Article

Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hrs using different concentrations of influent and effluent of textile industry waste water with the objective of evaluating their acute toxicity on fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (common carp). The LC50 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr of influent and effluent were 25.9, 21.10, 15.66, 11.11% (v/v) and 63.18, 54.89, 48.62, 36.04% (v/v), respectively. The acute toxic unit TUa values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr for influent and effluent are 3.85, 4.73, 6.38, 8.99 and 1.58, 1.82, 2.05, 2.77, respectively. Correspondingly, the TF was found to be 1, 1.22, 1.65 and 2.33 for influent, and for effluent 1, 1.15, 1.29 and 1.75. Total efficiency of the treatment was 69.16% and the safe concentration of effluent is set to be 3.60%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals. The need to introduce toxicity evaluation assay for confirming the quality of effluent from the point view of effective environmental safe limits and to ensure integrity of aquatic environment, is stressed.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Along with this, morphological changes and behavioural response of the fish were also observed. In the current study, the mortality of C. idella was directly proportional to the exposure period, concentration of pollutants in effluent, and acute toxicity unit, as already observed in previous works [46][47][48]. At 96 h-LC50 concentration, the ability of natural population of aquatic bodies would be relatively impaired, and an increase in concentration also increased the mortality [49,50]. ...
... Similar distressed behavioural observations were also reported earlier [2,59,[68][69][70]. This reduced normal activity could be a consequence of depletion of energy in the body of fish due to impairment of carbohydrate metabolism, wherein organisms that could not tolerate the contaminants enter into a state of coma and subsequent death [47,71]. Cui et al. [72] also noticed a decrease in fish movement leading to cessation of swimming [73] due to the altered carbohydrate metabolism and neurotoxicity induced by Cr metal [74]. ...
... Cui et al. [72] also noticed a decrease in fish movement leading to cessation of swimming [73] due to the altered carbohydrate metabolism and neurotoxicity induced by Cr metal [74]. According to Roopadevi and Somashekar [47], fish lose their ability to maintain homeostasis on exposure to higher effluent concentrations for a longer period, and this eventually causes mortality, or some physiological stress may be the reason, which is confirmed by the present results. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aquatic pollution caused by industrial effluents is an environmental issue, imposing deleterious impacts on the overall environment, specifically, on humans, by disrupting the balance of the ecosystem. Among all the industries, tanneries are considered some of the most polluting due to heavy use of toxic organic and inorganic compounds during leather processing, most of which find their way into rivers, lakes, and streams, thus exerting adverse effects on aquatic life, particularly on fish. Considering the huge concentrations of pollutants present in tannery effluents, toxicity evaluation is of prime importance. Therefore, bioassays are usually employed to assess the acute toxicity of industrial effluents and efficiency of effluent clean-up technologies as they provide a thorough response of test species to the substances present in the tested media. In the present study, the toxic effects of tannery effluent on common grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were studied for 96 h in laboratory conditions. The effluent was added at different concentrations, before and after treatment by constructed wetlands (CWs). During this period, mortality data was collected to calculate the 96 h-LC50 (lethal concentration inducing 50% mortality) and acute toxicity of C. idella. In addition to this, observations on change in morphological, physiological, and behavioural patterns were also made every 24 h. The present toxicity assay revealed that the raw tannery effluent changed the morphology, physiology, and behavioural response of fish. Moreover, fish exposure to raw/untreated effluent caused high acute toxicity and 100% mortality, due to the presence of high concentrations of salts and chromium (Cr) metal. While treatment of tannery effluent by CWs vegetated with different plants (B. mutica, L. fusca, and T. domingensis) significantly reduced its toxicity and fish mortality as well, and inoculation of salt and Cr-tolerant endophytic bacteria (Enterobacter sp. HU38, Microbacterium arborescens HU33, and Pantoea stewartii ASI11) further reduced (up to 90%) its toxicity level. Hence, the use of CWs for tannery effluent treatment can be recommended to favour public health and promote the overall safety of the environment.
... In Nigeria, main contributors to the surface ud ground water pollution are the by-products of various lndrsfies such as textile, metal, dyeing chemicals, fertilizers, pcsticides, cement, petrochemical, energy and power, leather, sryar processing, construction, steel, angineering, food pmcessing, mining and others (1). Textile industries are a mjor source ofpollution due to the nature of their operations, mfoich require high volume of water that eventually results in higher wastewater generation (2). According to Kanu and Achi (3), estuaries and inland water bodies, which are the nmcjor sources of drinking water in Nigeria, are often mminated by the activities of the adjoining populations md industrial establishments. ...
... Toxicify evaluation is important in determining the short and long term effects of effluent discharge on aquatic life (19), as well as for determination of the safe concentration of waste water to be discharged into aquatic bodies (20). This could be important in establishing limits and levels of the acceptability of these effluents by the living organisms (2). ...
... Despite the importance of these parameters, they alone cannot give a quantitative measure of the impact of pollution (2). In recent years, there has been an increasing trend towards use of bio-monitoring to assess the eflect of industrial discharges on the environment (23). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Industrial effluents are apotential source ofwaterpollution capable of adversely affecting aquatic life Acute Toxicities of Selected Industrial Effluents on Tilapia guineensis (Fingerlings) AA Awodele O, Balogun KB, 'Amagon KI, Emeka PM, Owolabi OD The University of Lagos Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 5 (9), 55-62
... Urbanization and industry generate effluents and discharge them into freshwater bodies (Van-Vuren et al., 1999). These wastes contact freshwater organisms, especially fish, and induce noxious effects (Roopadevi and Somashekar, 2012). Such harmful effects are cytotoxic, nephrotoxic (Gbem et al., 2001), andgenotoxic (Villella et al., 2006). ...
... The findings of the current study that textile dyes induce toxicity in freshwater fish corroborate Roopadevi and Somashekar (2012) Paulo (2012) and Vijay et al. (2015) also used histological techniques to determine the toxic effects of textile dyes. Barot (2015) revealed the induction of toxicity and tissue alteration in fishes. ...
Article
Full-text available
The cytotoxicity in freshwater fishes due to different industrial dyes in industrial effluents is a major worldwide issue. Hematoxylin dye has a wide range of uses in textile industries and laboratories. This study was aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of hematoxylin's sublethal effect in vitro in Cirrhinus mrigala. The fish was exposed to different grading concentrations of dye in the aquarium. Fish were sacrificed and dissected to remove the kidney after exposure to hematoxylin dye for specific time intervals. Nephrotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by this dye were detected through histopathology by using the paraffin wax method. Immediate mortality of fish was noticed against the exposure to 0.08g/L (LC50) concentration of dye, but at 0.008 mg/L and 0.018mg/L, it showed tremendous tissue damage in the kidneys, significant reduction in fish growth. This dye induced many alterations in the kidney such as tubular degeneration, vacuolation, shrinkage of a glomerulus, reduced lumen, congestion in the kidney, glomerulonephritis, absence of Bowmen space, necrosis of the hematopoietic interstitial tissues, clogging of tubules, necrosis in the glomerulus and increased space between glomerulus and bowmen's capsule. Although this dye has a wide range of biological and industrial applications, a minute amount of hematoxylin released in effluents is quite toxic to aquatic fauna.
