Article

Effects of Standard Set and Circuit Weight Training on Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of standard set weight training (SWT) and circuit weight training (CWT) on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). The type and order of exercises were the same for both programs. The programs differed in three respects: a circuit approach as opposed to three sets of the same exercise; the percent of maximum weight used was 80 percent in SWT and 50 percent CWT; and rest periods were shorter for CWT (30 seconds) than SWT (120 seconds). This longer rest period resulted in a longer SWT program (50 minutes) than the CWT program (19 minutes). Ten untrained college men performed both weight-training programs. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was determined before each weight program, followed by a determination of EPOC. The magnitude and duration of EPOC produced by CWT were significantly (p < 0.01) greater than those produced by SWT. The EPOC produced by CWT was 20 minutes in duration with a net caloric cost estimated at 24.9 kilocalories, while that produced by SWT was 15 minutes in duration with an estimated net caloric cost of 13.5 kilocalories. The intensity of CWT (289 kilograms per minute) was also greater than that of SWT (106 kilograms per minute). It was concluded that the magnitude and duration of EPOC is greater for CWT in comparison to SWT and the EPOC produced by weight training is somewhat less than that found for aerobic exercise. (C) 1992 National Strength and Conditioning Association

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... O VO 2 se mantém elevado, acima dos níveis de repouso, após vários tipos de exercícios, entre os quais a caminhada em esteira rolante, bicicleta ergometria, e treinamento de força 5,6,14,15,19,20,23,[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33] . A literatura sugere que exercícios de força realizados em intensidades acima de 70% de 1RM apresentam maior magnitude de EPOC 28 . ...
... Intervalo de recuperação O tempo de recuperação entre séries e repetições parece afetar as respostas metabólicas após sessões de TF, sendo que a maioria dos estudos utilizou intervalos de 1 e 2 minutos 14,20,23,[26][27][28]30 , com resultados variados. ...
... No TF, por não haver estado de equilíbrio em razão do aumento abrupto da produção de CO 2 por consequência da hiperventilação, o que ocasiona um RER não verdadeiro com valores acima de 1, vários autores 5,6,8,20,27,30,32 O desempenho no TF de alta intensidade é dependente do metabolismo anaeróbio de fosfocreatina e glicogênio para a produção de energia, levando a uma depleção dos estoques de glicogênio 25 , o que acaba por incrementar a taxa de oxidação de gorduras. ...
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The present study reviews the results reported in the literature regarding energy expenditure in strength training (ST). For this purpose, a search was conducted in the Medline and Sport Discus databases using the following key words: strength training, energy expenditure, and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). The studies analyzed report that ST protocols involving exercises for the major muscle groups characterized by high-intensity and high-volume training and low resting intervals between sets and exercises have a greater metabolic impact on ST. These variables also interfere with the magnitude and duration of EPOC.
... Autores como Murphy e Schwarzkop (16) , por exemplo, aferiram a taxa metabólica de repouso em 5 min, enquanto outros como Ratamess et al. (17) fizeram-no em 30 min. O critério adotado para estabelecer o dispêndio energético proveniente do ECR também não é padronizado: alguns relatam o gasto calórico total da sessão, que inclui a mensuração do consumo de oxigênio durante o exercício somado ao EPOC (17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25) , outros apenas mensuram o EPOC (9,14,15,(26)(27)(28) ou nem isso, não considerando o período de recuperação pós-exercício para o cálculo do gasto calórico total da sessão (8,29) . ...
... O critério adotado para estabelecer o dispêndio energético proveniente do ECR também não é padronizado: alguns relatam o gasto calórico total da sessão, que inclui a mensuração do consumo de oxigênio durante o exercício somado ao EPOC (17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25) , outros apenas mensuram o EPOC (9,14,15,(26)(27)(28) ou nem isso, não considerando o período de recuperação pós-exercício para o cálculo do gasto calórico total da sessão (8,29) . Dentre os métodos de prescrição do treinamento, foram testadas as influências de trabalhos em circuito e em séries consecutivas (16,19,22) , manipulando-se o número de séries (23,24) , a intensidade (16,17,20,26,27) , o intervalo de recuperação entre séries e exercícios (17,19) , a velocidade da contração muscular (14,20,21) e a ordem dos exercícios (15) . ...
... O critério adotado para estabelecer o dispêndio energético proveniente do ECR também não é padronizado: alguns relatam o gasto calórico total da sessão, que inclui a mensuração do consumo de oxigênio durante o exercício somado ao EPOC (17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25) , outros apenas mensuram o EPOC (9,14,15,(26)(27)(28) ou nem isso, não considerando o período de recuperação pós-exercício para o cálculo do gasto calórico total da sessão (8,29) . Dentre os métodos de prescrição do treinamento, foram testadas as influências de trabalhos em circuito e em séries consecutivas (16,19,22) , manipulando-se o número de séries (23,24) , a intensidade (16,17,20,26,27) , o intervalo de recuperação entre séries e exercícios (17,19) , a velocidade da contração muscular (14,20,21) e a ordem dos exercícios (15) . ...
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Resistance training (RT) may influence resting metabolic rate (RMR) increase. There is a consensus that the volume of the RT session may produce higher caloric expenditure and that the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) may vary according to the characteristics of the exercise program. However, it is not possible yet to define which prescription variables have greater impact on the EPOC. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the studies that investigated the relationship between EPOC and training variables. A total of 17 studies were selected, being organized according to treatment similarity (number of sets, intensity, rest interval, speed of muscle contraction and exercise order). Descriptive statistical techniques were used to establish possible tendency in dose-response relationships. Subsequently, data were qualitatively analyzed. The available evidence suggested that a short rest interval and the circuit training prescription mode had the greatest impact on the EPOC magnitude. As for the other variables, it was not possible to establish any tendency due to methodological limitations, especially concerning EPOC duration. In addition, it seems to be necessary to standardize important aspects of the EPOC assessing, such as the period of observation after exercise and criteria for measuring RMR.
... Another commonly used system is ''circuit training'' (CT), which is characterized by several strength exercises performed one after the other with a minimum of rest (15-30 s) while alternating muscle groups. Information regarding the EPOC resulting from this training system is limited (15,28). Halton et al. (15) compared 2 rest intervals (20 and 60 s) between sets, resulting in different workout durations, whereas Murphy and Schwarzkopf (28) compared different loads (50% and 80% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and different rest intervals (30 and 120 s), resulting in different total work levels and workout durations. ...
... Many previous studies have found significant differences in the EPOC when more intense strength exercise sessions were compared with less intense sessions (12,28,29,35). Increases in the intensity of the training session produced by the manipulation of load (percent of 1RM) (12,28,29,35), interval between sets (12,15,28), variation of the exercise velocity (17), number of repetitions (12,28), and number of sets (12,14) appear to influence the magnitude of the EPOC. ...
... Many previous studies have found significant differences in the EPOC when more intense strength exercise sessions were compared with less intense sessions (12,28,29,35). Increases in the intensity of the training session produced by the manipulation of load (percent of 1RM) (12,28,29,35), interval between sets (12,15,28), variation of the exercise velocity (17), number of repetitions (12,28), and number of sets (12,14) appear to influence the magnitude of the EPOC. In our study, the duration of the session, the exercise velocity, the number of sets, the number of repetitions, and the recovery interval were controlled so that only the ''system'' was different. ...
Article
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Although many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of strength training in increasing energetic expenditure (EE) both during and after training sessions, there are no studies available that analyze the influence on EE of the order in which exercises are performed. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to verify whether the order in which exercises are performed, represented by 2 different methods of strength training (circuit [CT] and pre-exhaustion [PE]), influences the magnitude of the excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) as well as the EE. Eight nonstrength-trained women participated in the study. Two strength training sessions, with different orders of execution, were held with 7 exercises performed with loads of between 50% and 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). The oxygen uptake was measured before the training sessions, and the difference between the values found was taken as the EPOC of each training session and used in later analysis. No significant differences were found in either the EPOC (CT: 7.19 L +/- 6.17 an. PE: 7.22 +/- 5.84 L) or the postexercise EE (CT: 34.67 +/- 29.76 Kcal, PE: 34.77 +/- 28.15 Kcal) of the 2 training methodologies. Our results indicate that, in strength training, the magnitude of the EPOC is not linked to the order in which the exercises are performed. However, the absence of recovery periods between the sets and the exercises promotes an increase in the magnitude of the EPOC to the levels found in training sessions with higher percentages of 1RM.
... Exercise mode, intensity, duration, and recovery (type and time) are all essential factors affecting the total quantity of kilojoules expended (exercise EE and postexercise EE) (2,8,11,13,26). One commonly adopted mode of exercise is resistance training, because of its capacity to increase muscle mass, strength, and endurance (3,5,7,13,17,(20)(21)(22)(23)(24). In this regard, aerobic-based exercise and low-to moderate-intensity resistance exercise are commonly recommended for weight loss (24,26). ...
... In this regard, aerobic-based exercise and low-to moderate-intensity resistance exercise are commonly recommended for weight loss (24,26). In addition, high-intensity resistance exercise increases total EE, particularly by enhancing the postexercise EE (7,21,22,24,26). However, not all methods of resistance training (i.e., traditional, circuit, and superset) are likely to produce the same total EE. ...
