ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

This article is written with the belief that psychotherapy can be enriched by the addition of ideas from anthropology and holistic health care. This paper introduces the psychotherapy of David Grove. The paper tries to re-emphasize the need for therapists, or healers of all kinds, to be aware of the language, therapeutic structure and experience of clients. Clients' experiences are more fully understood in the context of greater awareness of the inter-relationships of language, experience, belief, enculturation and communication. Such awareness is posited as being crucial to holistic practitioners. Holistic psychotherapy regards people as living in culture; human qualities as living in people; and seeks to create healing experiences for clients by studying communication between real people. The case for a phenomenological therapy is put forward.
... In keeping with this view, Clark (2001) believes that narrative approaches, which may be inclusive of patient metaphors, enable clients to " re-story " their lives. Owen (1989) contends that use of the client's metaphoric language promotes " a context for self-healing by wrapping the client's symbol with more of the client's words and creating the possibility that the symbol, or its context, could be able to change " (p. 195). ...
... 12). Owen (1989) relates that therapists must find a way of communicating with the client that wholly elicits their experiences, further explaining that " each word the client uses for describing their experience is like a code word which has a series of associations, meaning, memories and other experiences attached to it " (p. 189). ...
Article
Mode of access: Internet, via World Wide Web. System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader. Title from title page display. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of North Texas, Dec., 2005. Includes bibliographical references.
... Although approaches based on Clean Language were originally used in therapy (Hyer & Brandsma, 1997;Lawley & Manea, 2017;Owen, 1989;Pincus & Sheikh, 2011;Rees & Manea, 2016), they have also proven their efficacy in coaching (Doyle & McDowall, 2015), education (Groppel-Wegener, 2015;Nixon & Walker, 2009a), organisations (Barner, 2008;Martin & Sullivan, 2007;Nixon & Walker, 2009b;Robinson, 2013), and more recently as a qualitative research methodology (Cairns-Lee, 2015;Lawley, 2017;Lawley & Linder-Pelz, 2016;Linder-Pelz & Lawley, 2015;Nehyba & Svojanovský, 2017;Tosey, et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: This paper compares and analyses Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) through the paradigm of Clean Language and Symbolic Modelling at three levels: intention, process and practice. Objectives: The aim is to identify specific similarities and differences between the two approaches in order for practitioners of both to mutually benefit. Methods: A high-level comparison of SFBT and Symbolic Modelling approaches; a line-byline linguistic analysis of a representative SFBT transcript using models from Symbolic Modelling such as: ‘vectoring’, the Problem-Remedy-Outcome model and Clean Language; an examination of a sample of common Solution-Focus questions for metaphors, presupposition and ‘leading’ syntax, with alternative ‘cleaner’ versions provided. Results: Examples of similarities and differences between the two approaches at the level of intention, process and practice were identified. A selection of SFBT questions were modified to show how they could be cleaner, i.e. simpler, contain less therapist-introduced content (especially metaphors) and fewer leading presuppositions, giving the client a wider scope within which to answer. Areas of SFBT which could be given more attention in Symbolic Modelling were also identified. Conclusions: While Solution-Focused Brief Therapy and Symbolic Modelling have broadly similar aims, these are often achieved by quite different means. With minor modifications, some of the basic principles, process and practices of Clean Language could be incorporated into SolutionFocused Brief Therapy and some of the methods of SFBT could be given more attention in Symbolic Modelling, while preserving the unique nature of both.
... Its creator, David Grove, was a counseling psychologist whose innovative ideas and therapeutic methods evolved through three phases. The 1980s saw Grove create Clean Language as an approach to working with trauma that utilized autogenic metaphor (Grove & Panzer, 1989;Owen, 1989;Pincus & Sheikh, 2009). In the 1990s he extended his work into perceptual space outside the body, intergenerational healing and nonverbal information Lawley & Tompkins, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: This paper consists of a case study of a spatially-based therapeutic approach, Clean Space, which facilitates a client through a "stuck" state. The study situates "clean" approaches within the context of mental space and metaphor research, outlines the method, and provides a full transcript of a session, explanatory commentary and client feedback. Objectives: This case study aims at showing how the Clean Space approach can successfully facilitate a client's endeavor to create the conditions for the emergence of a novel resolution to their problematic state without any content-related interpretation and only with process interventions coming from the therapist. Methods: The Clean Space approach. Results: The session described in this study demonstrates how the client uses physical space and multiple perspectives to work through a long-standing problematic perception which they defined as "stuck". The evidence for change is reported by the client at the end of the session and by the feedback she provided one and four months later. Conclusions: Clean Space enables the client to use the interplay of physical and mental space, to externalize her thoughts, feelings, metaphors and symbolic perceptions thereby engaging her creativity in an emergent change process. It also shows how the therapist keeps his presence to a minimum, and his language "clean", i.e. free of his own assumptions, interpretations and metaphors.