... Liquid waste toxicity tests can be classified into several levels. Level I is a category that does not cause acute toxicity with a value of TUa < 0.4, level II is a small category that causes acute toxicity with a value of 0.4 < TUa < 1, level III is a category that causes acute toxicity with a value of 1 TUa < 10, a level of IV is a large category causing acute toxicity with a value of 10 TUa < 100, and level V is a category that causes acute toxicity with a value of a 100 (Persoone dkk., 2003;Roopadevi & Somashekar, 2012). Based on the study results, the TUa value generated from the household scale Lebak Batik waste toxicity test for carp had a value of 11.68. ...
Article
Full-text available
The concentration of Lebak Batik industrial wastewater contains the pollutant element of lead metal that negatively impacts organisms' content in the water. This study was focused on the acute toxicity of household-scale Lebak Batik industrial wastewater on carp. The methods used were waste characteristics test, animal acclimatization, acute toxicity test for 96 hours with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% treatments, measurement of environmental parameters, and data analysis using probit analysis. The results showed that the lethal time (LT50) and lethal concentration (LC50) for 96 hours of treatment were 1,8 days and 8,56%, respectively, with a Toxicity Unit Area (TUa) of 11,68. This proved that the wastewater from the Lebak batik industry had a major effect on causing acute toxicity.
... [17] as described by Finney (1971) [18]. Acute toxicity unit (ATU) and safe concentration level (SCL) were calculated using the formulas indicated by Roopadevi and Somashekar, (2012) [19]: ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) that results from olive oil production processes, is a potential toxic pollutant, adversely affecting the fauna of aquatic ecosystem. Due to the absence of implementation of stringent rules and regulations to control the disposal of industrial wastewaters into the environment, most of the wastewaters generated from the different olive mills in the Gaza Strip are usually discharged into sewer systems or into Wadi Gaza which finally reach the Mediterranean Sea. Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the acute toxicity of OMW to four marine invertebrates; Artemia salina, Balanus amphitrite, Brachionus plicatilis and Mytilus sp.. Materials and methods: Composite samples of OMW were collected from an olive mill near Gaza City and the physicochemical characteristics such as pH, EC, BOD, COD and total nitrogen were analyzed. The test organisms were exposed to four concentrations of OMW, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% (v/v) under static conditions. Mortality data were recorded after 24 h and analyzed using U.S. EPA Probit analysis software to calculate LC50 values. Results: The results of the physicochemical characteristics of OMWs were found to fall within the range of the reported literature data. In the terms of median lethal concentration (LC50), the order of sensitivity of tested organisms was B. plicatilis > A. salina > Mytilus sp.> B. amphitrite with estimated LC50 values of 3.3%, 5.1%; 6.5% and 7.1% (v/v) respectively. Based on derived 24h LC50 values, OMW appears to be highly toxic to tested organisms with acute toxicity units (ATUs) ranged from 14 to 30. The safe dischargeable concentration of OMW was found to be very low i.e. ≤ 0.710% (v/v). Conclusion: Results indicated that OMW is highly toxic to marine invertebrates and may pose relatively serious hazards to receiving waters; accordingly, it should be treated before disposing to aquatic environments.
... Such is the case with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), which has been employed to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity of substances found in the aquatic environment (Canistro et al. 2012;Selvi et al. 2013;Solé et al. 2013). Fish from farms are used to evaluate water from polluted areas under controlled laboratory conditions (Roopadevi and Somashekar, 2012). They are also transplanted in cages to field sites for in situ studies (Klobučar et al. 2010), a technique that allows for knowledge of the precise site and exposure duration, two parameters that are difficult to determine in biomonitoring studies of native species (Yang et al. 2012;Subotić et al. 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the genotoxic impact of anthropic activities in Huactzinco Spring, using Cyprinus carpio as a biomonitor. In situ and in vivo experimental designs were compared by means of simultaneous 2-week exposures. The water from the spring generated mean micronuclei frequency values (108.6 ± 32 MN/1,000) and DNA fragmentation values (143.4 ± 35 au) which were statistically higher than those for the negative control (10.9 ± 6 MN/1,000 and 67.6 ± 23 au). The in situ and in vivo experiments supported one another. The comet assay proved to be the most sensitive test, with an EC50 value (11.4 % ± 3.4 %) being less than that determined for the micronuclei test (54.8 % ± 3.2 %). The results of this study confirm the usefulness of C. carpio as an environmental contamination biomonitor, and suggest that Huactzinco Spring water constitutes a latent risk to human health and the environment.
... Recent studies showed that some textile dyes and their wastewater were significantly toxic not only to humans but also to aquatic flora and fauna (Soriano et al., 2014;Gungordu et al., 2013;Roopadevi and Somashekar, 2012). Various aspects of dye toxicity Barot and Bahadur Toxic Impacts of C.I. Acid Orange 7 on Behavioural, Haematological and Some Biochemical Parameters of Labeo rohita Fingerlings including genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, histopathological changes, molecular-biochemical changes in different models have been carried out earlier (Barot and Bahadur, 2013;Jing et al., 2012;Ferraz et al., 2011). ...
... There are around 41 textile industries distributed across Karnataka, India. The effluent discharges from these industries are contaminating water bodies; one such major concern is the Bhadra River (Roopadevi and Somashekar 2012). In Bangalore, the Peenya industrial area is prone to ground water pollution by textile dyes (Ramesh et al. 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26–28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, the current study concluded that the utilization of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. at ideal environmental conditions is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for the degradation of various azo dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem.
... Odjegba and Bambgbose (2012). And Roopadevi and Somashekar (2012). They stated that when test organisms stocked in higher effluent concentration for longer period. ...
Research
Full-text available
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity level of effluents from inlet and outlet of the biological lagoons of Hawassa Textile waste treatment plant using Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus as test organism. Data for 24hrs, 48hr, 72hrs and 96hrs were recorded, and were analysed to determine the effects of toxicants of the effluent on behavioural responses and survival rate of Oreochromis niloticus. The results revealed that normal swimming behaviours were observed on the fish stocked at lower effluent concentration, while erratic swimming, gasping and frequent surfacing behavioural responses were observed on the fish stocked at higher effluent concentration. There was no fish mortality in control and 10% (v/v) outlet effluent concentration. The highest percentage mortality was observed at 100% (v/v) inlet effluent concentration followed by 100% (v/v) outlet and 40% (v/v) inlet effluent concentrations. The 96hrs fifty present lethal concentration (LC50) and acute toxicity unit (ATU) values for inlet and outlet wastewater were 30.5% (v/v), 3.279, 71.5% (v/v) and 1.399, respectively. The safe effluent concentration for both inlet and outlet wastewater is set to be 3.05% and 7.15%, respectively. As a whole the present results revealed that the total efficiency level of the treatment plant to remove toxicants was 57.33% (v/v). However, efficiency of the treatment plant should be improved to use the water for irrigation and other domestic purposes; otherwise, the use of the wastewater at present condition is unsafe. Keywords Oreochromis niloticus; Percentage mortality; Textile effluent; Toxicity test
... These chemicals used in the industries are found to be toxic in different research studies. Even, textile wastewaters have been tested for the chemicals being present in many studies [1][2][3]. Fibres are the smallest unit used as raw material for making yarns and fabrics. There are two types of fibres including natural fibres (derived from vegetables, animals or mineral fibres) like cotton, jute, linen, wool and silk; and man-made fibres (synthetic fibres) which are made synthetically in laboratories by using chemicals. ...