... During rest periods, between sets of fatiguing contractions, increased EE is associated with repletion of muscular energy substrates, elevated body temperature, and altered hormone release (5). Circuit training is another method of resistance training that incorporates different exercises in succession with the same duration or shorter rest periods than commonly employed in TRAD (15,22). Compared with TRAD, this method of training attempts to increase exercise intensity (defined by work per time) by shortening systemic rest duration between sets. ...
Article
An acute bout of traditional resistance training (TRAD) increases energy expenditure (EE) both during exercise and in the postexercise period. Reciprocal supersets (SUPERs) are a method of resistance training that alternates multiple sets of high-intensity agonist-antagonist muscle groups with limited recovery. The purpose of this study was to compare the energy cost of SUPERs and TRAD both during and in the postexercise period. We hypothesized that SUPERs would produce greater exercise EE relative to the duration of exercise time and greater excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) than TRAD of matched work. Ten recreationally active, young men each participated in 2 exercise protocols: SUPER, followed 1 week later by TRAD matched within using a 10-repetition maximum load for 6 exercises, 4 sets, and repetitions. Participants were measured for oxygen consumption and blood lactate concentration during exercise and 60 minutes postexercise after each exercise bout. No significant differences were observed in aerobic exercise EE between trials (SUPER 1,009.99 +/- 71.42 kJ; TRAD 954.49 +/- 83.31 kJ); however, when expressed relative to time, the exercise EE was significantly greater during SUPER (34.70 +/- 2.97 kJ.min) than TRAD (26.28 +/- 2.43 kJ.min). Excess postexercise oxygen consumption was significantly greater after SUPER (79.36 +/- 7.49 kJ) over TRAD (59.67 +/- 8.37 kJ). Average blood lactate measures were significantly greater during SUPER (5.1 +/- 0.9 mmol.L) than during TRAD (3.8 +/- 0.6 mmol.L). Reciprocal supersets produced greater exercise kJ.min, blood lactate, and EPOC than did TRAD. Incorporating this method of resistance exercise may benefit exercisers attempting to increase EE and have a fixed exercise volume with limited exercise time available.
... A intensidade variou entre 25 e 85% de 1RM (HUNTER et al., 2003;THORNTON e POTTEIGER, 2002), sendo a moda 75% de 1RM. O método de treinamento mais utilizado foi o de séries múltiplas (75%) (ELLIOT et al., 1992;MURPHY e SCHWARZKOPF, 1992;MELBY et al., 1993;DOLEZAL et al., 2000;BINZEN et al., 2001;THORNTON e POTTEIGER, 2002;HUNTER et al., 2003;JAMURTAS et al., 2004;HADDOCK e WILKIN, 2005;MELANSON et al., 2005;RATAMESS et al., 2007), seguido do método em circuito (47,5%) (ELLIOT et al., 1992;MURPHY e SCHWARZKOPF, 1992;OLDS e ABENERTHY, 1993;HALTOM et al., 1999;SCHUENKE et al., 2002;HADDOCK e WILKIN, 2005;ORMSBEE et al., 2007) e superslow (12%) (HUNTER et al., 2003;BINZEN et al., 2001;DOLEZAL et al., 2000). O intervalo de recuperação entre séries e exercícios variou entre 20 seg (HALTOM et al., 1999) e 5 min (RATAMESS et al., 2007), sendo a moda de 1min. ...
... A intensidade variou entre 25 e 85% de 1RM (HUNTER et al., 2003;THORNTON e POTTEIGER, 2002), sendo a moda 75% de 1RM. O método de treinamento mais utilizado foi o de séries múltiplas (75%) (ELLIOT et al., 1992;MURPHY e SCHWARZKOPF, 1992;MELBY et al., 1993;DOLEZAL et al., 2000;BINZEN et al., 2001;THORNTON e POTTEIGER, 2002;HUNTER et al., 2003;JAMURTAS et al., 2004;HADDOCK e WILKIN, 2005;MELANSON et al., 2005;RATAMESS et al., 2007), seguido do método em circuito (47,5%) (ELLIOT et al., 1992;MURPHY e SCHWARZKOPF, 1992;OLDS e ABENERTHY, 1993;HALTOM et al., 1999;SCHUENKE et al., 2002;HADDOCK e WILKIN, 2005;ORMSBEE et al., 2007) e superslow (12%) (HUNTER et al., 2003;BINZEN et al., 2001;DOLEZAL et al., 2000). O intervalo de recuperação entre séries e exercícios variou entre 20 seg (HALTOM et al., 1999) e 5 min (RATAMESS et al., 2007), sendo a moda de 1min. ...
... Em desenho experimental sofisticado,Schuenke et al. (2002)São muitas as inconsistências em relação aos desenhos experimentais adotados pelos estudos que se propuseram a observar o EPOC em sessões de ECR. Alguns estudos buscam controlar a dieta pré-exercício e durante o período de observação (DOLEZAL et al., 2000) enquanto outros não realizaram o controle nas subseqüentes medidas do EPOC (ELLIOT et al., 1992;OLDS e ABENERTHY, 1993;MURPHY e SCHWARZKOPF, 1992;HALTOM et al., 1999;HUNTER et al., 2003;KANG et al., 2005;FARINATTI et al., 2008). A medida da taxa metabólica de repouso (TMR) tem sido medida por diferentes períodos, variando de 5 minutos (MURPHY e SCHWARZKOP, 1993) à 30 minutos (ORMSBEE et al., 2007). ...
... Autores como Murphy e Schwarzkop (16) , por exemplo, aferiram a taxa metabólica de repouso em 5 min, enquanto outros como Ratamess et al. (17) fizeram-no em 30 min. O critério adotado para estabelecer o dispêndio energético proveniente do ECR também não é padronizado: alguns relatam o gasto calórico total da sessão, que inclui a mensuração do consumo de oxigênio durante o exercício somado ao EPOC (17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25) , outros apenas mensuram o EPOC (9,14,15,(26)(27)(28) ou nem isso, não considerando o período de recuperação pós-exercício para o cálculo do gasto calórico total da sessão (8,29) . ...
... O critério adotado para estabelecer o dispêndio energético proveniente do ECR também não é padronizado: alguns relatam o gasto calórico total da sessão, que inclui a mensuração do consumo de oxigênio durante o exercício somado ao EPOC (17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25) , outros apenas mensuram o EPOC (9,14,15,(26)(27)(28) ou nem isso, não considerando o período de recuperação pós-exercício para o cálculo do gasto calórico total da sessão (8,29) . Dentre os métodos de prescrição do treinamento, foram testadas as influências de trabalhos em circuito e em séries consecutivas (16,19,22) , manipulando-se o número de séries (23,24) , a intensidade (16,17,20,26,27) , o intervalo de recuperação entre séries e exercícios (17,19) , a velocidade da contração muscular (14,20,21) e a ordem dos exercícios (15) . ...
... O critério adotado para estabelecer o dispêndio energético proveniente do ECR também não é padronizado: alguns relatam o gasto calórico total da sessão, que inclui a mensuração do consumo de oxigênio durante o exercício somado ao EPOC (17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25) , outros apenas mensuram o EPOC (9,14,15,(26)(27)(28) ou nem isso, não considerando o período de recuperação pós-exercício para o cálculo do gasto calórico total da sessão (8,29) . Dentre os métodos de prescrição do treinamento, foram testadas as influências de trabalhos em circuito e em séries consecutivas (16,19,22) , manipulando-se o número de séries (23,24) , a intensidade (16,17,20,26,27) , o intervalo de recuperação entre séries e exercícios (17,19) , a velocidade da contração muscular (14,20,21) e a ordem dos exercícios (15) . ...
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O exercício contra-resistência (ECR) pode contribuir para o aumento da taxa metabólica de repouso (TMR). É consenso na literatura que o volume da sessão de ECR pode repercutir em maior gasto calórico e que, após o exercício, o consumo de oxigênio em excesso (EPOC) pode variar de acordo com a característica do programa de exercício. Contudo, ainda não é possível definir qual ou quais variáveis de prescrição têm maior impacto sobre o EPOC em sessões de ECR. O objetivo do estudo foi efetuar uma revisão sistemática sobre os estudos que se propuseram a investigar as relações entre o EPOC e variáveis de treinamento em ECR. Os 17 estudos selecionados foram agrupados por similaridade de tratamento (número de séries, intensidade, intervalos de recuperação, velocidade da contração muscular e ordem dos exercícios). Técnicas de estatística descritiva foram utilizadas na tentativa de estabelecer possíveis tendências nas relações dose-resposta. Posteriormente, os dados foram analisados de forma qualitativa. De todas as variáveis analisadas, o curto intervalo de recuperação e o modo de prescrição no formato em circuito foram aquelas com maior impacto provável sobre a magnitude do EPOC. Quanto às demais variáveis, limitações metodológicas não permitem estabelecer tendências, principalmente no tocante à duração do EPOC. Adicionalmente, constata-se a necessidade de padronização de aspectos importantes para a quantificação do EPOC, como o tempo de observação do após o exercício e a forma de aferição da TMR.
... A literatura disponível neste âmbito não tem contrastado os diferentes modos de exercício. De facto, só nos estudos de Darlene Sedlock (1991, 1992 Uma análise mais aprofundada a todo este quadro conceptual permite realizar as considerações seguintes. A intensidade do exercício utilizada nestes dois estudos foi de 60% e de 60%-65% do ̇ 2 á . ...
