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ACSM Position Stand: The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults

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ACSM Position Stand on The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 975-991, 1998. The combination of frequency, intensity, and duration of chronic exercise has been found to be effective for producing a training effect. The interaction of these factors provide the overload stimulus. In general, the lower the stimulus the lower the training effect, and the greater the stimulus the greater the effect. As a result of specificity of training and the need for maintaining muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility of the major muscle groups, a well-rounded training program including aerobic and resistance training, and flexibility exercises is recommended. Although age in itself is not a limiting factor to exercise training, a more gradual approach in applying the prescription at older ages seems prudent. It has also been shown that aerobic endurance training of fewer than 2 d·wk-1, at less than 40-50% of V˙O2R, and for less than 10 min-1 is generally not a sufficient stimulus for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. Even so, many health benefits from physical activity can be achieved at lower intensities of exercise if frequency and duration of training are increased appropriately. In this regard, physical activity can be accumulated through the day in shorter bouts of 10-min durations. In the interpretation of this position stand, it must be recognized that the recommendations should be used in the context of participant's needs, goals, and initial abilities. In this regard, a sliding scale as to the amount of time allotted and intensity of effort should be carefully gauged for the cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility components of the program. An appropriate warm-up and cool-down period, which would include flexibility exercises, is also recommended. The important factor is to design a program for the individual to provide the proper amount of physical activity to attain maximal benefit at the lowest risk. Emphasis should be placed on factors that result in permanent lifestyle change and encourage a lifetime of physical activity.
... Muscle hypertrophy and muscular strength are well-established benefits of habitual resistance exercise (RE) [39][40][41][42]. In addition, sustained resistance training improves fasting glucose, insulin levels, plasma triglycerides and body fat percentages while accelerating the basal metabolic rate [43]. Therefore, healthcare providers recommend including resistance exercises in patients' daily routines for primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention [43]. ...
... In addition, sustained resistance training improves fasting glucose, insulin levels, plasma triglycerides and body fat percentages while accelerating the basal metabolic rate [43]. Therefore, healthcare providers recommend including resistance exercises in patients' daily routines for primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention [43]. ...
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Resistance exercise training is well documented as having cardiovascular benefits, but paradoxically, it seems to increase arterial stiffness, favoring the development of high blood pressure. The present study investigates the potential effects of oral supplementation with arginine in healthy individuals performing exercise resistance training. We studied 70 non-smoking male subjects between the ages of 30 and 45 with normal or mildly increased blood pressure on ambulatory monitoring (for 24 h) and normal blood samples and echocardiography, who performed regular resistance exercise training for at least five years with a minimum of three workouts per week. They were divided into two groups in a random manner: 35 males were placed in the arginine group (AG) that followed a 6-month supplementation of their regular diets with 5 g of oral arginine powder taken before their exercise workout, and the control (non-arginine) group (NAG) consisted of 35 males. All subjects underwent body composition analysis, 24 h blood pressure monitoring and pulse wave analysis at enrollment and at six months. After six months of supplementation, blood pressure values did not change in the NAG, while in the AG, we found a decrease of 5.6 mmHg (p < 0.05) in mean systolic blood pressure and a decrease of 4.5 mmHg (p < 0.05) in diastolic values. There was also a 0.62% increase in muscle mass in the AG vs. the NAG (p < 0.05), while the body fat decreased by 1% (p < 0.05 in AG vs. NAG). Overall, the AG gained twice the amount of muscle mass and lost twice as much body fat as the NAG. No effects on the mean weighted average heart rate were recorded in the subjects. The results suggest that oral supplementation with arginine can improve blood pressure and body composition, potentially counteracting the stress induced by resistance exercise training. Supplementation with arginine can be a suitable adjuvant for these health benefits in individuals undertaking regular resistance training.