Article
Full-text available
Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage an organism. Whenever we go for shopping for our clothes, we don’t know, how toxic and harmful that piece of fabric could be for our health. Neither do we think of its origin nor its manufacturing process and the toxic load on our body and on environment. The purpose for writing this article is to make the people aware of harmful and dangerous effects of synthetic and semi-synthetic fibres. In older times, most of the fabrics used were made from the fibres that were derived from natural sources like cotton, wool, silk and jute. Those fibres were traditional, ecofriendly and non-toxic to wear by any means. But now a day’s many fabrics used in draperies, bedding, automobile furnishing, offices, schools and hospitals are made from synthetic fibres. Many synthetic fabrics are also used for personal applications like designer wear, fashion costumes and seasonal wear because of many properties like wrinkle resistance, easy to wash, easy to store but most of them are manufactured with tons of chemicals. These are highly toxic and are increasing the negative effects on our health. These synthetic fabrics also pose a serious threat to ecological balance.
... BMW-leachate showed adverse effect on survivability of fish population. There have been several reported cases of fish mortality due to the discharge of industrial effluents from several industries into the receiving water bodies 37,38 . The pollutants build up in the food chain are responsible for the adverse effects and finally death of aquatic organisms 30 . ...
... Many azo dyes show their detrimental effect on aquatic ecosystem which may be acute or chronic depending upon the dye concentration and exposure time. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity to fish Cyprinus carpio exposed to dye containing textile effluents were documented by Roopadevi and Somashekar (2012) and Rajaguru et al. (2003). Exposure to dyes causes oxidative stress, and deterioration of aerobic respiration processes in Xenopus laevis tadpoles (Güng€ ordü et al., 2013); leads to defects during early larval development in Silurana tropicalis (Soriano et al., 2014) and induces genotoxic effects in Rana hexadactyla tadpoles (Rajaguru et al., 2001). ...
Article
Feasibility of the two stage anaerobic/photo-Fenton process to mineralize a mono-azo dye, Mordant Yellow 10 (MY10) in continuous mode of operation was demonstrated using an upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAPBR) and a novelly-designed tray type photo-Fenton reactor (TPFR). The halotolerant Pseudomonas aeroginosa BRPO3 strain used in the UAPBR system demonstrated stable dye decolorization with almost 99% of dye removal efficiency up to 220 mg/L of dye concentration supported by glucose as co-substrate operated at 24 h retention time. Maximum dye removal rate was observed to be 933 ± 8 mg/day at 200 mg/L of dye concentration. The amines formed in the UAPBR were degraded almost completely (99%) using hydrogen peroxide (340 mM) in TPFR packed with iron shavings as the catalyst. Ecogenotoxicity studies with earthworm Eisenia fetida using alkaline comet assay revealed that the untreated and bio-treated dye water induced DNA damage in coelomocytes of earthworm whereas sequentially treated solution did not induce damage even after 72 h of exposure. This is probably the first study to investigate the detoxification efficiency of sequential treatment systems operated in continuous mode.
... BMW-leachate showed adverse effect on survivability of fish population. There have been several reported cases of fish mortality due to the discharge of industrial effluents from several industries into the receiving water bodies 37,38 . The pollutants build up in the food chain are responsible for the adverse effects and finally death of aquatic organisms 30 . ...
... Safe concentrations of any toxicant in the aquatic environment are highly useful in establishing the limits of susceptibility of the aquatic animals to a particular toxicant [28]. In the present study, the maximum concentration of 0.417 µg/l of bifenthrin for B. sowerbyi was found as their safe permissible limit (Table 3). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research & Reviews: Journal of Ecology CURRENT ISSUE Atom logo RSS2 logo RSS1 logo Journal Help SUBSCRIPTION Login to verify subscription USER Username Password Remember me NOTIFICATIONS View Subscribe JOURNAL CONTENT Search Search Scope All Browse By Issue By Author By Title Other Journals FONT SIZE INFORMATION For Readers For Authors For Librarians HOME ABOUT LOGIN REGISTER SEARCH CURRENT ARCHIVES ANNOUNCEMENTS AUTHOR GUIDELINE REFERENCING PATTERN EDITORIAL BOARD PUBLICATION ETHICS& MALPRACTICE STATEMENT PUBLICATION ETHICS & MALPRACTICE STATEMENT Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2020) > Saha Open Access Open Access Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access Evaluation on the Sensitivity of the Freshwater Tropical Worm, Branchiura sowerbyi (Beddard, 1892) to the Pyrethroid Pesticide, Bifenthrin Shubhajit Saha, Kishore Dhara, Nimai Chandra Saha Abstract In the present study, acute toxicity of the pyrethroid pesticide, bifenthrin, was evaluated under the experimental condition to the freshwater tropical oligochaete worm, Branchiura sowerbyi. The 96 h LC50 with 95% confidence limits of B. sowerbyi was 1.043(0.721-1.327) μg/l. None of the unexposed control test animal died during the experiment. Relation between each concentration and mortality rate during 24–96 h was found to be correlated. The mortality rate varied significantly (p<0.05) with the increasing concentration for the organisms at all the exposure concentrations except 3.50 μg/l, 4.50 μg/l and 5.00 μg/l (p>0.05) at all the exposure times. The relationship between rate of mortality and exposure times was also found to be significant (p<0.01). The effect of bifenthrin on the ethological changes of the oligochaete worm was directly proportional to the increasing dose of the toxicant.
... The 96 h LC 50 of Pb for juvenile bighead carp were 139.85 mg/L. The safe concentration (SC) of fish were calculated by multiplying the LC 50 values with an application factor of 0.1 (Roopadevi and Somashekar, 2012. Then, all the fish were randomly divided into four groups (control group, 6 h group, 48 h group, and 96 h group) with nine fish each. ...