... Since 1984, the psychotherapist David Grove has been developing a form of therapy based on cognitive linguistics, which is also phenomenological (Grove 1991, Grove & Panzer 1989, Owen 1989. The therapy seeks to explore subjective experiences in a descriptive manner by attending to specific phrases and making them less abstract. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Since 1984 the psychotherapist David Grove has been developing a form of therapy based on cognitive linguistics which is also phenomenological (Grove & Panzer, 1989; Grove, 1991; Owen, 1989, 1991). The therapy seeks to explore subjective experiences in a descriptive manner by attending to specific phrases and making them less abstract. In doing this it facilitates for clients to explore and experience memories, meaning, speech and psychosomatic events. Grove’s method is called clean language and seeks to elicit the relations between speech and lived experience. In this study clean language is applied to make a reproducible method for phenomenologists as this new procedure adheres to many phenomenological first principles. The method reveals the place of metaphor and metonymy as possible connections between language and lived experience. The word metaphor refers to synchronic intentionally and metonymy refers to metaphors and the accompanying awareness and aims evolving through time. This study also defines an adjunct to Husserl’s and other phenomenologists’ methods. For those who wish to overcome some of the limitations of Husserl’s own psychological and transcendental methods, and create their own procedures for phenomenological study, it is an example to others.
... The Clean Language interviewing (CLI) method fits within a phenomenological methodology (Owen, 1989;Tosey, 2011;Worth, 2012) which addresses widely recognised difficulties in the process of exploring and explicating a person's self (Greif, 2007, p. 223). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This paper aims to contribute methodologically and substantively to understanding how coachees experience and evaluate coaching. First, we explore the use of ‘Clean Language’ as a phenomenological approach to coaching research, including the eliciting and analysing of data into findings and insights for coaches and coach trainers (Tosey et al., 2014, p.630). Second, we explore the nature of events, effects, evaluations and outcomes reported by coachees after a single coaching session. Design: Three coaches accredited in the same coaching methodology each delivered a single session to two randomly allocated coachees. The coachees were subsequently interviewed twice using Clean Language, in person two days after the coaching and by telephone two weeks later. Methodology: The transcribed follow-up interviews were analysed by an expert in Clean Language (the second author), using a form of thematic analysis within a realist/essentialist paradigm (Braun & Clarke, 2006, p.85). Findings: The interviews elicited detailed information on many aspects of coaching without the interviewer introducing any topics. Coachees’ events, effects and evaluations happened during the coaching session, between that session and the first interview, and during the two weeks between the first and second interviews. Coachees emphasised coaches’ style of repeating back, pacing, setting goals and questioning, maintaining the focus of the session, confronting and challenging, as well as their responsiveness (or lack of it). Increased self-awareness was mentioned by all coachees. Outcomes occurring after the session were maintained two weeks later, at which time new outcomes were also reported. Conclusions: Clean Language Interviewing supplements and extends existing methods of phenomenological interviewing and data coding. The study yielded nuanced findings on the coach behaviours that led coachees to give favourable versus unfavourable evaluations, with implications for coaching psychologists with regard in particular to coaches’ ability to calibrate and respond to coachees’ ongoing evaluation of the coaching, the pace of the session and how the timing of coachees’ feedback affects the findings.
... Its origins lie in the work of counselling psychologist David Grove (1950 -2008) in developing methods for resolving clients' traumatic memories (Grove and Panzer, 1991;Lawley and Tompkins, 2000). Grove's approach is broadly humanistic, in that it is person-centred and facilitative; it has also been described as phenomenological (Owen, 1989). Grove discovered, first, that focusing on a client's metaphors provided a way into their inner symbolic world; and second that facilitating a client to become immersed in that inner world, exploring it for themselves, could enable effective resolution of their traumatic memories. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper shows how an innovative method of questioning called Clean Language can enhance the authenticity and rigour of interview-based qualitative research. We investigate the specific potential of Clean Language as a method for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors in order to provide in-depth understanding of a person's symbolic world; despite substantial interest in metaphors in the field of organizational and management research there is a lack of explicit, systematic methods for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors. We also demonstrate how Clean Language can improve qualitative research more widely by addressing the propensity for researchers inadvertently to introduce extraneous metaphors into an interviewee's account at both data collection and interpretation stages. Data are presented from a collaborative academic–practitioner project in which Clean Language was used as a method of interviewing to elicit the metaphors of six mid-career managers, relating to the way they experienced work–life balance. The first contribution of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of Clean Language for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors in order to provide in-depth understanding of a person's symbolic world. The second contribution is to show how Clean Language can enhance the rigour and authenticity of interview-based qualitative research more widely.
... The objective of clean language is for these metaphors to re-animate themselves, of their own accord, without contamination from the intentions of either the therapist or the client. To emphasize this point, the approach is best understood as being metaphor centered, rather than most therapies which are client centered (Owen, 1989). ...
