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Food security in Igloolik, Nunavut: An exploratory study

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Abstract

This paper reports on an exploratory analysis examining the prevalence of food (in)security in the Inuit community of Igloolik, Nunavut, identifying high risk groups, and characterising conditions facilitating and constraining food security. A stratified cross-sectional food survey was administered to 50 Inuit community members in July 2007. 64% of the participants surveyed experienced some degree of food insecurity in the past year (July 2006–July 2007). Food insecurity among the sample population greatly exceeds the Canadian average. This is cause for concern given the negative physical and mental health impacts that have been documented for low nutritional status. The prevalence and severity of food insecurity differed among participants; females and those obtaining most of their food from the store were at highest risk of food insecurity. Consumption of traditional foods was significantly associated with increased food security. The study supports the need for further research to investigate key trends highlighted by the sample. Preliminary identification of potential trends contributes towards the goal of identifying entry points for policy aimed at strengthening northern Inuit food systems.
Food insecurity in Igloolik, Nunavut: An exploratory study
Food insecurity in Igloolik, Nunavut: An exploratory study
Food insecurity in Igloolik, Nunavut: An exploratory study
James Ford1, Lea Berrang Ford1, Celina Irngaut2, Kevin Qrunnut2
James Ford
James Ford1
1,
, Lea
Lea Berrang
Berrang Ford
Ford1,
1, Celina
Celina Irngaut
Irngaut2
2, Kevin
, Kevin Qrunnut
Qrunnut2
2
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
1. Introduction
Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
The research program has been supported by ArcticNet , the Climat
The research program has been supported by ArcticNet, the Climate Change Impacts and
e Change Impacts and
Adaptation Program (CCIAP), and SSHRC. Thanks to community membe
Adaptation Program (CCIAP), and SSHRC. Thanks to communit y members in Igloolik who
rs in Igloolik who
were interviewed for this research.
were interviewed for this research.
References
References
References
Abstract
Food insecurity, or the inability of individuals and households to meet their nutritional
requirements in a culturally acceptable manner, is believed to be widespread among
Inuit communities in Northern Canada. This poster reports on a study conducted in
Igloolik, Nunavut, during summer 2007 to develop a baseline understanding of the
magnitude and prevalence of food insecurity in the community, identify high risk groups
and characterize conditions facilitating and constraining food security. Analysis of the
fifty structured surveys reveals a high prevalence of food insecurity. Females and those
obtaining most of their food from the store at highest risk. Lack of money, price of store
food and other commodities, and expense of hunting were identified as major
constraints to being food secure.
Abstract
Abstract
Food insecurity, or the inability of individuals and households
Food insecurity, or the inability of individuals and households to meet their nutritional
to meet their nutritional
requirements in a culturally acceptable manner, is believed to b
requirements in a culturally acceptable manner, is believed to be widespread among
e widespread among
Inuit communities in Northern Canada. This poster reports on a s
Inuit communities in Northern Canada. This poster reports on a study conducted in
tudy conducted in
Igloolik, Nunavut, during summer 2007 to develop a baseline unde
Igloolik, Nunavut, during summer 2007 to develop a baseline understanding of the
rstanding of the
magnitude and prevalence of food insecurity in the community, id
magnitude and prevalence of food insecurity in the community, identify high risk groups
entify high risk groups
and characterize conditions facilitating and constraining food s
and characterize conditions facilitating and constraining food security. Analysis of the
ecurity. Analysis of the
fifty structured surveys reveals a high prevalence of food insec
fifty structured surveys reveals a high prevalence of food insecurity. Females and those
urity. Females and those
obtaining most of their food from the store at highest risk. Lac
obtaining most of their food from the store at highest risk. Lack of money, price of store
k of money, price of store
food and other commodities, and expense of hunting were identifi
food and other commodities, and expense of hunting were identified as major
ed as major
constraints to being food secure.
constraints to being food secure.