Article
Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant that can accumulate in fish and humans. In this study, the effects of juvenile bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) on the intestinal structure, gut microbiota and cell apoptosis in the intestine of juvenile bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) after 96 h of Pb exposure were detected. The results showed that the intestinal barrier was severely damaged, including intestinal leukocyte infiltration, goblet cells significantly increased, intestinal villi shortened significantly, and abnormal thickening of the intestinal wall. Meanwhile, the mRNA expressions of structure related genes (villin-1 and Claudin-12) were down-regulated after Pb exposure, while pro-inflammatory factors (IL-8 and TNF-α) were up-regulated and peaked at 48 h. It shows that Pb causes intestinal inflammation and destroys intestinal structure. Furthermore, MiSeq sequencing data of the 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region revealed a reduction in richness and diversity of intestine microbiota after Pb exposed. At the phylum level, the abundance of enteropathogenic bacteria (Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes) were increased significantly whereas Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria were decreased significantly after exposed to Pb. A more in-depth analysis, at the genus level, a total of 40 intestinal microbes identified by operational taxonomic unit (OTU) analysis were obviously changed at 6 h, 48 h and 96 h after exposure to Pb, and the abundance of pathogenic bacteria such as Chryseobacterium also increased significantly. The functional prediction results of intestinal flora showed that the abundance of apoptosis was down-regulated after Pb exposure. It was consistent with the mRNA expressions of Bid, Caspase-2, and Caspase-3, indicating that apoptosis function of cells and intestinal flora was disturbed. Taken together, it is speculated that Pb may lead to the destruction of the intestinal barrier of bighead carp, leading to the disorder of the intestinal microbial community, which in turn promotes the occurrence of cell apoptosis. Our research provided some evidence for the association between microbiota dysbiosis and cell apoptosis after Pb exposure in the intestine of juvenile bighead carp.
... The percentage mortality of fishes was high in untreated dye solution (88%) when compared with fishes exposed to treated dye solution (33%) and tap water (1%), respectively ( Fig. 1). Roopadevi and Somashekar (2012) Environ Sci Pollut Res observed the death of fishes stocked in higher effluent concentration for longer period, and also, the homeostatic behaviour of the test organism was eventually disturbed. This confirms with the results of the present study stating the toxicity of methyl orange to the experimental fish, L. rohita. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present investigation is an attempt to assess the impact of untreated methyl orange and Oedogonium subplagiostomum AP1 treated methyl orange dye solutions on Labeo rohita. The behavioural response, mortality, haematological (red blood corpuscles (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), white blood corpuscles (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)), biochemical (plasma glucose and protein), enzymological (aspartate amino transaminases (AST) and alanine amino transaminases (ALT)) and histological examination (gills, liver and kidney) of Labeo rohita are exposed to untreated and treated methyl orange dye solutions were assessed on 7th day. The fish exposed to tap water and treated dye solution showed normal behavioural response whereas abnormal behaviour was noted in fish exposed to untreated dye solution. Similar trend was recorded in the mortality rate of the fishes. Fish exposed to untreated dye solution showed reduction in RBC, PCV, Hb, MCHC, plasma glucose and plasma protein, increased level of WBC, MCV and MCH and also alteration in AST and ALT thereby indicating the toxicity of the dye. No such reduction and alteration were observed in haematological, biochemical and enzymological levels of fishes exposed to tap water and treated dye solution indicating the non-toxic nature of the degraded metabolites of dye. Histological examination of fishes exposed to methyl orange dye revealed necrosis and haemorrhage in the gills and hepatocytes, congested and shrunken glomeruli in kidney thereby indicating the toxicity of the dye. The histoarchitecture of control and algae-treated fishes showed no structural changes indicating the non-toxic nature of the degraded metabolites of the dye. The results concluded that methyl orange dye solution treated with O. subplagiostomum AP1 can be explored for aquacultural purposes owing to its non-toxic nature. Graphical abstract
... These behavioral changes are in response to toxicant present in the effluents as opined by Rakesh and Kumar (2019). Hyperventilation examined indicates respiratory impairment, resulted from the effect of the pharmaceutical effluents on the gills of the experimental fish as observed by Roopadevi and Somashekar (2012). General body weakness, loss of reflex and eventual 100% mortality at 96hr occur at higher effluents concentrations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pharmaceutical effluents collected from Bompai industrial area, Kano State were assessed for their physiochemical parameters, heavy metals and effect on haematology and biochemical changes in Clarias gariepinus. Laboratory analyses were performed using standard methods in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Five test solutions of the effluents (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% v/v) were prepared for LC50 96hr acute toxicity test. The LC50 for 96hr was 48.7% concentration of effluents by volume. Experimental fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of 0.00% 2.43% (5/100 LC50), 12.17% (25/100 LC50), 24.35% (50/100 LC50) and 36.52% (75/100 LC50) for 28days. Physicochemical parameters recorded were higher than WHO recommended Standard with the exception of water temperature. Heavy metals concentrations decreased in the order of Cr > Cu > Pd > Cd. Red blood Cells count, haemoglobin concentrations, packed cell volume, lymphocytes and monocytes of the experimental fish decline significantly (p<0.05) when exposed with 2.43, 12.17, 24.35, 36.52% effluents compared to the control. White blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations, neutrophils and eosinophils were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control. However, a significant increase (P<0.05) in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were recorded as the exposure period continued when compared with control. It is concluded that the effluents induces haematological and biochemical alterations. It is therefore recommended that regulatory bodies should adopt holistic approach on the aquatic pollution abatement, bearing in mind the negative impact to non-target organisms.
Article
The present investigation was carried out to study the toxicological effects of effluents discharged from the textile-dyeing industry from Bhiwandi city, Maharashtra, India to fresh water fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hours. The LC50 values at the end of 24, 48 72 and 96 hours were calculated. Efficiency of ETP as well as Safe concentration of the treated effluent were also calculated. The total efficiency of the treatment process was 71.42% and the safe concentration of the treated effluent is 17.85%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals.
Article
Lead (Pb) is one of the most common trace metals in water, and its high concentration in the environment can cause harm to aquatic animals and humans. In the present study, the effects of Pb exposure (3.84 mg/kg) on the morphology, digestive enzyme activity, immune function and microbiota structure of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) intestines within 96 h were detected. Moreover, the correlation between them was analyzed. The results showed that Pb exposure on the one hand severely impaired the intestinal morphology, including significantly shortening the intestinal villi's length, increasing the goblet cells' number, causing the intestinal leukocyte infiltration, and thickening the intestinal wall abnormally, on the other hand, increasing the activity of intestinal digestive enzyme (trypsin and lipase). In addition, the mRNA expressions of structure-related genes (Claudin-7 and villin-1) were down-regulated, and the immune factors genes (IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α) were up-regulated after Pb exposure. Furthermore, data of the MiSeq sequencing showed that the abundance of membrane transport, immune system function and digestive system of silver carp intestinal microbiota all decreased, while cellular antigens increased. Finally, the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) showed that there were correlations between silver carp's intestinal microbiota and intestinal morphology and immune factors. In conclusion, it is speculated that the entry of Pb into the intestine leads the microbiota dysbiosis, affects the intestinal immunity and digestive function, and further damages the intestinal barrier of silver carp.
