An analysis of consumer demand for fruits in Sri Lanka. 1981-2010
Department of Agricultural Economics and Business Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Electronic address: . Appetite
(Impact Factor: 2.69).
10/2012; 60(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.09.017
Micronutrient deficiency has become a serious health concern in many countries and Sri Lanka is no exception. Inclusion of vegetables and fruits, which are rich in micronutrients, in the diet is considered as one of the most cost effective measures to alleviate such deficiencies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze consumer demand for fruits in Sri Lanka. The specific objectives are to: (i) describe the patterns of fruit consumption across various households groups (ii) document the changes that have taken place in the local fruit supply for meeting the changes in demand, and (iii) to estimate price and income effects of changes in fruit consumption during 1981-2010. The study was conducted using secondary data which were extracted from government publications. The analysis shows that banana, papaw, mangoes and pineapple are the major fruits consumed and the consumption levels of such fruits have been rising over the years. The urban households and the households in high-income deciles are found to be allocating a relatively higher proportion of their food expenditure on fruits. The country is self sufficient in most of the fruits and only a small portion is traded. The results of econometric estimations reveal large income effects and relatively small price effects. A larger role for income based interventions as opposed to price based interventions to improve fruit consumption in Sri Lanka is evident from the results.
Available from: Amanda Lee
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ABSTRACT: INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support) aims to monitor and benchmark the healthiness of food environments globally. In order to assess the impact of food environments on population diets, it is necessary to monitor population diet quality between countries and over time. This paper reviews existing data sources suitable for monitoring population diet quality, and assesses their strengths and limitations. A step-wise framework is then proposed for monitoring population diet quality. Food balance sheets (FBaS), household budget and expenditure surveys (HBES) and food intake surveys are all suitable methods for assessing population diet quality. In the proposed ‘minimal’ approach, national trends of food and energy availability can be explored using FBaS. In the ‘expanded’ and ‘optimal’ approaches, the dietary share of ultra-processed products is measured as an indicator of energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets using HBES and food intake surveys, respectively. In addition, it is proposed that pre-defined diet quality indices are used to score diets, and some of those have been designed for application within all three monitoring approaches. However, in order to enhance the value of global efforts to monitor diet quality, data collection methods and diet quality indicators need further development work.
Available from: Arthur Tavares de Oliveira Melo
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ABSTRACT: With its simple library preparation and robust approach to genome reduction, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is a flexible and cost-effective strategy for SNP discovery and genotyping, provided an appropriate reference genome is available. For resource-limited curation, research, and breeding programs of underutilized plant genetic resources, however, even low-depth references may not be within reach, despite declining sequencing costs. Such programs would find value in an open-source bioinformatics pipeline that can maximize GBS data usage and perform high-density SNP genotyping in the absence of a reference.
The GBS SNP-Calling Reference Optional Pipeline (GBS-SNP-CROP) developed and presented here adopts a clustering strategy to build a population-tailored “Mock Reference” from the same GBS data used for downstream SNP calling and genotyping. Designed for libraries of paired-end (PE) reads, GBS-SNP-CROP maximizes data usage by eliminating unnecessary data culling due to imposed read-length uniformity requirements. Using 150 bp PE reads from a GBS library of 48 accessions of tetraploid kiwiberry (Actinidia arguta), GBS-SNP-CROP yielded on average three times as many SNPs as TASSEL-GBS analyses (32 and 64 bp tag lengths) and over 18 times as many as TASSEL-UNEAK, with fewer genotyping errors in all cases, as evidenced by comparing the genotypic characterizations of biological replicates. Using the published reference genome of a related diploid species (A. chinensis), the reference-based version of GBS-SNP-CROP behaved similarly to TASSEL-GBS in terms of the number of SNPs called but had an improved read depth distribution and fewer genotyping errors. Our results also indicate that the sets of SNPs detected by the different pipelines above are largely orthogonal to one another; thus GBS-SNP-CROP may be used to augment the results of alternative analyses, whether or not a reference is available.
By achieving high-density SNP genotyping in populations for which no reference genome is available, GBS-SNP-CROP is worth consideration by curators, researchers, and breeders of under-researched plant genetic resources. In cases where a reference is available, especially if from a related species or when the target population is particularly diverse, GBS-SNP-CROP may complement other reference-based pipelines by extracting more information per sequencing dollar spent. The current version of GBS-SNP-CROP is available at https://github.com/halelab/GBS-SNP-CROP.git
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