1
1Dept. of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec,
Dept. of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6
H3A 2K6 james.ford@mcgill.ca
james.ford@mcgill.ca
2
2Hamlet of Igloolik, Igloolik, Nunavut
Hamlet of Igloolik, Igloolik, Nunavut
2. Objectives
2. Objectives
2. Objectives
4. Results
4. Results
4. Results 5. Discussion
5. Discussion
5. Discussion
Food security exists when
Food security exists when
people
people at all times can acquire
at all times can acquire
safe, nutritionally adequate, and culturally acceptable
safe, nutritionally adequate, and culturally acceptable
foods in a manner than maintains human dignity,
foods in a manner than maintains human dignity,
(
(VanEsterick
VanEsterick, 1999). Food
, 1999). Food in
insecurity occurs when food
security occurs when food
systems are stressed so that food is not accessible,
systems are stressed so that food is not accessible,
available, and/or of sufficient quality. Among Inuit
available, and/or of sufficient quality. Among Inuit
communities there is a high perseverance of food
communities there is a high perseverance of food
insecurity, greatly exceeding the Canadian average
insecurity, greatly exceeding the Canadian average
(
(Ledrou
Ledrou and
and Gervais
Gervais, 2005). Climate change poses new
, 2005). Climate change poses new
risks to
risks to Inuit food systems, which are believed to be
Inuit food systems, which are believed to be
vulnerable (ACIA, 2005).
vulnerable (ACIA, 2005).
The objectives of this research are to
The objectives of this research are to characterize
characterize the
the
prevalence and magnitude of food insecurity in Igloolik,
prevalence and magnitude of food insecurity in Igloolik,
Nunavut;
Nunavut; locate
locate high risk groups; and
high risk groups; and identify
identify and
and
characterize
characterize processes and conditions facilitating and
processes and conditions facilitating and
constraining food security.
constraining food security.
3. Methods and Analysis
3. Methods and Analysis
3. Methods and Analysis
Food security survey
Food security survey
Data were collected using a
Data were collected using a food security survey
food security survey, administered to 50
, administered to 50
participants
participants in 2007. The survey consisted of four main sections with 35
in 2007. The survey consisted of four main sections with 35
close
close-
-ended questions:
ended questions:
Section 1:
Section 1: Respondent characteristics
Respondent characteristics
Section 2:
Section 2: Nature of the Igloolik food system
Nature of the Igloolik food system
Section 3:
Section 3: Food availability in previous year
Food availability in previous year
Section 4:
Section 4: Food security assessment based on a modified version of the
Food security assessment based on a modified version of the
U.S. Department of Agriculture
U.S. Department of Agriculture
s Food Security Survey Module (USDA
s Food Security Survey Module (USDA
2007). Questions explored the conditions, experiences and behavi
2007). Questions explored the conditions, experiences and behaviours
ours
that characterize ranges of food insecurity and hunger severity
that characterize ranges of food insecurity and hunger severity
experienced over the past 12 months
experienced over the past 12 months
Analy sis
Analy sis
Responses to the food security questions in section four were
Responses to the food security questions in section four were categorized
categorized
according to severity of food insecurity following procedures ou
according to severity of food insecurity following procedures outlined by the
tlined by the
USDA and illustrated in Table 1. Following classification, chi
USDA and illustrated in Table 1. Following classification, chi-
-squared tests
squared tests
were conducted to assess variation in food security indicators b
were conducted to assess variation in food security indicators by respondent
y respondent
characteristics, using a significance level of 95%. Fischer
characteristics, using a significance level of 95%. Fischer
s exact probability
s exact probability
tests were utilized to detect associations where expected cell f
tests were utilized to detect associations where expected cell f requencies
requencies
violated chi
violated chi-
-squared assumptions. Unless otherwise marked, p
squared assumptions. Unless otherwise marked, p-
-values refer
values refer
to chi
to chi-
-squared analyses.
squared analyses.
i). There is a high prevalence of food insecurity in Igloolik:
i). There is a high prevalence of food insecurity in Igloolik: 36% of
36% of
respondents were classed as food secure,
respondents were classed as food secure, 64% as food insecure
64% as food insecure (Table 1)
(Table 1)
12 (24%)Reports of multiple indications of disrupted
eating patterns, reduced food intake, and loss
of weight
Very low food
security
20 (40%)Anxiousness over food sufficiency and
shortages and indication of reduced food
intake.
