping, sprinting, and COD drills followed by FWS, MS, or no squats (CON). Peak jump power increased for CON (p = 0.03) and MS (p < 0.01) groups. Change in peak jump power was greater for the MS group compared with the FWS group (p = 0.05). Average jump power increased for the MS group (p < 0.01). Change in average jump power was greater for the MS group compared with the CON group (p = 0.04). Vertical jump height, pro-agility, 30-meter sprint, and zig-zag COD tests improved over time (p < 0.01), with no difference between groups (p > 0.05). Machine squat training maximized jumping power compared with FWS training and CON. Both resistance training groups and the CON group improved equally in the pro-agility, 30-meter sprint, and zig-zag COD tests. Machine squat training may provide performance-enhancing benefits of equal or superior value to those obtained with free-weight squat training in recreationally active women during an initial training mesocycle. These findings also stress the importance of task-specific training in this population of untrained women, as the control group improved in terms of performance to the same degree as both resistance training groups.
... A direct comparison between training groups, who executed either machine based parallel or quarter squats (joint angles were not reported), was published by Weiss et al. (105). Quarter squats were performed to half of the parallel squat position (;125°). ...
... Therefore, the higher leg extension strength past 120°should lead to higher increases of angle-specific 1RM in quarter back squats compared with strength training in deep squats (108). The study of Weiss et al. (105) was not able to confirm a higher strength increase in angle-specific 1RM following quarter squat training. Strength training to failure was not possible under this condition. ...
... Adaptations of group BSQ¼ were limited to 1RM of their specific range of motion and were not accompanied by any improvements in the deep front and back squat. These results can be confirmed by Weiss et al. (105): The training group, which performed quarter back squats, did not show significant transfer effects of 1RM to parallel back squats after training and demonstrated significant lower dynamic maximal strength values (p # 0.05) than the training group that carried out parallel back squats. ...
Article
It is unclear if increases in one repetition maximum (1-RM) in quarter squats result in higher gains compared to full depth squats in isometric force production and vertical jump performance. The aim of the research projects was to compare the effects of different squat variants on the development of 1-RM and their transfer effects to Countermovement (CMJ) and Squat Jump (SJ) height, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and maximal rate of force development (MRFD). Twenty-three women and 36 men (mean age: 24.11±2.88) were parallelized into three groups based on their CMJ height: deep front squats (FSQ, n=20), deep back squats (BSQ, n=20) and quarter back squats (BSQ¼, n=19). In addition a control group (C, n=16) existed (mean age: 24.38±0.50). Experimental groups trained 2 d·wk for 10 weeks following a strength-power periodization, which produced significant (p≤0.05) gains of the specific squat 1-RM. FSQ and BSQ attained significant (p≤0.05) elevations in SJ and CMJ without any interaction effects between both groups (p≥0.05). BSQ¼ and C did not reveal any significant changes of SJ and CMJ. FSQ and BSQ had significantly higher SJ scores over C (p≤0.05). BSQ did not feature any significant group difference to BSQ¼ (p=0.116) in SJ, whereas FSQ showed a trend towards higher SJ heights over BSQ¼ (p=0.052). FSQ and BSQ presented significantly (p≤0.05) higher CMJ heights over BSQ¼ and C. Post-test in MVC and MRFD demonstrated no significant changes for BSQ. Significant declines in MRFD for FSQ in the right leg (p≤0.05) without any interaction effects for MVC and MRFD between both FSQ and BSQ were found. Training of BSQ¼ resulted in significantly (p≤0.05) lower RFD and MVC values in contrast to FSQ and BSQ. Quarter squat training elicited significant (p≤0.05) transfer losses into the isometric maximal and explosive strength behavior. Our findings therefor contest the concept of superior angle specific transfer effects. Deep front and back squats guarantee performance-enhancing transfer effects of dynamic maximal strength to dynamic speed-strength capacity of hip and knee extensors compared to quarter squats.
... A direct comparison between training groups, who executed either machine based parallel or quarter squats (joint angles were not reported), was published by Weiss et al. (105). Quarter squats were performed to half of the parallel squat position (;125°). ...
... Therefore, the higher leg extension strength past 120°should lead to higher increases of angle-specific 1RM in quarter back squats compared with strength training in deep squats (108). The study of Weiss et al. (105) was not able to confirm a higher strength increase in angle-specific 1RM following quarter squat training. Strength training to failure was not possible under this condition. ...
... Adaptations of group BSQ¼ were limited to 1RM of their specific range of motion and were not accompanied by any improvements in the deep front and back squat. These results can be confirmed by Weiss et al. (105): The training group, which performed quarter back squats, did not show significant transfer effects of 1RM to parallel back squats after training and demonstrated significant lower dynamic maximal strength values (p # 0.05) than the training group that carried out parallel back squats. ...
