Article

Hypoglycaemic Potential of Mangifera indica Leaves in Rats

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Hypoglycaemic activity of 50% ethanol extract of Mangifera indica tender leaves was studied in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. In normal rats, the extract was administered only once in doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg per os. The highest decrease (37.73%) in plasma glucose levels was obtained with 250 mg dose after 8 h of administration. In diabetic rats, the extract produced significant antihyperglycaemic effect within 3 days when given at 250 mg/kg/day per os for 10 days. LD 50 of the extract was above 4.64 gm/kg per os.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The SEIPR mathematical model is partitioned into compartments of Susceptible population class (S), the Exposed population class (E), the Infected population class (I), the class of population who believes in the Therapeutic and Pharmacological Efficacy of mango leaf (P) and the temporary Recovered population class after being cured by the mango leaf (R). The proportion of Λare the incoming population into the susceptible class [7,8,9,10]. This compartment reduces due to the expiration of the duration of pharmacological efficacy of the mango leaf and stem bark at the rate ω and also by a natural death at the rate of μ. ...
... To demonstrate the pharmaceutical /efficacious index Mangifera Indica (MI) Linn )leaf, boil around 10 to 15 leaves of the mango tree, Leave the water overnight to pre-cool, and drink early in the morning [19]. Mango(Mangifera Indica (MI)(Linn,) leaf stimulates β-cells,to release insulin, this is proposed to be the mechanism of action of Mango(Mangifera Indica (MI) Linn )leaf, thereby stimulating different pharmaceutical/chemical constituents of Mangifera Indica (MI) Linn,)leaf, for example, polyphenolics, flavonoids triterpenoids, and mangiferin [8]. ...
... The SEIPR mathematical model is partitioned into compartments of Susceptible population class (S), the Exposed population class (E), the Infected population class (I), the class of population who believes in the Therapeutic and Pharmacological Efficacy of mango leaf (P) and the temporary Recovered population class after being cured by the mango leaf (R). The proportion of Λare the incoming population into the susceptible class [7,8,9,10]. This compartment reduces due to the expiration of the duration of pharmacological efficacy of the mango leaf and stem bark at the rate ω and also by a natural death at the rate of μ. ...
... To demonstrate the pharmaceutical /efficacious index Mangifera Indica (MI) Linn )leaf, boil around 10 to 15 leaves of the mango tree, Leave the water overnight to pre-cool, and drink early in the morning [19]. Mango(Mangifera Indica (MI)(Linn,) leaf stimulates β-cells,to release insulin, this is proposed to be the mechanism of action of Mango(Mangifera Indica (MI) Linn )leaf, thereby stimulating different pharmaceutical/chemical constituents of Mangifera Indica (MI) Linn,)leaf, for example, polyphenolics, flavonoids triterpenoids, and mangiferin [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mango with the botanical name of Mangifera Indica (MI) (Linn.) is one of the traditionally used herb trees in the third-world country used for different curative and prophylaxis measure for different health challenges. This article presents updated information on its mathematical modeling using ordinary differential equations (S,E,I,P,R) for theoretical/analytical methods and epidemiological applicability of therapeutic/pharmacological efficacy of Mangifera indica (MI) (Linn.) against selected recalcitrant diseases in third-world countries. To introduce the mathematical model that connects all the necessary parameters and variables on the epidemiological applicability of therapeutic /pharmacological efficacy of the Mango (Mangifera Indica (MI)(Linn.)leaf and stem bark, to cure the Original Research Article Osuntokun et al.; SARJNP, 5(1): 43-52, 2022; Article no.SARJNP.88572 44 ravaging health challenges. The basic reproductive number of the model was obtained. This parameter was obtained to show that, the use of the (Mangifera Indica (MI))(Linn.) leaf and stem bark can cure the health challenges mathematically such that, as the use of the mango leaf and stem bark increases, the rate of the ravaging health challenges among the populace reduces. It is a fact that the medicinal plant is a good source of medicine for developing countries especially in the third world like Africa and Asia, taking Nigeria as a case study. This write-up is premeditated from the fact that there should be a cure for recalcitrant ailments like high blood pressure, diabetes and etc. without the use of conventional medicine. We should be able to use the local herbs for the known health debacle without any side effects. As scientists, we decided to research various medicinal plants that can be used. During the process of search, mango leaf shines like a bright star and there is a need to make a thorough and further searchlight for the wonderful medicinal plant, because of its various therapeutic uses on ravaging health challenges in Nigeria and other third world countries.
... It has been cultivated extensively in India, Myanmar and some parts of America, Africa, Pakistan and Bangladesh 1 . It is commonly known as aam (Hindi), Manga (Tamil) 2 , Ampleam (Spanish) 3 . It is a long-lived evergreen tree that can reach up to a height of 50 to 100 feet. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mangifera indica, a commonly used plant in ayurvedic medicine and its parts have been used for various purposes. In India, seed kernels are used for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, ulcer etc. Present study deals with pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation of Mangifera indica seed kernel (MISK) and to establish its pharmacognostical and phytochemical standards. It was reported that the quality of raw drug under study provides pharmacognostical standard for the drug seed kernel. Results of MISK powder yielded 1.72% total ash; acid insoluble ash not more than 0.05%, water soluble ash not more than 0.95%, hexane extractive value not more than 5.61%, chloroform extractive value not more than 1.34%, ethylacetate extractive value not more than 1.4%, ethanol extractive value not more than18% & water extractive value not more than 21%. Major chemical constituents of water and alcoholic extracts were alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins & phenols. Microbial assay indicated that total microbial load and other microorganisms were within the limits of ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical parameters determined in the present work can serve as major criteria for identity, quality and purity of a crude drug and extracts.
... Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is one of the most important tropical plants, part of this plant is used in all system of medicine throughout the globe (Sharma et al., 1997). Seed kernel of this plant contributed about 17-22% of the fruit, it is discarded as a waste and contributes a source of pollution and rich in phenolic compounds and stable fat rich in saturated fatty acids (Agarwal, 2005). ...
... Activation of AGE-RAGE axis is associated with diabetic compliance, as cardiomyopathy and nephropathy. Mango mesocarp and leaf extracts produce a significant hypoglycaemic effect in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats [50][51][52]. Furthermore, Gondi et al. [53] showed that mango exocarp extracts also have the ability to ameliorate diabetes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Historically, Mangifera indica L. cultivations have been widely planted in tropical areas of India, Africa, Asia, and Central America. However, at least 20 years ago its spreading allowed the development of some cultivars in Sicily, an island to the south of Italy, where the favourable subtropical climate and adapted soils represent the perfect field to create new sources of production for the Sicilian agricultural supply chain. Currently, cultivations of Kensington Pride, Keitt, Glenn, Maya, and Tommy Atkins varieties are active in Sicily and their products meet the requirements of local and European markets. Mango plants produce fleshy stone fruits rich in phytochemicals with an undisputed nutritional value for its high content of polyphenolics and vitamins. This review provides an overview of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties of mango, a fruit that should be included in everyone’s diet for its multifaceted biochemical actions and health-enhancing properties.
... However, it is more effective in type 2 diabetes compared to type 1 diabetes ( ). The extracts were found to induce the β-cells in pancreas to secrete more insulin which subsequently reduced the blood sugar level ( Sharma et al., 1997). Another possible mechanism of action could be due to the extracts that caused the reduction in intestinal glucose absorption (Aderibigbe et al., 1999). ...
