Lymphedema is a pathologic condition that results from a disturbance of the lymphatic system, with localized fluid retention and tissue swelling. Primary lymphedema is a congenital disorder, caused by a malformation of lymph vessels or nodes. Major progress has been achieved in the radiologic diagnosis of patients affected by lymphedema. The ideal treatment of the affected limb should restore function and cosmetic appearance. Surgical treatment is an alternative method of controlling chronic lymphedema. Free lymph nodes autologous transplantation is a new approach for lymphatic reconstruction in hypoplastic forms of primary lymphedema. The transferred nodes pump extracellular liquid out of the affected limb and contain germinative cells that improve immune function.