Low food
security
Food Insecure
12 (24%)One or two reported indications—typically of
anxiety over food sufficiency or shortage of
food in the house. Little or no indication of
changes in diets or food intake
Marginal food
security
6 (12%)No reported indications of food-access
problems or limitations
High food
security
Food Secure
CategoryLabel
Total (%) Igloolik
respondents
Detailed CategoriesGeneral
Category
Table 1: Food security categorization rules and Igloolik survey results
ii). Food insecurity is higher among females:
ii). Food insecurity is higher among females: Females were more likely to
Females were more likely to
be food insecure (p=0.054) (Fig. 1). Women were significantly mo
be food insecure (p=0.054) (Fig. 1). Women were significantly more likely than
re likely than
men to cut the size of their meals or skip meals (p=0.03), go hu
men to cut the size of their meals or skip meals (p=0.03), go hungry due to
ngry due to
lack of food (p=0.05), and not eat for a whole day (p=0.036).
lack of food (p=0.05), and not eat for a whole day (p=0.036).
3. Food security is higher
3. Food security is higher
among those that hunt
among those that hunt
regularly:
regularly: Those who hunt
Those who hunt
regularly were more likely to
regularly were more likely to
be food secure than those
be food secure than those
who never hunt or hunt
who never hunt or hunt
occasionally. 86% of regular
occasionally. 86% of regular
hunters are food secure
hunters are food secure
compared to 30% of non
compared to 30% of non-
-
regular hunters (p=0.010)
regular hunters (p=0.010)
(Fig. 1). Those who regularly
(Fig. 1). Those who regularly
hunt were also significantly
hunt were also significantly
less likely (Fischer exact test)
less likely (Fischer exact test)
to have to cut or skip meals
to have to cut or skip meals
due to lack of food (p=0.012),
due to lack of food (p=0.012),
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Male
Female
Employed
Unemployed
Hunter
Regular
Occassional
Never
>1/2
1/2
Sex Job Hunting Traditional food
consumpt ion
Res pondent chara cteris tics
% Food insecure
Low Very low food secure
Fig. 2: Dimensions of food insecurity as they vary by respondent
characteristics, indicating percentage of respondents classified
as having a low food security and very low food security
eat less (p=0.027), or not eat for a whole day (p=0.036) compare
eat less (p=0.027), or not eat for a whole day (p=0.036) compared to non
d to non-
-
regular hunters. For example, no regular hunters reported not ea
regular hunters. For example, no regular hunters reported not eating for a
ting for a
whole day compared to 41% of non
whole day compared to 41% of non-
-regular hunters.
regular hunters.
iii). Prevalence of food insecurity is lower among those who con
iii). Prevalence of food insecurity is lower among those who con sume
sume
traditional foods:
traditional foods: Those who obtain >50% of their food from traditional
Those who obtain >50% of their food from traditional
sources were more likely to be food secure (p=0.032)(Fig. 1). No
sources were more likely to be food secure (p=0.032)(Fig. 1). No respondents
respondents
who obtained >50% of their food from traditional sources were cl
who obtained >50% of their food from traditional sources were cl assed as
assed as
very low food security,
very low food security,
compared to 32% of those
compared to 32% of those
respondents who obtained
respondents who obtained
50%. Consuming traditional
50%. Consuming traditional
foods is associated with
foods is associated with lower prevalence
lower prevalence of severe food
of severe food
insecurity. Respondents who consumed >50% of their food
insecurity. Respondents who consumed >50% of their food
from traditional sources were less likely to have cut or
from traditional sources were less likely to have cut or
skipped meals (p=0.02), have eaten less (p=0.04), or have
skipped meals (p=0.02), have eaten less (p=0.04), or have
not eaten for a whole day due to lack of food (p=0.06). None
not eaten for a whole day due to lack of food (p=0.06). None
of those who obtained >50% of their food from traditional
of those who obtained >50% of their food from traditional
sources reported going a whole day without eating in the
sources reported going a whole day without eating in the
last year, compared to 47% of those who eat half or less.