Article
Es existieren keine Vergleichsstudien über die Entwicklung der Sprungleistung in Squat (SJ) und Countermovement Jump (CMJ) durch unterschiedliche Kniebeugevarianten, die eine Bevorzugung einer bestimmten Beugetiefe rechtfertigen könnten. Aus diesem Grund wurden in zwei Forschungsprojekten an 23 weiblichen und 36 männlichen Sportstudierenden (24,11±2,88 Jahre) die Auswirkungen eines periodisierten Maximalkrafttrainings in der tiefen Frontkniebeuge (Gruppe FKB, n= 20), tiefen Nackenkniebeuge (Gruppe NKB, n= 20) und der viertel Nackenkniebeuge bis 120° Kniegelenkwinkel (Gruppe NKB¼, n= 19) auf die Schnellkraftleistung in SJ und CMJ untersucht. Die Parallelisierung der drei Versuchsgruppen erfolgte auf Basis der Sprunghöhen im CMJ. Zusätzlich wurde eine Kontrollgruppe (K, n= 16) gebildet (Alter: 24,38±0,50 Jahre). Das zehnwöchige periodisierte Krafttraining (2 Tage / Woche) resultierte in signifikanten (p≤0,001) Steigerungen der dynamischen Maximalkraft in der spezifischen Kniebeugevariante der jeweiligen Trainingsgruppe. Gruppe FKB und Gruppe NKB zeigten signifikante und nahezu gleichwertige Zunahmen in den Sprunghöhen von SJ (p≤0,001) und CMJ (p≤0,001), ohne einen Gruppenunterschied zwischen diesen beiden Gruppen aufzuweisen (p= 0.852 und p= 0.626). Für Gruppe NKB¼ und Gruppe K waren keine statistisch signifikanten Veränderungen des Schnellkraftvermögens in SJ und CMJ zu ermitteln. Der Ausgangstest im SJ erbrachte für Gruppe FKB und Gruppe NKB jeweils signifikant höhere Schnellkraftleistungen gegenüber Gruppe K (p= 0,013; p= 0,029). Während in diesem Test für Gruppe NKB kein statistisch bedeutsamer Gruppenunterschied zur Gruppe NKB¼ festzustellen war (p= 0,116), zeigte Gruppe FKB tendenziell höhere Sprungleistungen als Gruppe NKB¼ (p= 0,052). Der Ausgangstest im CMJ war für Gruppe FKB und Gruppe NKB jeweils mit signifikant höheren Sprungleistungen gegenüber Gruppe NKB¼ (p= 0,000) und Gruppe K (p= 0,000) verbunden. Die Ergebnisse der beiden Forschungsprojekte führten zu folgenden, für die Sportpraxis relevanten, Erkenntnissen: 1) Eine winkelspezifische Zunahme der dynamischen Maximalkraft in der viertel NKB erbringt keine leistungsfördernden Übertragungseffekte auf das Schnellkraftverhalten der Bein- und Hüftextensoren in konzentrischer Arbeitsweise (SJ) und im langen Dehnungsverkürzungs-Zyklus (CMJ). 2) Zur Steigerung des Schnellkraftvermögens in SJ und CMJ sind aus funktioneller Sicht tief durchgeführte Front- und Nackenkniebeugen als effektive Trainingsmaßnahmen zu betrachten, da ausschließlich in tiefen Gelenkpositionen die erforderliche Reizapplikation zur positiven Beeinflussung des Beschleunigungsablaufs gewährleistet wird. Diese Übungen sollten als ein grundlegender Bestandteil des allgemeinen Krafttrainings in Sportarten dienen, in denen ein hohes Schnellkraftvermögen der unteren Extremitäten von entscheidender Bedeutung ist. Gefördert durch das Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft (BISp). Aktenzeichen der Forschungsprojekte des BISp: AZ 070509/2007 und AZ 070510/2008
... When properly implemented, either isolated or combined with other drills, DJ has already proved to be efficient to improve the physical performance of youth soccer players with different maturity status (29,30,37,39). However, the carry-over effects of DJ gains to physical performance of young athletes have not yet been described (20)(21)(22)54). ...
... Zatsiorsky and Kraemer's (57) transference coefficient is a valuable tool for assessing meaningful changes in actual performance (eg, vertical jumps, sprinting speed, kicking distance) due to a "nonspecific training stimulus" (eg, DJ). To our knowledge, only 4 studies have analyzed the transference effect coefficient (TEC) of distinct strength-power training strategies on physical performance of athletes and nonathletes (20)(21)(22)54). However, none of the aforementioned studies: (1) determined the TEC of a DJ training program; (2) determined the TEC in youth athletes (ie, aged 10-16 y); and (3) determined the TEC in an assessment battery comprising jump, sprint, agility, endurance, strength, and kicking tests. ...
... Although a within-group analysis was used for the calculation of the TEC, this analysis was employed after verification of the assumption that the training drills (ie, DJ20 and DJ40) were effective (ie, significant), compared with a CG. The TEC is a theoretical method (57), validated in previous studies (20)(21)(22)54), which demonstrated its ability to differentiate the transference effects of different types of training in different types of athletes, including some forms of plyometric drills (eg, vertical and horizontal jumps) in soccer players (21). Similar to the ES norms previously described, to evaluate the TEC, a magnitudebased inference approach is applied, using the ratio between the result gain (ES) in the analyzed physical qualities [eg, CMJ, MB5, COD, 5RM, 2400-m TT, and MKD; also considered as the "nontrained exercises" (57)] and the result gain in the trained exercises (eg, DJ20 RSI , DJ40 RSI ). ...
Article
Purpose: To compare the effects of plyometric drop jump (DJ) training against those induced by regular soccer training and assess the transference effect coefficient (TEC) of DJs ("trained exercises") performed from 20- (DJ20) and 40-cm (DJ40) height boxes with respect to different physical qualities (jumping, linear and change of direction speed, kicking, endurance, and maximal strength) in youth male soccer players. Methods: Participants were randomly divided into a control group (n = 20; age: 13.5 [1.9] y) and a DJ training group (n = 19; age: 13.2 [1.8] y), and trained for 7 weeks. A 2-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with the within-subject factor time (preintervention and postintervention) and between-subject factor group (intervention vs control) was performed. To calculate the TECs between the trained exercises (DJ20 and DJ40) and the physical tests, the ratio between the "result gains" (effect size [ES]) in the analyzed physical qualities and the result gains in the trained exercises were calculated. The TECs were only calculated for variables presenting an ES ≥ 0.2. Results: Significant improvements (ES = 0.21-0.46; P < .05) were observed in the DJ training group, except in linear sprint performance. The control group improved only the maximal strength (ES = 0.28; P < .05). Significant differences were observed in all variables (ES = 0.20-0.55; P < .05) in favor of the DJ training group, except for maximal strength (group × time interaction). Conclusions: A plyometric training scheme based on DJs was able to significantly improve the physical performance of youth male soccer players. Overall, greater TECs were observed for DJ40 (0.58-1.28) than DJ20 (0.55-1.21).
... A direct comparison between training groups, who executed either machine based parallel or quarter squats (joint angles were not reported), was published by Weiss et al. (105). Quarter squats were performed to half of the parallel squat position (;125°). ...
... Therefore, the higher leg extension strength past 120°should lead to higher increases of angle-specific 1RM in quarter back squats compared with strength training in deep squats (108). The study of Weiss et al. (105) was not able to confirm a higher strength increase in angle-specific 1RM following quarter squat training. Strength training to failure was not possible under this condition. ...