... To the contrary, Gaskill et al. [20] reported that the slope and intercept for the relationship between %HRR and %VO 2 max were closer to the line of unity than the slope and intercept for the %HRR and %VO 2 R relationship. Although previous research is not in complete agreement about the HR-VO 2 relationship, the ACSM now recognizes an equivalency between %HRR and %VO 2 R [3,7,21]. The current ACSM guidelines [3,7] define the threshold for moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic exercise to improve CRF as 40-59% and 60-89% of HRR or VO 2 R, respectively. ...
... The ACSM currently suggests prescribing the intensity of aerobic exercise based on the %HRR-%VO 2 R relationship [3,7,21]. This is supported by previous studies that have reported equality in the %HRR-%VO 2 R [11,15,16] relationship. ...
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Professional organizations advise prescribing intensity of aerobic exercise using heart rate reserve (%HRR) which is presumed to have a 1:1 relationship with either maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2max) or %VO2 reserve (%VO2R). Even though running and cycling are popular modes of training, these relationships have not been investigated in a group of males and females during both running and cycling. This study evaluated the %HRR-%VO2max and %HRR–%VO2R relationships in 41 college-aged males (n = 21) and females (n = 20) during treadmill running and cycling. Heart rate (HR) and VO2 data were collected at rest and during maximal exercise tests on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. The HR and VO2 data were analyzed using a Bayesian approach. Both the %HRR-%VO2max and %HRR–%VO2R relationships did not coincide with the line of identity in males and females in both treadmill running and cycling. %HRR was closer to %VO2max than to %VO2R. There were no significant differences in the intercepts of the %HRR–%VO2max and %HRR–%VO2R relationships between males and females during running or cycling, or between running and cycling in males or females. The credible intervals of the intercepts and slopes suggest interindividual variability in the HR–VO2 relationship that would yield significant error in the prescription of intensity of aerobic exercise for an individual.
... It is important to note that with respect to the second and third objectives the average HR of the games ranged between 112 and 116 bpm, with a maximum relative difference of 20 bpm in the destruction of the nexus, so despite the statistically significant differences found when comparing the different plays in which the players were involved, the HR is still relatively low compared to an estimated maximum HR (200 bpm). This indicates that at most in esports there is a transition between light to moderate intensity zones [40], but HR values are not as high as in traditional sports probably due to the differences in physical load between both modalities. ...
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The analysis of the most decisive factors in performance is fundamental in order to train on these aspects to maximize the chances of success in competition. However, in the field of esports, research that has analyzed performance is scarce and includes various modalities, making it difficult to draw conclusions for a specific esports. Due to the growing interest in League of Legends in recent years, this research focuses on this esports and has the following objectives: a) to analyze the differences in the variables of performance and heat rate (HR) as a function of winning or losing; b) to establish the differences in the HR of the players depending on the role of the player, the involvement of the player in the play, and the team that benefited from each action during the game; and c) to determine the physiological changes that players undergo depending on the type of action performed. Ninety games and 4638 plays of an elite League of Legends team composed of five male players were analyzed. The results showed that tower destruction and kills were the most decisive performance factors in the final result. Furthermore, although no differences in HR were found when comparing games won and lost, differences were observed depending on the player’s participation and the action performed, with actions that directly involved the player and favored the team showing the greatest differences in HR, more specifically the obtaining of neutral objectives (Baron Nashor and Elder Dragon), the destruction of structures closest to the nexus base and the team fights.
... O movimento para estimular um estilo de vida ativo, em escala mundial, já tem uma história relativamente longa [15][16][17][18] 19,20 . De fato, o sedentarismo constitui um dos problemas de maior preocupação no mundo contemporâneo 21 . ...
