Article

A Critical Analysis of the Agronomic and Economic Sustainability of Organic Coffee Production

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Abstract

Organic coffee is one of several types of speciality coffees selling at a premium over mainstream coffees because of distinct origin and flavour, environment-friendly production or socio-economic concerns for the smallholder coffee growers. The demand for organic coffee in Western Europe, North America and Japan exceeds the present supply, which is still small (<1% of annual world production). More than 85% of organic coffees come from Latin America and practically all is (washed) arabica coffee. The production of certified organic coffee follows the principles of organic farming developed in Europe and the United States out of concern for the perceived negative effects of conventional high-input agriculture on health and environment. It claims superior ecological sustainability in combination with sound economic viability. A rather complex and expensive system of certification has to be passed before such coffees can be sold as truly organic. Growers adhering to the strict rules of organic coffee production may to some extent share the concern of the health- and environment-conscious consumers, but they are motivated primarily by the economic benefits from the premium received for certified organic coffee. Nevertheless, there appears to be considerable injustice between the extreme preconditions demanded for ‘organics’ by the largely urban consumer of the industrialized world and the modest rewards received by the organic coffee growers for their strenuous efforts. From an agronomic point of view, there is also considerable ground for criticism on the principles of organic farming when applied to coffee. For instance, to sustain economically viable yield levels (1 t green coffee ha−1 year−1) large additional amounts of composted organic matter will have to come from external sources to meet nutrient requirements (especially N and K). Most smallholders will be unable to acquire such quantities and have to face declining yields. Organic farming does not necessarily reduce incidence of diseases and pests below economically harmful thresholds, while the humid conditions of heavily shaded coffee may actually stimulate the outbreak of others. These and other aspects peculiar to the preconditions of organic coffee production are addressed in this review. It is concluded that the concept of organic farming in its strict sense, when applied to coffee, is not sustainable and also not serving the interests of the producer and consumer as much as the proponents would like us to believe. On the other hand, agronomically and economically sustainable coffee production is feasible by applying best practices of crop production and post-harvest processing.

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... She finds only that certification has increased awareness of environmental protection. Finally, van der Vossen (2005) reviews the literature and catalogs a number of adverse environmental and economic effects of the organic certification of small-scale coffee farms in developing countries. ...
... We focus on organic certification because it is one of the leading eco-certification schemes worldwide (Potts et al., 2010) and emphasizes environmental, not socioeconomic, performance. Organic agriculture certification requires producers to adhere to five broad production principles (IFOAM 2010;Van der Vossen 2005). ...
... From the coffee growers' perspective, organic certification has both benefits and costs (Calo et al. 2005;Van der Vossen, 2005). Of the main benefits is the price premium, which is set in international markets and averages 10 to 20%, depending on coffee quality (although, not all growers receive premiums). ...
... Peran pohon pelindung bagi tanaman kopi juga diidentifikasi Vossen (2005) dari berbagai sumber. Dampak positif pohon pelindung bagi tanaman kopi adalah: mengurangi temperatur tanah dan udara ekstrim tinggi (elevasi rendah) dan ektrim rendah (elevasi tinggi), menahan kekuatan angin dan hujan lebat, mengendalikan erosi pada lahan miring, mengendalikan pertumbuhan gulma, menghasilkan 5-15 ton bahan organik (bobot kering) per ha per tahun dari sisa tanaman dan pemangkasan, mendaur ulang hara tanah yang tidak tersedia bagi tanaman kopi dan mengurangi pencucian hara, mencegah pembuahan yang berlebihan dan mati pucuk akibat pengurangan intensitas cahaya, memberikan tambahan penerimaan dari pohon pelindung (papan, kayu bakar, dan buah-buahan), berpotensi mengurangi penyakit hawar daun dan hama white stem borer, memperbaiki cup quality (terutama di wilayah kopi suboptimal secara ekologi akibat temperatur tinggi). ...
... Penelitian Erwiyono (2008) menunjukkan bahwa penaung lamtoro paling baik dalam meningkatkan kadar bahan organik tanah, sementara penaung kayukayuan industri (jati, sengon, mindi, waru gunung) lebih baik meningkatkan kadar hara mineral tanah. Vossen (2005) menyatakan bahwa pohon pelindung berfungsi sebagai pencegah terjadinya over-bearing karena pengurangan intensitas cahaya dan mencegah tanaman mati pucuk sehingga masa produktifnya lebih panjang. Winaryo et al. (1987) menemukan populasi penaung per hektar yang lebih sedikit dapat meningkatkan daya regenerasi batang dan pertumbuhan tanaman kopi yang lebih baik. ...