... Adaptations of group BSQ¼ were limited to 1RM of their specific range of motion and were not accompanied by any improvements in the deep front and back squat. These results can be confirmed by Weiss et al. (105): The training group, which performed quarter back squats, did not show significant transfer effects of 1RM to parallel back squats after training and demonstrated significant lower dynamic maximal strength values (p # 0.05) than the training group that carried out parallel back squats. ...
Article
Es existieren keine Vergleichsstudien über die Auswirkungen eines periodisierten Maximalkrafttrainings in unterschiedlichen Kniebeugevarianten auf das Einer-Wiederholungsmaximum und das isometrische Explosiv- und Maximalkraftvermögen im 120 Grad Kniegelenkwinkel. Ziel war es, im Rahmen von zehnwöchigen Längsschnittstudien mit 23 weiblichen und 36 männlichen Sportstudierenden (24,11 ± 2,88 Jahre) herauszufinden, ob durch eine Steigerung der dynamischen Maximalkraft in der Viertel-Nackenkniebeuge (120 Grad Kniegelenkwinkel) größere Zugewinne der isometrischen Explosiv- und Maximalkraft in Form eines winkelspezifischen Transfereffektes zu erzielen sind als durch erworbene Maximalkraftzunahmen in der tiefen Front- und Nackenkniebeuge. Die beiden Forschungsprojekte führten zu folgenden, für die Sportpraxis relevanten Erkenntnissen: 1. Ein Krafttraining in der Viertel-Nackenkniebeuge hat hochsignifikante Übertragungsverluste auf das isometrische Explosiv- und Maximalkraftvermögen im 120-Grad-Kniegelenkwinkel zur Folge, was die in der Trainingspraxis angenommene Grundidee von überlegenen winkelspezifischen Transfereffekten widerlegt. 2. Zur effektiven Steigerung der dynamischen Maximalkraft der unteren Extremität ist die Durchführung der tiefen Front- oder Nackenkniebeuge erforderlich, da die tieferen Beugepositionen intensivere Spannungsreize für die Hüft- und Beinextensoren bieten als die geringe Bewegungsamplitude der Viertel-Kniebeuge. Gefördert durch das Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft (BISp). Aktenzeichen der Forschungsprojekte des BISp: AZ 070509/2007 und AZ 070510/2008
... One of the main purposes of our strength training is to improve vertical jump performance. In our knowledge, four studies (2,6,11,12) have investigated the differential training effects of deep versus shallow squats on vertical jump performance to date, and two studies (2,6) reported training with the deep squat was significantly more effective than that with the shallow squat. ...
... The remaining two studies (11,12) did not find any statistical significance in differences between the training effects of deep versus shallow squats. It could be due to their number of subjects. ...
... It could be due to their number of subjects. Both of these studies (11,12) had small numbers of subjects (n = 6-8 in each training group), while studies by Hartman et al. (6) recruited n = 16-20, and Bloomquist et al. (2) recruited n = 8-9, in each training group. Nonetheless, none of those studies (2,6,11,12) reported the shallow squat improved vertical jump performance more than the deep squat, while two out of four studies (2,6) reported the deep squat improved vertical jump performance more than the shallow squat. ...
Article
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The squat is one of the most common exercises for strengthening lower extremities. While this exercise can be performed with shallower or deeper range of motion, our athletes train with deep squats (front of thigh below parallel to the floor, or 120-140° knee flexion) in the Japan Volleyball Women’s National Team. It is because literature has suggested that the deep squat improved vertical jump performance more than the shallow squat. This article synthesizes available literature and provides readers our rationale of why athletes should train with deep squats.
... Training to improve power traditionally uses different vertical jump (VJ) programs, whether or not they are associated with heavy strength training exercises (1,3,8,18,24,25). Training that uses jumping movements has been shown to produce significant gains in lower-body muscle power (12,13,21,27). ...
... This exercise was selected because it is a safe and effective strength training exercise for the lower-body muscle groups directly involved in the power tasks investigated in this study (1). Traditional strength training with heavy loads and a low number of repetitions (4-8RM) seems to increase strength, power, and movement speed (1,19,24). ...
Article
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Among sport conditioning coaches, there is considerable discussion regarding the efficiency of training methods that improve lower-body power. Heavy resistance training combined with vertical jump (VJ) training is a well-established training method; however, there is a lack of information about its combination with Olympic weightlifting (WL) exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the short-term effects of heavy resistance training combined with either the VJ or WL program. Thirty-two young men were assigned to 3 groups: WL = 12, VJ = 12, and control = 8. These 32 men participated in an 8-week training study. The WL training program consisted of 3 x 6RM high pull, 4 x 4RM power clean, and 4 x 4RM clean and jerk. The VJ training program consisted of 6 x 4 double-leg hurdle hops, 4 x 4 alternated single-leg hurdle hops, 4 x 4 single-leg hurdle hops, and 4 x 4 40-cm drop jumps. Additionally, both groups performed 4 x 6RM half-squat exercises. Training volume was increased after 4 weeks. Pretesting and posttesting consisted of squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests, 10- and 30-m sprint speeds, an agility test, a half-squat 1RM, and a clean-and-jerk 1RM (only for WL). The WL program significantly increased the 10-m sprint speed (p < 0.05). Both groups, WL and VJ, increased CMJ (p < 0.05), but groups using the WL program increased more than those using the VJ program. On the other hand, the group using the VJ program increased its 1RM half-squat strength more than the WL group (47.8 and 43.7%, respectively). Only the WL group improved in the SJ (9.5%). There were no significant changes in the control group. In conclusion, Olympic WL exercises seemed to produce broader performance improvements than VJ exercises in physically active subjects.
... After the full-text screening, 16 studies were considered for qualitative analysis and meta-analyses. [53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68] Two authors provided missing data not published in the original studies. 54,60 ...
... The choice of the optimal ROM to improve sports performance has been under discussion for decades. 28,[77][78][79] According to our review, most of the research suggests full ROM resistance training as preferable to increase jump ability 53,56,63,67 (Table 2), with only one study supporting the superior effectiveness of partial ROM 61 ( Figure 4). However, although effect sizes favored the full ROM, the meta-analysis was not significant. ...
