Effect of Recovery Duration between Two Bouts of Running on Bone Metabolism

2Biomedical, Life and Health Sciences Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, UK
Medicine and science in sports and exercise (Impact Factor: 3.98). 10/2012; 45(3). DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182746e28
Source: PubMed


Strenuous endurance exercise increases biochemical markers of bone resorption but not formation, although the effect of recovery duration between consecutive bouts of exercise is unknown. We examined the effect of recovery duration on the bone metabolic response to two bouts of running.

Ten physically active men completed two 9-d trials. On days 4 and 5 (D4 and D5), participants completed two 60-min bouts of running at 65% V˙O2max separated by either a 23-h (LONG) or a 3-h (SHORT) recovery period. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), parathyroid hormone (PTH), albumin-adjusted calcium (ACa), and phosphate (PO4) were measured from blood samples obtained before and for 3 h after exercise and on four follow-up days (D6-D9). Markers of bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptide region of collagen type 1) and bone formation (N-terminal propeptides of procollagen type 1 and bone alkaline phosphatase) were measured in early morning fasted samples on D4-D9.

There were no significant changes in C-terminal telopeptide region of collagen type 1, N-terminal propeptides of procollagen type 1, or bone alkaline phosphatase with either protocol. OPG, PTH, ACa, and PO4 concentrations increased with all exercise bouts, but the response to the second bout was not altered by recovery duration.

Two 60-min bouts of running at 65% V˙O2max separated by either 23 or 3 h had no effect on the markers of bone resorption or formation from 1 to 4 d after exercise. Reducing recovery duration from 23 to 3 h between two bouts of running did not alter the increase in OPG, PTH, ACa, and PO4 to the second bout.

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    • "The increase in OPG was observed within 5 min post-exercise, which is in line with the previously observed rapid increase in gene and protein expression of markers of bone turnover in response to mechanical strain (Mantila et al. 2011). The observed OPG response is consistent with recent studies reporting an increase in OPG in young men following exercise of different modes (Scott et al. 2011, 2013; Ziegler et al. 2005). Notably, the bone ALP response to exercise did not follow the OPG response pattern. "
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    ABSTRACT: The acute exercise effects on bone markers in adults are unclear, while in children, there are no such data. To investigate the acute response of biochemical markers of bone turnover to a high-impact exercise session consisting of high-mechanical loading in boys and young men. Twelve boys (10.2 ± 0.4 years) and 14 men (22.0 ± 0.8 years) underwent a protocol of plyometric jumping exercises (total 144 jumps). Venous blood samples were collected pre-, 5 min, 1 and 24 h post-exercise, and analyzed for markers of bone formation and resorption: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), amino-terminal cross-linking telopeptide (NTx), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa beta ligand (RANKL). Boys had higher resting bone ALP (111.9 ± 29.2 vs. 30.6 ± 11.2 µg/L, p < 0.05) and NTx levels (49.8 ± 13.2 vs. 21.7 ± 5.9 nM BCE, p < 0.05) than men but no group differences were observed in resting OPG or RANKL. Following exercise (24 h), bone ALP and NTx increased in both boys and men (bone ALP: 24.1 vs. 9.9 %, respectively; NTx: 23.5 vs. -5 %, respectively), although the group-by-time interaction was not statistically significant. OPG increased significantly (p < 0.05) in both groups (5.7 and 16.1 %, respectively). Even one session of plyometric exercises appear to stimulate bone formation in boys and men, as reflected by the increase in bone ALP and OPG. The boys' response appears more pronounced than the men's, suggesting that during growth, cellular bone activities respond with greater magnitude to mechanical stimuli.
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Lower PTH concentrations reported in the hours after acute, endurance exercise compared with preexercise levels might be influenced by factors such as circadian fluctuations. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare postexercise PTH concentrations with a nonexercising control group. Design and Setting: A laboratory-based study with a crossover design, comparing a 60-minute (at 10:30 am) bout of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal rate of oxygen uptake (exercise) with semirecumbent rest (CON). Blood samples were obtained immediately before (baseline 10:15 am) and after (11:30 am) exercise and during recovery (12:30 am, 1:30 pm, and 12:15 pm). Participants: Ten physically active men (mean±1 SD, age 26±5 y; body mass 78.3±5.8 kg; maximal rate of oxygen uptake 57.3±6.9 mL/kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the study. Main Outcome Measures: PTH, albumin-adjusted calcium, and phosphate concentrations were measured. Results: PTH concentrations increased (+85%, P<.01) during exercise and were higher than in CON immediately at the end of exercise (4.5±1.9 vs 2.6±0.9 pmol/L(-1), P<.05). In the postexercise period (12:30-12:15 pm), PTH was not different compared with baseline but was lower compared with CON at 1:30 pm (-22%; P<.01) and tended to be lower at both 12:30 pm (-12%; P= .063) and 2:15 pm (-13%; P= .057). Exercise did not significantly affect the albumin-adjusted calcium concentrations, whereas phosphate was higher than CON immediately after exercise (1.47±0.17 vs 1.03±0.17 pmol/L(-1), P<.001) and was lower at 1:30 pm (-16%:P<.05). Conclusions: Lower PTH concentrations after acute endurance running compared with a rested control condition suggest a true effect of exercise.
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