... Dengan kata lain, strategi konservasi lahan dengan kopi berpelindung dan kopi agroforestri ini dapat menjadi insentif bagi petani apabila penurunan produksi dapat dikompensasi dengan harga premium biji kopi di tingkat petani. Vossen (2005) menyatakan bahwa pohon pelindung berfungsi sebagai pencegah terjadinya over-bearing karena pengurangan intensitas cahaya. Disamping itu, pohon pelindung juga mencegah tanaman mati pucuk (shoot dieback) sehingga masa produktifnya lebih panjang. ...
Preprint
Status : PostprintTingkat deforestasi di Sumatera Utara mengalami peningkatan dari tahun ke tahun yang menyebabkan pertambahan luas lahan dan DAS kritis. Sementara itu, upaya rehabilitasi hutan, penghijauan, dan pengembangan hutan rakyat masih menghadapi berbagai kendala sehingga kurang optimal sebagai strategi rehabilitasi hutan dan lahan. Salah satu strategi yang dapat dilakukan adalah sistem usahatani kopi arabika berpelindung dan multistrata. Indonesia merupakan produsen kopi ketiga terbesar di dunia, sementara Sumatera Utara merupakan penghasil kopi arabika terbesar di Indonesia. Jumlah pohon pelindung masih sangat rendah yaitu rata-rata 54 pohon/ha (dengan sistem kopi berpelindung dan multistrata), dari standar ideal jumlah pohon pelindung 400 pohon/ha. Karena itu, diperlukan program pemberdayaan dan penyadaran petani mengenai manfaat pohon pelindung bagi tanaman kopi. Jumlah pohon pelindung cenderung berpengaruh negatif terhadap produksi kopi arabika, sehingga peningkatan harga premium biji kopi melalui program sertifikasi kopi merupakan prasyarat bagi strategi konservasi lahan dan air berbasis usahatani kopi berpelindung dan kopi multistrata.Artikel disampaikan pada "Sarasehan untuk Peringatan Hari Penanggulangan Degradasi Lahan dan Kekeringan se -Dunia", diselenggarakan oleh Forum DAS Asahan-Toba bekerjasama dengan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Simalungun, Taman Eden 100, Kabupaten Toba Samosir, 17 Juni 2013.
... In 1970, the disease spread to Brazil, and later to both Central America and the Caribbean (Vandermeer et al., 2010). Between 1865 and 1985, the rust disease spread globally to all the coffee growing regions with varied degrees of biological and economic impact (van der Vossen, 2005). Rust primarily attacks the leaves of coffee plants, leaving yellow-orange spots usually 2-4 millimeters in diameter. ...
... ppm) compared to sun farm A (143.16 ppm) and sun farm B (142.38 ppm), respectively. Higher potassium levels of the shade farm were unexpected when compared to previous studies, which found that many organic systems need to add significant quantities of additional composted organic matter from external sources to meet nutrient demand, and that many organic farmers face lower yields because they are unable to acquire the additional compost (van der Vossen, 2005). ...
... Contrary to this pattern of lower nitrogen levels on shade farms, there is a statistically insignificant difference found between nitrogen levels on the organic and conventional farms in this study. Nitrogen is a key factor impacting vegetative growth and coffee yields, which is usually 20-40% lower on organic farms when compared to conventional farms (van der Vossen, 2005). Previous studies indicated that organic farming systems usually fail to achieve optimal levels of available nitrogen exclusively through organic compost and manure (van der Vossen, 2005); however, the shaded system in this study did manage to supply the same amount of nitrogen as both sun farms that utilized chemical fertilizer despite the fact that Senna siamea trees are not nitrogenfixing trees. ...
Article
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Coffee is highly vulnerable to climate change, thus impacting coffee-dependent livelihoods and economies. As rising temperatures continue to reduce the suitability of many historical coffee-growing regions, some farmers are practicing regenerative, organic coffee farming as a means of climate change mitigation. In the Central Highlands, the primary coffee growing region of Vietnam, conventional sun-grown, monocrop coffee requires intensive inputs, including fertilizers, pesticides and water. However, some farmers are converting their conventional sun farms to organic shade farms utilizing regenerative farming techniques for both environmental and economic reasons. This study examined regenerative farming practices and sustainable coffee in a small ethnic minority village in Lâm Ðồng province. The comparative analysis between soil samples taken from a regenerative shade-grown coffee farm and two conventional sun-grown coffee farms revealed that the soil of the regenerative farm, enriched with organic manure, is comparable to, or healthier than, the soil on the conventional farms enriched with chemical fertilizers. The results indicate that regenerative farming practices promote biodiversity; however, they also maintain microclimates that promote the growth of Roya fungus, which can decrease coffee yields. The economic analysis of farm costs and net returns found that regenerative farming practices decrease external inputs through a system of crop diversification and integrated livestock production that improves productivity and economic performance while preserving the ecological and environmental integrity of the landscape. Regenerative agriculture is an important step toward climate change adaptation and mitigation; however, in order for the farm communities in the Central Highlands to make the transition to regenerative agriculture, the success factors and benefits of this method must be demonstrated to the coffee farmers.