Article
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Background Nowadays, there is a lack of consensus and high controversy about the most effective range of motion (ROM) to minimize the risk of injury and maximize the resistance training adaptations. Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the scientific evidence examining the effects of full and partial ROM resistance training interventions on neuromuscular, functional, and structural adaptations. Methods The original protocol (CRD42020160976) was prospectively registered in the PROSPERO database. Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched to identify relevant articles from the earliest record up to and including August 2020. The RoB 2 and GRADE tools were used to judge the level of bias and quality of evidence. Meta-analyses were performed using robust variance estimation with small-sample corrections. Results Sixteen studies were finally included in the systematic review and meta-analyses. Full ROM training produced significantly greater adaptations than partial ROM on muscle strength (ES=0.56, P=0.004) and lower-limb hypertrophy (ES=0.88, P=0.027). Furthermore, although not statistically significant, changes in functional performance were maximized by the full ROM training (ES=0.44, P=0.186). Finally, no significant superiority of either ROM was found to produce changes in muscle thickness, pennation angle, and fascicle length (ES=0.28, P=0.226). Conclusion Full ROM resistance training is more effective than partial ROM to maximize muscle strength and lower-limb muscle hypertrophy. Likewise, functional performance appears to be favored by the use of full ROM exercises. On the other hand, there are no large differences between the full and partial ROM interventions to generate changes in muscle architecture.
... Although several studies have quantified shearing force though the knee (18) and neuromuscular properties (6,23) at different squat depths, none have compared movement kinetics. Few training studies have used partial squats training in an effort to increase sporting performance measures such as sprinting and jumping (36), let alone comparing PROM with FROM resistance training programs (35). At the conclusion of a 10-week PROM squat training protocol, Wilson et al. (36) reported an increase of 7.1% in countermovement jump height and 4.9% in static jump height when training squat depth to knee angles of between 120 and 180°at moderate to heavy loads. ...
... At the conclusion of a 10-week PROM squat training protocol, Wilson et al. (36) reported an increase of 7.1% in countermovement jump height and 4.9% in static jump height when training squat depth to knee angles of between 120 and 180°at moderate to heavy loads. Weiss et al. (35) found no significant difference between training FROM squats and PROM squats over a 6-week training program on vertical jump and depth jump ability in untrained individuals. Therefore, the influence of squat depth as a variable in squat training remains unclear. ...
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It is commonplace for people involved in recreational weight training to limit squat depth to lift heavier loads. This study compares differences in movement kinetics when squatting in the full range of motion (FROM) vs. partial range of motion (PROM). Ten men with a 1-year minimum of resistance training attended 4 sessions each comprising 4 sets of squats following one of FROM for 10 repetitions (FROM10) at an intensity of 67% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) FROM squat, PROM for 10 repetitions (PROM10) at 67% 1RM PROM squat, FROM for 5 repetitions (FROM5) at 83% FROM squat or PROM for 5 repetitions (PROM5) at 83% 1RM PROM squat. Movement velocity was not specified. Squat kinetics data were collected using an optical encoder. Differences between conditions were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance and expressed as mean differences and standardized (Cohen) effect sizes with 95% confidence limits. The PROM5 power was substantially more than the PROM10 (98 W, -21 to 217; mean, lower and upper 95% confidence limits), FROM5 (168 W, 47-289), and FROM10 (255 W, 145-365). The force produced during PROM5 was substantially more than PROM10 (372 N, 254-490), FROM5 (854 N, 731-977), and FROM10 (1,069 N, 911-1227). The peak velocity produced during FROM10 was substantially more than FROM5 (0.105 m·s(-1), 0.044-0.166), PROM10 (0.246 m·s(-1), 0.167-0.325), and PROM5 (0.305 m·s(-1), 0.228-0.382). The FROM5 was substantially more than FROM10 (86 J, 59-113), PROM5 (142 J, 90-194), and PROM10 (211 J, 165-257). Therefore, either range of motion can have practical implications in designing resistance training programs depending on if the training goal is related to power and force development, maximizing work output or speed. Moderate-load PROM training, common among recreational weight trainers, is unlikely to provide higher movement kinetics.
... Strength training utilizing the squat exercise can be performed in various ways, among those being a full range deep squat (DS) or a limited range shallow squat (SS). To our knowledge, only one study has explored the effect of squat training at different joint angles (Weiss 2000). Hypothetically adaptations to squat training performed using full-or limited range of motion could lead to differential adaptations, with implications for, e.g. ...
... In contrast, isometric knee extension strength measurements revealed no increases of strength in the SS group despite higher loads of training, whereas the DS group achieved increases at both 75°and 105°knee flexion. These results are similar to those reported by Weiss et al. (2000) who concluded that the DS was superior to the SS in regard to strength and squat performance. ...
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Manipulating joint range of motion during squat training may have differential effects on adaptations to strength training with implications for sports and rehabilitation. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of squat training with a short vs. a long range of motion. Male students (n = 17) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of progressive squat training (repetition matched, repetition maximum sets) performed as either a) deep squat (0-120° of knee flexion); n = 8 (DS) or (b) shallow squat (0-60 of knee flexion); n = 9 (SS). Strength (1 RM and isometric strength), jump performance, muscle architecture and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscles, as well as CSA and collagen synthesis in the patellar tendon, were assessed before and after the intervention. The DS group increased 1 RM in both the SS and DS with ~20 ± 3 %, while the SS group achieved a 36 ± 4 % increase in the SS, and 9 ± 2 % in the DS (P < 0.05). However, the main finding was that DS training resulted in superior increases in front thigh muscle CSA (4-7 %) compared to SS training, whereas no differences were observed in patellar tendon CSA. In parallel with the larger increase in front thigh muscle CSA, a superior increase in isometric knee extension strength at 75° (6 ± 2 %) and 105° (8 ± 1 %) knee flexion, and squat-jump performance (15 ± 3 %) were observed in the DS group compared to the SS group. Training deep squats elicited favourable adaptations on knee extensor muscle size and function compared to training shallow squats.