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O presente ensaio tem como objetivo discutir as coincidências, convergências e divergências entre a abordagem desenvolvimentista da Educação Física escolar (AD) e os programas de atividade física visando à saúde (PAFVS) no que se refere a trato com as habilidades motoras fundamentais (HMF). A coincidência está no fato de o desenvolvimento de HMF constituir-se um foco importante de intervenção em ambos. Na AD está atrelado a objetivos educacionais de formação do cidadão; no PAFVS aos objetivos de saúde do indivíduo, particularmente à prevenção de doenças crônico-degenerativas. A convergência está em enfatizar a relevância das HMF para o desenvolvimento ulterior e contínuo de habilidades motoras específicas. Sem uma base motora bem desenvolvida na infância relativamente a HMF, o envolvimento com a prática sistemática de habilidades motoras específicas na adolescência e na idade adulta fica prejudicado. Como consequência, a promoção e a manutenção de saúde ficam dificultadas. A divergência está no fato de o desenvolvimento de HMF se constituir, na AD, um objetivo a ser alcançado, enquanto que no PAFVS ele é um meio para a saúde. Para a AD, a aquisição de habilidades motoras, sejam elas fundamentais ou específicas, não se configura um meio para alcance de outros objetivos, por exemplo, a saúde. Isto não quer dizer que ela esteja dissociada dos objetivos de saúde, visto que, como consequência do processo de aquisição de habilidades motoras, os benefícios apontados e ressaltados pelo PAFVS podem também ser obtidos.
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Objective We assessed whether total, recreational, and non-recreational physical activity (PA) assessed twice during pregnancy, and its change, were associated with infant birth weight and small for gestational age (SGA).Methods We included 1467 Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition 3 Study participants who self-reported PA at time 1 (T1: 17–22 weeks’ gestation) and time 2 (T2: 27–30 weeks’ gestation). We assessed last week absolute intensities of PA (moderate: 4.7–7.1 METs; and vigorous: > 7.1 METs) and perceived intensities. Change in hours/week of PA was assessed continuously or categorically (increase or decrease ≥ 1 hour, and no change). Associations of continuous PA hours/week at T1, T2, and its change, with sex-specific z-scores of birth weight, were assessed using multivariable linear robust regressions. We used logistic regressions to assess categorical PA measures with SGA. Models were adjusted for adequacy of maternal weight gain, general health, maternal age, parity, race/ethnicity, and smoking.ResultsHours/week of total and recreational absolute intensities of PA at T1, T2, and its change were generally not associated with birth weight, although two measures of non-recreational PA at T2 and its change were associated with increased birth weight. Perceived intensities of PA (at T1, T2, and its change) were largely not associated with sex-specific z-scores of infant birth weight. Absolute and perceived intensity PA were not associated with SGA.Conclusions for practiceIn this observational cohort, increases and decreases in PA during pregnancy were not associated with differential changes in birthweight or SGA.
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Egzersizin insan sağlığına çok yönlü faydaları konusunda günümüzde en dikkat çeken konulardan birisi bilişsel sağlığa olan yararlarıdır. Yönetici işlevler, bir amaca ulaşmak için planlama, bilgiyi kullanma, soyut düşünme ve çıkarımlar yapma gibi birçok özelliği içine alan bir kavram olmakla birlikte aerobik egzersiz ile ilişkisi sık sık çalışılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı sporcu popülasyonunda, orta ve yüksek şiddetli aerobik egzersizin yönetici işlevlerin ana fonksiyonlarından biri olan bozucu etkiye direnç üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Bu çalışmaya herhangi bir kronik hastalığı bulunmayan ve en az 3 yıldır aktif olarak spor yapan 16 sağlıklı erkek katılımcı (=21.31±1.4 yıl) dahil edilmiştir. Araştırma deseni olarak randomize karşılıklı dengeli çalışma dizaynı uygulanmıştır. Katılımcılar test süresince toplamda 4 ayrı gün laboratuvara gelmişler ve deneysel koşullar (orta ve yüksek şiddetli aerobik egzersiz ve dinlenme) için laboratuvara geliş sıraları karşıt dengelenmiştir. Katılımcılar orta şiddetli aerobik egzersiz için %60, yüksek şiddetli aerobik egzersiz için %80 kalp atım rezervinde 30 dakikalık egzersiz yapmışlardır. Dinlenme koşulunda ise egzersiz koşullarında geçen süre kadar dergi ve kitapların olduğu sessiz bir odada oturmaları sağlanmıştır. Test koşullarının öncesinde ve 15 dakika sonrasında bozucu etkiye direnç ölçümleri için Stroop testine alınmışlardır. Verilerin değerlendirilmesinde SPSS 22.0 paket programı kullanılmıştır. Katılımcıların farklı koşullardaki Stroop testi performansları arasındaki farkın belirlenmesi Two-Way Anova analizi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. İstatistiksel analiz sonuçlarına göre; Stroop testi doğru sayılarına ilişkin koşullar arası anlamlı bir farklılığa rastlanmamıştır (p>0,05). Katılımcıların Stroop testi reaksiyon zamanları orta ve yüksek şiddetli aerobik egzersiz koşullarında, dinlenme koşuluna göre anlamlı düzeyde azalmıştır (p<0,05). Sonuç olarak bu çalışmada orta ve yüksek şiddetli aerobik egzersizin bozucu etkiye direnç üzerinde olumlu bir etkisinin olduğu ortaya konmuştur.