... No tapete, foi de 0,65±0,05 g.min -1 e ocorreu a 59,2±2,8% do ̇ 2 á . . Glass et al. (1999) Os factores que maior influência parecem ter no EPOC são a intensidade do exercício (Sedlock et al., 1989;Bahr e Sejersted, 1991b;Chad e Quigley, 1991;Olds e Abernethy, 1993;Dawson et al., 1996;Laforgia et al., 1997;Short e Sedlock, 1997;Lee et al., 1999;Hancock e Gleeson, 2002;Tanaka et al., 2005), a duração do exercício (Bahr et al., 1987;Sedlock et al., 1989;Lee et al., 1999;Hancock e Gleeson, 2002;Imamura et al., 2004), o modo de exercício (Elliot et al., 1992;Murphy e Schwarzkopf, 1992: Burleson et al., 1998Haltom et al., 1999;Crommett e Kinzey, 2004;Braun et al., 2005;Drummond et al., 2005), o nível de treino (Brehm e Gutin, 1986;Chad e Quigley, 1991;Sedlock, 1994;Bell et al., 1997;Short e Sedlock, 1997;Gmada et al., 2004), a condição nutricional (Bahr e Sejersted, 1991a;Bahr, 1992;Lee et al., 1999;Fukuba et al., 2000;Bosher et al., 2004;Crommett e Kinzey, 2004) e temperatura corporal central (Neary et al., 1993). Por outro lado, o género (Sedlock, 1993;Horton et al., 1998), o tipo de exercício 23 (Laforgia et al., 1997;Almuzaini et al., 1998;Brown et al., 2003;McGarvey et al., 2005;Lyons et al., 2006;Ratamess et al., 2007), os diferentes tipos de recuperação 24 , o ciclo menstrual (Matsuo et al., 1999) Deste conjunto alargado de factores, a intensidade do exercício é o que parece ser mais determinante para a magnitude e para a duração do EPOC (Gore e Withers, 1990a;1990b;Bahr e Sejersted, 1991b;Begley et al., 1991). ...
... Ou seja, a componente rápida do EPOC é a que maior contributo tem para o EPOC total (Short e Sedlock McGarvey et al., 2005).A influência do modo de exercício no EPOC está explorada na literatura de forma um pouco desequilibrada. De facto, a maior parte da literatura centra-se na comparação de diferentes formas de treino de força(Murphy e Schwarzkopf, 1992;Haltom et al., 1999), na comparação entre treino de força e exercício aeróbio(Elliot et al., 1992;Burleson et al., 1998; Crommett e Kinzey, 2004;Braun et al., 2005; Drummond et al., 2005) e na comparação da ordem de execução do trabalho de força e do exercício aeróbio (Drummond et al., 2005). De uma forma geral, durações superiores do EPOC têm sido associadas ao treino de força, comparativamente ao exercício aeróbio de intensidade moderada (para refs. ...
... Most of these studies attempted to match energy expenditure, intensity of exercise, and/or duration of exercise to determine which form of training would be more costly metabolically. Some researchers compared resistance training protocols, often comparing standard weight training protocols (multiple sets of 1 exercise are completed before moving to another exercise) with circuit training protocols (1 set of all exercises are completed before an exercise is repeated) [81,82]. The research conducted until recently utilized protocols with relatively low to moderate total loads and showed little or no sustained EPOC beyond the first few hours following an acute bout of resistance training [21,[82][83][84]. ...
... Some researchers compared resistance training protocols, often comparing standard weight training protocols (multiple sets of 1 exercise are completed before moving to another exercise) with circuit training protocols (1 set of all exercises are completed before an exercise is repeated) [81,82]. The research conducted until recently utilized protocols with relatively low to moderate total loads and showed little or no sustained EPOC beyond the first few hours following an acute bout of resistance training [21,[82][83][84]. New research using relatively higher loads and intensities have shown significantly greater EPOC values for as long as 48 hours following the acute bouts of resistance training [23][24][25]. ...
... Murphy and Schwarzkopf [82] examined the effects of resistance training protocols on EPOC using CWT and a 3 set standard weight training protocol (SWT). Ten untrained college aged males, average age 23.6 ± 3.9 years completed both protocols in random order. ...
Article
Although there are limited data to support significant increases in resting metabolic rate (RMR) following resistance training, recent investigations have shown excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) to be significantly elevated above baseline for up to 72 hours in untrained and trained men. PURPOSE: To compare the effects of two acute bouts of resistance exercise of differing loads on EPOC. METHODS: Eight experienced resistance trained males (22 ± 3 yrs.) were recruited to participate in this investigation. Subjects participated in two randomized acute resistance training bouts separated by at least one week with a total volume of weight lifted of 10,000 kg and 20,000 kg. A high intensity lifting protocol was used with subjects lifting approximately 85% of their repetition maximum for each of the following 4 lifts; bench press, barbell squat, barbell row and Romanian deadlift. Exercise energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured by indirect calorimetry during both exercise bouts and for 30 minutes approximately 8.5 and 1.5 hours prior to each acute bout of exercise (baseline measurements) and again approximately 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours following exercise. Creatine kinase and ratings of perceived muscle soreness were measured with all post exercise metabolic measurements and immediately prior to and post exercise. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze dependent measures. Significance was accepted at p
... En ejercicios con cargas, la du ración y magnitud del EPOC también parece depender de la intens idad del mis mo. En ejercici os de bajas cargas y pocas repeticiones (por debajo del 70% de 1 RM y por debajo de 3 series de 10 repeticiones), la duración del EPOC era inferior a una hora, con una magnit ud entre 4 y 10 litros de VO2 (Binzen et al. , 2001;Elliot et al., 1992;CL Melby, Tincknell, & Schmidt, 1992;Murphy & Schwarzkopf, 1992;Olds & Abernethy, 1993). En ejercicios con altas cargas y altas repeticiones (por encima de 75% de 1RM), se objetivaba un aum ento del VO2 y del RM R hast a las 38 horas después del esfuerzo (C. ...
... ;Murphy & Schwarzkopf, 1992; Os terberg & Melby, 2000;Thornton & Potteiger, 2002).Por otro lado, algunos autores han comparado la magnitud del EPOC en ejercicios de fuerza con respecto a ej ercicios aeróbicos c on similar c oste energético, encontrándose un EPOC de mayo r magnitud en los ejercicios de fuerza (Burlenson Jr, O´Bry ant, Stone, Collins, & Triple tt-McBride, 1998; Elliot et al., 1992; G. Gilette, R. Bullough, & C. ...
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El objetivo del estudio es conocer los valores ergoespirométricos de los futbolistas profesionales durante el esfuerzo máximo y la recuperación y comparar si existen diferencias significativas entre los diferentes puestos y entre jugadores de distinta categoría. Realizamos una prueba de esfuerzo directa en tapiz rodante, utilizando un protocolo incremental de velocidad a pendiente fija. (2Km.h-1,1%) cada dos minutos, hasta el agotamiento. La muestra está compuesta por 194 futbolistas profesionales varones de diferentes equipos de la liga de fútbol española. Ciento catorce jugadores pertenecían a equipos de primera división y ochenta a equipos de segunda división. La edad media era de 24,7 años. El consumo máximo de oxígeno obtenido es similar en todos los futbolistas profesionales independientemente de la categoría, sin embargo es mayor en los centrocampistas y significativamente inferior en los porteros. El porcentaje del umbral aeróbico y anaeróbico medido al inicio de la temporada era similar en todos los futbolistas, independientemente del puesto y la categoría. Los jugadores de segunda división tienen un consumo de oxígeno y una frecuencia cardiaca significativamente superior a los jugadores de primera división a los 3 minutos de recuperación. La ventilación también es mayor aunque sin diferencias significativas. La diferencia en los parámetros de recuperación entre las categorías, puede ser uno de los factores que sugieran una diferencia en el rendimiento en deportes que precisen esfuerzos intermitentes.
... Considering that acute metabolic responses to resistance training have important ramifications to induce changes in body composition and muscular endurance, it is necessary to quantify these responses during resistance training. In this context, some previous studies have investigated the isolated influence of specific training variables on the EE, as the muscle mass involved (15,30), session format (circuit or consecutive sets) (8,11,23,40), number of sets (10,26), lifting velocities (13,21), workload (13,16,23,37), training volume (16), and exercise ordering (9). ...
... Considering that acute metabolic responses to resistance training have important ramifications to induce changes in body composition and muscular endurance, it is necessary to quantify these responses during resistance training. In this context, some previous studies have investigated the isolated influence of specific training variables on the EE, as the muscle mass involved (15,30), session format (circuit or consecutive sets) (8,11,23,40), number of sets (10,26), lifting velocities (13,21), workload (13,16,23,37), training volume (16), and exercise ordering (9). ...