Chapter
Mango (Magnifera indica L) and guava (Psidium guajava) have been widely acknowledged as nutritionally valuable fruits that formed great sources of vitamins and minerals. They have been cultivated in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Many research investigations revealed that both plants exhibited numerous medicinal properties. They have been used to treat many ailments by acting as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhoea, hypolipidaemic, and anti-cancer properties Mangoes have been found to be widely used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries while guavas are processed into a number of food products. However, their physical, chemical, and sensory attributes undergo changes during ripening. Thus, different methods of storage and packaging are developed to prolong the shelf life and maintain the qualities of these fruits. The present chapter outlines the nutritional profiles, health benefits and industrial applications of mango and guava. Postharvest, physiology and safety assessment of these fruits are also discussed.
... The poly-herbal formulation composed of five well-researched plants ie. Cassia auriculata L. [3,4], Mangifera indica [5][6][7][8], Ficus banghalensis [9][10][11], Cinnamomum tamala [12][13][14], Trichosynthis diocia [15][16] which all are individually documented for their effect against DM. Though DM is a metabolic disorder, plant synergism may play a potential role in comparison with individual herbs. ...
... However, it is more effective in type 2 diabetes compared to type 1 diabetes (). The extracts were found to induce the β-cells in pancreas to secrete more insulin which subsequently reduced the blood sugar level (Sharma et al., 1997). Another possible mechanism of action could be due to the extracts that caused the reduction in intestinal glucose absorption (Aderibigbe et al., 1999). ...
Chapter
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a tropical fruit very appreciated for its flavor and pleasant aroma. Besides, this fruit is rich source of vitamins, minerals, fiber and dietary antioxidants, especially acid ascorbic and lycopene. The respiration pattern of guavas is contradictory, but is usually classified as climacteric fruit. Guavas harvested at all maturity stages presented the ripening processes after harvest and present high perishability under ambient conditions, with profound changes in skin color, firmness and sweetness until complete the ripening process. Guavas should be harvest when the fruits are still green and firm for commercialization due its high perishability, but is fundamental not harvest immature fruit, because it has low quality. The harvest maturity of guava could be determined based on peel colour, days from fruit set, firmness and total soluble solids/acidity ratio. Several authors indicate the peel color as a good index for harvest. Due the high perishability of guavas the shelf life at room temperature is only a few days, so storage under refrigeration can be extend the shelf-life of guavas, because it reduces the metabolism such as respiratory rate and ethylene production. The use of modified atmosphere also extend the life of guava, and edible coating can do this modification. However, in research performed in Embrapa which aimed was evaluate the possible changes promoted by different edible coatings on the quality attributes of guavas 'Pedro Sato,‘ stored at 10°C, the use the use of refrigeration was more efficient to extend the shelf-life of guava than the use of edible coatings.
... [17] Aqueous extract of the leaves also showed a similar result on blood glucose level in normoglycaemic, glucose -induced hyperglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. [18] Mangiferin (a xanthone glycoside) predominant in mango extracts and vimang (An extract of mango branch bark) isolated by Cuban scientist have been shown to possess a very strong antioxidant properties in vitro [19] and have been demonstrated to be effective in the fight against Herpes simplex viruses type2 and type1 [20,21,22,] The extract also possess Anthelmintic and anti-allergenic activities [23,24] , Antiparasitic activities [25] , Antimicrobial [26] , Hepato-protective [27] and gastroprotective activities. [28] Studies have also reported that the ethanolic (95%) extract of the seed kernel and leaf of mangifera indica exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity in acute, subacute and chronic cases of inflammation. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was undertaken to examine the anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory properties of the stem-bark ethanolic extract of mangifera indica (mango) using albino Wistar rats. Male and female rats weighing 150-210g were randomly selected into four groups of four rats each after two weeks of acclimatization. Fever was induced in the rats by the subcutaneous injection of 50% baker’s yeast suspended in normal saline after taking their basal body temperature. 18 hours later, feverish rats were treated with oral administration of the extract, with group1 receiving 0.4ml of water and served as the control. Groups two and three received 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg of the extract respectively while group 4 (reference group) was orally administered with 200mg/kg of aspirin (a known antipyretic agent). Temperature changes in the rats were monitored every 30 minutes for two hours using rectal thermometer. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract, the extract was orally administered to the rats following the dosage as described in antipyretic study. 30 minutes later, 2.5% formalin was subcutaneously injected at the right forelimb of each rat and the number of times the rats licked the injected limb was counted for five minutes and taken as inflammatory response. The result of the studies show that the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica significantly (p<0.05) reduced baker’s yeast induced pyrexia in rats faster than aspirin especially at 100mg/kg within one hour. Also, (100-200 mg/kg) oral administration of the extract significantly (p<0.05) inhibited 2.5% formalin induced inflammation. The different chemical component of the plant especially polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids and mangiferin may be involved in the observed antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, the result of this study lend credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plants in the management and control of painful arthritis and other inflammatory condition as well as the associated fever(pyrexia). In conclusion that the ethanolic extract of the bark of mango at low doses could be used as a substitute in the management of pyrexia and inflammation.
... belongs to the family Anacardiaceae, the fruit of which is consumed throughout the world. It has been cultivated extensively in India, Myanmar and some parts of America, Africa, Pakistan and Bangladesh [6]. It is commonly known as aam (Hindi), Manga (Tamil) [7], Ampleam (Spanish) [8].It is a long-lived evergreen tree that can reach up to a height of 50 to 100 feet. ...
... The flour of fruit pulp, the extracts of fruit kernel, leaves and stem bark were reported to exhibit various health benefits. Mango pulp flour and leaf extracts of mango produced significant hypoglycemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic animals (Sharma et al. 1997;Aderibigbe et al. 1999;Perpetuo and Salgado 2003). The aqueous extract of mango stem bark exhibited antiinflammatory and analgesic properties (Garrido et al. 2001). ...
Article
Peel is a major by-product during processing of mango fruit into pulp. Recent report indicates that the whole peel powder ameliorated diabetes. In the present study, ethanolic extract of mango peel was analysed for its bioactive compounds, evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties, oral glucose tolerance test, antioxidant properties, plasma insulin level and biochemical parameters related to diabetes. In addition to gallic and protocatechuic acids, the extract also had chlorogenic and ferulic acids, which were not reported earlier in mango peel extracts. The peel extract inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, with IC50 values of 4.0 and 3.5 μg/ml. Ethanolic extract of peel showed better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the extract decreased fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin levels, and increased plasma insulin level. Peel extract treatment decreased malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes significantly in liver and kidney compared to diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were comparable to metformin, but better than gallic acid treated diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of peel extract may be through different mechanism like increased plasma insulin levels, decreased oxidative stress and inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activities by its bioactive compounds. Thus, results suggest that the peel extract can be a potential source of nutraceutical or can be used in functional foods and this is the first report on antidiabetic properties of mango peel extract.
... Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is used medicinally in tropical Africa as an astringent, for bronchitis, catarrh, internal haemorrhage, skin diseases and toothache. The hypoglycaemic effect of an ethanol extract (250 mg/kg) and an aqueous extract of leaves (1 g/kg) in STZ-induced diabetic rats and mice, respectively, have been reported [49,50]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pentacyclic triterpenoids including the oleanane, ursane and lupane groups are widely distributed in many medicinal plants, such as Glycyrrhiza species, Gymnema species, Centella asiatica, Camellia sinensis, Crataegus species and Olea europaea, which are commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications. A large number of bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoids, such as oleanolic acid, glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid, ursolic acid, betulin, betulinic acid and lupeol have shown multiple biological activities with apparent effects on glucose absorption, glucose uptake, insulin secretion, diabetic vascular dysfunction, retinopathy and nephropathy. The versatility of the pentacyclic triterpenes provides a promising approach for diabetes management.