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The health benefits of sport and physical exercise (SPE) have been well documented, while the influence of household physical activity (HPA) on health has received much less research attention. This study aims to provide epidemiologic insight into the role HPA plays in the development of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease (RESP), and cancer mortality in a nationwide cohort of Chinese adults. We conceived a prospective cohort comprising 30,791 participants aged ≥16 years from 25 provinces of China using data derived from baseline (2010) and 4 waves of follow-up (2012–2018) investigations of the China Family Panel Studies. Self-reported times of HPA and SPE were collected by interviewing participants with a standard questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the associations of HPA and SPE with all-cause, CVD, RESP, and cancer mortality, adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. A restricted cubic spline smoother was used to investigate the dose–response relationships of HPA and SPE with mortality outcomes. Sex subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the potential effect disparity between men and women. To investigate the interactive effects of HPA and SPE, we calculated the relative excess risk due to the interaction and attributable proportion of additive effects to the total observed effects. During a median follow-up of 7.2 years, a total of 1,649 deaths occurred, with 209 cases from CVD, 123 from RESP, and 323 from cancer. HPA was identified to be associated with reduced mortality outcomes, suggesting remarkably reduced risks of 43–60% in all-cause mortality, 42–50% in CVD mortality, 36–71% in RESP mortality, and 38–46% in cancer mortality. In general, higher levels of HPA tended to be associated with lower risks. An approximately inverted J-shape association was identified between HPA and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, suggesting strong evidence for potential nonlinearity. Women performing HPA had a lower risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. We did not identify significant evidence for additive interaction between HPA and SPE. HPA is independently associated with a reduced risk of mortality in Chinese women and men. More biological studies are needed to validate our findings and clarify the mechanisms underlying the association.
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Amaç: COVID-19 döneminde toplumu bilgilendirmek için sosyal medya platformlarında paylaşılan egzersiz içerikli videoları incelemek amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem: COVID-19 pandemisinin gündeme geldiği Ocak 2020-Aralık 2020 tarihleri arasında, sosyal medya platformlarında yayınlanan videolara ulaşmak için gelişmiş arama motorunda Türkçe dilinde ulaşılabilen egzersiz içerikli videolar analiz edilmiştir. Toplam 110 adet videoya ulaşılmış, yapılan değerlendirmeler sonucunda videolara ulaşmak için kullanılan anahtar kelimelere uygun içerikte, belirtilen tarihler arasında ve egzersize yönelik bilgi içermesine uygunluk gösteren 33 video çalışmaya dâhil edilmiştir. Bulgular: Videoların ortalama süresi 6,29±3,91 dakikadır. Videolar egzersiz (n=33, %100) ve fiziksel aktivite (n=4; %12,12) konularını içermektedir. Videoların %78,79'u bir kurum ve %21,21'i bir kişi tarafından paylaşılmıştır. İncelenen videoların %45,45'i fizyoterapist; %27,27'si beden eğitimi uzmanı; %21,21'i hekim; %3,03'ü hemşire meslek mensupları tarafından yayınlanmış ve %3,03'i mesleğini belirtmemiştir. Videonun hedef kitlesi %60,60'ında toplum; %24,24'ünde 65 yaş üstü bireyler; %12,12'sinde özel bir tanıya sahip bireyler ve %6,06'sında çocuklardır. Videolarda egzersizlerin %45,45'inde sıklık, %33,33'ünde