Article
Farinatti, PTV and Castinheiras Neto, AG. The effect of between-set rest intervals on the oxygen uptake during and after resistance exercise sessions performed with large and small-muscle mass. J Strength Cond Res 25(11): 3181–3190, 2011—Between-set rest intervals (RIs) may influence accumu-lated fatigue, work volume, and therefore oxygen uptake (_ VO 2) and energy expenditure (EE) during resistance training. The study investigated the effects of different RIs on _ VO 2 and EE in resistance exercises performed with multiple sets and recruiting large and small-muscle mass. Ten healthy men performed 4 randomized protocols (5 sets of 10 repetitions with 15 repetition maximum workloads in either horizontal leg press [LP] or chest fly [CF] with an RI of 1 and 3 minutes). The _ VO 2 was measured at rest, within sets, and during 90-minute post-exercise recovery (excess postexercise oxygen consumption [EPOC]). The EE was estimated from _ VO 2 net (total _ VO 2 2 rest _ VO 2). The _ VO 2 increased in all protocols, being higher within the exercises and during EPOC in the LP than in the CF regardless of the RI. The 1-minute RI induced higher accumulated _ VO 2 during LP (p , 0.05) but not during CF. The EPOC lasted approximately 40 minutes after LP1, LP3, and CF1, being longer than after CF3 (20 minutes, p , 0.05). Total EE was mainly influenced by muscle mass (p , 0.001) (LP3 = 91.1 6 13.5 kcal ; LP1 = 88.7 6 18.4 kcal . CF1 = 50.3 6 14.4 kcal ; CF3 = 54.1 6 12.0 kcal). In conclusion, total _ VO 2 was always higher in LP than in CF. Shortening RI enhanced the accumulated fatigue throughout sets only in LP and increased _ VO 2 in the initial few minutes of EPOC, whereas it did not influence total _ VO 2 and EE in both exercises. Therefore, (a) the role of RI in preventing early fatigue seems to be more important when large-muscle groups are recruited; (b) resistance exercises recruiting large-muscle mass induce higher EE because of a greater EPOC magnitude.
... This allows to understand many pertinent questions existing in literature. The shorter rest periods (20 vs 60 s) characteristic of circuit training result in higher EPOC, due to higher difficulty of recovery between sets (MURPHY; SCHWARZKOPF, 1992;HALTOM et al., 1999). Haltom et al. (1999) compared two similar training protocols (2 circuits of 8 exercises with 20 repetitions performed at 75% of a previously determined 20 repetition maximum) with different rest periods (20 and 60 s). ...
... However, the results can be explained from a different perspective. The studies where lower loads resulted in higher EPOC responses also reported higher W (MURPHY; SCHWARZKOPF, 1992;KANG et al., 2005). For the protocols presenting similar EPOC, the variations in intensity and total W may have been very small and not measurable (RATAMESS et al., 2007), or the different loads were equated by total W (OLDS; AB-ERNETHY, 1993). ...
... However, standard PE classes may not be a realistic requirement for full-time university students to encourage regular participation in sports and PA due to busy academic schedules and limited time to complete courses. Furthermore, the effectiveness of standard PE classes has also been questioned in the literature 19,20 . For instance, Podstawski et al. ...
Article
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of various forms of physical activity (PA) among female students in physical education (PE) programs offered by universities in Poland, Hungary, and the United Kingdom. Methods: Two hundred full-time female university students (mean age: 19.93±0.82) enrolled in various PA programs. The participants' anthropometric traits were measured, and their body composition parameters were determined with the InBody analyzer. Based on the students' physiological parameters, the effectiveness of various types of PA was measured with Suunto Ambit3 peak heart rate monitors during 60 minutes of physical exertion. Results: The average values of body mass index (BMI), body fat mass (BFM), percent body fat (PBF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), visceral fat level (VFL), and obesity degree were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who participated in jogging followed by sauna (JFBS), performed martial arts and attended general physical education (PE) classes. Physiological parameters were the highest in the martial art group, followed by JFBS and swimming groups, and they were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the values recorded in other PA groups (golf, aerobics, general PE classes, cycling, and individual training). Physiological parameters were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who played golf and trained individually. Conclusions: Martial arts, JFBS, and swimming were the most effective types of PA among female university students. Students performing martial arts and JFBS had relatively lower body fat levels, whereas students who practiced swimming had the highest body fat levels in the population sample.
... This increase of EPOC may explain the greater reduction of fat in the circuit group. This findings are similar to those of others authors that showed that higher intensity session produced higher EPOC than standard set exercise (12-15 repetitions) [29], moreover there are data demonstrating that repeated bouts of aerobic exercise can activate more effectively adipose tissue lipolysis than conventional aerobic training. ...
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Declines in maximal aerobic power and skeletal muscle force production with advancing age are examples of functional declines with aging, which can severely limit physical performance and independence, and are negatively correlated with all cause mortality. It is well known that both endurance exercise and resistance training can substantially improve physical fitness and health-related factors in older individuals. Circuit-based resistance training, where loads are lifted with minimal rest, may be a very effective strategy for increasing oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, strength, and functional capacity while improving body composition. In addition, circuit training is a time-efficient exercise modality that can elicit demonstrable improvements in health and physical fitness. Hence, it seems reasonable to identify the most effective combination of intensity, volume, work to rest ratio, weekly frequency and exercise sequence to promote neuromuscular, cardiorespiratory and body composition adaptations in the elderly. Thus, the purpose of this review was to summarize and update knowledge about the effects of circuit weight training in older adults and elderly population, as a starting point for developing future interventions that maintain a higher quality of life in people throughout their lifetime.
... Têm sido discrepantes ainda os resultados dos diversos estudos no que diz respeito à magnitude e duração do EPOC. Enquanto vários estudos demonstram que o EPOC pode permanecer por horas (4,5,7,(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15) , outros têm concluído que o EPOC é transitivo e mínimo (14,(16)(17)(18) . ...
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A crescente prevalência de obesidade e sobrepeso ressalta a necessidade de intervenções para reverter esse quadro. Nesse contexto, a atividade física pode contribuir com um efeito duplo, por meio de mudanças fisiológicas agudas e crônicas: na primeira condição encontra-se o gasto energético do exercício e recuperação (EPOC – consumo excessivo de oxigênio após o exercício), e na segunda encontra-se a taxa metabólica de repouso (TMR). Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho de revisão foi investigar o efeito do EPOC e da TMR como coadjuvantes nos programas de emagrecimento, buscando discutir os divergentes resultados encontrados na literatura, no que diz respeito à magnitude e duração do EPOC, bem como discutir o efeito do exercício na TMR. Os estudos demonstram, de forma geral, que o exercício de maior intensidade é capaz de promover maior EPOC, se comparado com um exercício de intensidade menor e, quando comparam o exercício resistido com o aeróbio, verifica-se maior EPOC no primeiro. Em relação às alterações da TMR, os resultados agudos mostram aumento significativo, porém os resultados em longo prazo são mais discrepantes, devido à dificuldade de mensurar essa variável, sem superestimá-la. Concluindo, a literatura aponta que a periodização de um treinamento que possa maximizar tanto o EPOC quanto a TMR podem ser importantes fatores para o emagrecimento e, embora, o custo energético dessas variáveis em uma sessão de exercício se mostre pequeno, em longo prazo poderá ser bastante significativo. No entanto, novos estudos deverão ser realizados com o intuito de confirmar essas evidências.
... Têm sido discrepantes ainda os resultados dos diversos estudos no que diz respeito à magnitude e duração do EPOC. Enquanto vários estudos demonstram que o EPOC pode permanecer por horas (4,5,7,(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15) , outros têm concluído que o EPOC é transitivo e mínimo (14,(16)(17)(18) . ...
Article
Full-text available
A crescente prevalência de obesidade e sobrepeso ressalta a necessidade de intervenções para reverter esse quadro. Nesse contexto, a atividade física pode contribuir com um efeito duplo, por meio de mudanças fisiológicas agudas e crônicas: na primeira condição encontra-se o gasto energético do exercício e recuperação (EPOC – consumo excessivo de oxigênio após o exercício), e na segunda encontra-se a taxa metabólica de repouso (TMR). Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho de revisão foi investigar o efeito do EPOC e da TMR como coadjuvantes nos programas de emagrecimento, buscando discutir os divergentes resultados encontrados na literatura, no que diz respeito à magnitude e duração do EPOC, bem como discutir o efeito do exercício na TMR. Os estudos demonstram, de forma geral, que o exercício de maior intensidade é capaz de promover maior EPOC, se comparado com um exercício de intensidade menor e, quando comparam o exercício resistido com o aeróbio, verifica-se maior EPOC no primeiro. Em relação às alterações da TMR, os resultados agudos mostram aumento significativo, porém os resultados em longo prazo são mais discrepantes, devido à dificuldade de mensurar essa variável, sem superestimá-la. Concluindo, a literatura aponta que a periodização de um treinamento que possa maximizar tanto o EPOC quanto a TMR podem ser importantes fatores para o emagrecimento e, embora, o custo energético dessas variáveis em uma sessão de exercício se mostre pequeno, em longo prazo poderá ser bastante significativo. No entanto, novos estudos deverão ser realizados com o intuito de confirmar essas evidências.
... Because differences in postexercise _ VO 2 between different types of exercise are more likely to occur in the first minutes of recovery and tend to be attenuated over time (5,17,28), data were examined to assess recovery _ VO 2 for the first 30 minutes. The accumulated _ VO 2 above resting values during this period in this study do corroborate data presented in previous studies (2,3,5,6,9,12,16,26,31,33,38) suggesting further similarities in oxygen consumption. ...
... Two-minute rest periods were given between sets. Studies using load-volumes ranging from 3,000 to 6,000 kg do not report significant elevations in EPOC beyond 90 minutes (24,34). Greater load-volumes of approximately 11,000 kg and higher have been shown to increase RMR for up to 48 hours postexercise (11,35). ...