... The stimulation of ² -cells to release insulin was thought to be part of mechanism of action. 19 The extract leaves of MI also produced anti diabetic activity in using normoglycemic glucose-induced hyperglycemia and streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. 20 The aqueous extract of MI (400mg/kg), administered for 21days has been reported to reduce the concentration of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in alloxan induced diabetic rats, without any toxic effect on the liver, as the biochemical markers of liver damage i.e.; AST, ALP and ALT were seen in lower concentration. ...
Article
Plants and their bioactive constituents are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus throughout the world; especially in countries where access to the conventional treatment of diabetes mellitus is inadequate. There have been several reports on the hypoglycemic activity of Mangifera indica(MI). Hence, the present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of MI leaves extract alone and in combination with an oral hypoglycemic drug, gliclazide on alloxan induced diabetic rat models. Alloxan monohydrate (125mg/kg, I.P) was used to induce diabetes in albino rats weighing 200- 250 g. The fasted diabetic rats were divided in to 6 groups of 6 animals each. The control group received vehicle (5% gum acacia) only. Group 2 and 3received MI 200mg/ kg, 400mg/kg respectively; Group 4 and 5 received Gliclazide 2mg/kg and 4mg/kg respectively and group 6 received MI leaves extract 200mg/kg + Gliclazide 2mg/kg. This study was conducted over a period of 15 days with oral administration of drugs and the plant extract which was started on the 6th day of alloxan treatment. The fasting blood glucose levels will be determined on day 0, 10, and 15th day by using glucometer. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA followed by Dunnet’s multiple comparison test. All the test groups showed significant (P < 0.0001) decreased fasting blood glucose levels in alloxan induced diabetic rats treated with the aqueous extract of MI. However, the Combination of MI extract with gliclazide produced a significant (P<0.0001) decrease in blood glucose level which is higher than that produced by gliclazide alone. The decrease in blood glucose levels is probably due to reduction in the intestinal absorption of glucose. MI possesses significant hypoglycemic activity probably due to presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids and trepenoids and the aqueous extract of leaves contain higher levels of phenol and flavonoids which exhibit greater antioxidant activity by lowering the diabetic complication.
... Rats fasted for 18 h were randomly divided into four groups of 5 per group. The first three groups (I, II and III) were administered by gastric gavage (single dose) with the seed extract dissolved in water at the concentration of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively (Sharma et al., 1997). The fourth group (IV), the control received distilled water (10 ml/kg). ...
... Rats fasted for 16 hours were randomly divided into four groups of 5 individuals per group. The first three groups (I, II and III) were administered by gastric gavages (single dose) with the root extract at the concentration of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively [22] dissolved in 2% acacia solution. The fourth group (IV) (control) received 2% w/v acacia solution. ...
... Recently, hyperglycemia has been major factor in the development and initiation of diabetic complications that affects nerves and arteries [6]. ...
... However, in DC animals, both PE and S+PE improve insulin status and hence, their influence on glycaemic regulation in DC animals could be accredited to both a quantitative and qualitative effect of insulin. The reports of Kaleem et al. [17] of improvement in plasma insulin level and glucose on treatment with Annona sqamosa extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and of Vinuthan et al. [19] of probable insulin synthesis and secretion from the β cells of [20,21,22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ayurvedic remedies for diabetes are usually mixed formulations containing blood sugar lowering herbs in combination with immunomodulators, diuretics and detoxicants, with the rationale behind such formulations being provided by modern research. The plants for the present study were selected on the basis of their anti-diabetic property, as these plants are consumed by the local people for treatment of diabetes as also supported by literature survey. Plants like Annona squamosa(Annonaceae), Cassia fistula, Coccinia indica, Mangifera indica, Ocimum sanctum, Lagerstroemia losflos-reginee, and Murraya koenigii used in the present study have been known to have same blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic animals and, some of them have an anti-lipidemic and cholesterol lowering effects too. To this effect, adult albino rats were made diabetic (DC) by a single i.p injection of alloxan (120 mg / kg body weight). Animals having blood glucose level of 300 mg / dl or higher were considered diabetic. Control and experimental animals were supplemented with the extract (PE) subjected to swimming exercise(s) of 30 minutes duration for 15 days. Animals were sacrificed on the 16 th day and various parameters related to glycaemic status and carbohydrate metabolism were evaluated. The results of the present study showed significant favorable effect of S+PE in non-diabetic as well as diabetic rats. In terms of glycaemic regulation, neither PE nor PE+S showed any significant effect either on fasting or fed glycaemic level in non-diabetic animals while, both were equally effective in minimizing diabetic hyperglycaemia to the same extent. In DC animals, both PE and S+PE improved the insulin status. There was increased hepatic and muscle glycogen contents in both NC and DC animals treated with PE or also subjected to exercise. The increased tissue glycogen load and glucose clearance from blood are paralleled by significant decrement in tissue glycogen phosphorylase activity. There was decrement in cytosolic GLUT 4 level in NC.PE and NC.S+PE animals and significant increment in expression in DC.PE and DC.S+PE animals over that of the low level in DC animals. Overall, the present study provides support and evidence for consideration of a therapeutic approach combining the beneficial effects of a polyherbal preparation in association with adaptive physical activity for effective management of diabetic complications.
... Before doing the real experiments and in order to investigate the effective dose response of the tested leavesinfusion, Preliminary experiments were carried out. The selected tested doses, however was mainly dependent on the collected literatures as [48] who demonstrated that the highest decrease in plasma glucose level was obtained with 250 mg/kg (37.73%) of ethanol extract of M. indica leaves and [24] who showed that the water extract of P. guajava, at an oral dose of 250 mg/kg give significant hypoglycemic activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Male adult albino rats were used to study the hypoglycemic effect of Mangifera indica and Psidium guajava aqueous extracts either used individually or in combination of as well as the effect of glibenclamide as reference sulfonylureas drug at the dose level of 0.5 mg/kg body weight in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Preliminary test using different doses of each plant indicated that the most effective doses were 250 mg/kg body weight for each plant. Our studies was extended to include the effect of the tested doses on different biochemical parameters including serum insulin concentration, hepatic glycogen content, total proteins, total lipids and transaminases activities in serum and liver. The obtained data of the above mentioned investigations revealed great alleviation of the impaired glucose tolerance, serum insulin and hepatic glycogen content, also serum and hepatic total protein contents were increased as a result of treatment. In STZ-diabetic rats, the activities of (ALT, AST and ALP) either detected in sera or hepatic tissues were increased, then the activities were improved as a result of treatments.
... [19] The 50% ethanol extract of the leaves of M. indica showed a significant hypoglycemic effect against STZ-induced diabetes in rats at a dose of 250 mg/kg. [20] In humans, the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves of M. indica showed a significant hypoglycemic effect at a dose level of 1 g/kg/d. [21] Methanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens showed significant antidiabetic activity against alloxan-induced diabetes in rats at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt. ...