süre; %12,12'sinde durasyon gibi parametrelerden bahsedilmiş, videoların hiçbirinde egzersiz şiddetine yönelik bilgi verilmemiştir. Videoların %48,48'inde egzersizin parametrelerinin hiçbirinden bahsedilmemiştir. Dahil edilen videoların sadece %75,76'inde egzersizler uygulamalı olarak gösterilmiş; %21,21'inde dikkat edilmesi gereken koşullar açıklanmış; %6,06'sında güvenlik tedbirlerine uyulmuştur. Video çekimlerinde %75,76'sında ortam koşullarına; %72,73'ünde forma/önlük giyimine; %66,67'sinde profesyonel çekim yapılmasına; %48,48’inde ses kalitesine ve %45,45’inde aydınlatma koşulların özen gösterildiği belirlenmiştir
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Abstract. – OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the normative values for resting length of pectoralis minor muscle among males and females with an asymptomatic shoulder in South Bengaluru. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and forty-six subjects with asymptomatic shoulders were taken by convenience sampling. The subjects were divided into two groups: Group A (123 males) and Group B (123 females). Pectoralis minor muscle resting length was measured on their dominant side in all subjects. Post measurement, the PMI was calculated. The normative values for both groups were determined. The mean PMI was compared between Group A and Group B and was analyzed using statistical tools. RESULTS: In Group A, the mean average Pectoralis minor length (PML) was 14.59 ± 1.61 cm and in Group B, the mean average PML was 12.95 ± 1.42 cm which was statistically significant (p-value <0.00001). In Group A, the mean Pectoralis Minor Index (PMI) was 8.54 ± 0.88 and in Group B, the mean PMI was 8.22 ± 0.90 which was statistically significant (p-value <0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The normative values for resting length of pectoralis minor muscle for males are 8.54 ± 0.88 and for females 8.22 ± 0.90 with an asymptomatic shoulder. There is a difference in the normative values for the resting PML in the asymptomatic shoulder by gender. Key Words: Pectoralis minor muscle, Resting length, Pectoralis minor index, Asymptomatic shoulder.
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In brief: In this study shoes, floor types, and individual physical differences were evaluated for their effects on aerobic dance injuries. The injury frequency was 75.9% for instructors and 43.3% for students. The shin was the most common site of injury in both groups. Overall, 60% of the injuries in the student group and 52% of injuries in the instructor group occurred below the knee. Most injuries were not debilitating, and few required medical treatment. The authors concluded that resilient but stable floor surfaces, proper shoes, and moderating the frequency of participation can prevent injuries in aerobic dance.
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Obese women (140–180% of ideal body weight) were studied on a metabolic ward during 1 wk of maintenance feeding, followed by 5 wk of 800 kcal/d (liquid formula diet). Five subjects participated in a supervised program of daily aerobic exercise and three subjects remained sedentary. Total weight loss was not different between exercising and nonexercising subjects but significantly more of the weight loss came from fat and less from fat-free mass in the exercising subjects. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) declined similarly in both groups (approximately 20%), even though exercising subjects were in greater negative energy balance due to the added energy cost of exercise. In summary, results from this controlled inpatient study indicate that exercise is beneficial when coupled with food restriction because it favors loss of body fat and preserves fat-free mass.