Article
Cytotoxicity in freshwater fishes induced by industrial effluents and dyes is a global issue. Trypan blue dye has many applications in different sectors, including laboratories and industries. This study determines to detect the cytotoxic effects of trypan blue dye in vivo. The objective of this study was to estimate the sub-lethal effects of azodye in fish. Cirrhinus mrigala, a freshwater fish, was exposed to three different grading concentrations of dye 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 20 mg/L in a glass aquarium. Significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the weight of fish was observed as 0.728 ± 0.14 g and 2.232 ± 0.24 g, respectively, in the trial groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/L of dye in a week. After exposure to trypan blue dye, fishes were dissected to remove liver and kidney tissues. Histopathological assessments determined hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by trypan blue through the paraffin wax method. This dye induces mild alterations in the liver such as congestion, hemolysis, dilated sinusoids, ruptured hepatocytes, vacuolization, edema of hepatocytes, necrosis, degeneration, aggregation, and inflammation. This dye not only alters liver tissue, also induces an acute level of tissue alterations in the kidneys, such as degeneration of epithelial cells of renal tubules, shrinkage of the glomerulus, congestion, reduced lumen, degeneration of glomerulus, absence of space of bowmen, glomerulonephritis, necrosis in hematopoietic interstitial tissues and glomerulus, reduced lumen, vacuolar degeneration of renal tubules, increased per tubular space. The current study concludes that trypan blue dye released even in small amounts is found to be associated with a high incidence of cytotoxicity. Such tissue alterations in this species could be used as biomarkers for azo dyes.
Article
Full-text available
Textile processes release various waste streams, gaseous, liquid and solid, into the surroundings and these are capable of contaminating the environment, posing health hazards to the biota. There is paucity of information on textile effluent induced cyto-genotoxicity in eukaryotic plant systems. This study investigated the cytotoxicity and DNA damaging effects of textile effluent using the Allium test. Twelve onion bulbs were grown in concentrations, 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 % (v/v; effluent/tap water) of the effluent (tap water serving as control), for 96 h. Daily root length inhibition for 4 days and cytogenetic analyses at 48 h were investigated. There was significant (p < 0.0001) root growth retardation with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 16, 35, 6.5 and 8% for the 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Also a concentration dependent significant (p < 0.05) decrease in cell proliferation and increase in chromosomal aberrations compared to the control were observed. Cytological aberrations such as binucleated cells, sticky chromosomes, chromosome fragments and anaphase bridges were induced by the effluents in the root meristems. Fe, Cd, Mn, Ni, Cr, and other physicochemical parameters analysed in the samples may have induced the observed cytogenotoxic effects. This indicates that textile effluent is capable of inducing genome instability and cytotoxicity in A. cepa. The findings may suggest environmental pollution and public health risk from textile effluent exposure. It is also useful in promulgating stringent rules discouraging illegal effluent discharge into the environment.
Article
Environmental problems of the textile mills are mainly cause by discharge of wastewater. The main pollutants come in textile effluents from dyeing and finishing processes. To assess the pollution impact of textile effluents, eight textile industries effluent samples have been collected and analyzed their physico-chemical parameters like colour, pH value, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, BOD, COD, BOD/COD ratio, oil and grease by standard procedure. The electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Total suspended solids; Chemical oxygen demand and Biochemical oxygen demand of samples are over permissible limits of standards. The pH value of all effluent samples were very alkaline in nature, electrical conductivity of SI 9650 umho/cm, S5 8970 umho/cm and S6 8950 umho/cm, TDS of samples SI, S5 and S6 were 5460 mg/L, 5100 mg/L and 4970 mg/L respectively show very high TDS as compared to other samples. Suspended solids of S5 320 mg/L, SI 310 mg/L and S3 305 mg/L were very high as compared to others. COD and BOD values of all samples were very high as compared to standards. It is concluded that the effluent samples of textile industries were highly polluted and serious problem for living being and ecological environment.
Article
Full-text available
Industrial revolution is a good indicator of economic development of a country; however, it can be a threat to the flora and fauna if the untreated effluent of an industry is discharged. The present study is aimed to assess the comparative toxicological impacts of treated and untreated industrial effluents on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Heteropneustes fossilis and Labeo rohita, the most common edible fishes having diverse characters which include differences in morphology, habitat, food and feeding, etc. The physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO), phosphate, sulphate, nitrate, free ammonia, chloride, zinc, iron, chromium and potassium of both untreated and treated effluent from the fertilizer industry were also analyzed as these parameters were not in range as per ISO guidelines. The LC 50 value for untreated effluent was 2.34% (v/v) and 0.80% (v/v) for 96 h in H. fossilis and L. rohita, respectively, while no mortality was recorded in the treated effluent. The AChE activity in both fish species was found to decline in metabolically responsive organs like brain, muscle and gills through exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (1/15 th , 1/10 th and 1/5 th of LC 50 value) of the untreated effluent for 96 h. Further studies on biochemical and molecular aspects may reveal the mechanism of their action.
Preprint
Full-text available
Lead (Pb) is one of the most common toxic heavy metals in water, and it can cause harm to aquatic animals and humans when released into the environment. In the present study, the effects of Pb exposure on the morphology, digestive enzyme activity, immune function and microbiota structure of silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ) intestines within 96 h were detected. Moreover, the correlation between them was analyzed. The results showed that Pb exposure could severely damage the intestinal morphology on the one hand, including significantly shortening the intestinal villi’s length, increasing the goblet cells’ number, causing the intestinal leukocyte infiltration, and thickening the intestinal wall abnormally, and on the other hand, increasing the activity of intestinal digestive enzyme (trypsin and lipase). In addition, the mRNA expressions of structure-related genes ( Claudin-7 and villin-1 ) were down-regulated, and the immune factors ( IL-8 , IL-10 and TNF-α ) were up-regulated after Pb exposure. Furthermore, data of the MiSeq sequencing showed that the abundance of membrane transport, immune system function and digestive system of silver carp intestinal microbiota was decreased, and the cellular antigens was increased. Finally, the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) found that there were correlations between silver carp’s intestinal microbiota and intestinal morphology and immune factors. In conclusion, it is speculated that Pb may damage the intestinal barrier of silver carp, leading the microbiota dysbiosis, which further affects the intestinal immune and digestive function.
Thesis
Full-text available
0)98652 68433 (0) 99658 73830 senthil@nct.ac.in CERTIFICATE I certify that the thesis entitled "Performance efficiency of different textile effluent treatment options involving marine diatom Odontella aurita and its subsequent toxicity analysis" is the original research work done by Ms. S. Janani under my guidance and supervision in the
Article
A pilot-scale study was conducted using the electrocoagulation-electroflotation (EC-EF) process to treat textile dyeing raw wastewater to evaluate treatment performance. The effects of some key factors, such as current density, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and removal of conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and color were investigated. The operating variables were current density of 0-300 A m(-2), HRT of 0-30 min, and a coagulant (anionic polyacrylamide (A-PAM)) dosage of 0-30 mg L(-1). Daphnia magna was used to test acute toxicity in raw and treated wastewater. Under the operating conditions without added coagulant, maxima of 51%, 88%, 84%, and 99% of conductivity, TSS, COD, and color were removed, respectively, with a HRT of 30 min. The coagulant enhanced removal of all wastewater parameters. Removal maxima of 59%, 92%, 94%, and 98% for conductivity, TSS, COD, and color were observed, respectively, with an optimal dosage of 30 mg L(-1) and a shortened HRT of 20 min. The 48 h-LC50 D. magna test showed that the raw wastewater was highly toxic. However, the EC-EF process decreased toxicity of the treated samples significantly, and >70% toxicity reduction was achieved by the EC-EF process with the addition of 15-30 mg L(-1) coagulant, HRT of 20 min, and current density of 150-300 A m(-2). The pilot scale test (0.3 m(3 )h(-1)) shows that the EC-EF process with added coagulant effectively treated textile dyeing wastewater.