... While fresh litter layers with high C:N may immobilize soil N, lower, more decomposed litter layers typically have reduced C:N and release more N [150]. Understory tree crops such as cacao and coffee are typically grown under shade trees that provide substantial organic matter and nutrient inputs from leaf litter [67,151]. In coffee agroecosystems, nutrient losses can occur due to crop removal and long-term monocropping, while leaf fall, pruning, organic matter application, and intercropping can enhance soil nutrients [151,152]. ...
... Understory tree crops such as cacao and coffee are typically grown under shade trees that provide substantial organic matter and nutrient inputs from leaf litter [67,151]. In coffee agroecosystems, nutrient losses can occur due to crop removal and long-term monocropping, while leaf fall, pruning, organic matter application, and intercropping can enhance soil nutrients [151,152]. These studies indicate that tree crop systems can be managed to optimize the inherent litter layer and integrate recycled nutrients into nutrient management strategies. ...
... However, the implementation of sustainable practices in coffee varies widely across regions depending on factors such as farm size, external input use, mechanization, economic stability [165,166]. Regular access to substantial amounts of organic matter as nutrient inputs in organic coffee production can be challenging for smallholders [151]. Typically, coffee is often processed offsite and residues might not be easily transported back to coffee farms, which are often located on steep slopes at high altitudes [151]. ...
Article
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Ecosystem-based approaches to nutrient management are needed to satisfy crop nutrient requirements while minimizing environmental impacts of fertilizer use. Applying crop residues as soil amendments can provide essential crop nutrient inputs from organic sources while improving nutrient retention, soil health, water conservation, and crop performance. Tree crop hulls, husks, and shells have been found to contain high concentrations of potassium across species including almond, cacao, coffee, pecan, and hazelnut. The objective of this review is to characterize organic sources of potassium focusing on lignocellulosic pericarps and discuss reported effects of surface application on potassium cycling, water dynamics, soil functionality, and crop yield. Research indicates potassium ions solubilize readily from plant material into soil solution due to potassium’s high mobility as a predominately unbound monatomic cation in plant tissues. Studies evaluating tree crop nutshells, field crop residues, and forest ecosystem litter layers indicate this process of potassium release is driven primarily by water and is not strongly limited by decomposition. Research suggests orchard floor management practices can be tailored to maximize the soil and plant benefits provided by this practice. Contextual factors influencing practice adoption and areas for future study are discussed.
... Shade trees are, therefore, essential components in organic systems. Although, this is true, some authors have criticised the inclusion of shade trees in coffee systems (Sondahl et al., 2005;van der Vossen, 2005;Tejeda-Cruz et al., 2010). Therefore some of the benefits and criticisms associated with the use of shade trees in coffee systems are hereby presented. ...
... Another augment is that regular pruning is essential in shade coffee to avoid excessive shading and as a result, Biodiversity it increases labour costs. Therefore, production costs are usually 5-7% higher in organic systems than in conventional systems (van der Vossen, 2005). Finally, shade increases the potential for the occurrence of certain diseases and pests due to increased humidity. ...
... The organic certification works to eliminate the application of agrochemicals and to promote management practices that maintain soil fertility such as little or zero tillage (Vandermeer, 1995). Organic coffee enjoys a premium price in the international market compared to conventionally produced coffee because it is perceived to be environmentally friendly (van der Vossen, 2005;Castro-Tazi et al., 2012). Conventional systems are characterised by high inorganic inputs such as fertilizer, pesticides and herbicides, and may or may not include shade trees (Castro-Tazi et al., 2012). ...