last year, compared to 47% of those who eat half or less.
iv). Food security differs by occupation: Those who hunt
Those who hunt
for a living are more likely to be food secure than those who
for a living are more likely to be food secure than those who
are employed or unemployed (p=0.008), with all
are employed or unemployed (p=0.008), with all
occupational hunters interviewed classified as food secure
occupational hunters interviewed classified as food secure
compared to 32% of those employed and 26% of
compared to 32% of those employed and 26% of
unemployed (Fig. 1). There are no significant differences in
unemployed (Fig. 1). There are no significant differences in
food security between the employed and unemployed.
food security between the employed and unemployed.
The prevalence of food insecurity in Igloolik is cause for conce
The prevalence of food insecurity in Igloolik is cause for concern
rn
Food studies indicate severe outcomes for poorly nourished peopl
Food studies indicate severe outcomes for poorly nourished people
e (
(Che
Che
and Chen, 2005).
and Chen, 2005).
Traditional food consumption appears to strengthen food security
Traditional food consumption appears to strengthen food security
Traditional foods, in many instances, are economically more acce
Traditional foods, in many instances, are economically more acce ssible than
ssible than
store
store-
-bought foods and more available than nutritious store foods. The
bought foods and more available than nutritious store foods. The
health benefits of consuming traditional foods are widely acknow
health benefits of consuming traditional foods are widely acknowledged in
ledged in
the scientific literature (
the scientific literature (VanOos tdam
VanOostdam, 2005).
, 2005).
Interviews were undertaken with 50 Iglulingmiut, many of which were conducted at
summer hunting camps
Food security is lower among females
Food security is lower among females
A number of explanations for gendered differences are evident, i
A number of explanations for gendered differences are evident, i ncluding
ncluding
lower traditional food consumption among females. Females in the
lower traditional food consumption among females. Females in the study
study
also described cutting or skipping meals to ensure other family
also described cutting or skipping meals to ensure other family members,
members,
particularly children, had access to sufficient food. Females al
particularly children, had access to sufficient food. Females al so noted
so noted
hunting less than males and are therefore more dependent on sour
hunting less than males and are therefore more dependent on sources of
ces of
traditional food from outside the household, exposing them to ch
traditional food from outside the household, exposing them to ch anges or
anges or
stresses in intra
stresses in intra-
-household food sharing networks. Anecdotal evidence
household food sharing networks. Anecdotal evidence
suggests that intra
suggests that intra-
-household sharing (important for females in the survey)
household sharing (important for females in the survey)
is the first to suffer at times of reduced food availability, as
is the first to suffer at times of reduced food availability, as was experienced
was experienced
in fall 2006 (see other Ford et al. poster)
in fall 2006 (see other Ford et al. poster)
Traditional foods are important for a healthy diet
ACIA (2005). Arctic Climate Impacts Assessment, Cambridge Univer
ACIA (2005). Arctic Climate Impacts Assessment , Cambridge University Pres s, Cambridge,
sity Press, Cambridge,
UK.
UK.
Che
Che J, Chen J. (2005). Food insecurity in Canadian households. Heal
J, Chen J. (2005). Food insecurity in Canadian households. Heal th Reports,12(4):1
th Reports,12(4):1-
-12.
12.
Ledrou
Ledrou I,
I, Gervais
Gervais J. (2005). Food Insecurit y. Stats Canada 2005, Catalogue # 8 2
J. (2005). Food Insecurity. St ats Canada 2005, Catalogue # 82 -
-003
003-
-XIE.
XIE.