Article
Full-text available
Present study assesses toxic effects of a neem seed kernel based biopesticide, Nimbecidine Plus (a.i.-azadirachtin 1%) on the survival of the freshwater edible crab, Varuna litterata under laboratory conditions. The four-day acute static renewal bioassay test was performed to determine the LC50 values at different exposure period and the safe concentration using the probit analysis. Adult male crabs (mean length-2.867 ± 0.4 cm; mean weight-9.895 ± 4.179 g) were exposed to different concentrations (0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 ppm) of Nimbecidine Plus. The LC50 values at various exposure periods were 14.940 ppm for 24hr; 10.602 ppm for 48hr; 7.673 ppm for 72hr and 6.284 ppm for 96hr. The upper confidence limits were 16.388, 12.033, 9.017 and 7.457 ppm for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr and lower confidence limits were 13.437, 9.105, 6.188 and 4.924 ppm, respectively. Safe concentrations were found to range from 0.628 ppm to 2.514 ppm. Behavioural changes like erratic body movement, irregular locomotion and shivering of body were noticed in the treated crabs. Attention is warranted regarding use of the biopesticides in agricultural field to avoid drastic effects on non-target species, which are also used as food.
Article
Full-text available
Present study assesses toxic effects of a neem seed kernel based biopesticide, Nimbecidine Plus (a.i. - azadirachtin 1%) on the survival of the freshwater edible crab, Varuna litterata under laboratory conditions. The four-day acute static renewal bioassay test was performed to determine the LC50 values at different exposure period and the safe concentration using the probit anal ysis. Adult male crabs (mean length- 2.867 ± 0.4 cm; mean weight- 9.895 ± 4.179 g) were exposed to different concentrations (0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 ppm) of Nimbecidine Plus. The LC50 values at various exposure periods were 14.940 ppm for 24hr; 10.602 ppm for 48hr; 7.673 ppm for 72hr and 6.284 ppm for 96hr. The upper confidence limits were 16.388, 12.033, 9.017 and 7.457 ppm for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr and lower confidence limits were 13.437, 9.105, 6.188 and 4.924 ppm, respectively. Safe concentrations were found to range from 0.628 ppm to 2.514 ppm. Behavioural changes like erratic body movement, irregular locomotion and shivering of body were noticed in the treated crabs. Attention is warranted regarding use of the biopesticides in agricultural field to avoid drastic effects on non -target species, which are also used as food.
Article
Present study aims to evaluate the immunotoxic effects of two biopesticides, Nimbecidine Plus (a neem biopesticide) and mahua oil cake (MOC) on the haemocyte populations of a freshwater crab, Varuna litterata after acute exposure. Four-day static renewal bioassay test was performed where sixteen healthy adult male crabs were exposed to 96-h LC50 values of Nimbecidine Plus (0.006284 ppt) and MOC aqueous extract (7.631 ppt) separately in the laboratory condition. Control groups were maintained throughout the experimental period without any biopesticide exposure. Various haemocyte parameters such as total count (THC), differential count (DHC), haemocyte density, cytomorphological anomalies and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in the biopesticides-exposed and control crabs after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure. After treatment with Nimbecidine Plus and MOC, several cytomorphological deformities (cytoplasmic and nuclear membrane disintegration, chromatin condensation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, nuclear vacuolation, altered cell shape, cellular coagulation, cytoplasmic discharge, vacuolation) were observed in hyalinocytes, small granule haemocytes and large granule haemocytes with modulation of their relative percentages at different exposure times. THC, DHC, haemocyte density and ROS levels were significantly altered (p < 0.05) in biopesticides-exposed crabs at different exposure periods. The toxicity of both biopesticides did not persist throughout the entire exposure time. Nimbecidine Plus exhibited nonlinear toxic impacts on different haemocyte parameters at initial, mid and higher exposure periods whereas MOC showed linear toxic effects mostly at initial exposure time. In comparison to MOC, Nimbecidine Plus showed higher immunotoxic effects in V. litterata. Outcome of this experiment might provide useful information to understand the immune responses of V. litterata against biopesticide toxicity.
Article
Full-text available
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity level of effluents from inlet and outlet of the biological lagoons of Hawassa Textile waste treatment plant using Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus as test organism. Data for 24hrs, 48hr, 72hrs and 96hrs were recorded, and were analysed to determine the effects of toxicants of the effluent on behavioural responses and survival rate of Oreochromis niloticus. The results revealed that normal swimming behaviours were observed on the fish stocked at lower effluent concentration, while erratic swimming, gasping and frequent surfacing behavioural responses were observed on the fish stocked at higher effluent concentration. There was no fish mortality in control and 10% (v/v) outlet effluent concentration. The highest percentage mortality was observed at 100% (v/v) inlet effluent concentration followed by 100% (v/v) outlet and 40% (v/v) inlet effluent concentrations. The 96hrs fifty present lethal concentration (LC 50) and acute toxicity unit (ATU) values for inlet and outlet wastewater were 30.5% (v/v), 3.279, 71.5% (v/v) and 1.399, respectively. The safe effluent concentration for both inlet and outlet wastewater is set to be 3.05% and 7.15%, respectively. As a whole the present results revealed that the total efficiency level of the treatment plant to remove toxicants was 57.33% (v/v). However, efficiency of the treatment plant should be improved to use the water for irrigation and other domestic purposes; otherwise, the use of the wastewater at present condition is unsafe.
Article
Full-text available
The microbiological features of Oyun river, a polluted river at Kwara State, North-Central, Nigeria were evaluated for a period of six months (August 2001-January 2002). The sampling sites were selected in respect of the effluent the river receives from a soap and detergent industry. Analysis of the water samples obtained from the river indicate high microbial and fecal contamination with microbial load in order of 105 and MPN of ≤ 1800. The industrial effluent discharged into river was found to enhance the growth of microbial population in the river with higher load than the other two sites. Notable pathogenic bacteria in man in the genera Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Streptococcus and Pseudomonas were isolated from the water samples. The microbiology of the polluted river and its attendant consequences on public health and aquatic organisms are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Lethal renewable bioassay was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of leaves of L. alopecuroides (0.00, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.25 mg/l) on the behaviours and mortality of African catfish hybrid (H. bidorsalis ♂ x C. gariepinus ♀) fingerlings (total length, 7.34±1.78cmSD; mean weight, 2.33±1.96 gSD). Exposed fish were hyperactive, swimming erratically, showed hyperventilation and rapid tail beat with increased mucus secretion on the skin and gills, gulped for air and became listless at he bottom of the aquaria before death occurred. Opercular beat frequency (OBF) and Tail beat frequency (TBF) increased with increase in the concentration of the chemical but decreased with exposure duration. The 96hrsLC50 and safe concentration values were 0.77 and 0.08 mg/l, respectively. The median lethal time (MLT50) for the 0.50 and 2.25 mg/l concentration were 87.72 hrs and 29.72hrs, respectively. The positive linear correlation between mortality, concentration and exposure duration show that mortality was influence by exposure duration and concentration. The low lethal concentration values recorded in this study suggest that L. alopecuroides is highly toxic to catfish hybrid fingerlings.