Article
Full-text available
Glycosmis pentaphylla , Tridax procumbens, and Mangifera indica are well-known plants available throughout India and they are commonly used for the treatment of various diseases including diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of the individual plant parts is well known, but the synergistic or combined effects are unclear. The concept of polyherbalism has been highlighted in Sharangdhar Samhita, an Ayurvedic literature dating back to 1300 AD. Polyherbal formulations enhance the therapeutic action and reduce the concentrations of single herbs, thereby reducing adverse events. The aim of the present study is to formulate a polyherbal formulation and evaluate its antidiabetic potential in animals. The polyherbal formulation was formulated using the ethanol extracts of the stem bark of G. pentaphylla, whole plant of T. procumbens, and leaves of M. indica. The polyherbal formulation contains the ethanol extracts of G. pentaphylla, T. procumbens, and M. indica in the ratio of 2:2:1. The quality of the finished product was evaluated as per the World Health Organization's guidelines for the quality control of herbal materials. The quality testing parameters of the polyherbal formulation were within the limits. Fingerprint analysis of the polyherbal formulation showed effective separation at 366 nm, and it revealed that the active compound present in the polyherbal formulation and the active compounds present in all the three extracts were the same. The acute toxicity studies of the polyherbal formulation did not show any toxic symptoms in doses up to 2000 mg/kg over 14 days. The oral antidiabetic activity of the polyherbal formulation (250 and 500 mg/kg) was screened against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg; i.p.) + nicotinamide (120 mg/kg; i.p.) induced diabetes mellitus in rats. The investigational drug was administered for 21 consecutive days, and the effect of the polyherbal formulation on blood glucose levels was studied at regular intervals. At the end of the study, the blood samples were collected from all the animals for biochemical estimation, and the animals were sacrificed and the liver and pancreatic tissues were collected for histopathologic analysis. Polyherbal formulation showed significant antidiabetic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and this effect was comparable with that of glibenclamide. The antidiabetic activity of polyherbal formulation is supported by biochemical and histopathologic analysis.
... Single oral administration of a dose of 250 mg/ kg body weight produces a potent and strong hypoglycemic effect in type 2 rats. The obtained results are supported by the finding of other investigators (Sharma et al., 1997;Aderibigbe et al., 2001). ...
... Ethanolic extract of the leaves of M. indica L. leaves produced a significant hypoglycemic effect at a dose of 250 mg/kg, both in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)induced diabetic animals. The stimulation of β-cells to release insulin was thought to be part of the mechanism of action [25]. The effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of M. indica L. leaves on blood glucose level in normoglycemic, glucose-induced hyperglycemic, and STZ-induced diabetic rats indicate that the aqueous extract of the leaves of M. indica L. possesses hypoglycemic activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate and compare the hypoglycemic activity of ten medicinal plantsextract that are used empirically to treat hyperglycemia in Indonesia, in order to determineplant with the most potential as a hypoglycemic agent.Methods: Activity test was conducted in Swiss Webster glucose induced mice with glucosetolerance test. The ethanolic extracts of Mangiferaindica L. leaves, Perseaamericana Mill.leaves, Acoruscalamus L. rhizome, Phyllanthusniruri L. herb, Syzigiumcumini (L.) skeelsbark, Zingiberofficinale Roscoe rhizome, Moringaoleifera Lam. leaves, TamarindusindicaL. seed, Momordicacharantia L. fruits and Azadirachtaindica A. juss leaves, which weregiven orally at the same dose of 300 mg/kg bw. The blood samples wereused for determination of glucose level examination using glucose meter and test strips (AccuChek).Results: The ethanolic extract of Mangiferaindica L. leaves has the best activity in reductionof blood glucose level in mice, followed by Zingiberofficinale Roscoe rhizome,Acoruscalamus L. rhizome, Tamarindusindica L. seed.,MomordicacharantiaL. fruit., Syzigiumcumini (L.) skeels bark, Phyllanthusniruri L. herb., Perseaamericana Mill. leaves, andAzadirachtaindica A. juss leaves.Conclusion: Results of the present study suggest the potential use of Mangiferaindica L.leaves extract in therapy of hyperglycemia.
... However, it is more effective in type 2 diabetes compared to type 1 diabetes ( ). The extracts were found to induce the β-cells in pancreas to secrete more insulin which subsequently reduced the blood sugar level ( Sharma et al., 1997). Another possible mechanism of action could be due to the extracts that caused the reduction in intestinal glucose absorption (Aderibigbe et al., 1999). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
India has witnessed tremendous increase in the production of horticultural crops, especially fruits since its independence, the country is now among the top fruit producing countries of the world ranking second next only to China. However, the productivity has still remained low as against area under the fruit cultivation. Several neglecting issues related to the production technology have remained unattended so far. The old and senile orchards are now reverting towards a declining trend of production because of plant age factor, non-compatible varieties and poor canopy management. Such a type of decline may be seen in whole orchards, on a single tree or in patches. It is a rare site to get any plantation free of this malady; even intensity varies from plant to plant and from month to month in the same plant. The growers do not adopt the proper management practices in terms of plant protection; manuring, irrigation; mulching, pruning etc. and the orchards become sick. In general, the canopy of fruit crops has an irregular shape. Trees of irregular shape and size are difficult to deal with and even culminate a poor yield in the subsequent years, as the lower branches of canopy gradually turns inert and infertile as well. The present paper aims at highlighting the basics of rejuvenating the old and senile orchards for sustaining the fruit production to meet the present need and optimize the fruit potential of our country.
... As the result, M. indica exhibits various pharmacological potentials, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, antiplasmodial, antihyperlipidemic [9], and immunostimulatory activities [10], and toxicity effects at high doses (18.4 g/kg in mice) [11]. Especially, in vivo studies on anti-diabetes of M. indica leaves have been reported [12][13][14]. In the present study, in vitro anti-diabetic effects of M. indica leaves wert investigated on alpha-amylase inhibition, glucose adsorption and glucose uptake capacity, radical scavenging activity, NO production suppression, and cell viability. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes is a major metabolic disorder whose prevalence is increasing daily. Medicinal plants have played an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes via prophylactic and therapeutic management. In this study, Mangifera Indica leaf (MIL) extract was investigated for its promising anti-diabetic activity via an in vitro model. It was found that MIL extract possessed significant inhibition on alpha-amylase activity up to (51.4 ± 2.7)% at a concentration of 200 µg/mL. Moreover, glucose adsorption capacity of MIL was identified at (2.7 ± 0.19) mM glucose/g extract. Furthermore, the extract caused a significant increase in glucose uptake up to (143 ± 9.3)% in LO-2 liver cells. Notably, MIL extract was effective in scavenging (63.3 ± 2.1)% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and (71.6 ± 4.3)% 2,2-azinobis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)+ radicals and inhibiting (66 ± 4.9)% NO production from RAW264.7 cells without any cytotoxicity effects. Accordingly, M. indica leaves are suggested as a promising material for development of hypoglycemic products.
... Fumes from the burning leaves are inhaled for relief from hiccups and affections of the throat [25]. The bark is astringent, it is used in diphtheria and rheumatism, and it is believed to possess a tonic action on the mucus membrane [26,27]. The gum is used in dressings for cracked feet and for scabies [28][29][30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to verify the potential of Mangifera indica gum (MIG) as a bioactive agent. Plant gum was collected from the bark of Mangifera indica and was, purified and characterized with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC) analyses. Purified gum was tested for its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory. IR and GC analyses of gum showed the presence of several types of bioactive components in Mangifera indica gum. The gum showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (63%) and Enterococcus faecalis (58%). The antioxidant activity of MOG was investigated by 2,2- diphenyl 2- picryl hydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging and the MIG shows good activity when compared with the standard ascorbic acid. The anti-inflammatory activity of the MIG was estimated by the bovine serum albumin denaturation (BSA)method and showed significant activity against the standard drug. The anti-diabetic activity of the MIG was determined by the dinitro salicylic acid (DNSA)method displayed significant anti-diabetic activity. These findings confirmed that MIG has a potential source for the formulation of new therapeutic drugs.