USDA. (2007). Food Security in t he United States: Conditions and
USDA. (2007). Food Security in t he United States: Conditions and Trends. Available from:
Trends. Available from:
http://
http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing /FoodSecurity/trends.htm
www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/FoodSecurity/tr ends.htm
VanEsterik
VanEsterik P. (1999). Right to foo d; right to feed; right to be fed. The i
P. (1999). Right to food; right to feed; right to be fed. The i ntersection of
ntersection of
women
women
s rights and the right to food. A gric. and Human Values, 16(225
s rights and the right to food. A gric. and Human Values, 16(225 -
-232).
232).
VanOostdam
VanOostdam J, et al (2005). Human healt h implications of environmental con
J, et al (2005). Human health implications of environmental contaminants in
taminants in
Arctic Canada: A review. Science of the Total Environment, 351:1
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-246.
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Hunting – an important activity and source of nutritious food for Inuit communities
... An interview guide was developed with a mix of closed and open questions (Bernard, 1988) and the goal of learning more about local perceptions of FEW security, testing the relevance of our four components of FEW security, and discovering linkages and trade-offs among FEW components (Appendix 1). The questions used to assess security were developed based on previous survey instruments and research (Bickel et al., 2000;Brinkman et al., 2014;Eichelberger, 2010;Fall and Kotstick, 2018;Ford and Berrang-Ford, 2009;ICC, 2015;ICC Canada, 2012;Kruse et al., 2009;Loring and Gerlach, 2015). The framework was assessed through the development of 35 statements (Appendix 1 and Appendix 2). ...
... When subsistence foods were the resource, low security was only an issue among 3% of the responses and no one reported being very insecure, in contrast to 'contemporary' sources where 5% reported high levels of insecurity (Fig. 5). Our results are similar to other Indigenous Arctic regions with greater food insecurity associated with reliance on store-bought resources (Ford and Berrang-Ford, 2009). In some studies, lower consumption levels of traditional foods have been associated with higher rates of food insecurity among Canadian Inuit (Huet et al., 2012;Rosol et al., 2011;Rosol et al., 2016). ...
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... The traditional diet of polar Indigenous populations in Canada centres on the harvest of plant and animal species native to the circumpolar region (Bennett et al., 2004;Piper and Sandlos, 2007;Boulanger-Lapointe et al., 2019). A 2008 study reported that Indigenous people, whose diets consisted of 50% or more of traditional food, reported no instances of going a day without food, whereas people whose diets consisted mostly of nontraditional foods experienced higher levels of food insecurity (Ford and Berrang-Ford, 2009). While traditional foods have repeatedly been associated with food security, traditional food systems are under threat from a decreasing transfer of traditional ecological knowledge, shifting animal migration patterns, climate change, demographic changes, industrial development, wildlife regulations, and low incomes (Kuhnlein and Receveur, 2007;CCA, 2014). ...
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Thesis
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An individual’s health is influenced by more than just the health care system, but also in large part by the social determinants of health. People exist within broader social, cultural, and ecological systems which influence their health outcomes through the social determinants of health. This doctoral dissertation examines social, cultural, and ecological systems to understand several factors that support and hinder community health and wellbeing to inform future policy. This dissertation incorporates a mix of methodological approaches across four interrelated research studies to better understand direct and indirect factors influencing community health and wellbeing. In doing so, this thesis is divided into four research chapters. Study 1 consists of a community-based research project that examines how food security, cultural continuity, and community health and wellbeing are connected through the sharing of harvested country food in Chesterfield Inlet, Nunavut, Canada. Based on this understanding we can demonstrate how climate change and increased shipping along the inlet affects the community as a result of changes in marine mammals and harvesting activities. Study 2 presents a logistic regression that models how cultural continuity variables impact self-rated health for participants living in Inuit Nunangat in Canada. This model uses the Arctic Supplement questions of the Aboriginal Peoples Survey to compare measures of cultural continuity to traditional measures based on government services. This study demonstrates an important link between cultural continuity and self-rated health for Inuit living in Inuit Nunangat. iv Study 3 contains a case study of different implementation successes and challenges of Locally Managed Marine Areas globally. These cases are used to understand how community member involvement as stakeholders in marine resource decision-making not only aligns with existing local and Indigenous ways of management, but also can enhance biodiversity as well as local livelihoods. Finally, Study 4 uses ontology engineering methods to represent the results from the first three studies. This study demonstrates how this novel method can be used to illustrate the interconnectedness of results from different disciplines using diverse data sources and through the creation of different scenarios. Taken together, these studies provide timely insights regarding the ways policy can support or hinder efforts to improve community health and wellbeing and adapt to climate changes.