Thesis
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There are many environmental issues that threaten the existence of humans and natural systems. Although most of these issues are prevalent in specific geographical areas only, climate change and biodiversity loss are two major environmental issues that impacts on all human and natural systems. Efforts to curtail these issues include carbon sequestration by forest-based systems and promotion of sustainable agriculture. Agroforestry systems, such as shade-grown coffee agroecosystems, have the potential to capture and store atmospheric carbon in the form of biomass, and to conserve biodiversity by providing habitat for associated biodiversity and reduce pressure on existing forests. The present study explored the carbon stocks and tree biodiversity of shade trees in, and the biophysical characteristics of, coffee agroecosystems with conventional and organic management practices in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Guatemala. A total of 55 farms were sampled using a sample plot size of 500 m2. Tree biodiversity were estimated using species richness, Shannon and Margalef indices, and Shannon Evenness Index. Carbon stocks were estimated using existing allometric equations. The results indicate that, the organic systems represent richer and more diverse systems, with higher shade levels compared to the conventional systems. The organic coffee systems displayed shade levels that ranged from 28-70%, a mean species richness of 4.8 per plot and a mean tree species diversity (Shannon Index) of 1.12 whilst the conventional farms displayed shade levels that ranged from 31-44%, a mean species richness of 2.9 per plot and a mean tree species diversity (Shannon Index) of 0.73. Four species clusters were observed in Nicaragua, and only organic farms comprised one of these clusters. The mean above ground carbon stocks of the shade trees in the organic and the conventional farms were 13.46 t C ha-1 and 12.47 t C ha-1, respectively. Similar canopy strata, tree density and species evenness were displayed in both systems. For the study areas, Guatemala displayed the highest mean values for tree species richness (4.70) and diversity (1.13) and Costa Rica displayed the least species richness and diversity values (species richness = 2.63 and Shannon Index = 0.61). The mean carbon stocks in trees employed as shade for coffee in the farms examined were 21.18 t C ha-1, 9.97 t C ha-1 and 7.75 t C ha-1, respectively, in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Guatemala. The present study recommends organic farms as suitable targets for biodiversity projects in the study area, and that, for optimum benefits, proportions of the less represented tree species should be increased. The Nicaraguan systems are also recommended for projects that aim at increasing carbon stocks in shade trees.
... El café de sombra también genera otra serie de impactos como la disminución en la temperatura del suelo, el rompimiento en la fuerza del viento y de las precipitaciones, el control en la erosión en pendientes pronunciadas, supresión de malas hierbas, reciclaje y lixiviación de nutrientes, entre otros. Sin embargo, en las regiones donde la lluvia es limitada y las estaciones secas son prolongadas como es el caso de Kenia, Camerún o Tanzania, los árboles de sombra pueden afectar negativamente a la productividad debido a una fuerte competencia con el café por la humedad disponible en el suelo ( Van der Vossen, 2005). ...
... Los residuos de los frutos del café compostado devueltos al campo sólo pueden suministrar 25 a 30% de estos requerimientos adicionales de nutrientes, por lo que se debe disponer de los medios para adquirir materiales ricos en nutrientes, materia orgánica y abono, para compensar la diferencia y así lograr nutrientes suficientes (Sanchez y Jama, 2002;Van der Vossen, 2005). No obstante, la mayoría de los pequeños productores no cuentan con los recursos para tener acceso regular a cantidades considerables de materia orgánica o de estiércol, lo que los limita o excluye de la posibilidad de certificar sus plantaciones. ...
... También faculta la diversificación en la producción, así como los ingresos, mejorando la calidad de la copa de la planta de café, particularmente en zonas de café ecológicamente sub-óptimas por sus altas temperaturas. Por otro lado, también genera algunos efectos adversos como el daño a los cafetos por la caída de ramas de los árboles de sombra, costos adicionales de mano de obra para la poda regular de árboles cuando hay sombreado excesivo y competencia por el recurso hídrico en regiones con períodos de baja precipitación, entre otras ( Van der Vossen, 2005). ...
Article
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Se realizó una revisión de diversos estudios enfocados para establecer el impacto ambiental generado en las fincas productoras de café certificadas con diferentes sellos de buenas prácticas agrícolas y socioeconómicas en las diversas regiones productoras del grano. De esta revisión se establecieron los impactos de mayor persistencia, así como los de mayor singularidad en todo el mundo.
... Komponen utama PRP meliputi perluasan, peremajaan, dan rehabilitasi perkebunan. Ketujuh, hasil kajian empiris terdahulu (Wollni dan Brümmer, 2009;Doutriaux et al., 2008;Poudel et al., 2011;Poudel et al., 2010;Nchare, 2007;Saliu et al., 2010;Mauro, 2010;van der Vossen, 2005;Safa, 2005;Suwarno et al., 2005) memilih Indonesia untuk proyek percontohan dan wilayah yang dipilih adalah Sumatera Utara karena potensi produksi kopi masih sangat besar (IFC, 2010 BPS Kabupaten Simalungun, 2011 Selain masalah produktivitas yang masih relatif rendah sebagaimana diuraikan di atas, kopi arabika spesialti Kabupaten Simalungun juga dihadapkan pada masalah kualitas produk yang relatif rendah (USAID-AMARTA, 2010). Secara umum, kopi arabika Simalungun termasuk kopi spesialti (Mawardi, 2007;Mawardi, 2009;Wahyudi dan Misnawi, 2007) karena kondisi iklim dan jenis tanah, ketinggian tempat, varietas kopi, dan cara pengolahan basah yang unik (Marsh, 2005). ...