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Recent investigations have shown excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) to be elevated for up to 48 hrs in both untrained and trained subjects following resistance training (RT). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of load-volume on EPOC. Eight (n = 8) trained males (22 ± 3 yrs.) participated in two randomized RT bouts separated by at least one wk with total load-volumes of 10,000 kg and 20,000 kg. Intensity of RT (85% 1RM) did not differ between trials. Exercise energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured by indirect calorimetry at 8.5 hr prior, 1.5 hr prior, and during RT bouts as well as 12, 24, 36, and 48 hr following exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured before and after RT, as well as 12, 24, 36, and 48 hr post-exercise; ratings of perceived muscle soreness (RPMS) were measured on a similar time course save the immediate post-exercise time point. ANOVA with repeated measures was used to analyze dependent variables. During the 20,000 kg trial subjects expended significantly (p < 0.01) more energy (484 ± 29 kcal) than the 10,000 kg lift (247 ± 18 kcal). Following the 20,000 kg lift, 12 hr post-exercise CK (1159 ± 729 U/L) was significantly elevated (p < 0.05) as compared to baseline (272 ± 280 U/L) and immediately post-exercise (490 ± 402 U/L). No significant time or trial differences were found in RMR between the 10,000 kg and 20,000 kg trials. In conclusion, high intensity RT with load-volumes of up to 20,000 kg using resistance trained males does not significantly increase EPOC above baseline RMR.
... Lastly, V E remained elevated throughout the post-exercise period whereas RER returned to pre-exercise levels within 15–20 min and tended to decrease. The 5REP results support previous research indicating RI length inXuences post-exercise VO 2 (Haltom et al. 1999; Murphy and Schwarzkopf 1992). Haltom and colleagues (1999) compared circuit training with 20-or 60-s RI and reported a »28% greater EPOC response over 1 h for 20-s. ...
... entre o MC e o MT [9][10][11] , porém até o presente momento, os resultados não são conclusivos, visto que, as investigações não padronizaram as condições testadas e a estimativa do GE, foi realizada exclusivamente pela medida do consumo de oxigênio (VO 2 ). Entretanto, tal técnica é capaz apenas de quantificar o GE aeróbio, e o TP, é uma atividade essencialmente anaeróbia com uma grande participação de processos glicolíticos anaeróbios. ...
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INTRODUCTION: The Weight training has been widely used as strategy of reduction and weight control, so the energy expenditure (EE) contributes significantly to this process. OBJECTIVE: To compare the acute effects of the circuit method (CM) with the traditional method (TM) on the EE. METHODS: This research had a randomized crossover design; the sample consisted of ten adult men recreationally trained aged between 18 to 29 years. There were two experimental sessions with seven-day wash out: in CM the exercises were performed by alternating segment in form of stations, during TM the exercises were performed in consecutive sets. Both training methods followed the same sequence of eight exercises with the same total work: 60% of 1RM, 24 sets/stations and ten repetitions. The collection of blood lactate was performed at rest and the every three sets/stations. The expired air was collected per 30 minutes before and ~31 minutes during all the training sessions. The aerobic exercise (AEEE, kj) and of rest interval (RIEE, kj) EEs were estimated by indirect calorimetry by measuring oxygen consumption and the anaerobic EE (AEE, kj) by blood lactate concentration ([La]). The total EE (TEE, kj) was recorded by the sum of AEE, RIEE and AEE. RESULTS: Data showed that the AEE was greater in TM than the CM; however, the AEEE, RIEE and the TEE were not significantly different between the methods. The TM presented higher [La] than the CM. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the CM and TM produces similar EE during and post-workout, however, one realizes that the TM uses more anaerobic system than the MC.
... entre o MC e o MT [9][10][11] , porém até o presente momento, os resultados não são conclusivos, visto que, as investigações não padronizaram as condições testadas e a estimativa do GE, foi realizada exclusivamente pela medida do consumo de oxigênio (VO 2 ). Entretanto, tal técnica é capaz apenas de quantificar o GE aeróbio, e o TP, é uma atividade essencialmente anaeróbia com uma grande participação de processos glicolíticos anaeróbios. ...
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INTRODUÇÃO: O treinamento com pesos vem sendo amplamente utilizado como estratégia de controle e redução ponderal, assim o gasto energético (GE) contribui de forma significativa para este processo. OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos agudos do método circuito (MC) com o método tradicional (MT) sobre o GE. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma pesquisa com delineamento crossover e aleatorizado, a amostra foi composta por 10 homens adultos treinados com idade entre 18 e 29 anos. Foram realizadas duas sessões experimentais com wash out de sete dias: no MC os exercícios foram realizados alternados por segmento em forma de estações, durante o MT os exercícios foram realizados em séries consecutivas. Ambos os métodos seguiram a mesma sequência de oito exercícios com o mesmo trabalho total: 60% de 1RM, 24 séries/estações e 10 repetições. O lactato sanguíneo foi coletado em repouso e a cada três séries/estações. O ar expirado foi coletado por 30 minutos antes e ~31 minutos durante todas as sessões de treinamento. O GE aeróbio de exercício (GEAE, kj) e do intervalo de recuperação (GEAIR, kj) foram estimados pela calorimetria indireta através da medida do consumo de oxigênio e o GE anaeróbio (GEA, kj) pela concentração de lactato sanguíneo ([La]). O GE total (GET, kj) foi registrado pelo somatório do GEA, GEAE e GEAIR. RESULTADOS: Os dados demonstraram que o GEA foi maior no MT do que o MC, no entanto, o GEAE, GEAIR e o GET não foram diferentes significativamente entre os métodos. O MT apresentou maior [La] do que o MC. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que o MC e o MT produzem similar GET, contudo, percebe-se que o MT utiliza mais a via anaeróbia do que o MC.
... Lastly, V E remained elevated throughout the post-exercise period whereas RER returned to pre-exercise levels within 15–20 min and tended to decrease. The 5REP results support previous research indicating RI length inXuences post-exercise VO 2 (Haltom et al. 1999; Murphy and Schwarzkopf 1992). Haltom and colleagues (1999) compared circuit training with 20-or 60-s RI and reported a »28% greater EPOC response over 1 h for 20-s. ...
... Mesmo com o grande potencial do TP para o controle ponderal, poucos estudos têm investigado um possível efeito anoréxico deste tipo de treinamento, e as poucas informações disponíveis são inconclusivas. Bromm et al. 10 verificaram que o TP promove supressão da fome após a realização de 10 exercícios com intensidade de 80% de 12 RM, entretanto Laan et al. 13 , Ballard et al. 14 e Balaguerra-Cortes et al. 15 não observaram nenhum efeito do TP sobre a fome dos seus praticantes, essa controvérsia pode ser, até certo ponto, explicada pelos diferentes protocolos de treinamento empregados, os quais variam quanto as variáveis agudas: ação muscular, número de séries e repetições, intensidade das cargas, velocidade de execução do movimento, intervalo de recuperação entre séries e exercícios, seleção e ordem dos exercícios, e frequência semanal, sendo relevante a compreensão desses fatores visto que, as características da sessão de treinamento induzem GE com magnitudes diferentes [16][17][18] . O entendimento dos fatores que influenciam o GE e a manutenção da massa corporal é de grande importância nos dias atuais, uma vez que o número de fisiopatologias associadas a distúrbios no balanço energético é crescente 19 . ...
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Este estudo verificou os efeitos de diferentes métodos de treinamento com pesos sobre a sensação de fome de homens fisicamente ativos. Amostra foi composta por 10 homens, com idades entre 18 e 29 anos. Foram realizadas duas sessões experimentais com wash out de sete dias: no MC os exercícios foram realizados alternados por segmento em forma de estações, enquanto que durante o MT os exercícios foram realizados em séries consecutivas. Ambos os métodos tiveram o mesmo trabalho total. A sensação de fome e perspectiva do consumo alimentar foram coletados nos momentos: basal, IAS e 1hora. Foi identificada diferença apenas entre os momentos (p0,05). Assim, conclui-se que os métodos de TP não alteraram a sensação de fome e a perspectiva de consumo alimentar, porém nota-se que a magnitude de elevação foi maior no MT. Palavras-chave: Treinamento de resistência; Fome; Ingestão alimentar.
... Even with the great potential of WT for weight control, few studies have investigated a possible anorexic effect of this type of training, and the limited information available are inconclusive. Bromm et al. 10 verified that the WT promotes hunger suppression after 10 exercises with intensity of 80% of 12 RM, however Laan et al. 13 , Ballard et al. 14 and Balaguerra-Cortes et al. 15 did not observe any effect of WT about the hunger of their adepts, this controversy can be, to some extent, explained by the different training protocols employed, which vary in the variables: muscular action, number of series and repetitions, intensity of the loads, speed of movement execution, rest interval between series and exercises, selection and the order of the exercises, and weekly frequency, being relevant to the understanding of these factors since that, the characteristics of the training session induce EE with different magnitudes [16][17][18] . The understanding of factors that influences the EE and the maintenance of body mass is of great importance in current days, since the number of several physiopathologies associated to disturbances in the energy balance is growing 19 . ...
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This study assessed the effects of different weight training (WT) on appetite feeling in trained men. The sample consisted of 10 men aged between 18 to 29 years old. There were two experimental sessions with a wash out of seven days: in the circuit weight training (CWT), exercises were performed by alternating segment in stations, while during the traditional method (TM) exercises were performed in consecutive series. Both methods had the same total workload. The perception of hunger and perspective of food intake were measured in moments: at baseline, after exercise and 1 hour. Differences only in feelings of hunger among moment (p>0.05) were showed, and there were not differences between methods or effect of interaction (p>0.05). Thus, we concluded that both training methods are not altering the feeling of hunger or perspective of food intake, however the magnitude to raise is higher in TM.