... Training to improve power traditionally uses different vertical jump (VJ) programs, whether or not they are associated with heavy strength training exercises (1,3,8,18,24,25). Training that uses jumping movements has been shown to produce significant gains in lower-body muscle power (12,13,21,27). ...
... This exercise was selected because it is a safe and effective strength training exercise for the lower-body muscle groups directly involved in the power tasks investigated in this study (1). Traditional strength training with heavy loads and a low number of repetitions (4-8RM) seems to increase strength, power, and movement speed (1,19,24). ...
Article
Among sport conditioning coaches, there is considerable discussion regarding the efficiency of training methods that improve lower-body power. Heavy resistance training combined with vertical jump (VJ) training is a well-established training method; however, there is a lack of information about its combination with Olympic weightlifting (WL) exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the short-term effects of heavy resistance training combined with either the VJ or WL program. Thirty-two young men were assigned to 3 groups: WL = 12, VJ = 12, and control = 8. These 32 men participated in an 8-week training study. The WL training program consisted of 3 x 6RM high pull, 4 x 4RM power clean, and 4 3 4RM clean and jerk. The VJ training program consisted of 6 x 4 double-leg hurdle hops, 4 x 4 alternated single-leg hurdle hops, 4 x 4 single-leg hurdle hops, and 4 x 4 40-cm drop jumps. Additionally, both groups performed 4 x 6RM half-squat exercises. Training volume was increased after 4 weeks. Pretesting and posttesting consisted of squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests, 10- and 30-m sprint speeds, an agility test, a half-squat 1RM, and a clean-and-jerk 1RM (only for WL). The WL program significantly increased the 10-m sprint speed (p < 0.05). Both groups, WL and VJ, increased CMJ (p < 0.05), but groups using the WL program increased more than those using the VJ program. On the other hand, the group using the VJ program increased its 1RM half-squat strength more than the WL group (47.8 and 43.7%, respectively). Only the WL group improved in the SJ (9.5%). There were no significant changes in the control group. In conclusion, Olympic WL exercises seemed to produce broader performance improvements than VJ exercises in physically active subjects.
... Accordingly, alterations in the range of motion for a given exercise may, theoretically, result in different adaptations. Squat depth has been a topic of much discussion in the field and literature [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] with primary focus centering on strength improvements at different training depths. More broadly, this debate is an issue of joint-angle specificity, which has been examined for comparable strength improvements [12][13][14][15][16][17]. ...
... Further examination of the risks, benefits, and implementation of squats of various depths is warranted, and will be discussed here. Weiss et al. [7] conducted a study examining deep and shallow squat (corresponding to half and quarter squats in our study) and leg press training on vertical jump among untrained college students. Their study failed to find any significant changes in vertical jump for either group regardless of squat depth but two transfer calculations suggested greater transfer from the half squat training program to vertical jump. ...
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Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of training at different ranges of motion during the squat exercise on joint-angle specific strength adaptations. Methods. Twenty eight men were randomly assigned to one of three training groups, differing only in the depth of squats (quarter squat, half squat, and full squat) performed in 16-week training intervention. Strength measures were conducted in the back squat pre-, mid-, and post-training at all three depths. Vertical jump and 40-yard sprint time were also measured. Results. Individuals in the quarter and full squat training groups improved significantly more at the specific depth at which they trained when compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05). Jump height and sprint speed improved in all groups (p < 0.05); however, the quarter squat had the greatest transfer to both outcomes. Conclusions. Consistently including quarter squats in workouts aimed at maximizing speed and jumping power can result in greater improvements.
... ROM also has potential implications for the strengthrelated response to resistance training. Consistent with the principle of specificity (McCafferty & Horvath, 1977), current evidence indicates greater strength increases are achieved at the ROM trained (Martínez-Cava et al., 2019;Pallarés, Cava, Courel-Ibáñez, González-Badillo, & Morán-Navarro, 2020;Weiss, Fry, Wood, Relyea, & Melton, 2000). For example, Bloomquist et al. (2013) found that training exclusively in the FINAL ROM resulted in a greater strength increase in the one maximum repetition (1RM) test performed at the ROM trained. ...
... FULL ROM and VAR ROM were the unique training groups that presented similar 1RM test increases among the ROM tested. These results are consistent with previous studies, in which the FULL ROM group showed uniform improvements in 1RM test performance at the different ROM tested (Martínez-Cava et al., 2019;Pallarés et al., 2020;Weiss et al., 2000). Since both FULL ROM and VAR ROM groups excursed the spectrum of angles investigated (100°−30°of knee flexion), we hypothesize that the overload imposed at each joint angle may have been sufficient to promote adaptations leading to similar strength increases in all ROMs investigated, which would be in accordance with Rhea et al. (2016). ...
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The study compared changes in strength and regional muscle hypertrophy between different ranges of motion (ROM) in the knee extension exercise. Forty-five untrained women were randomized to either a control group or to perform the exercise in one of the following 4 groups (0°=extended knee): Full ROM (FULLROM: 100°-30° of knee flexion); Initial Partial ROM (INITIALROM: 100°-65°); Final Partial ROM (FINALROM: 65°-30°); Varied ROM (VARROM: daily alternation between the ROM of INITIALROM and FINALROM). Pre- and post-training assessments included one repetition maximum (1RM) testing in the ROM corresponding to the initial, final and full ROM, and measurement of cross-sectional areas of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles at 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of femur length in regard to regional muscle hypertrophy. Results showed that the INITIALROM group presented a greater relative increase than all groups at 70%, and at 50% and 60% the increases were greater than FINALROM, FULLROM, and non-training control (CON) groups. Moreover, FINALROM group presented similar changes compared to the CON group at 60% and 70%. In regard to 1RM, FINALROM and INITIALROM groups presented greater relative increases at the ROM trained, and no group showed greater increases than VARROM or INITIALROM, regardless the ROM tested. In conclusion, partial ROM training in the initial phase of the knee extension exercise promoted greater relative hypertrophy in certain muscle regions than training in other ROM configurations, and no group promoted a greater 1RM increase than VARROM group, which showed similar 1RM increases in the different ROMs tested.
