Article

Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality

Consulting for Health, Air, Nature, & A Greener Environment, LLC (CHANGE), Corporate Headquarters , Queensbury, NY , USA.
Inhalation Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.26). 10/2012; 24(12):850-7. DOI: 10.3109/08958378.2012.724728
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Context: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have earned considerable attention recently as an alternative to smoking tobacco, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality have resulted in proposals for bans on indoor e-cigarette use. Objective: To assess potential health impacts relating to the use of e-cigarettes, a series of studies were conducted using e-cigarettes and standard tobacco cigarettes. Methods and materials: Four different high nicotine e-liquids were vaporized in two sets of experiments by generic 2-piece e-cigarettes to collect emissions and assess indoor air concentrations of common tobacco smoke by products. Tobacco cigarette smoke tests were conducted for comparison. Results: Comparisons of pollutant concentrations were made between e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke samples. Pollutants included VOCs, carbonyls, PAHs, nicotine, TSNAs, and glycols. From these results, risk analyses were conducted based on dilution into a 40 m(3) room and standard toxicological data. Non-cancer risk analysis revealed "No Significant Risk" of harm to human health for vapor samples from e-liquids (A-D). In contrast, for tobacco smoke most findings markedly exceeded risk limits indicating a condition of "Significant Risk" of harm to human health. With regard to cancer risk analysis, no vapor sample from e-liquids A-D exceeded the risk limit for either children or adults. The tobacco smoke sample approached the risk limits for adult exposure. Conclusions: For all byproducts measured, electronic cigarettes produce very small exposures relative to tobacco cigarettes. The study indicates no apparent risk to human health from e-cigarette emissions based on the compounds analyzed.

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    • "A number of studies investigating carbonyl emissions from e-cigarettes have been conducted in the past. These can be generally divided into studies in which vapours from e-cigarette were characterised in either test-chambers/sampling bags (Geiss et al., 2015;McAuley et al., 2012;Schripp et al., 2013) or in real-scenarios such as offices (Schober et al., 2014), studies in which carbonyls were determined in the exhaled aerosol (Long, 2014) and studies in which carbonyls were determined with machine smoking and direct trapping on sorbent tubes or in impinger solutions (Goniewicz et al., 2014;Hutzler et al., 2014;Kosmider et al., 2014;Tayyarah and Long, 2014;Uchiyama et al., 2013). A detailed comparison of the studies belonging to the latter group is provided in table 1.Kosmider et al. (Kosmider et al., 2014) demonstrated that increasing battery outputs generates also increasing levels of carbonyls. "
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    ABSTRACT: E-liquids generally contain four main components: nicotine, flavours, water and carrier liquids. The carrier liquid dissolves flavours and nicotine and vaporizes at a certain temperature on the atomizer of the e-cigarette. Propylene glycol and glycerol, the principal carriers used in e-liquids, undergo decomposition in contact with the atomizer heating-coil forming volatile carbonyls. Some of these, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, are of concern due to their adverse impact on human health when inhaled at sufficient concentrations. The aim of this study was to correlate the yield of volatile carbonyls emitted by e-cigarettes with the temperature of the heating coil. For this purpose, a popular commercial e-liquid was machine-vaped on a third generation e-cigarette which allowed the variation of the output wattage (5-25 watt) and therefore the heat generated on the atomizer heating-coil. The temperature of the heating-coil was determined by infrared thermography and the vapour generated at each temperature underwent subjective sensorial quality evaluation by an experienced vaper. A steep increase in the generated carbonyls was observed when applying a battery-output of at least 15 watt corresponding to 200-250 °C on the heating coil. However, when considering concentrations in each inhaled puff, the short-term indoor air guideline value for formaldehyde was already exceeded at the lowest wattage of 5 watt, which is the wattage applied in most 2nd generation e-cigarettes. Concentrations of acetaldehyde in each puff were several times below the short-term irritation threshold value for humans. Acrolein was only detected from 20 watts upwards. The negative sensorial quality evaluation by the volunteering vaper of the vapour generated at 20 watt demonstrated the unlikelihood that such a wattage would be realistically set by a vaper. This study highlights the importance to develop standardised testing methods for the assessment of carbonyl-emissions and emissions of other potentially harmful compounds from e-cigarettes. The wide variety and variability of products available on the market make the development of such methods and the associated standardised testing conditions particularly demanding.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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    • "Smokers tend to respond favourably to e-cigarette marketing and believe that e-cigarettes are significantly less harmful than conventional cigarettes or other tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco and snus (Pepper et al. 2015). However, there is limited evidence about the side effects of e-vapour (McAuley et al. 2012), and it is not yet known if e-cigarette use is a gateway to the use of conventional cigarette leading to increased smoking initiation in younger populations (Dutra and Glantz 2014; Flouris and Oikonomou 2010; Pauly et al. 2007). Stated differently, even if exposure to e-cigarette vapour is safe, freely smoking This article is part of the special issue '' "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Results: Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. The most frequent inquiries concerned the ingredients, safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. Clients used e-cigarettes to quit smoking, cut down the number of conventional cigarettes smoked, have a safe alternative to smoking, and protect their health while continuing to smoke. More than 60 % of service providers reported favourable beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes, and believed that e-cigarettes are as effective as other smoking cessation aids, including pharmacotherapy. Conclusions: Despite limited empirical evidence, service providers in Italy viewed e-cigarettes, as safe and effective smoking cessation aids. More concerted efforts are needed to improve knowledge about e-cigarettes among service providers, to guide their clinical practice and decision-making with respect to e-cigarettes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal of Public Health
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    • "tion of PAH was dominated by the more volatile substances naphthalene , acenaphthene , fluorene and phenanthrene . With re - gard to the seven PAH classified as probable carcinogens by the IARC ( IARC , 2002 , 2010 ) , the concentration increased on average by 20% from 122 . 8 ng / m 3 ( control ) to 147 . 3 ± 26 . 2 ng / m 3 ( vaping sessions ) . McAuley et al . ( 2012 ) vaporized different high nicotine liquids by generic e - cigarettes and assessed the indoor air con - centrations of tobacco smoke specific pollutants including PAH . Most PAH were found below the limit of detection ( LOD ) . However , an anomaly was seen with B [ a ] P as it was found at similar levels in e - cigarette vapor , tobacc"
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    ABSTRACT: Waterpipe (WP) smoking is growing as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. E-cigarette use has also increased in recent years. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that WP smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking. In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include known carcinogens. High exposures to carbon monoxide and nicotine are major health threats. Persons exposed to secondhand WP smoke are also at risk. There is growing evidence that WP smoke causes adverse effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and is responsible for cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Atmospheric Environment
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