... Previous studies have shown that RE elicits a substantial PE response (3,9,27,32), and the response is greater than that of aerobic exercise (5,9,14). The interaction of the RE selection of exercises (and muscle-mass involvement), intensity, volume, and RI length between sets and exercises seems to govern the magnitude of the PE response (9,17,18,29), and the response may be greater with circuit-type protocols. Haltom et al. (18) compared circuit training with 20-or 60-second RI and reported a ;28% greater PE response over 1 hour for the 20-second protocol. ...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute cardiorespiratory and metabolic effects of a sandbag (SB) resistance exercise protocol and compare the responses to time-matched treadmill running protocols. Eight healthy, resistance-trained men (21.1 ± 1.0 years; 86.1 ± 7.8 kg) completed four protocols of equal duration in random sequence: 1) SB, 2) treadmill running at 60% of VO2 reserve (60VO2R), 3) treadmill running at 80% of VO2 reserve (80VO2R), and 4) a control protocol. The SB protocol was 16 min in duration and consisted of 3 circuits of 8 multiple-joint exercises (with 11-, 20-, or -48 kg sandbags) performed for as many repetitions as possible for 20 sec followed by a 10-sec rest interval prior to beginning the next exercise. Two minutes of rest was allowed between circuits. Breath-by-breath oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were recorded throughout each protocol and for 30 min post exercise (PE) and blood lactate was determined prior to and immediately following each protocol. Blood lactate was significantly higher following SB compared to 60VO2R and 80VO2R. Mean and peak HR in SB was significantly higher than 60VO2R but not different from 80VO2R. Mean VO2 and energy expenditure (EE) in SB was significantly lower than 60VO2R and 80VO2R during each protocol but significantly higher following SB compared to 60VO2R and 80VO2R PE. Compared to 60VO2R and 80VO2R, respiratory exchange ratio was significantly higher during SB and through 5 min PE, but was significantly lower at 25 to 30 min PE following SB. SB as performed in the present study provides a superior metabolic stimulus to treadmill running during the PE period; however, the SB results demonstrate inferior EE compared to running at 60VO2R and 80VO2R.
... Assisted and resisted training methods have been employed to concurrently increase swimming strength and speed (Dopsaj, 2000;Girold et al., 2006Girold et al., , 2007Girold et al., , 2008; Morrison et al., 2005;Patnott et al., 2003;Wright et al., 2009;Gołaś et al., 2016). Organized training that alternates heavy resistance and explosive loads is an alternative to programs that use standard organized sets (Murphy and Schwarzkopf, 1992), which apply a specific number of repetitions with the same load during a training session. In contrast, the flat pyramid-loading pattern provides maximum training benefits by providing the best neuromuscular adaptation for a given type of strength training by keeping the load within a single intensity level (Bompa et al., 2003). ...
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This study used a power rack device to evaluate the effects of 2 different approaches to resisted swim training loads on swimming strength and performance. Sixteen male, youth national-level swimmers (mean age, 16.22 ± 2.63 years; body height, 169 ± 10.20 cm; body mass, 61.33 ± 9.90 kg) completed a 6-week specific strength-training program, and were then randomly assigned to one of the two groups: a standard training group (GS, n = 8) and a flat pyramid-loading pattern group (GP, n = 8). Strength and power tests along with specific swimming tests (50-m crawl and 50-m competition-style time trials) were conducted at baseline (pre-test), before the third week (mid-test), and after 6 weeks of intervention (post-test). Isokinetic swim bench tests were conducted to obtain measurements of force production and power, and 1RM tests with the power rack system were conducted to measure the maximum drag load (MDL) and specific swimming power. Following 6 weeks of intervention, the mean MDL increased (p < 0.05) by 13.94%. Scores for the 50-m competition style and 50-m crawl time trials improved by 0.32% and 0.78%, respectively, in the GP; however, those changes were not statistically significant. The GS significantly increased their time in the 50-m competition style by 2.59%, and their isokinetic force production decreased by 14.47% (p < 0.05). The 6-week strength-training program performed with the power rack device in a pyramidal organization was more effective than a standard linear load organization in terms of producing improvements in the MDL; however, it did not produce significant improvements in performance. The use of a strength-training program with a pyramidal organization can be recommended for specific strength-training in young swimmers during a preparatory period. However, in our study, that program did not produce significant changes in 50-m crawl and main competition style performance.
... Assisted and resisted training methods have been employed to concurrently increase swimming strength and speed (Dopsaj, 2000;Girold et al., 2006Girold et al., , 2007Girold et al., , 2008; Morrison et al., 2005;Patnott et al., 2003;Wright et al., 2009;Gołaś et al., 2016). Organized training that alternates heavy resistance and explosive loads is an alternative to programs that use standard organized sets (Murphy and Schwarzkopf, 1992), which apply a specific number of repetitions with the same load during a training session. In contrast, the flat pyramid-loading pattern provides maximum training benefits by providing the best neuromuscular adaptation for a given type of strength training by keeping the load within a single intensity level (Bompa et al., 2003). ...
Article
This study used a power rack device to evaluate the effects of 2 different approaches to resisted swim training loads on swimming strength and performance. Sixteen male, youth national-level swimmers (mean age, 16.22 ± 2.63 years; body height, 169 ± 10.20 cm; body mass, 61.33 ± 9.90 kg) completed a 6-week specific strength-training program, and were then randomly assigned to one of the two groups: a standard training group (GS, n = 8) and a flat pyramid-loading pattern group (GP, n = 8). Strength and power tests along with specific swimming tests (50-m crawl and 50-m competition-style time trials) were conducted at baseline (pre-test), before the third week (mid-test), and after 6 weeks of intervention (post-test). Isokinetic swim bench tests were conducted to obtain measurements of force production and power, and 1RM tests with the power rack system were conducted to measure the maximum drag load (MDL) and specific swimming power. Following 6 weeks of intervention, the mean MDL increased (p < 0.05) by 13.94%. Scores for the 50-m competition style and 50-m crawl time trials improved by 0.32% and 0.78%, respectively, in the GP; however, those changes were not statistically significant. The GS significantly increased their time in the 50-m competition style by 2.59%, and their isokinetic force production decreased by 14.47% (p < 0.05). The 6-week strength-training program performed with the power rack device in a pyramidal organization was more effective than a standard linear load organization in terms of producing improvements in the MDL; however, it did not produce significant improvements in performance. The use of a strength-training program with a pyramidal organization can be recommended for specific strength-training in young swimmers during a preparatory period. However, in our study, that program did not produce significant changes in 50-m crawl and main competition style performance.
... However, standard PE classes may not be a realistic requirement for full-time university students to encourage regular participation in sports and PA due to busy academic schedules and limited time to complete courses. Furthermore, the effectiveness of standard PE classes has also been questioned in the literature 19,20 . For instance, Podstawski et al. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of various forms of physical activity (PA) among female students in physical education (PE) programs offered by universities in Poland, Hungary, and the United Kingdom. Methods: Two hundred full-time female university students (mean age: 19.93±0.82) enrolled in various PA programs. The participants’ anthropometric traits were measured, and their body composition parameters were determined with the InBody analyzer. Based on the students’ physiological parameters, the effectiveness of various types of PA was measured with Suunto Ambit3 peak heart rate monitors during 60 minutes of physical exertion. Results: The average values of body mass index (BMI), body fat mass (BFM), percent body fat (PBF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), visceral fat level (VFL), and obesity degree were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who participated in jogging followed by sauna (JFBS), performed martial arts and attended general physical education (PE) classes. Physiological parameters were the highest in the martial art group, followed by JFBS and swimming groups, and they were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the values recorded in other PA groups (golf, aerobics, general PE classes, cycling, and individual training). Physiological parameters were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who played golf and trained individually. Conclusions: Martial arts, JFBS, and swimming were the most effective types of PA among female university students. Students performing martial arts and JFBS had relatively lower body fat levels, whereas students who practiced swimming had the highest body fat levels in the population sample.
Article
Effect of weight training exercise and treadmill exercise on postexercise oxygen consumption. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 518-522, 1998. To compare the effect of weight training (WT) and treadmill (TM) exercise on postexercise oxygen consumption (VO2), 15 males (mean +/- SD) age = 22.7 +/- 1.6 yr; height = 175.0 +/- 6.2 cm; mass = 82.0 +/- 14.3 kg) performed a 27-min bout of WT and a 27-min bout of TM exercise at matched rates of VO2. WT consisted of performing two circuits of eight exercises at 60% of each subject's one repetition maximum with a work/rest ratio of 45 s/60 s. Approximately 5 d after WT each subject walked or jogged on the TM at a pace that elicited an average VO2 matched with his mean value during WT. VO2 was measured continuously during exercise and the first 30 min into recovery and at 60 and 90 min into recovery. VO2 during WT (1.58 L.min-1) and TM exercise (1.55 L.min-1) were not significantly (P > 0.05) different; thus the two activities were matched for VO2. Total oxygen consumption during the first 30 min of recovery was significantly higher (P < 0.05) as a result of WT (19.0 L) compared with that during TM exercise (12.7 L). However, VO2 values at 60 (0.32 vs 0.29 L.min-1), and 90 min (0.33 vs 0.30 L.min-1) were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between WT and TM exercise, respectively. The results suggest that, during the first 30 min following exercise. WT elicits a greater elevated postexercise VO2 than TM exercise when the two activities are performed at matched VO2 and equal durations. Therefore, total energy expenditure as a consequence of WT will be underestimated if based on exercise VO2 only.