... Resistance training through a full range of motion compared to a partial range of motion (e.g. higher bed height) is expected to have greater effects on muscle adaptations 34 . Further, strength adaptations are thought to be specific to the range of movement that the training is conducted in 34,35 . Thus, training from a high bed height may not translate to improvements in the initial movement of standing from a standard chair height. ...
Article
Objectives: To determine the acceptability of an exercise programme and to identify barriers and facilitators to compliance with the programme from the participants' perspective. Methods: Patients aged 75 years or older were recruited within the first 36 hours of hospital admission. Participants were randomised to complete two strengthening-based (intervention arm) or stretching-based (control arm) exercise sessions per-day. At hospital discharge, participants were asked to take part in interviews with a member of the research team exploring the barriers and facilitators to adherence to the intervention. Results: 15 participants (7 intervention arm, 8 control arm) were recruited before the trial was stopped due to COVID-19. Both groups showed reductions in knee-extension strength, and improvements in functional mobility at discharge from hospital. A total of 23/60 intervention sessions were classed as 'complete', 12/60 as partially complete, and 25/60 were missed entirely. Eight participants took part in interviews. Intrinsic factors that impacted participation in the research, related to current health, health beliefs, and experience of multi-morbidity or functional decline. Staff had both a positive and negative effect on participant adherence to the intervention. Conclusions: The exercise intervention was well received, with most participants describing health benefits, though intervention fidelity was lower than expected.
... Some authors pointed out that greater improvement and adaptations would occur at the specific angle and ROM of training (Rhea et al., 2016;Weiss, Fry, Wood, Relyea, & Melton, 2000;Zatsiorsky & Kraemer, 2006). Our findings partly support this argument by showing the highest increments in neuromuscular performance at each group SQ depth. ...
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The choice of the optimal squatting depth for resistance training (RT) has been a matter of debate for decades and is still controversial. In this study, fifty-three resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to one of four training groups: full squat (F-SQ), parallel squat (P-SQ), half squat (H-SQ), and Control (training cessation). Experimental groups completed a 10-week velocity-based RT programme using the same relative load (linear periodization from 60% to 80% 1RM), only differing in the depth of the squat trained. The individual range of motion and spinal curvatures for each squat variation were determined in the familiarization and subsequently replicated in every lift during the training and testing sessions. Neuromuscular adaptations were evaluated by one-repetition maximum strength (1RM) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV) at each squatting depth. Functional performance was assessed by countermovement jump, 20-m sprint and Wingate tests. Physical functional disability included pain and stiffness records. F-SQ was the only group that increased 1RM and MPV in the three squat variations (ES = 0.77–2.36), and achieved the highest functional performance (ES = 0.35–0.85). P-SQ group obtained the second best results (ES = 0.15–0.56). H-SQ produced no increments in neuromuscular and functional performance (ES = −0.11–0.28) and was the only group reporting significant increases in pain, stiffness and physical functional disability (ES = 1.21–0.87). Controls declined on all tests (ES = 0.02–1.32). We recommend using F-SQ or P-SQ exercises to improve strength and functional performance in well-trained athletes. In turn, the use of H-SQ is inadvisable due to the limited performance improvements and the increments in pain and discomfort after continued training.
... La comparación de ejercicios pliométricos y de entrenamiento con peso han producido resultados enfrentados. Los protocolos pliométricos pueden mostrarse como más efectivos, igual de efectivos o menos efectivos que el entrenamiento con pesas en la mejora del salto vertical (Weiss, Fry, Wood, Relyea and Melton, (2000). Estos autores realizan una investigación con 18 sujetos jóvenes no entrenados a los que someten a un tratamiento de 9 semanas, entrenando 3 días por semana, basado en realizar "Squat training"(con diferentes posiciones de Squat) para determinar si existen ganancias en el salto vertical al final del tratamiento. ...
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Mejorar el rendimiento en el salto vertical para muchos científicos, entrenadores o atletas ha sido y sigue siendo un objeto común. Pero esta acción, como bien se sabe, depende de muchas variables, control motor, coordinación intramuscular, acción multiarticular, elevados niveles de fuerza, altos grados de potencia, buena técnica de ejecución y otras. Muchas de las pruebas establecidas para medir la capacidad del salto vertical, carecen de especificidad o no se ajustan a la realidad de la acción deportiva que se quiere medir. Por otro lado, la correlación del salto vertical con otras variables donde el componente de potencia es alto, se muestra significativa. También, la metodología para el entrenamiento y mejora del salto vertical es variada, utilizándose el entrenamiento pliométrico, el entrenamiento con contraresistencia, la combinación de ambos o técnicas mucho menos habituales como la electroestimulación. Se deben tener en cuenta, algunos limitantes del rendimiento en el salto, como pueden ser el stretching, la fatiga muscular acumulada, técnicas mal ejecutadas, etc. Todo esto, nos hace reflexionar y darnos cuenta que para mejorar el rendimiento del salto vertical, se deben controlar todas estas variables.
... Heavy resistance training is typically performed with relatively slow movements against constant loads, over the full range of motion (ROM) because a greater effectiveness is assumed than for training with partial ROM. 1 Different studies corroborate the importance of ROM, with superior hypertrophy, strength, and performance gains in lower limb muscles observed following training with full ROM in multi- [2][3][4] or single-joint movements, 5 compared to partial ROM. ...
Article
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We tested whether explosive resistance training with partial range of motion (ROM) would be as effective as full ROM training using a noninferiority trial design. Fifteen subjects with strength training experience took part in an explosive –concentric only– leg press training program, three times per week for 10 weeks. One leg was randomly assigned to exercise with partial ROM (i.e. 9º) and the other leg to full ROM. Before and after training, we assessed leg press performance, isokinetic concentric and isometric knee extension torque, and vastus lateralis muscle architecture. Overall, both training modalities increased maximal strength and rate of force development. Training with partial ROM yielded noninferior results compared to full ROM for leg press peak power (+69 ±47% vs. +61±64%), isokinetic strength (4‐6±6‐12% vs. 1‐6±6‐10% at 30, 60, and 180˚s‐1), and explosive torque after 100 (47±24 vs. 35±22) and 150 ms (57±22% vs. 42±25%). The comparison was inconclusive for other functional parameters (i.e. isokinetic peak torque (300˚s‐1), joint angle at isokinetic peak torque, explosive torque after 50ms, and electrically evoked torque) and for muscle fascicle length and thickness, although noninferiority was established for pennation angle. However, partial ROM was not found statistically inferior to full ROM for any measured variable. Under the present conditions, the effects of explosive heavy resistance training were independent of joint ROM. Instead, these data suggest that the distinct timing of muscle work in explosive contractions confers more influence to the starting joint angle than ROM on adaptations to this type of training.