Article
Full-text available
Within the ever-expanding list of approaches to psychotherapy, there is a tendency to overlook deep imagery approaches. The current article reports on one such metaphor-based therapy developed by David Grove (Grove & Panzer, 1989). The approach is analyzed within the context of mainstream contemporary psychotherapy in general, the state of empirical understanding of common processes to psychotherapy, and in relation to other deep imagery-based approaches to therapy. Next, a step-by-step description of the techniques used within metaphor therapy are presented, along with a case example demonstrating the use of these techniques on a case involving pain symptoms. Finally, it is argued that deep imagery approaches in general, and Grove’s approach in particular, may provide a means for greater theoretical integration within integrative healthcare.
Chapter
In the introduction, the instrumental, moral and political aspects of mediation were differentiated. As noted, there are of course elements of all three aspects in all types of mediation, given that mediation is fundamentally about people in conflict sitting down together to talk and find ways of resolving their differences. But it has been argued above that facilitative styles of mediation, at least in the workplace, tend towards the instrumental, and the relational styles bring a more marked moral dimension into relief. The relational styles are underpinned by explicit philosophies of the social and theories of conflict that yield particular understandings of how people, when in conflict, may potentially communicate better. This is especially so in the moral philosophy of Bush and Folger’s work. The conscious adherence to a particular philosophy and theory seems to drive out a given style of practice. Although, as noted earlier, it may be argued that a temperamental predisposition to a style will be justified by reference to a selected grounding theory.
Article
Within the ever-expanding list of approaches to psychotherapy, there is a tendency to overlook deep imagery approaches. The current article reports on one such metaphor-based therapy developed by David Grove (Grove & Panzer, 1989). The approach is analyzed within the context of mainstream contemporary psychotherapy in general, the state of empirical understanding of common processes to psychotherapy, and in relation to other deep imagery-based approaches to therapy. Next, a step-by-step description of the techniques used within metaphor therapy are presented, along with a case example demonstrating the use of these techniques on a case involving pain symptoms. Finally, it is argued that deep imagery approaches in general, and Grove's approach in particular, may provide a means for greater theoretical integration within integrative healthcare.
Article
Full-text available
Counsellors' primary skills, apart from listening to clients' words, lie in responding with well-chosen words. Ideal counsellors say just the right thing, at just the right time, in just the right way. It is suggested that emphasising how words relate to cognitive, emotional and relationship events can take counselling on to new ground. In addition to felt experience being in sight, sound, feeling, smell and taste, language itself is posited as a ‘sense’ through which we perceive, and are joined to, our environment. From the starting point that counsellors use words to heal, attention is paid to how wrong words injure clients, how words are a major component in making relationships, and how they create and define felt experiences. ‘Metaphorical schemas’ are posited as bases for shaping felt experience. These schemas are a theory of subjectively felt emotion and cognitive understanding.
Book
The now-classic Metaphors We Live By changed our understanding of metaphor and its role in language and the mind. Metaphor, the authors explain, is a fundamental mechanism of mind, one that allows us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of countless other subjects. Because such metaphors structure our most basic understandings of our experience, they are "metaphors we live by"--metaphors that can shape our perceptions and actions without our ever noticing them. In this updated edition of Lakoff and Johnson's influential book, the authors supply an afterword surveying how their theory of metaphor has developed within the cognitive sciences to become central to the contemporary understanding of how we think and how we express our thoughts in language.
Article
Papers on child psychology, education, and individuation, underlining the overwhelming importance of parents and teachers in the genesis of the intellectual, feeling, and emotional disorders of childhood. The final paper deals with marriage as an aid or obstacle to self-realization.
Article
"Shifting Contexts" is about making psychotherapy more effective. Focusing exclusively on obtaining effective therapeutic results, the authors assert that all clinicians, regardless of orientation, should spend less time analyzing the reasons behind human behavior and concentrate instead on efficiently promoting change. Exposing the underlying structure beneath the various schools of psychotherapy to find the common foundations, the authors present a generic model of problem-solving consultation that will enhance the efficacy of any clinician's practice. The approach that they have developed, "clinical epistemology," frees therapist and client alike from self-imposed limitations by identifying and undermining their presuppositions. . . . The authors provide an explicit set of rules for establishing the conditions for workable psychotherapy, negotiating a solvable problem and successfully guiding the client to take effective action. . . . Recognizing the client as an equal participant in the therapeutic process, the approach respects the ability of clients to utilize their own resources to solve their own problems and to see their way clear to taking whatever action needs to be taken. General considerations about details of the psychotherapeutic session are also explored, including the importance of using ordinary language in therapeutic sessions, the prejudices and assumptions that language can reveal, and the significance of the therapist's manner and style. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)