Accurate classification of childhood brain tumours by in vivo H-1 MRS - A multi-centre study

IBIME, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. Electronic address: .
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) (Impact Factor: 5.42). 10/2012; 49(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca.2012.09.003
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the accuracy of single-voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) as a non-invasive diagnostic aid for paediatric brain tumours in a multi-national study. Our hypotheses are (1) that automated classification based on (1)H MRS provides an accurate non-invasive diagnosis in multi-centre datasets and (2) using a protocol which increases the metabolite information improves the diagnostic accuracy.

Seventy-eight patients under 16 years old with histologically proven brain tumours from 10 international centres were investigated. Discrimination of 29 medulloblastomas, 11 ependymomas and 38 pilocytic astrocytomas (PILOAs) was evaluated. Single-voxel MRS was undertaken prior to diagnosis (1.5 T Point-Resolved Spectroscopy (PRESS), Proton Brain Exam (PROBE) or Stimulated Echo Acquisition Mode (STEAM), echo time (TE) 20-32 ms and 135-136 ms). MRS data were processed using two strategies, determination of metabolite concentrations using TARQUIN software and automatic feature extraction with Peak Integration (PI). Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was applied to this data to produce diagnostic classifiers. An evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy was performed based on resampling to measure the Balanced Accuracy Rate (BAR).

The accuracy of the diagnostic classifiers for discriminating the three tumour types was found to be high (BAR 0.98) when a combination of TE was used. The combination of both TEs significantly improved the classification performance (p<0.01, Tukey's test) compared with the use of one TE alone. Other tumour types were classified accurately as glial or primitive neuroectodermal (BAR 1.00).

(1)H MRS has excellent accuracy for the non-invasive diagnosis of common childhood brain tumours particularly if the metabolite information is maximised and should become part of routine clinical assessment for these children.

Download full-text


Available from: Daniel Monleón
  • Source
    • "Furthermore, and of particular relevance to retinoblastoma, is the demonstration that clinically important information may also be obtained noninvasively using in vivo MRS. This approach has been used to distinguish between different types of brain tumours and to predict survival of patients with these tumours (Orphanidou-Vlachou et al, 2013; Vicente et al, 2013; Wilson et al, 2013). In vivo MRS has also been used successfully to provide diagnostic and prognostic information about prostate, breast and pancreatic cancers (Yao et al, 2012; Selnaes et al, 2013; Vassiou et al, 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Tumour classification, based on histopathology or molecular pathology, is of value to predict tumour behaviour and to select appropriate treatment. In retinoblastoma, pathology information is not available at diagnosis and only exists for enucleated tumours. Alternative methods of tumour classification, using noninvasive techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are urgently required to guide treatment decisions at the time of diagnosis. Methods: High-resolution magic-angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS MRS) was undertaken on enucleated retinoblastomas. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of the HR-MAS MRS data was used to identify tumour subgroups. Individual metabolite concentrations were determined and were correlated with histopathological risk factors for each group. Results: Multivariate analysis identified three metabolic subgroups of retinoblastoma, with the most discriminatory metabolites being taurine, hypotaurine, total-choline and creatine. Metabolite concentrations correlated with specific histopathological features: taurine was correlated with differentiation, total-choline and phosphocholine with retrolaminar optic nerve invasion, and total lipids with necrosis. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that a metabolite-based classification of retinoblastoma can be obtained using ex vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and that the subgroups identified correlate with histopathological features. This result justifies future studies to validate the clinical relevance of these subgroups and highlights the potential of in vivo MRS as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for retinoblastoma patient stratification.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 8 September 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.318
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · British Journal of Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Imaging is a key component in the management of brain tumours, with MRI being the preferred modality for most clinical scenarios. However, although conventional MRI provides mainly structural information, such as tumour size and location, it leaves many important clinical questions, such as tumour type, aggressiveness and prognosis, unanswered. An increasing number of studies have shown that additional information can be obtained using functional imaging methods (which probe tissue properties), and that these techniques can give key information of clinical importance. These techniques include diffusion imaging, which can assess tissue structure, and perfusion imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which measures tissue metabolite profiles. Tumour metabolism can also be investigated using PET, with 18F-deoxyglucose being the most readily available tracer. This Review discusses these methods and the studies that have investigated their clinical use. A strong emphasis is placed on the measurement of quantitative parameters, which is a move away from the qualitative nature of conventional radiological reporting and presents major challenges, particularly for multicentre studies.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current challenge in automatic brain tumor classification based on MRS is the improvement of the robustness of the classification models that explicitly account for the probable breach of the independent and identically distributed conditions in the MRS data points. To contribute to this purpose, a new algorithm for the extraction of discriminant MRS features of brain tumors based on a functional approach is presented. Functional data analysis based on region segmentation (RSFDA) is based on the functional data analysis formalism using nonuniformly distributed B splines according to spectral regions that are highly correlated. An exhaustive characterization of the method is presented in this work using controlled and real scenarios. The performance of RSFDA was compared with other widely used feature extraction methods. In all simulated conditions, RSFDA was proven to be stable with respect to the number of variables selected and with respect to the classification performance against noise and baseline artifacts. Furthermore, with real multicenter datasets classification, RSFDA and peak integration (PI) obtained better performance than the other feature extraction methods used for comparison. Other advantages of the method proposed are its usefulness in selecting the optimal number of features for classification and its simplified functional representation of the spectra, which contributes to highlight the discriminative regions of the MR spectrum for each classification task. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · NMR in Biomedicine
Show more