This experiment investigated the effects of intensity of exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in eight trained men and eight women. Three exercise intensities were employed 40%, 50%, and 70% of the predetermined maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). All ventilation measured was undertaken with a standard, calibrated, open circuit spirometry system. No differences in the 40%, 50% and 70% VO2max trials were observed among resting levels of oxygen consumption (V02) for either the men or the women. The men had significantly higher resting VO2 values being 0.31 (SEM 0.01) 1·min−1 than did the women, 0.26 (SEM 0.01) 1·min−1 (P < 0.05). The results indicated that there were highly significant EPOC for both the men and the women during the 3-h postexercise period when compared with resting levels and that these were dependent upon the exercise intensity employed. The duration of EPOC differed between the men and the women but increased with exercise intensity: for the men 40% − 31.2 min; 50% − 42.1 min; and 70% − 47.6 min and for the women, 40% − 26.9 min; 50% − 35.6 min; and 70% − 39.1 min. The highest EPOC, in terms of both time and energy utilised was at 70% VO2max. The regression equation for the men, where y=O2 in litres, and x=exercise intensity as a percentage of maximum was y=0.380x + 1.9 (r 2=0.968) and for the women is y=0.374x−0.857 (r 2=0.825). These findings would indicate that the men and the women had to exercise at the same percentage of their VO2max to achieve the maximal benefits in terms of energy expenditure and hence body mass loss. However, it was shown that a significant EPOC can be achieved at moderate to low exercise intensities but without the same body mass loss and energy expenditure.
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The purpose of this study was to examine whether each exercise and an entire karate training session can achieve: 1) accepted training intensity thresholds for effective aerobic capacity training, 2) energy expenditure (EE) thresholds for total body mass and fat weight loss, and 3) elevation in excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). We investigated physiological responses during five types of karate training: basic techniques without (S-Basics) and with (M-Basics) movements, sparring techniques without (TECH I) and with (TECH II) an opponent, and kata. The mean percent of maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2max) and HR (%HRmax) for S-Basics were below the accepted threshold (60% of HRmax or 50% of VO2max) and for M-Basics, TECH I and TECH II were above the threshold for increasing VO2max. For kata and the entire 70 min of karate training, the mean %HRmax were slightly above the threshold, and %VO2max were slightly below the threshold. The mean EPOC measured for 5 min immediately following 70 min of karate training did not differ from the resting VO2. The mean EE resulting from 70 min of karate exercise and EPOC were 2355.4+/-316.3 kJ and 38.8+/-32.7 kJ, respectively. Although the training intensity of karate exercises studied was moderate and the effects of karate training on EPOC were minimal, the mean value of EE was well above the accepted threshold for total body mass and fat weight loss.
Article
To compare the effect of low- and high-intensity resistance exercise of equal work output, on exercise and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Fourteen female subjects performed a no-exercise baseline control (CN), and nine exercises for two sets of 15 repetitions at 45% of their 8-RM during one session (LO) and two sets of 8 repetitions at 85% of their 8-RM during another session (HI). Measures for all three sessions included: heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (La) preexercise, immediately postexercise and 20 min, 60 min, and 120 min postexercise; and ventilation volume (VE), oxygen consumption (VO(2)), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during exercise and at intervals 0-20 min, 45-60 min, and 105-120 min postexercise. Exercise .VO(2) was not significantly different between HI and LO, but VE, [La], and HR were significantly greater for HI compared with LO. Exercise RER for HI (1.07 +/- 0.03 and LO (1.05 +/- 0.02) were significantly higher than CN (0.86 +/- 0.02), but there were no differences among conditions postexercise. EPOC was greater for HI compared with low at 0-20 min (HI,1.72 +/- 0.70 LO(2); LO, 0.9 +/- 0.65, LO(2)), 45-60 min (HI, 0.35 +/- 0.25 LO(2); LO, 0.14 +/- 0.19 LO2), and 105-120 min (HI, 0.22 +/- 0.22 LO(2); LO, 0.05 +/- 0.11, LO(2)). These data indicate that for resistance exercise bouts with an equated work volume, high-intensity exercise (85% 8-RM) will produce similar exercise oxygen consumption, with a greater EPOC magnitude and volume than low-intensity exercise (45% 8-RM).
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In the recovery period after exercise there is an increase in oxygen uptake termed the ‘excess post-exercise oxygen consumption’ (EPOC), consisting of a rapid and a prolonged component. While some studies have shown that EPOC may last for several hours after exercise, others have concluded that EPOC is transient and minimal. The conflicting results may be resolved if differences in exercise intensity and duration are considered, since this may affect the metabolic processes underlying EPOC. Accordingly, the absence of a sustained EPOC after exercise seems to be a consistent finding in studies with low exercise intensity and/or duration. The magnitude of EPOC after aerobic exercise clearly depends on both the duration and intensity of exercise. A curvilinear relationship between the magnitude of EPOC and the intensity of the exercise bout has been found, whereas the relationship between exercise duration and EPOC magnitude appears to be more linear, especially at higher intensities. Differences in exercise mode may potentially contribute to the discrepant findings of EPOC magnitude and duration. Studies with sufficient exercise challenges are needed to determine whether various aerobic exercise modes affect EPOC differently. The relationships between the intensity and duration of resistance exercise and the magnitude and duration of EPOC have not been determined, but a more prolonged and substantial EPOC has been found after hardversus moderate-resistance exercise. Thus, the intensity of resistance exercise seems to be of importance for EPOC. Lastly, training status and sex may also potentially influence EPOC magnitude, but this may be problematic to determine. Still, it appears that trained individuals have a more rapid return of post-exercise metabolism to resting levels after exercising at either the same relative or absolute work rate; however, studies after more strenuous exercise bouts are needed. It is not determined if there is a sex effect on EPOC. Finally, while some of the mechanisms underlying the more rapid EPOC are well known (replenishment of oxygen stores, adenosine triphosphate/creatine phosphate resynthesis, lactate removal, and increased body temperature, circulation and ventilation), less is known about the mechanisms underlying the prolonged EPOC component. A sustained increased circulation, ventilation and body temperature may contribute, but the cost of this is low. An increased rate of triglyceride/fatty acid cycling and a shift from carbohydrate to fat as substrate source are of importance for the prolonged EPOC component after exhaustive aerobic exercise. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying EPOC after resistance exercise.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare a low- and high-intensity resistance exercise session of equal work on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Ten African American (AA) overweight women performed a no-exercise control (CN) session, 3 sets of 9 resistance training exercises, for 15 repetitions (reps) at 45% of their 8-repetition maximum (RM) during 1 session (LO) and for 8 reps at 85% of their 8-RM during another session (HI). For each session heart rate (HR), ventilation volume (VE), oxygen consumption (VO₂), and respiratory exchange ratio, were collected continuously from 15 minutes pre exercise until 30 minutes post exercise. Blood lactate ([Lac]b) was collected pre, immediately post, 15 and 30 minutes post exercise. No significant differences were found between sessions for any pre-exercise measurements (p > 0.05). During exercise, there was no significant difference between the HI and LO sessions, as expected. The [Lac]b immediately post and 15-minute post were significantly higher in both HI and LO sessions compared with the CN session, however; no significant differences were found between the HI and LO sessions. Post-exercise HR for the HI session was significantly greater than the CN session (p = 0.006) but not different from the LO session. There were no significant differences in post-exercise VO₂ between the HI and LO sessions. A trend was observed between exercise sessions with EPOC for HI (1.26 ± 0.567 L·O2) vs. LO (0.870 ± 0.394 L·O2) sessions. These data suggest that resistance training at either a low or high intensity with an equated work volume will produce similar exercise and post-exercise oxygen consumption for AA overweight women. Both of these resistance training programs were well tolerated and could be used for sedentary populations without a preconditioning program.
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Circuit training is a very popular methodology in fitness program because it allows to join together cardiovascular and strength training. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological effects of circuit training performed at different intensities on body composition, strength and blood lactate in middle-aged subjects who had recently undergone only minimum physical training. Forty participants (aged 50-65) were assigned to a control group (CG) or to one of the three exercise treatment groups: Endurance Group (EG), Circuit-Low Intensity Group (CLG), Circuit-High Intensity Group (CHG). The three groups exercised three times per week, 50 min per session for 12 wk using EG (N.=10), CLG (N.=10) or CHG (N.=10). Pre- and post-training, participants Among the three groups, CHG showed the greatest reductions in body weight (BW), percentage of fat mass (FM), waistline, blood lactate (produced at 100 Watt during submaximal test) and greater improvement in 6RM in horizontal leg press and underhand cable pulldowns. The results obtained favored the conclusion that high-intensity exercise combined with endurance training in the circuit training technique is more effective than endurance training alone or low intensity circuit training in improving body composition, blood lactate, moreover CHG results in significantly greater strength increase compared to traditional circuit training.
