The Effect of Garlic Tablet on Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
1Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , Yazd , Iran. Journal of Dietary Supplements
10/2012; 9(4). DOI: 10.3109/19390211.2012.726703
Menopause is one of the important causes of osteoporosis which results from estrogen deficiency. In addition, some clinical and experimental evidence indicates that there is an association between increasing pro-inflammatory cytokine activity and postmenopausal bone loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of garlic tablet on pro-inflammatory cytokines in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.
The present study was a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial in Yazd conducted during November 2009 until July 2010. The sample included 44 postmenopausal osteoporotic women who were randomly assigned into two groups: the garlic group (GG) and the placebo group (PG). Participants in GG took two garlic tablets daily for 1 month and the participants in PG took placebo tablets in the same manner. Serum interlukin-1, interlukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured using the ELISA method before and after the intervention. Also, 24-hour dietary recall was recorded for estimation of daily intake of some nutrients. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.
There was no statistically significant difference between interlukin-1 and interlukin-6 in the two groups before and after the intervention. The mean of TNF-α did not show any statistically significant difference between the two groups before and after the intervention, but it was significantly reduced by about 47% (from 31.14±50.53 to 19.33±22.19 ng/ml, P-value = 0.05) in GG after the intervention, However, no significant difference was seen in PG.
The present study produced some evidence for an immunomodulatory effect of garlic, as well as the modulation of cytokine production.
Available from: Walter E Haefeli
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Because 30 to 70% of tumour patients use complementary and alternative medicines; herb-drug combinations are particularly frequent in this population. Some of these combinations can critically alter exposure of anti-neoplastic and palliative treatment.
This review summarises pharmacokinetic drug interactions caused by the herbal products most frequently used by tumour patients (garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, echinacea and St John's wort [SJW]).
Herb-drug interactions, in general, and some interactions in particular (e.g., transporters, Phase II metabolism enzymes) are still poorly investigated and are difficult to evaluate because mixtures are administered with variable and often unspecified amounts of ingredients. Current evidence suggests that garlic and ginkgo can be safely co-administered, whereas CYP2C9 substrates (e.g., warfarin) should be monitored closely when ginseng therapy is started. Echinacea can induce drug metabolism mediated by CYP3A, but most likely relevant when administered with substances with a narrow therapeutic index or low oral bioavailability. The most relevant herbal perpetrator drug is SJW, which has substantial impact on CYP3A4- and CYP2C9-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein-mediated transport. This may lower exposure of co-administered drugs by up to 70%. Such an interaction is expected to occur with most of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, but current evidence is limited.
Available from: Keshab Raj Paudel
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to review the different pharmacological effects of garlic. Garlic, Allium sativum, is a herbal plant which has been used in different food preparations since long time. Many studies have shown that allicin is the main compound in garlic which is generated from alliin with the help of alliinase enzyme and is responsible for many pharmacological effects. Different studies have shown that garlic has pharmacological effects such as antihypertensive, antihypercholesterolaemic, antiplatelet, hypoglycaemic, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, antineoplastic, etc. However, studies in the literature havesome confl icting fi ndings and meta-analyses are also slightly different for different effects. Despite these fi ndings, most of the studies, including meta-analyses, have shown signifi cant antihypertensive and hypolipidaemic effects of garlic. Based on the data in the literature, regular dietary consumption of raw garlic, two to four grams, equivalent to one clove of garlic, or 600-900 mg garlic powder per day, if not contraindicated, may be effective for different benefi cialpharmacological effects.Journal of Kathmandu Medical CollegeVol. 3, No. 4, Oct.-Dec., 2014Page: 158-161
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ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is one of the most common forms of malignant tumor, and the development of anti‑gastric cancer drugs with minimal toxicity is of clinical importance. Allicin is extracted from Allium sativum (garlic). Recent research, including clinical experiments, has shown that garlic has anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of allicin on the MGC‑803 human gastric carcinoma cell line, and to further explore the possible mechanisms of its tumor suppressor effects. The effects of allicin on the MGC‑803 cells were initially examined using an 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Hoechst staining was also used, in order to demonstrate the impact of allicin on MGC‑803 cell apoptosis. In addition, western blot analysis was performed to determine the abnormal expression levels of apoptosis‑associated proteins, following the treatment of MGC‑803 cells with allicin. Western blotting was also used to investigate the specific mechanisms underlying allicin‑induced apoptosis of MGC‑803 cells. The rate of MGC‑803 apoptosis was significantly increased, when the concentration and treatment time of allicin were increased. Hoechst staining detected an enhanced rate of apoptosis, and enhanced expression levels of cleaved caspase 3 were determined by western blotting. Notably, the protein expression levels of p38 were increased when the MGC‑803 cells were treated with allicin. The results of the present study suggest that allicin may inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of MGC‑803 human gastric carcinoma cells, and this may partially be achieved through the enhanced expression of p38 and cleaved caspase 3.
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