... Exercises that are ideal for increasing strength and power performance include weight-lifting exercises, such as the clean and jerk and the snatch (Arabatzi, Kellis, & De Villarrea,l 2010). Parallel exercises, such as the deep neck squat and front squat, are also advised (Weiss, Fry, Wood, Relyea, & Melton, 2000). Additionally, players should train with the bench press, deadlift, and bent-over row or they should perform the shoulder press along with exercises for the strengthening trunk muscles. ...
... Cabe señalar ♣ GF: entrenó únicamente sentadilla completa, GP: saltos pliométricos y GV: carreras de velocidad. que en la prueba de salto vertical con contramovimiento, el grupo GF y GP, mejoraron estadísticamente, mientras que el grupo GV prácticamente se mantuvo, éste hecho difiere grandemente con los resultados que obtuvieron Weiss, Fry, Wood, Relyea y Melton (2000), quienes luego de comparar entrenamientos con sentadilla profunda vrs media sentadilla en el rendimiento del salto vertical, no encontraron mejoras significativas en ninguno de los dos grupos. ...
Article
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Este estudio tuvo como propósito examinar el efecto global en las variables de fuerza, potencia y velocidad, luego de aplicar un entrenamiento específico. Participaron 56 hombres con edades entre 18 y 25 años. Los sujetos fueron divididos en tres grupos experimentales, donde un grupo (n=21) trabajó un programa específico de sentadilla (GF), otro grupo (n=15) basó su trabajo en ejercicios pliométricos (GP) y el tercer grupo (n=20) trabajó con ejercicios de velocidad (GV). Los grupos experimentales recibieron un entrenamiento específico, de una hora, 2 veces a la semana, por un período de 16 semanas, al final de las cuales se encontró que hubo diferencia significativa (*p<.05 ,**p<.01) entre pre test y post test, para todos los grupos experimentales en las pruebas de sentadilla completa , 30m sin impulso y salto largo (SLSI). Este comportamiento también se presentó en la prueba de salto vertical (SVCM), para los grupos de fuerza y potencia, y en la prueba de 30 m lanzados, para el grupo de velocidad. Con el objetivo de visualizar el porcentaje de cambio que obtuvo cada grupo en cada prueba, se presenta la siguiente tabla: Pruebas Grupo Fuerza (GF) % Potencia (GP) % Velocidad(GV) % Sentadilla Completa (lbs) 21.87 20.13 17.10 30 lanzados (s) -2.14 -2.99 -10.34* 30 sin impulso (s) -5.38 -3.37 -6.43 SLSI (cm) 4.66 18.81* 6.31 SVCM (cm) 11.53* 12.33* 0.10 *:%  estadísticamente significativo. Uno de los hallazgos más importantes del estudio, es que para la prueba de sentadilla completa, no se presentó diferencia entre grupos, lo cuál indica que a pesar de que los grupos experimentales de velocidad y potencia realizaron trabajos diferentes, la mejora en la prueba de sentadilla, fue muy similar al grupo que entrenó únicamente sentadilla. Estos resultados implican cuestionamientos acerca de la especificidad del entrenamiento, el cual teóricamente no concuerda con lo que las experiencias en la práctica han demostrado, llegando a la conclusión de que el músculo, siempre y cuando se logre estimular para que alcance una contracción eficiente, obtendrá beneficios sobre las diferentes variables deportivas.
... So scheint es durchaus hilfreich zu sein, im Krafttraining ganze Muskelschlingen innerhalb einer Krafttrainingsübung zu trainieren und von eingelenkigen Isolationsübungen eher abzusehen. Die zusätzliche Kraft, die man sich durch die tiefe Kniebeuge erarbeitet, kann dann in allen Gelenkwinkeln zur Geltung kommen (Raastad et al., 2008;Weiss et al., 1998;Weiss et al., 2000), wenn die hierfür erforderlichen Trainingsinhalte, wie zuvor geschildert, berücksichtigt werden. Sandler (2005, S. 39) schreibt: "The purpose of the base-building phase is not to mimic sport skills, but to allow the entire body to develop and adapt to the stresses of training and competition. ...
Article
Summary Functional training and specific strength training are widely used terms. In the last two decades a lot of strength training interventions were named functional of specific in the field of fitness training and competitive sports. This occurred without any substantive reason beside the argument that the interventions are kinematically and kineticly related to sport specific movements or actions of daily living. The main problem while using the words functional and specific in this way is, that this does not consider the physiological background of what makes a movement or training intervention specific. This article tries to show some problems that exist while using the words functional and specific in the field of strength training from a physiological perspective. Zusammenfassung Funktionelles und spezifisches Krafttraining stellen im Bereich des Fitnesstrai-nings und des Leistungssports zwei in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten weit ver-breitete Begriffe dar. Die inhaltliche Begründung für die Verwendung der Be-griff funktionell und spezifisch beschränkt sich in der Regel auf die Aussage, dass sich das Krafttraining an kinematischen und kinetischen Merkmalen sportartspezifischer und / oder alltäglicher Bewegungen orientiert. Ein großes Problem bei dieser Betrachtungsweise ist jedoch, dass diese außer Acht lässt, was aus physiologischer Sicht eine Bewegung oder Trainingsintervention spe-zifisch macht. Innerhalb dieses Beitrags soll der Versuch unternommen wer-den die Probleme, die die Verwendung der Begriffe funktionell und spezifisch 45 in Kombination mit dem Wort Krafttraining beinhalten, vor dem Hintergrund ei-ner physiologischen Betrachtungsweise aufzuzeigen.