Article
Full-text available
Over the years the use of pesticides has greatly increased. This in turn has lead to concern about the adverse effects that the pesticides may have on non-target organisms in the environment. Due to increasing awareness there is great pressure to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides. An alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides is the exploitation of natural botanical products with pesticidal potential. Dicerothamnus rhinocerotis and Galenia africana are plants, indigenous to South Africa, with fungicidal properties against a fungal pathogen that causes grey-mould rot on a wide range of agricultural produce. In this study a series of acute toxicity tests were conducted to estimate the potential environmental effect of D. rhinocerotis and G. africana. The acute toxicities of the plants were determined using the species Daphnia pulex, Selenastrum capricornutum, Vibrio fischeri and Poecilia reticulata as bio-indicators. Results obtained showed that G. africana had higher toxicity units than D. rhinocerotis, thus showing that G. africana is more toxic to the aquatic environment compared to D. rhinocerotis.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the toxicity of chemical dye production industry wastewaters and emphasized the importance of toxicity tests in wastewater discharge regulations. The dyestuff samples were obtained from an untreated effluent at Kafr El-Dawar (Egypt) during 5 months from December 2005 to April 2006. The effluent was near-neutral, strongly colored and highly ecotoxic with a COD content of 240 mg L-1. Catfish (Clarias lazera) were used as test organisms. The 96 h LC50 of C. lazera exposed to the effluent was found to be 35%. Twenty eight-day exposures to 3.12, 6.25 and 12.5% doses were conducted and several toxicological endpoints were evaluated. The predominant haematological change was a severe anaemia. Leucocytes count increased in stressed fish. Moderate neutrophilia and lymphopenia were detected in fish exposed to effluent concentrations of 6.25 and 12.5%. Monocytosis was quite evident at 12.5% concentration. Overall increases over control were observed in serum transaminases (GPT and GOT). However, these increases were not dose dependent. Blood urea insignificantly changed in treated fish while serum creatinine significantly elevated after exposure to 3.12 and 12.5% dose levels. In addition, free amino acids in flesh exhibited a decreasing trend at all concentrations tested. Moreover, histopathological alterations in the gills, liver and kidney occurred exclusively after treatment. Histological analysis of gill samples revealed a range of lesions including lamellar fusion due to hyperplasia and hypertophy of epithelial cells, subepithelial cell edema, collapsed pillar cell system and extensive lamellar aneurism. Liver pathologies included extensive necrosis of hepatocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolation, distended sinusoids with massive congestion and infiltration of inflammatory cells through out the liver parenchyma. In the kidney, the glomeruli appeared shrunken. The tubular epithelium was desquamated, vacuolated and often destroyed, which render the tubular system of the mesonephros incapable of functioning properly. From the present findings, it is assumed that under field conditions, the dyestuff effluent could induce general toxic effects and possibly might disturb ecologically relevant processes such as fish reproduction.
Article
Full-text available
Acute static bioassay was employed to assess the toxicity of various ranges of effluent from the National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria (NAFCON) plant to three fish species: Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias gariepinus and hybrid (Heterobranchus bidorsalis ♀ x C. gariepinus ♂) from the coastal estuaries of the Niger Delta area, Nigeria. The lethal concentration values at 24, 48 and 72 h were 72.05, 30.81 and 15.26% for O. niloticus and 26.18, 10.32 and 19.84% for the hybrid, respectively. No mortality was recorded for C. gariepinus. The median lethal time for O. niloticus at 70% and hybrid at 50% of the different samples was 18.14 and 6.02%, respectively. Ammonia appeared to be the major toxic component. The safe concentrations of the effluents ranged between 1.53% and 77.21% for O. niloticus, and 3.15 and 5.50 % for the hybrid. Although the ranges of treated effluents discharged from the plant met set standards and can be classified as non-toxic, yet they caused mortalities to exposed species. This underscores the merit of direct toxicity assessment of effluents over the traditional physicochemical method which does not adequately protect the environment.
Article
Full-text available
The influence of salinity on the response of the estuarine teleost, Tilapia guineensis fingerlings to acute toxic effects of inorganic nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) (15: 15: 15) fertilizer was investigated using semi-static bioassay. The toxicity of NPK fertilizer was found to increase significantly with increase in the salinity level from 0.05 %. to 32.4 %o. The 96 hr LC50 value at salinity of 32.4 %o was 0.11 mg/l and was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the toxicity values at any other salinity level of media evaluated. The implication of the findings is that pollution control standards and/or safe limits for brackish water ecosystem should consider variations in salinity regimes for greater relevance and reliability.
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated behavioral responses of zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to sublethal concentrations of sodium hypochlorite using an image analysis biomonitoring system (IABS). First, the limits of normal variation in swimming activity of zebrafish were determined by monitoring traveled distance of 40 control fishes using the IABS. An acute toxicity test was performed to determine the LC(50(24 h)) for D. rerio to NaOCl. To evaluate the toxic effects in swimming activity, 32 fishes were exposed to 40%, 30%, 20%, 10% of the LC(50 )and 32 were used as control using the IABS. We considered toxic concentrations where more than 10% intervals of the treated group were below the limits of normal variation and were significantly different from the control group. Two main responses were observed: an escape response (increased swimming activity) at 10% treated group, a gradual decrease in swimming activity from the 20% of the LC(50) on, and an avoidance response at higher concentrations. The response of the 20% treated group were considered as a NOAEL and responses of the 30% and 40% treated groups indicated significant hypoactivity (adverse effect). This behavioral biomonitoring system has proven to be a useful tool to detect sublethal toxicity that could be incorporated in biomonitoring protocols in Brazil.
Article
ABSTRACT The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effect of heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead in aquatic system on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by using a set of biochemical parameters. The experimental group of fish was exposed to a sublethal concentration of 5 mg/L of combined (Cd+Pb+Cr+Ni) metal solution containing 1.25 mg/L of each metal ion (1/10th of LC 50/48 h) for a period of 32 days. The results indicated that the values of the hemoglobin were in the range of 55.30±1.20 g/L to 74.55±1.33 g/L (p<0.001) and the packed cell volume was in the range of 26.72±0.26% to 30.68±0.43% (p<0.01). Concentrations of red blood cells, blood glucose and total cholesterol were significantly elevated. The level of serum iron and copper was increased. The results showed the decreased activity of vitamin C during chronic exposure to toxic heavy metals, which indicates the presence of reactive oxygen species–induced peroxidation. The study suggested that the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic environment has strong influence on the hematological parameters in the fresh water fish common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Key words: Heavy metals, hematology, blood glucose, common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.