... According to the WHO, toothache is a common issue in low-income groups and those who are mainly untreated. It can affect a person's sleeping, eating, and productivity [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The causative factors behind toothache include tooth decay or fracture, abscessed tooth, or infected gums. Over 750 species of bacteria inhabit the oral cavity and a number of these are implicated in oral diseases including toothaches.The efficacy of Mango stem extract can be used for the inhibition of pathogens causing human toothache was investigated. Ethanol was used as solvent for extraction. Two human pathogens; Streptococcus mutans which is a bacterial pathogen and Aspergillus niger which is a fungal pathogen were employed in this study. The inhibitory effects of the ethanol extract Mangifera indica on the test organisms were conducted using the agar well diffusion method of antimicrobial assay. Antibacteria (Amoxicillin) and Antifungal (Fluconazole) served as the control. A sub culture process was carried out to enable proper identification of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M.I.C) of 3 different tooth samples (T 1 ,T 2 ,T 3). This process was carried out using the mango stem extract introduced in drops (0.5ml,0.10ml,0.15ml) in 9 petri dishes respectively for both fungi (Amoxicillin) and bacteria (Fluconazole) media. The result shows that the mean total zone of inhibition of T 2 (3.53) by mango extract is higher T 1 (2.90) and T 3 (3.10). When compared with the control, the mean total zone of inhibition becomes higher when the extract is being introduced in large amount (0.15>). So in a bacteria media the higher the mango extract is introduced the more the inhibition zone increases (Table 1). There are significant differences in the inhibition effects of the plant extracts and the susceptibility of the human pathogens (P<0.05). While in fungi media the mean total zone of inhibition of T 3 (3.36) by mango extract is higher T 1 (2.83) and T 3 (3.20). When compared with the control, the mean total zone of inhibition becomes lower when the extract is being introduced in large amount (0.5<). From the result it shows that the bark extract of mango is very active in treatment of toothache in the sense that the extract possess potential inhibitory activity against human pathogens in vitro to varying degrees.
... However, we have previously demonstrated in our laboratory that various fractions obtained from Mangifera indica leaves possess antiradical activities and can effectively inhibit lipid peroxidation [12]. Extracts from different parts of Mangifera indica have been used extensively for medicinal purposes some of which include treatment of gastric disorders, asthma, and diabetes [13][14]. Similarly, the report from the ethnomedicinal survey carried out by Ene and co-workers [15] revealed that Mangifera. ...
Article
Full-text available
Various parts of Mangifera indica have been employed as herbal remedies for several ailments such as typhoid, malaria as well as diabetes. This present study aims to assess the in vivo and in vitro antioxidant property of the methanol extract of Mangifera indica stem bark. The stem bark of Mangifera indica was collected and extracted with 70% methanol. The extract was screened for the scavenging activities of hydroxyl and DPPH radicals, flavonoids and total phenolic contents, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation potential. Furthermore, rats (n=15) randomized into three groups received 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract through oral gavage for 30 days, while control animals (n=5) received corn oil for the same period, after which blood and liver were excised for antioxidant assay spectrophotometrically. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s test was used to analyze the results with p<0.05 considered significant. Results obtained from the in vitro analyses showed a dose-related significant (p<0.05) increase in all the parameters evaluated while the in vivo analyses also showed that the plant extracts significantly (p<0.05) improved the antioxidant status of all the parameters considered in all the groups exposed to the extract compared with the control. Results from the present study showed that the methanol extract of Mangifera indica stem bark is rich in phytochemicals with potent antioxidant potential and can be employed in the treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress.
... The obtained results are supported by the finding of other investigators ⦋21⦌; ⦋22⦌. (Sharma et al., 1997;Aderibigbe et al., 2001). Antihyperglycemic activity that is found in diabetic rats indicates that the extracts may interfere with the intestinal glucose absorption in the gut by various mechanisms ⦋23⦌; ⦋24⦌. ...
Article
The effects of crude aqueous extract of Ehretia anacua on alloxan induced diabetic rats was investigated. Male albino rats of weighing between 120 to 150 were used, divided into 6 groups of five animals per group. Group I received distilled water throughout of the experiment and served as the control. Group II received 110 mg/kg of alloxan interperitoneally. Groups III, IV, V and VI received 110 mg/kg of alloxan and in addition administered with aqueous Ehretia anacua extract daily for 14 days. Blood glucose level was monitored at five days interval for fourteen days. Target organs (pancrease) was taken from each rat. The histopathological studies of the pancrease were examined. In alloxan - induced diabetic rats, blood glucose level was significantly increased compared with the control rats. Treating diabetic rats with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw Ehretia anacua caused a significant decrease in the blood glucose level. The Photomicrograph of the histopathology examination of the pancrease (× 100) of the groups treated with alloxan showed poor architecture was destroyed whereas those treated with Ehretia nancua showed normal architecture. This illustrates the amelliorative effects of the extract on the alloxan-induced tocicity. It could be concluded from these results that, Ehretia nancua extract should be used in manufacture processes of the natural products as functional foods or as a dietary supplement with anti-diabecretic activity as hypoglycemic effect.
... At a dose of 250 mg/kg, a 50 percent ethanolic extract of MI leaves developed a major hypoglycemic effect in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. Part of the mechanism of action was thought to be the activation of -cells to release insulin [13]. The effect of an aqueous extract of MI leaves on blood glucose levels in normoglycemic and glucose-induced hyperglycemic patients and Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats has been assessed. ...
Article
Full-text available
The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles proceeds through the reduction of silver ions by the phytochemicals as an initial step in the formation of the nanoparticles. The phytochemicals also involved in the subsequent steps by stabilization and directing the shape and size of nanoparticles. Original Research Article Yahya et al.; JOCAMR, 13(4): 39-50, 2021; Article no.JOCAMR.67205 40 In this study, a mango pulp extract was used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using "One pot biological method of synthesis" under ambient temperature. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized through visual development of color,UV-VIS spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared ray. The antimicrobial activities of the synthesized mango pulp Ag-NPs were determined using agar well diffusion method, MIC and MBC methods. The biosynthesized Ag-NPs showed a yellowish-brown color. Broad bell-shaped range bend was gotten from UV-Vis examination with different metabolites of MPAgNPs, this makes the plasmon band wide. Surface plasmon reverberation (SPR) of silver happens at 350-375 nm for the 7Nps at 2Mm concentration and 13Nps at 1Mm. The FTIR shows absorbance at 3335 m-1 , 3324 m-1 , 326 8 m-1 , 3258 m-1 , and 1640 m-1 were obtained for mango pulp extract-mediated (Ag-NPs), which indicated that proteins were the capping and stabilizing molecules in the biogenic synthesis of (Ag-NPs). Silver nanoparticles at various concentration of AgNO 3 (2 mM, 1 mM, and 0.5 mM) have shown a profound effect by inhibiting the growth of E. Coli and S. Aureus with an inhibition zone of 12±0, 11.5±0.70, 11.33±1.5 and 12.5±2.12, 12±1.14, 12±4.24 using gentamycin as control (15.16±0.76. and 26.67±2.1) respectively, also MIC and MBC result of the MPAg-NPs extract have shown a-ve results confirming the potentiality of the extract against microbial forms. In conclusion, mango pulp silver nano particles demonstrated the feasibility of eco-friendly biogenic synthesis of Ag-NPs from a reliable, safe and available material (mango) that can be used for the green synthesis of Ag-NPs. And it also exhibits significant antimicrobial activity against gram-ve and gram +ve bacteria.