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Seven endurance exercise-trained subjects were studied 12, 21, 56, and 84 days after cessation of training. Maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) declined 7% (P less than 0.05) during the first 21 days of inactivity and stabilized after 56 days at a level 16% (P less than 0.05) below the initial trained value. After 84 days of detraining the experimental subjects still had a higher VO2 max than did eight sedentary control subjects who had never trained (50.8 vs. 43.3 ml X kg-1 X min-1), due primarily to a larger arterial-mixed venous O2 (a-vO2) difference. Stroke volume (SV) during exercise was high initially and declined during the early detraining period to a level not different from control. Skeletal muscle capillarization did not decline with inactivity and remained 50% above (P less than 0.05) sedentary control. Citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activities in muscle declined with a half-time of 12 days and stabilized at levels 50% above sedentary control (P less than 0.05). The initial decline in VO2 max was related to a reduced SV and the later decline to a reduced a-vO2 difference. Muscle capillarization and oxidative enzyme activity remained above sedentary levels and this may help explain why a-vO2 difference and VO2 max after 84 days of detraining were still higher than in untrained subjects.
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To determine the minimum duration of exercise for improving the aerobic capacity of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), 23 female patients with CHD and/or hypertension, aged 52.8±8.7 years, were studied. After pre-testing, all the patients were conditioned for 4 months in order to elicit improvements in their aerobic capacity and other healthrelated factors. Duration and contents of daily activities were recorded by each patient. After 4 months, oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2LT) and VO2peak were increased significantly from 12.9±2.6 to 16.0±3.4ml/kg/min and from 18.5±4.2 to 22.3±5.6ml/kg/min, respectively. Duration of exercise conditioning for the 4 months averaged 23.8±12.2min per day, ranging from 4.6 to 49.7min. Correlational analyses were applied in order to determine the extent to which the improvement in aerobic capacity was associated with the individual mean duration of exercise conditioning. As a result, changes in VO2LT and VO2peak correlated significantly with the exercise duration (Pearson's r=0.51, Spearman's rho=0.47 for VO2LT; Spearman's rho=0.58 for VO2peak) . Both VO2LT and VO2peak tended to improve markedly when daliy exercise duration was 20 min or longer. Furthermore, it was shown that the improvement in aerobic capacity remained almost the same within a range of exercise duration of 20 to 60min. We suggest that the minimum exercise duration for improving the aerobic capacity of cardiac patients is 20 to 30min per day or 140min or more per week.
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Twenty-nine men participated in a study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of using ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in the prescription and regulation of exercise intensity. A secondary purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the training heart rate (THR) method for regulating exercise intensity by comparing subject-regulated intensity (i.e., THR) with directly recorded electrocardiograms (ECG). The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: group 1 (THR), group 2 (RPE), and group 3 (no prescription). Group 1 had a THR range equivalent to 60% to 70% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and was trained to use the palpation technique and to exercise at intensities within their THR range. Group 2 was trained to maintain a prescribed level of exercise intensity solely by monitoring their RPE. Group 3 served as a control group and was instructed to exercise as they would if they were on their own. A series of six submaximal treadmill exercise sessions was then conducted. The first two sessions provided time for practicing the palpation method of HR determination and RPE techniques; the last four served as experimental sessions during which HRs were recorded every minute by ECG to determine the accuracy of each of the three methods. The study showed that the exercise intensity was maintained within the individualized THR ranges with 55.3% accuracy for group 1 (THR), 48.5% for group 2 (RPE), and 24.5% for group 3 (no prescription). The finding that THR resulted in only a 55.3% accuracy was unexpected, as this is currently the accepted standard for regulating intensity of exercise. Thus the 48.5% accuracy achieved by the RPE method can be considered quite good.
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Circuit weight training (CWT) can improve cardiorespiratory endurance, body composition, and strength, and sessions only take 25 to 30 minutes. Studies reviewed in this article showed that CWT increased aerobic capacity about 5%, compared with 15% to 25% in other aerobic exercise programs. Lean body mass increased 1 to 3.2 kg and fat decreased 0.8% to 2.9%. Strength improved 7% to 32%. Energy costs of CWT were similar to jogging at 5 mph. The authors conclude that improvements in strength and V̇O2 max depend on work performed, not the equipment used. Although CWT does not develop high levels of aerobic fitness, it can help maintain fitness.