Growth failure and outcome in Rett syndrome Specific growth references

and University of Alabama at Birmingham (S.G., J.L., A.K.P.).
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 10/2012; 79(16):1653-61. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31826e9a70
Source: PubMed


Prominent growth failure typifies Rett syndrome (RTT). Our aims were to 1) develop RTT growth charts for clinical and research settings, 2) compare growth in children with RTT with that of unaffected children, and 3) compare growth patterns among RTT genotypes and phenotypes.
A cohort of the RTT Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network observational study participants was recruited, and cross-sectional and longitudinal growth data and comprehensive clinical information were collected. A reliability study confirmed interobserver consistency. Reference curves for height, weight, head circumference, and body mass index (BMI), generated using a semiparametric model with goodness-of-fit tests, were compared with normative values using Student's t test adjusted for multiple comparisons. Genotype and phenotype subgroups were compared using analysis of variance and linear regression.
Growth charts for classic and atypical RTT were created from 9,749 observations of 816 female participants. Mean growth in classic RTT decreased below that for the normative population at 1 month for head circumference, 6 months for weight, and 17 months for length. Mean BMI was similar in those with RTT and the normative population. Pubertal increases in height and weight were absent in classic RTT. Classic RTT was associated with more growth failure than atypical RTT. In classic RTT, poor growth was associated with worse development, higher disease severity, and certain MECP2 mutations (pre-C-terminal truncation, large deletion, T158M, R168X, R255X, and R270X).
RTT-specific growth references will allow effective screening for disease and treatment monitoring. Growth failure occurs less frequently in girls with RTT with better development, less morbidity typically associated with RTT, and late truncation mutations.

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    • "Videotaped assessments have provided important retrospective observations with regard to specific early developmental skills. These prior studies indicate that the early period of development in RTT could be regarded as abnormal [6,7,10] and evidence of abnormal deceleration in head growth occurring as early as age 1.5 months based on recent data from the NICHD-sponsored Rare Disease Natural History Study (NHS) provides neuroanatomical support [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Early development appears normal in Rett syndrome (OMIM #312750) and may be more apparent than real. A major purpose of the Rett Syndrome (RTT) Natural History Study (NHS) was to examine achievement of developmental skills or abilities in classic and atypical RTT and assess phenotype-genotype relations in classic RTT. Developmental skills in four realms, gross and fine motor, and receptive and expressive communication from initial enrollment and longitudinal assessments for up to 7 years, were assessed from 542 females meeting criteria for classic RTT and 96 females with atypical RTT divided into two groups: 50 with better and 46 with poorer functional scores. Data were analyzed for age at acquisition and loss of developmental features and for phenotype-genotype effects. Acquired, lost, and retained skills were compared between classic RTT and atypical RTT with better or poorer functional scores using Fisher's Exact test. To examine if the mean total score from the Motor Behavioral Assessment during follow-up differed for acquiring a skill, we used a generalized estimating equation assuming compound symmetry correlation structure within a subject. A general linear model was used to examine whether the mean age of acquisition or loss of a developmental skill differed by mutation type. P values <0.05 were considered significant and were two-sided without adjustment for multiple testing. Statistical analyses utilized SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Early developmental skills or abilities were often acquired albeit later than normal. More complex motor and communication acquisitions were delayed or absent. Clinical severity was less in those achieving the respective skill. Individuals with R133C, R294X, and R306C point mutations and 3′ truncations tended to have better developmental outcomes. Early developmental skills were acquired by many, but clear differences from normal emerged, particularly in skills expected after age 6 months. When comparing clinical severity, greater acquisition of specific skills was associated with specific mutations, confirming the impression that these mutations confer milder developmental abnormalities. These data may serve for planning and interpretation of early intervention studies in RTT. Trial registration This NHS study, (NCT00296764), represents the largest group of RTT participants assessed repeatedly by direct examination.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
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    • "Respiratory dysfunction on a clinical basis was categorized based on the corresponding Percy scale item (+ as minimal hyperventilation and/or apnea; ++ as intermittent hyperventilation and/or apnea; and +++ as hyperventilation and/or apnea with cyanosis) [41]. The corresponding í µí± §-scores for body weight, height, head circumference, and body mass index were calculated on the basis of validated RTT-specific growth charts [42]. Clinical stages distribution was: stage I (í µí±› = 4), stage II (í µí±› = 69), stage III (í µí±› = 92), and stage IV (í µí±› = 63). "
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    ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder mainly linked to mutations in the gene encoding the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Respiratory dysfunction, historically credited to brainstem immaturity, represents a major challenge in RTT. Our aim was to characterize the relationships between pulmonary gas exchange abnormality (GEA), upper airway obstruction, and redox status in patients with typical RTT (n = 228) and to examine lung histology in a Mecp2-null mouse model of the disease. GEA was detectable in ~80% (184/228) of patients versus ~18% of healthy controls, with "high" (39.8%) and "low" (34.8%) patterns dominating over "mixed" (19.6%) and "simple mismatch" (5.9%) types. Increased plasma levels of non-protein-bound iron (NPBI), F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), intraerythrocyte NPBI (IE-NPBI), and reduced and oxidized glutathione (i.e., GSH and GSSG) were evidenced in RTT with consequently decreased GSH/GSSG ratios. Apnea frequency/severity was positively correlated with IE-NPBI, F2-IsoPs, and GSSG and negatively with GSH/GSSG ratio. A diffuse inflammatory infiltrate of the terminal bronchioles and alveoli was evidenced in half of the examined Mecp2-mutant mice, well fitting with the radiological findings previously observed in RTT patients. Our findings indicate that GEA is a key feature of RTT and that terminal bronchioles are a likely major target of the disease.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
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    • "In this study, a total of 66 RTT patients (mean age 12.7 ± 9.1 years) with typical presentation and demonstrated MeCP2 mutation were enrolled (Table 1) [27]. RTT diagnosis and inclusion/exclusion criteria were based on the recently revised RTT nomenclature consensus [28] [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder with a 300-fold increased risk rate for sudden cardiac death. A subclinical myocardial biventricular dysfunction has been recently reported in RTT by our group and found to be associated with an enhanced oxidative stress (OS) status. Here, we tested the effects of the naturally occurring antioxidants ω -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( ω -3 PUFAs) on echocardiographic parameters and systemic OS markers in a population of RTT patients with the typical clinical form. A total of 66 RTT girls were evaluated, half of whom being treated for 12 months with a dietary supplementation of ω -3 PUFAs at high dosage (docosahexaenoic acid ~71.9 ± 13.9 mg/kg b.w./day plus eicosapentaenoic acid ~115.5 ± 22.4 mg/kg b.w./day) versus the remaining half untreated population. Echocardiographic systolic longitudinal parameters of both ventricles, but not biventricular diastolic measures, improved following ω -3 PUFAs supplementation, with a parallel decrease in the OS markers levels. No significant changes in the examined echocardiographic parameters nor in the OS markers were detectable in the untreated RTT population. Our data indicate that ω -3 PUFAs are able to improve the biventricular myocardial systolic function in RTT and that this functional gain is partially mediated through a regulation of the redox balance.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
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