... 250 mg dose caused the highest decrease (37.73%) in plasma glucose levels after 8 h of administration. The extract produced significant antihyperglycaemic effect in diabetic rats within 3 days when given at 250 mg/kg/day orally for 10 days (91). The diabetic animals on diets contained 5, 10 and 15% mango flour showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in blood glucose levels during 30 day study (92). ...
Article
Full-text available
This review presented a comprehensive overview of the phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Mangifera indica, which used for therapeutic purposes as traditional medicine across the world by various cultures. Phytochemical screening of Mangifera indica showed it contained steroids, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phlobatannins, terpenoids, volatile oil, phenol, resins, saponins, protein, carbohydrates and glycosides. Mangifera indica possessed many pharmacological effects included antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, immune- modulatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, reproductive, dermatological, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, anti- obesity, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, CNS and neuro- protective, gastrointestinal, anti-anemic and anti-snake venom activitiy. In the current review, databases including Web Science, PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct, were searched to investigate the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Mangifera indica.
... Activation of AGE-RAGE axis is associated with diabetic compliances, as cardiomyopathy and nephropathy. Pulp and leaf extracts of mango produced a significant hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats [25][26][27]. Furthermore, Gondi et al. [28] showed that also mango peel extracts have the ability to ameliorate diabetes. ...
Preprint
Historically, Mangifera indica L. cultivations have been widely rooted in tropical areas of India, Africa, Asia and Central America. However, at least 20 years ago its spreading allowed the development of some cultivars, also in Sicily, the South of Italy, where the favorable subtropical climate and adapted soils represent the perfect field to create new sources of production for Sicilian agricultural supply chain. Currently, cultivations of Kensington Pride, Keitt, Klenn, Maya and Tommy Atkins varieties are active in Sicilian island and their products meet the requirements of local and European markets. Mango plants produce fleshy stone fruits rich in phytochemicals with an undisputed nutritional value for its high content of flavonoids, vitamins, micro- and macro-elements, vital for maintaining health. This review provides an overview of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of Mango, a fruit that should be included in everyone’s diet for its multifaceted biochemical actions and nutraceutical potential.
... Oral hypoglycemic agents such as sulphonylureas and biguanides have been commonly used in the management of diabetes especially type II but are with serious side effects. It has been observed that hypoglycaemic activities occur from the stimulation of pancreatic beta cells to release insulin [25,26]. In addition, attention has been focused on the use of plants and herbal remedies believed to be safer and lack of serious side effects as alternatives in the management of DM and diabetic complications. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The study investigated the activities of antihypoglycemic and antihypolipidemic of ethanolic roots extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats were randomly distributed to four groups; I, II, III and IV with each consisting of five animals received extracts as follows: Group I, C .febrifuga (500 mg/kg bwt); Group II, C.febrifuga (250 mg/kg bwt); Group III, C. febrifuga (100 mg/kg bwt); Group IV, 0.5 ml (2% w/v) acacia solution and served as control. After 30 min, the animals were each administered orally with 20% (w/v) glucose at a dose of 0.5ml /100 g bwt. Blood glucose levels were then monitored at 30, 60, and 120 min. intervals and reported as the average glucose level of each group. Twenty-Five (25) Albino rats were randomly divided into five (5) experimental groups: control, diabetic, standard drug (glibenclamide) and C. febrifuga (375 and 500 mg/kg bwt) treated diabetic groups. The animals in four out of five groups were fasted for 18 h and were made diabetic by injecting with a single dose of alloxan (ALX) 150 mg/kg. Blood was collected on days 0, 5, 10 and 15 for glucose estimation and day 15 for lipid profile assay. Results: A significant reduction in postprandial sugar level was observed after 60 min in all treatments. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats without treatment showed significant increases (p < 0.05) in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol while the high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol level were significantly decreased (p< 0.05) compared to normal rats. In addition, the diabetic rats treated with the CF and glibenclamide showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) in both blood glucose, TG and LDL-cholesterol levels and a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in HDL-cholesterol level compared to diabetic untreated rats. Conclusion: The ethanolic roots extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) possesses potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
... Recently, hyperglycemia has been major factor in the development and initiation of diabetic complications that affects nerves and arteries [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: The study investigated the modulating roles of ethanolic roots extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) for its antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, glycosylated hemoglobin effects and cytoarchitectural changes on pancreatic beta cells in alloxan-induced diabetic rats Study Design: Experimental diabetes using animal models. Methodology: Twenty- Five (25) male albino rats were randomly divided into five (5) experimental groups: control, diabetic, standard drug (glibenclamide 10 mg/kg body wt) and C. febrifuga (375 and 500 mg/kg bwt) treated diabetic groups The animals in four out of five groups were fasted for 18 h and were made diabetic by injecting with a single dose of alloxan (ALX) 150 mg/kg, Diabetic rats 5 per group received graded doses (375 and 500 mg/kg bwt) of the extracts and glibenclamide 10 mgkg-1 for 15days. Blood was collected on days 0, 5, 10 and 15 for glucose estimation. Lipid profile was measured using DiaSys Kits from Germany which utilized the colorimetric method. Insulin Assay was measured using Monobind Insulin Microplate Elisa test while HbA1C was analyzed by Biosystem Kits (Barcelona Kits, Spain) using chromatographic method. Twenty (20) male albino rats were randomly distributed to four groups; I, II, III and IV with each consisting of five animals received 20% (w/v) glucoseorally at a dose of 0.5ml /100 g bwt. After 30 min, the animals received extracts as follows: Group I, C. febrifuga (500 mg/kg bwt); Group II, C. febrifuga (250 mg/kg bwt); Group III, C. febrifuga (100 mg/kg bwt); Group IV, 0.5 ml (2% w/v) acacia solution and served as control. Blood glucose levels were then monitored at 30, 60, and 120 min. intervals and reported as the average glucose level of each group. Results: A significant reduction in postprandial sugar level was observed after 60min in all treatments. Diabetic rats without treatment showed significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol while the high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol level were significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared to normal rats. In addition, the diabetic rats treated with the CF and glibenclamide showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in blood glucose, TG and LDL-cholesterol levels and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in HDL-cholesterol level compared to diabetic untreated rats. There were significant reductions (p<0.05) in low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels and significant increase (p<0.05) in the treated diabetic group compared to the negative control. Apart from these, cytoarchitectural changes also revealed the protective nature of the ethanolic roots extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga against alloxan induced necrotic damage of pancreatic tissues. Conclusion: The ethanolic roots extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga modulated hyperglycemic by potentiating insulin release from the beta cells of pancreas and ameliorated dyslipidaemia.
... A 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of Amra produced a significant hypoglycemic effect at a dose of 250 mg/kg, both in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. The stimulation of β-cells to release insulin was thought to be part of the mechanism of action 25 . These studies show that mangiferin (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibits potent antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherogenic and antioxidant properties without causing hypoglycaemia; mangiferin would then offer a greater therapeutic benefit for the management of Diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications associated with abnormalities in lipid profiles. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes mellitus is becoming fastest considerable diseases in the world. India has being estimated with fastest growing population of Diabetics. It is a metabolic disorder may result in deficiency or dysfunction of the insulin production. Diabetes is a common illness, is the disease which occurs when toxins get accumulated in the tissue and result in circulation blockage. The various root causes of diabetes that Ayurveda enlists are poor nutrition and poor digestion, inequity of nervous system, physical and mental stress, and disturbance in natural biological cycle. Now a days, the alternative therapy most commonly used to treat diabetes is Ayurveda, which therefore become the primary focus. To fulfil this need of the modern society, the CCRAS under ministry of AYUSH composed the formula based product, IME-9 consists of five drugs named Amra, Karvellaka, Jambu, Meshashringi and Shilajatu. IME-9 has been came out with wonderful results, that's why also called, 'THE WONDER MEDICINE'. The objective of this article is to conduct a review of the published literature on the successful use of above five Dravyas in Diabetes. This review is to support the use of Ayurveda remedy, IME-9 for the treatment of diabetes and to prevent its complications.