Article
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Marine and coastal biodiversity and ecosystem services are degraded in many areas worldwide due to human interference resulting from fishing, tourism, pollution, and mining. Guidelines for an evidence-based, participatory and community-led management approach ‘Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMA)’ provides a planning and strategic approach to development of coastal cities and implementing Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Here we take note of the existing references of case studies that shows successful implementation in Fiji, Kenya and other countries in Asia and Africa. LMMA approach integrates concerns about the current state of degradation and ensures that ecological services of these resource systems are sustainably managed in the future by community driven efforts; with aspects of food security, resource conservation, local employment and income of local fishers and tourism operators embedded. We focus on an empirical assessment initiated though a collaborative effort to outline and set up guidelines for establishing a LMMA network for Inhambane, Mozambique in discussion with stakeholders (fishermen, tourism operators, private and community actors, and selected government officials). An outcome from the study was disseminated to local authorities to ensure that solutions for managing degradation coastal and marine ecosystems could be placed on priority as planning for implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 14 and for creating coastal cities as sustainable economic hubs and resilient coastal communities.
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Harvesting activities such as hunting, fishing, trapping and gathering wild plants have been part of Indigenous peoples’ ways of living for millennia. They have endured despite the impact of colonization, including the impacts of residential schools, relocation to permanent settlements and introduction of the wage economy. This paper examines trends in harvesting activities, specifically hunting, fishing or trapping and gathering wild plants or berries, among First Nations people living off reserve, Métis and Inuit using four cycles of the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2001, 2006, 2012 and 2017). It also explores self‑reported barriers to participation in harvesting activities and associated factors.
Technical Report
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This report researches contemporary climate change impacts and action in relation to women and work across Canada. Framed by Feminist, Indigenous and Intersectoral perspectives, the definition of work is expanded to include roles and responsibilities wherein nature is an integral societal entity. It articulates material feminist, eco-feminst and indigenous feminist onto-epistemological perspectives in advocating for a decolonizing approach to climate change which values the resurgence of Indigenous and Women's knowledges.
Article
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Although the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have access to an ever-expanding market of different kinds of foods, they continue to invest considerable time and money obtaining Inuit foods, that is, foods hunted, fished, and gathered within the Inuit homeland. In this article, I explore how Inuit use these two types of foods (Inuit food and non-Inuit food) to express cultural differences as well as personal and collective identity. I focus on three realms of expressive activity: 1) local networks of exchange, 2) local discourses about the moral and physiological effects of Inuit and non-Inuit foods, and 3) the cultural logic of eating Inuit and non-Inuit foods. In short, food serves as an important vehicle in the production of meaning and identity, a process that has become increasingly important politically yet increasingly complicated socially and economically as Inuit react to an expanding world of commodities and consumer tastes.