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This study investigated the effect of acute caffeine (CAF) intake on postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after intense resistance training. Fourteen strength-trained men (mean ± SD age and mass =23.1 ± 4.2 yr and 83.4 ± 13.2 kg, respectively) who were caffeine users initially completed one-repetition maximum testing (1-RM) of four exercises: bench press, leg press, lat row, and shoulder press. On each of two days separated by one week, they completed four sets of each exercise to fatigue at 70-80% 1-RM, which was preceded by ingestion of CAF (6 mg/kg) or placebo. Pre-exercise, indirect calorimetry was used to assess energy expenditure for 35 min; this was repeated for 75 min postexercise while subjects remained seated in a quiet lab. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to examine differences in gas exchange variables across time and treatment. Results revealed that EPOC was significantly higher (P<0.05) with CAF (26.7 ± 4.1 L) compared to placebo (22.8 ± 3.8 L). With CAF ingestion, oxygen uptake was significantly higher (P<0.05) from 10 min pre-exercise to 70 min postexercise. Respiratory exchange ratio was significantly different (P<0.05) with CAF versus placebo. Caffeine intake increased total energy expenditure by 15% (P<0.05), but the additional calories burned was minimal (+27 kcal). Caffeine ingestion in individuals regularly completing rigorous resistance training significantly increases EPOC and energy expenditure pre-and post-exercise, yet the magnitude of this effect is relatively small.
Article
Concurrent training is a strategy employed in both general fitness and sports conditioning. The purpose of this study was to compare the responses of VO2 in different combinations of strength exercise with aerobic interval exercise. Eight men (23.6 ± 4.2 years, 178 ± 6.3 cm, 77 ± 7.9 kg, 7.67 ± 1.95% body fat) completed 3 combinations of strength training (ST) and aerobic training (AT) in a randomized order with a 7-day recovery period: AT before ST exercises, AT between 2 blocks of ST exercises, and AT after ST exercises. The ST comprised 4 exercises performed in 3 sets of 10 reps and 2 exercises, abdominal crunch and lumbar extension, performed in 3 sets of 30 and 20 reps, respectively. The AT consisted of a 20-minute interval cycling. There were no significant differences in the values of absolute or relative VO2, in the heart rate (HR) and in the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) when the 3 sessions (during + postexercise measurements) were compared (values are mean ± SD). Analyzing only ST in each session, differences were detected in the RER values (F = 4.714; p < 0.05; η2 = 0.308) between AT before ST and AT in the middle of ST (1.01 ± 0.97 vs. 1.11 ± 0.07, respectively). In all sequences, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the values of relative and absolute VO2 and HR, and a significant decrease in RER values (p < 0.05) from the first to the second part of the ST session. The values of absolute or relative VO2, HR, and RER did not vary significantly among the 3 sessions as compared with the AT after ST. These data support the hypothesis that ST and AT, when performed in sequence in the same session, do not seem to affect the overall oxygen consumption during the exercise session. Therefore, training sessions may incorporate both modalities without apparent impact on aerobic exercise.
Patients receiving -receptor antagonists for the treatment of hypertension frequently complain of impaired exercise tolerance. To determine whether these medications impair skeletal muscle contractile function, we measured isokinetic muscle function in ten healthy male cyclists receiving nebivolol (N), atenolol (A), propranolol (P) and the calcium channel antagonist diltiazem (D). The subjects performed standardized tests of muscle power on an isokinetic cycle ergometer following subacute ingestion of N, A, P, D and placebo (PL) in a double blind crossover trial. Subjects exercised maximally for 10 s at 90, 110, 120, 130 and 150 rpm with 2-min rest between sessions. Thereafter, they performed a 30-s fatigue test at 120 rpm. Resting heart rate was decreased 13.4%, 21.9% and 14.6% by N, A and P, respectively (P<0.05 vs PL). Resting systolic blood pressure was decreased 6.7% by A only (P < 0.05 vs PL). Peak power, average power and work done was not different among treatment groups at any crank velocity, nor was there any difference in total work done or rate of work decline in the 30-s test. We concluded from our study that peak isokinetic muscle power during maximal exercise of short duration is not affected by -blockade or the calcium antagonist diltiazem. Fatigue during -receptor antagonism would not appear therefore to be due to changes in the ability of skeletal muscle to produce peak power output during exercise of short duration.
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Objectives . Resistance training may influence the resting metabolic rate (RMR), which is desirable in weight management programs. However, its impact on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is yet to be defined. The study evaluated the contribution of resistance training variables to EPOC. Design . Studies published until November 2011 were systematically reviewed. Methods . MEDLINE , LILACS, SCIELO, Science Citation Index, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases were consulted. The methodological quality of studies was assessed by the PEDro 10-point scale. A total of 155 participants (54% men) aged between 20 ± 2 and 34 ± 14 years were observed by 16 studies (quality scores ranged from 5 to 7), which were organized according to treatment similarity (number of sets, intensity, rest interval, speed of movement, and exercise order). Results . Training volume seemed to influence both EPOC magnitude and duration, whereas workload influenced mostly the magnitude. Short rest intervals (
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From the several methodological prescription variables manipulations possibilities originated the various strength training (ST) methods or systems. The propose of the present study was to review the literature of original studies that analyzed the ST methods and systems, their methodologies and practical applications. Based on the analysis of 20 original studies we observed that the growing pyramidal method can be used as a progression from light to heavy loads as a preparation and/or "warming" to the use of high loads. Already the decreasing pyramidal method is justified for the need of reducing the load due to little readiness of energy sources when an interval among insufficient series for recovery is used. As well as in decreasing pyramidal method, the load reductions in dropset method have the purpose of outlining the fatigue, adapting the effort to the momentary muscular possibilities maintaining a work relatively heavy along more time. The circuit training results in greater energy expenditure and increased oxygen consumption after exercise than the traditional ST and can result in similar maximum strength and lean body mass gains. The agonist-antagonist method results in increased energy expenditure when compared to a conventional ST program and appears to be as efficient as alternated upper and lower body method to promote flexibility and strength gains. Even resulting in electromyographic activity reductions during the main exercise, the pre-exhaustion method promotes the achievement of a greater total volume of training when compared to the reverse order. And finally, the eccentric (negative system) training is efficient to promoted large strength and hypertrophy gains. In conclusion the ST methods and systems should be prescribed with care and caution to ensure the safety, quality and continuity of results.
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To understand the health benefits and practical application of a high-intensity circuit training exercise protocol.
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El deporte necesita de la ciencia para explicar los fenómenos que se producen en esta conducta humana, la praxis deportiva que se realiza en un colegio, en el club deportivo o en el gimnasio, bien sea organizada, bien de carácter libre, tiene lugar en una realidad que puede observarse y valorarse. Puesto que las ciencias reales adquieren sus conocimientos por medio de la experiencia (empirismo), también son denominadas ciencias empíricas. La realidad puede ser manipulada, por lo que la metodología científica tiene cabida en el hecho deportivo. La necesidad creciente del enfoque científico sobre la problemática del deporte, busca según Matveyev (2001) o Zhhelyakov (2001) un marco conceptual cuyo propósito sea descubrir los límites de las fuerzas físicas y psíquicas del hombre íntimamente ligadas con la reproducción de la actividad humana sometida al estímulo que representa el ejercicio físico realizado con sistematicidad y planificación. Un ejemplo típico de este complejo problema es la solución de las actividades de entrenamiento y de competiciones en el deporte de alto nivel. Los estudios científicos que se presentan en este libro son una muestra de la unión entre realidad y ciencia. Corresponden a tres memorias realizadas por los estudiantes del programa de doctorado “Rendimiento Deportivo” de la Universidad de Castilla la Mancha para la obtención del Diploma de Estudios Avanzados. En este libro el tercer capítulo fue escrito por Juan Jaime Arroyo-Toledo y tutorizado por el Dr. José Mª González Ravé, se estudió y comparó los cambios en fuerza y potencia especifica de nado de 2 distintas formas de organización de la sesión de entrenamiento de nado resistido usando el dispositivo Aquaforce; usando un entrenamiento lineal estándar y uno de entrenamiento piramidal doble analizando las modificaciones producidas sobre la Carga Máxima de Arrastra, Potencia Específica de Nado, fuerza y potencia en banco isocinético Swimmbench y mejor marca de 50 metros crol y estilo principal en el que participaron 16 nadadores de nivel nacional y regional de Castilla la Mancha.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different rest interval (RI) lengths on metabolic responses to the bench press. Eight resistance-trained men performed 10 randomized protocols [five sets of bench press with 75 or 85% of 1RM for ten (10REP) and five repetitions (5REP), respectively, using different RI (30 s, 1, 2, 3, 5 min)]. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured during exercise and for 30 min post exercise. For 30-s and 1-min RI: reductions (15–55%) in resistance and volume were observed (set 5 < 4 < 3 < 2 < 1). For 2-min RI: performance was maintained during the first two sets but was reduced by 8–29% during sets 3–5. For 3-min RI: a reduction was observed in volume where sets 4 and 5 were lower than sets 1–3 (∼21%). For 5-min RI: only a reduction in set 5 was observed. Mean VO2 and ventilation (V E) were progressively higher as RI length was shortened. VO2 area under the curve indicated 10REP > 5REP for all RI except 1-min. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was elevated similarly for each protocol. Post exercise, VO2, V E, and RER were elevated through 30 min. No differences between RI were observed following 10REP; however, VO2 after 30-s was higher than 2-, 3-, and 5-min and 1-min was higher than 5-min during 5REP. Fatigue rate was correlated (r = 0.30–0.49) to all metabolic variables. A continuum of performance reductions and metabolic responses were observed. The largest reductions in performance occurred with very short RI (<1 min), and performance was maintained during the first 3–4 sets when 3- and 5-min RI were used.