... Mangifera indica Linn belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. The younger leaves are reported to have anti-diabetic activity [7] , antioxidant activity [8] , Gastro protective [9] , antibacterial activity [8] . According to Ayurveda, the Amrapallava(tender leaves of Mangifera indica Linn) is having kashaya (Astringent) in taste and Seetha (Cold) in potency, and is having kaphapithashamana [10] property. ...
... Furthermore, the observations in the present study indicate that the hypoglycaemic effect of the extract as well as that of glibenclamide were far more pronounced in OGTT rats than in STZ-diabetic rats. This result is probably in line with the early suggestion that glibenclamide was effective in moderately streptozotocin-induced diabetic animal and ineffective in severe diabetic rats 31,32 ; the extract could act in the same way as glibenclamide. These observations taken together suggest that ethanol extract of V. thyrsiflora leaves has a potential in the management of acute hyperglycaemia. ...
... Single oral administration of a dose of 250 mg/ kg body weight produces a potent and strong hypoglycemic effect in type 2 rats. The obtained results are supported by the finding of other investigators (Sharma et al., 1997;Aderibigbe et al., 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mangifera indica Linn, locally known as mango tree has been claimed to possess antidiabetic properties by many investigators. The present study was undertaken to screen the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of both ethanol and water extracts of leaves and stem-barks of M. indica in nondiabetic and diabetic model rats in different prandial state. The results showed that all of the extracts had significant antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 diabetic model rats when fed simultaneously with glucose load (p<0.05-0.01; p<0.005-0.001). Moreover, the ethanol extract of stem-barks showed significant antihyperglycemic effect when the extract was fed 30 min prior to the glucose load (p<0.01). Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effect of M. indica on glucose absorption using a rat intestinal preparation in situ. The ethanol extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole perfusion period in type 2 diabetic rats.
Article
Almost 15% out of the 20,000 medicinal plants in Indian sub continent has a tremendous potential and advantage in the emerging field of herbal medicines. Medicinal plants are the main sources of chemical substances with potential therapeutic effects. A lot of compounds were characterized from plants which are now using in the treatment of many diseases. Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mentioned the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. Medical plants play an important role in the management of different clinical problems especially in developing countries where resources are meager The present paper reviews the literature on recent ethno medicinal uses with pharmacological screeing of every plant part of different five medicinal plants, i.e Cassia Auriculata Linn, Cinnamomum tamala, Ficus benghalensis, Trichosynthes dioica and Mangifera indica and their phytochemical properties used for the treatment of various ailments in human civilization as well as used in folk medicine as a remedy. The name and parts of the plant studied, the spectrum of activity, and methods used are discussed in this review paper.
Article
Objective: To evaluate the anti-hyperglycaemic and hypoglyaemic effect of ethanol root extract of Sphenocentrum jollyanum (SJ) Pierre (Menispermaceae) in alloxan diabetic rabbits. Materials and methods: Alloxan diabetic rabbits (n = 5) were administered graded doses (50, 100 and 200 mg.kg-1) of the extract or glibenclamide (10 mg.kg-1) or vehicle (distilled water) for 15 days. Blood was collected i.v. from auricular vein on days 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 for glucose estimation by oxidase method. In the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), rabbits received the extract (1 g.kg-1) or glibenclamide (0.01 mg.kg-1) or vehicle and 30 minutes later received oral glucose load (1 g.kg-1). Glucose was estimated at 30 minutes, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours. The hypoglycaemic activity was assessed on normoglycaemic rabbit that received extract at 100, 250 and 500 mg.kg-1 and estimated at 0, 4, 8 and 12 hours. Results: The extract significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced glucose reduction by decreasing the peak glycaemic level and the area under curve in OGTT compared to the untreated. In alloxan diabetic rabbit, the extract produced significant dose dependent decrease in glycaemia from day 3 of oral treatment with comparatively higher activity than glibenclamide treatment. It also exhibited marked hypoglycaemic effect at 500 mg.kg-1 with lowest glycaemic reduction of 54.5 ± 7.7 (30.1%). The pancreatic histology showed focal areas of beta cells necrosis with significant number of the cells normal, suggesting that the extract may have effectively attenuated the diabetogenic agent inflammatory response. Conclusion: The ethanol root extract of SJ was very effective in lowering blood glucose.
Article
Full-text available
Mangifera indica Linn (Fam. Anacardiaceae), popularly known as the mango plant, is reported to have antioxidant and antidi-abetic properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic efficacy of the ethanolic extract of young (YLE) and matured (MLE) leaves of Mangifera indica. Methods: This research work was carried out in the month of March and April 2015. Diabetes was induced in rats using streptozotocin. The rats were randomly assigned into six groups: Group I-Normal control (NC), Group II-diabetic control (DC), Group III-diabetic+YLE, Group IV-diabetic+MLE, Group V-matured leaf extract (MLE), Group VI-young leaf extract (YLE) respectively. At the end of the experiment (28 days) blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture and the erythrocytes and plasma obtained from the blood was used for various experiments. Results: The study proves that the extract of leaves of Mangifera Indica has the ability to positively affect the biomarkers of oxi-dative stress in diabetic rats. The young leaves extract showed more potential. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Mangifera indica has promising therapeutic prospects as an antioxidant for the management and treatment of DM.
Article
Full-text available
Mangifera indica (family Anacardiaceae), commonly known as mango, is a pharmacologically, ethnomedically and phytochemically diverse plant. Various parts of M. indica tree have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different ailments and a number of bio-active phytochemicals constituents of M. indica have been reported, namely, polyphenols, terpenes, sterols, carotenoids, vitamins and amino acids, etc. Several studies have proven pharmacological potential of different parts of mango tree such as leaves, bark, fruit peel and flesh, roots and flowers as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anthelmintic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-plasmodial and antihyperlipemic. In the present review, a comprehensive study on ethnopharmacological applications, pharmacological activities and bioactive compounds of M. indica has been described.
Article
Full-text available
The Anti-lipidemic activity of Mangifera indica leave and bark on rat model and in vitro antioxidant activity of the plant bark was studied. The antioxidant activity was determined using nitric oxide, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and anti-lipid peroxidation free radical scavenging activities. The plant extract showed highest inhibition in nitric oxide (93.5) at the highest concentration 200mg/ml used. This is higher compared to lipid peroxidation and DPPH % scavenger of the plant extract which are (81.5) and (62) respectively at the same concentration of 200mg/ml. the % inhibition of the plant bark extract showed low inhibition concentration as against 50% (IC 50). Serum lipid assay (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein) of the rats were measured to assess the anti-lipidemic activity of both the plant leave and bark extract. The result shows non-significant changes in all the parameters between the control groups and the rats administered with the plant leave and bark extract. It can be deduced from the lipid assay that the administration of the ethanol plant extracts did not cause accumulation of lipid in the serum level of the rats. The LDL-c level was also on the normal range. Therefore this plant can be used as an anti-lipidemic agent.
Article
Full-text available
Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted.