Article
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The Arctic is undergoing rapid climatic and environmental change, most notably in the spatial extent and thickness of the sea ice. Inuit communities in the Canadian Arctic are directly affected by these changes, with dramatic change in sea ice conditions documented in recent years. We use a case study from the Inuit community of lgloolik to examine the processes and conditions shaping human vulnerability to sea ice change. In 2006, the ocean froze 3 to 4 wk later than normal, with little remnant ice during the summer. lgloolik residents described this state of sea ice as anomalous, and Inuit observations were consistent with instrumental sea-ice data. We examined how community members experienced and responded to the anomalous ice conditions of 2006, using our analysis of this perceptual/behavioral data as a lens for exploring vulnerability and its determinants. Inuit observations shed light on the implications of such ice conditions for human use of this arctic environment, including reduced ability to procure traditional food. Effects on the community were exacerbated by other climate-related conditions and non-climatic stresses, including increasing fuel prices and longer-term socio-cultural trends. The case study also indicates significant. adaptive capacity: anomalous ice years are increasingly becoming the norm and there is evidence that social learning and responsive local institutions are reducing the physical risks of using the ice in a changing climate. Climatic extremes documented in 2006 are projected to be the new mid-century norm as a result of anthropogenic climate change. The case study therefore offers a baseline for examining potential future vulnerabilities.
Article
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Food insecurity and increasing impoverishment of the masses in developing countries constitute a challenge for social scientists, whose theories have tried to catch up with the enormous challenges of diversity, dynamism and the impacts of the forces of­'glocalisation'. This article reviews the efforts in the social sciences towards understanding food insecurity and suggests a framework incorporating dynamism and diversity in rural communities in the research process. Structural changes affecting peasant economies and peasant responses make existing general theories inappropriate without a contextual treatment. Insights from existing theories are used to construct a livelihood vulnerability framework for researching and understanding food insecurity in rural areas.
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Research conducted with the communitites of Igloolik, Ulakhaktok, and Churchill in northern Canada documents increasing exposure to hazards associated with ice use for hunting and travel. This trend is related to changing ice conditions. Instrumental records show later ice freeze-up and earlier break up since the late 1970s. increasing temperatures, and changes in weather in the case study communities. Elders and mature community members, drawing upon their traditional knowledge. describe similar changes in ice and other climate-related conditions ill recent years. These changes are increasing the risks of utilizing the ice for hunting and travel and they are reducing access to traditional food. Chan-e ill risk-taking, behavior among, Users of the ice has also been documented ill Igloolik and Ulukhaktok over the last few decades and has shaped the implications of more recent changes ill ice conditions. Comparison between the communities reveals uneven consequences of changing ice conditions which is linked to the nature Of ice Use, local physiological setting. and community socio-cultural dynamics.
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This paper outlines a framework for studying the multiple interactions of broadly defined food systems with global environmental change and evaluating the major societal outcomes affected by these interactions: food security, ecosystem services and social welfare. In building the framework the paper explores and synthesizes disparate literature on food systems food security and global environmental change, bridging social science and natural science perspectives. This collected evidence justifies a representation of food systems, which can be used to identify key processes and determinants of food security in a given place or time, particularly the impacts of environmental change. It also enables analysis of the feedbacks from food system outcomes to drivers of environmental and social change, as well as tradeoffs among the food system outcomes themselves. In food systems these tradeoffs are often between different scales or levels of decision-making or management, so solutions to manage them must be context-specific. With sufficient empirical evidence, the framework could be used to build a database of typologies of food system interactions useful for different management or analytical purposes.
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A global assessment of the potential impact of climate change on world food supply suggests that doubling of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration will lead to only a small decrease in global crop production. But developing countries are likely to bear the brunt of the problem, and simulations of the effect of adaptive measures by farmers imply that these will do little to reduce the disparity between developed and developing countries.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show that, until the 1960s, subsistence hunting, fishing, and gathering were the mainstay of the economy for Inuit in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. This economy was sustained by the moral imperative that food should be shared with others whenever possible. The article explores the experience of one man in Nunavik (Northern Québec) who has started a business selling food. Design/methodology/approach – The paper shows that regulatory challenges facing the industry are considered in relation to the moral dilemmas that need to be confronted in moving from an economy based on sharing food to an economy predicated on market exchange. Practical implications – The paper concludes with a discussion about how this businessman has come to terms with his breaking of social norms about the sharing of food and his understanding of how, in doing so, he is representative of a new economic order amongst Inuit in Nunavik. Originality/value – The paper shows that this is an original and novel subject for study.