... @PallaresJG Human Performance and Sports Science Laboratory, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Murcia, C/Argentina s/n. Santiago de la Ribera, Murcia, Spain performance of well-trained athletes (Bloomquist et al., 2013;Drinkwater, Galna, McKenna, Hunt, & Pyne, 2007;Hartmann et al., 2012;Weiss, Frx, Wood, Relyea, & Melton, 2000), and can even minimize the risk of injury (Hartmann et al., 2013) when compared to RT programs in which the SQ is performed to shorter ROM. ...
Article
This study aimed to compare the load-velocity and load-power relationships of three common variations of the squat exercise. 52 strength-trained males performed a progressive loading test up to the one-repetition maximum (1RM) in the full (F-SQ), parallel (P-SQ) and half (H-SQ) squat, conducted in random order on separate days. Bar velocity and vertical force were measured by means of a linear velocity transducer time-synchronized with a force platform. The relative load that maximized power output (Pmax) was analyzed using three outcome measures: mean concentric (MP), mean propulsive (MPP) and peak power (PP), while also including or excluding body mass in force calculations. 1RM was significantly different between exercises. Load-velocity and load-power relationships were significantly different between the F-SQ, P-SQ and H-SQ variations. Close relationships (R² = 0.92–0.96) between load (%1RM) and bar velocity were found and they were specific for each squat variation, with faster velocities the greater the squat depth. Unlike the F-SQ and P-SQ, no sticking region was observed for the H-SQ when lifting high loads. The Pmax corresponded to a broad load range and was greatly influenced by how force output is calculated (including or excluding body mass) as well as the exact outcome variable used (MP, MPP, PP).
... Thus, the comparison of our data with the available literature was limited. Weiss et al. (2000) compared the TEC between two techniques of machine-based squat exercise (i.e., deep versus shallow) and different types of vertical jumps. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two different strength-power training models on sprint performance. Forty-eight soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG: n = 15, age: 20.2 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.74 ± 0.06 m, and body mass: 66.7 ± 9.8 kg), a traditional training group (TT: n = 18, age: 20.1 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.05 m, and body mass: 64.2 ± 4.7 kg), and a complex training group (CT: n = 15, age: 20.3 ± 0.8 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.07 m; and body mass: 64.0 ± 8.8 kg). Maximum strength (25% and 26%), CMJ height (36% and 39%), mean power (30% and 35%) and mean propulsive power (22% and 28%) in the loaded jump squat exercise, and 20-m sprint speed (16% and 14%) increased significantly (p≤0.05) following the TT and CT, respectively. However, the transfer effect coefficients (TEC) of strength and power performances to 20-m sprint performance following the TT were greater than the CT throughout the 9-week training period. Our data suggest that TT is more effective than CT to improve sprint performance in moderately trained subjects.
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The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of two different training methods on dynamic and isometric measures of maximal strength. Seventeen recreationally trained males (1-RM Squat: 146.9 ± 22.4 kg) were assigned to two groups: full ROM squat (F) and full ROM with partial ROM squat (FP) for the 7-week training intervention. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there was a statistically significant group by time interaction for impulse scaled at 50 ms, 90 ms, and 250 ms at 90° of knee flexion and rate of force development at 200 ms with 120° of knee flexion (p<0.05). There was also a statistically significant time effect (p<0.05) for the 1-RM squat, 1-RM partial-squat, isometric squat peak force allometrically scaled (IPFa) 90°, IPFa 120° and impulse allometrically scaled at 50ms, 90 ms, 200 ms, and 250 ms at 90° and 120° of knee flexion. Additionally, the FP group achieved statistically larger relative training intensities (%1-RM) during the final three weeks of training (p<0.05). There was a trend for FP to improve over F in 1-RM squat (+3.1%, d=0.53 vs. 0.32), 1-RM partial-squat (+4.7%, d=0.95 vs. 0.69), IPFa 120° (+5.7%, d=0.52 vs. 0.12), and impulse scaled at 50 ms, 90 ms, 200 ms, and 250 ms at 90° (+6.3 to 13.2%, d=0.50 to 1.01 vs. 0.30 to 0.57) and 120° (+3.4 to 16.8%, d=0.45 to 1.11 vs. 0.08 to 0.37). These larger effect sizes in the FP group can likely be explained their ability to train at larger relative training intensities during the final 3 weeks of training resulting in superior training adaptations. Our findings suggest that partial ROM squats in conjunction with full ROM squats may be an effective training method for improving maximal strength and early force-time curve characteristics in males with previous strength training experience. Practically, partial-squats may be beneficial for strength and power athletes during a strength-speed mesocycle while peaking for competition.
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of squat training with different depths on lower limb muscle volumes. Methods Seventeen males were randomly assigned to a full squat training group (FST, n = 8) or half squat training group (HST, n = 9). They completed 10 weeks (2 days per week) of squat training. The muscle volumes (by magnetic resonance imaging) of the knee extensor, hamstring, adductor, and gluteus maximus muscles and the one repetition maximum (1RM) of full and half squats were measured before and after training. Results The relative increase in 1RM of full squat was significantly greater in FST (31.8 ± 14.9%) than in HST (11.3 ± 8.6%) (p = 0.003), whereas there was no difference in the relative increase in 1RM of half squat between FST (24.2 ± 7.1%) and HST (32.0 ± 12.1%) (p = 0.132). The volumes of knee extensor muscles significantly increased by 4.9 ± 2.6% in FST (p < 0.001) and 4.6 ± 3.1% in HST (p = 0.003), whereas that of rectus femoris and hamstring muscles did not change in either group. The volumes of adductor and gluteus maximus muscles significantly increased in FST (6.2 ± 2.6% and 6.7 ± 3.5%) and HST (2.7 ± 3.1% and 2.2 ± 2.6%). In addition, relative increases in adductor (p = 0.026) and gluteus maximus (p = 0.008) muscle volumes were significantly greater in FST than in HST. Conclusion The results suggest that full squat training is more effective for developing the lower limb muscles excluding the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles.
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