Article
In the present study, a multi-dimensional therapeutic approach for combating experimentally induced Type I diabetes using polyherbal therapy with melatonin supplementation and an exercise regimen (S+M+PE) is employed in both diabetic (DC) and non diabetic (NC) animals. Adult albino rats were made diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg / kg body weight). After a duration of 7 days, animals with a blood glucose level of 300 mg / dl or higher were considered diabetic. Control and experimental animals were subjected to swimming exercise together with administration of melatonin and PE for a further duration of 15 days and, upon sacrifice, various parameters related to glycaemic status and carbohydrate metabolism were evaluated. Results revealed a much better glycaemic regulation and carbohydrate metabolism. The glucose clearance rates of DC.S+M+PE animals under both glucose challenge and exogenous insulin were much greater than both NC and DC animals. Observed increase in insulin levels in both NC and DC animals subjected to S+M+PE was an indicative of observed near normal glucoregulation with combination therapy. S+M+PE exerted favourable influence on glucose uptake and utilization by way of increased insulin titre and sensitivity as well as up regulation of GLUT-4. In conclusion it can be said that S+M+PE is an effective combination therapy exerting effective glucoregulation and correction of carbohydrate metabolism.
Article
Mangiferin, C19H18O11, has been isolated from the leaves, heartwood and stem-bark of Mangifera indica. Its properties indicate that it is a stable C-glycoside of the xanthone group. Reductive hydrolysis with hydriodic acid and oxidation with ferric chloride yield 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone and glucose respectively indicating that it is a glucoside of the former and oxidation with periodic acid reveals that the sugar is in the pyranose form. The position of linkage has been shown to be 2 by oxidizing mangiferin tri and tetra methyl ethers with periodate to the corresponding α-hydroxyacetaldehydes of trimethoxy and tetramethoxyxanthones and comparing them with synthetic samples obtained from the appropriate 2-allylxanthones. This has been further supported by oxidation of mangiferin tetra methyl ether and 2-allyl-1,3,6,7-tetramethoxyxanthone with permanganate yielding 1,3,6,7-tetramethoxyxanthone-2-carboxylic acid.
Article
Abstract Saudin (80 mg/kg p.o.) caused marked hypoglycaemic effects in fasted mice. At a dose of 40 mg/kg i.p., saudin exerted hypoglycaemic effect in non-alloxanized rather than in alloxanized fasted mice. In rats, saudin (40 mg/kg i.p.) was found to produce a hypoglycaemic effect in fed but not fasted non-alloxanized animals. The blood glucose level of alloxanized rats remained unchanged. The hypoglycaemic effect of saudin was associated with a significant decrease in the plasma insulin activity in rats. Saudin was also found to inhibit insulin release by isolated perfused islets of Langerhans. Saudin's hypoglycaemic effect may involve mechanisms not related to insulin secretion.
A comparative study of the hypoglycaemic action of the ethabolic extract of the bark of Ficus bengalensis and a glucoside isolated from it has been made with tolbutamide, both in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. The glucoside is more active than the crude extract and it is half as potent as tolbutamide.
Article
The hypoglycemic activity of olive leaf was studied. Maximum hypoglycemic activity was obtained from samples collected in the winter months, especially in February. One of the compounds responsible for this activity was oleuropeoside, which showed activity at a dose of 16 mg/kg. This compound also demonstrated antidiabetic activity in animals with alloxan-induced diabetes. The hypoglycemic activity of this compound may result from two mechanisms: (a) potentiation of glucose-induced insulin release, and (b) increased peripheral uptake of glucose.
Oral administration of water fraction of alcoholic extract of leaves of Vinca rosea (fam. apocynaeceae) led to marked lowering of blood glucose level in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The hypoglycemic effect of the fraction was comparable with that of tolbutamide.
Article
The effect of tormentic acid, a natural product isolated from Poterium ancistroides, was studied in normoglycemic, hyperglycemic, and streptozotocin diabetic rats. This principle lowered the fasting plasma glucose level with a corresponding increase in circulating insulin levels. Moreover, it improved the glucose tolerance test by increasing insulin secretory response to glucose. However, tormentic acid did not change the insulin and glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. All effects have been compared with that of glibenclamide. These results suggest that tormentic acid, like glibenclamide, may act by increasing insulin secretion from the islets of Langerhans.
Article
Manual and automated methods for the determination of blood glucose have been devised using an oxidase/peroxidase system, with dl adrenaline, a non-carcinogen, as oxygen acceptor. The manual technique employs a stable single solution protein precipitant and the other reagents used are also stable. The automated methods are operated at 40/hr sample speed and washover between samples, over a very wide concentration range, is negligible.
Article
Blood glucose levels of the normal and alloxan-diabetic male albino rabbits were determined after oral administration of various doses of the powdered plants of Euphorbia prostrata, Lit. (Euphorbiaceae) and Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae). From the data obtained, it is concluded that the powders of E. prostrata and F. parviflora plants produce significant hypoglycaemic effects in the normal rabbits only. The methanol extract of E. prostrata also decreased the blood glucose of normal rabbits while that of F. parviflora did not produce this effect. In the alloxan-treated rabbits, these plants do not lower the blood glucose levels. Moreover, acute toxicity studies and records of behavioural patterns carried out in rabbits and rats, respectively showed no adverse effects in the dosages tested. It is conceivable that both plants contain some hypoglycaemic principles which act probably by initiating the release of insulin from the pancreatic beta cells of normal rabbits.
Article
Blood glucose and total lipid levels of normal and alloxantreated diabetic rabbits were determined after oral administration of various doses of the CUMINUM NIGRUM L. seeds and their extracts in water and methanol. From the data obtained, it is concluded that the oral administration of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg of C. NIGRUM seeds produces a significant hypoglycaemic effect in normal as well as in diabetic rabbits. The water and methanol extracts also decreased the blood glucose level in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. However, the total blood lipids were not influenced by this substance in either normal or diabetic rabbits. The acute toxicity studies carried out on rabbits could not reveal any adverse or side effects of this folk medicine at the dosages tested. It is suggested that the C. NIGRUM seeds contain one or more hypoglycaemic principles which can significantly reduce the blood glucose but not total lipids level in normal rabbits and in those with alloxan-induced diabetes.
Hypohlycaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic effect of leaves of Vinca rosea Linn
  • R R Sarkar
  • S K Ganguli
  • S Bannerjee
  • R N Basu
, R.R., Sarkar, S.K., Ganguli, S., Bannerjee, R.N. and Basu, T.K. (1991) Hypohlycaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic effect of leaves of Vinca rosea Linn. Indian J. Physiol Pharmacol. 35: 45–151.
Hypoglycaemic activity of Aralia mandechurica in rats
  • K A Mescherskaya
  • T I Dzhumaeva
  • T N Litvinenko
Mescherskaya, K.A., Dzhumaeva, T.I., Litvinenko, T.N. (1978) Hypoglycaemic activity of Aralia mandechurica in rats. Raslit Resur. 14: 83–86.
HYPOGLYCAEMIC POTENTIAL OF MANGIFERA INDICA LEAVES 133 Pharmaceutical Biology Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by Queen's University on 01
  • Accepted
Accepted: November 22, 1996 HYPOGLYCAEMIC POTENTIAL OF MANGIFERA INDICA LEAVES 133 Pharmaceutical Biology Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by Queen's University on 01/05/15 For personal use only.
Simplified LD50 (or ED50) calculations
  • M Gonzalez
  • A Zarduelo
  • M J Gamez
  • M P Utrilla
  • J Jaminez
  • I Osuna
The hypoglycemic effect of Saudin
  • J S Mossa
  • E S El Denshary
  • R Hindwai
  • A M Ageel