Article
Cytological effects of dyes manufacturing industry waste water on root meristematic cells of Allium cepa were investigated. The results obtained showed that the effluents induce various types of abnormalities such as chromosome breaks, C-mitosis, binucleate cells, tri- and terta-polar cells, nuclear cleavage, etc. It is concluded that waste waters of industrial origin not only upset the balance in aquatic ecosystem but also considerable genetic impact on plants.
Article
The application of technology to agriculture during the twentieth century has undoubtedly contributed to a vast increase in agricultural productivity and as a consequence an increase in the world’s population. This, in turn, places even greater demand on improved scientific agricultural practice. One of the factors of that technology is the introduction of chemotherapeutic agents: chemicals for the control of insects, plant disease, weed management, plant growth regulation, rodent control, etc., and as well for soil improvement (fertilizers, amendments, etc.).1
Article
The toxicities of three refined petroleum products and their binary mixtures based on predetermined and equitoxic ratios of 1:1, 1:6 for petrol-kerosene; 1:1, 1:2 for petrol-diesel and 1:1, 1:3 for diesel- kerosene respectively were evaluated against the fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus, in laboratory bioassays. The interactions between binary mixtures showed significant departures from the action of the individual constituent compound when acting singly. On the basis of synergistic ratios (SRs) and concentration-addition models (RTU) used for the joint action evaluations, the interactions between the constituent toxicants in the various test proportions of the mixtures were largely in conformity with the model of synergism (SR>1 and RTU > 1) except for petrol-kerosene (1:1) which was additive (SR=1). In most of the test combinations petrol was found to consistently increase the toxic effect of kerosene and diesel. The joint action toxicity studies provides a means of identifying the integrated impact of chemical mixtures on different levels of biological function and could make a valuable and viable addition to routine management protocols for protecting fragile aquatic ecosystems.
Article
The aim of our research was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of wastewater from the pharmaceutical industry to some aquatic organisms. The toxicity of three 24h proportional samples of wastewater was determined with the acute toxicity tests using the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and daphnid Daphnia magna. The inhibition of bacterial luminescence was measured after a 30 min exposure period and the immobility of daphnids was determined after 24 and 48h. The chronic effects on daphnid survival and reproduction were observed for three weeks.The toxicity tests indicated that all investigated samples were acutely toxic to the organisms, but in each sample the responses of bacteria and daphnids were quite different. Acute and chronic effects on daphnids were observed when testing the first sample of wastewater, but no influence on bacteria was determined. The second sample was acutely toxic to both organisms. The third sample was toxic only to bacteria, while no influence on daphnid survival and reproduction was found. The reason for the different toxicity of the samples lay in their compositions. The comparison between chemical analyses and toxicity data showed that for daphnids the main cause of toxic effects was zinc.
Article
Using mainly United Kingdom estuaries as examples, various factors governing the bioavailability, bioaccumulation and biological effects of heavy metals in sediment-dominated estuaries are reviewed. Estuaries and metals primarily discussed include the Mersey (Hg, methylmercury; Pb, alkyllead), the Loughor (Cr, Sn), the Severn (Ag, Cd), the Fal (As, Cu, Sn, Zn), Poole Harbour (Cd, Hg, Se, tributyltin) and Southampton Water (tributyltin). Concentrations and bioavailabilities of metals in estuarine sediments depend on many different processes. Examples include (1) mobilisation of metals to the interstitial water and their chemical speciation, (2) transformation (e.g. methylation) of metals including As, Hg, Pb and Sn (3) the control exerted by major sediment components (e.g. oxides of Fe and organics) to which metals are preferentially bound, (4) competition between sediment metals (e.g. Cu and Ag; Zn and Cd) for uptake sites in organisms, and (5) the influence of bioturbation, salinity, redox or pH on these processes. Under field conditions, identification of dominant processes can be achieved by observing the goodness of fit between metal concentrations in ubiquitous deposit-feeding species and levels in various types of sediment extract over a wide spectrum of sediment types. Factors of more local importance are often indicated by the marked deviation of some points from otherwise excellent relationships. For example, points lying above the line relating tissue Sn concentrations in the clam Scrobicularia plana to those in 1 n HCl extracts of sediments were found to reflect the accumulation of tributyltin, a more readily bioavailable form of Sn. In the same species, unexpectedly high tissue-Cu concentrations were characteristic of very anoxic in sediments and tissue And As and Pb concentrations were suppressed in sediments having high concentrations of Fe oxides. Under field conditions, examples of deleterious effects on benthic organisms that can be attributed to specific metallic pollutants are comparatively rare. Effects of tributyltins from antifouling paints on oysters and neogastropods have been documented and their toxicity has undoubtedly led to environmental degradation in many UK estuaries and coastal areas. In estuaries contaminated with metal-mining wastes, the effects of Cu and Zn on species distribution can be observed, but they are generally less obvious than would be predicted from experimental data. Effects are ameliorated by the induction of metal tolerance mechanisms in some species and in others by the appearance of tolerant strains. The induction of metal detoxification systems involving the formation of granules or metal-binding proteins leads in some species to tissue concentrations that are orders of magnitude higher than normal. For example, high concentrations of Cd and Ag have been found in some species from the Severn Estuary, although there is no unequivocal evidence that either metal has caused deleterious effects on benthic populations. On the other hand, experimental studies with Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Zn show that they are toxic to some species at environmentally realistic levels. Since pollutants rarely occur singly, it is likely that in many moderately contaminated estuaries metals contribute to the stress to organisms caused by substances requiring detoxification. There has been much speculation over the years concerning the biomagnification of metals with increasing trophic levels along food chains. Whilst animals having higher metal concentrations than their prey are sometimes found, the only consistent evidence of biomagnification concerns methylmercury. When estuarine birds are considered, there are relatively few instances in which deleterious effects can unequivocally be attributed to metals or their compounds. However, the Mersey bird kill was attributable to alkyllead pollution from industry. Among other organometals, methylmercury has proved toxic to birds but, so far, no evidence for the toxicity of tributyltin has been reported. However, the compound may have affected bird populations through its effects on the abundance of prey organisms, particularly estuarine molluscs. Of the inorganic forms of metals, Pb in the form of shot has caused problems in many areas and Cd, Hg and Se are suspected of causing toxic effects. There is little field evidence that birds have been affected by Ag, As, Cr, Cu or Zn individually. On the other hand, it is difficult to exclude the possibility that, additively, these metals may produce a significant effect. In part, the lack of evidence reflects the fact that relatively little research has been done. There is scope for more work on metals and organometals in estuarine birds, particularly with regard to their metabolism and their effects on juveniles and individuals subjected to stresses such as starvation.