... Perencanaan wilayah merupakan penerapan metode ilmiah dalam pembuatan kebijakan publik dan upaya untuk mengaitkan pengetahuan ilmiah dan teknis dengan tindakan-tindakan dalam domain publik untuk mencapai tingkat kesejahteraan masyarakat yang lebih tinggi (Tarigan, 2006;Sirojuzilam dan Mahalli, 2010 (Blakely, 1994), yaitu: (1) Prioritas program yang berkaitan dengan pengembangan kopi arabika spesialti adalah: (1) pengembangan sumber daya sarana dan prasarana perkebunan, (2) pemberdayaan penyuluh pertanian/perkebunan lapangan, (3) peningkatan kesejahteraan petani, (4) peningkatan produksi perkebunan, (5) peningkatan penerapan teknologi perkebunan, (6) peningkatan pemasaran hasil perkebunan, (7) peningkatan kesempatan kerja, (8) peningkatan kualitas dan produktivitas tenaga kerja, dan (9) peningkatan kesejahteraan petani. (Susila, 2005;Karim, 2012;Gusli, 2012) dan dokumen mengenai produksi kopi berkelanjutan (Giovannucci et al., 2008;SAI, 2009;UNCTAD-IISD, 2003;van der Vossen, 2005 10. Sosialisasi kopi arabika spesialti kepada para pemangku kepentingan dan mengadakan event dan/atau pasar lelang kopi spesialti di tingkat kabupaten sebagai wadah promosi kopi. ...
Thesis
The objective of this research is to know the influence of socioeconomic and ecological factors on production of specialty Arabica coffee in Simalungun District. In addition, research also examined the benefit of coffee certification program, land use and analysis of policy and program need. This studies underlying model of local economic development (LED) based on agribusiness of specialty Arabica coffee. Selection of the sample area is carried out by multi-stage cluster sampling (MSCS) while the determination of the sample of households using probability-proportional�to-size and simple random sampling for 79 units certified coffee farms and 210 units non-certified coffee farms. Farms data was analyzed with multiple linear regression model. The role of Arabica coffee in LED examined in correlation coefficient, share analysis, scenario analysis, policy review and need assessment. Increased production and productivity of specialty arabica coffee is done with intensification strategy through: (1) increased of suitable fertilizer recommen�dations, (2) facilitation of specialty arabica coffee farm credit, (3) optimization of land use (intercropping or coffee multistrata), (4) optimization of the use of family labour, (5) application of good agricultural practices (shade tree, organic fertilizer, coffee pruning, land conservation, and control of coffee berry borer). While the efforts of extensification should be conducted if an effort of intensification have shown an increase in production and productivity. Ecological factors have an important role in the development of specialty arabica coffee in the highlands of Simalungun. An increase in the application of ecological variables at the level of farming will double role in improving productivity, quality coffee and support the sustainability of the coffee production by ecologically. Productivity of certified arabica coffee is lower (8%) than productivity of non�certificate coffee. While certified coffee price is only slightly higher (3.57%) than non-certified coffee price. It takes an effort to raise the premium coffee price to 26% for higher income of certified coffee by 25% as compared to the non-certified coffee. Specialty arabica coffee farming is highly prospective and strategic to achieving the purpose of the local economic development. Specialty arabica coffee farming contributed 3.27% in the regional income and 8.29% of the total workforce in Simalungun District. Local economic development policy are assessed relevant for the development of specialty arabica coffee commodities, but SKPD programs are not optimal, even less focused. Therefore, the results of this study recommend 14 programs to support Model of LED based on Agribusiness of Specialty Arabica Coffee in the Simalungun Highlands. In addition, the model that is developed must be supported by spatial detail a specialty arabica coffee production region as well as accelerating the revision of Decree of Ministry of Forestry No. 44/2005.
... Coffea arabica cultivated in small and large scale plantations under a variety of shade trees in North Eastern Ghats, Visakhapatnam the use of mineral fertilizers is considered the quickest and surest way of boosting crop production, their cost and other environmental hazards. The current crisis in coffee prices in the world market due to over production (Albertin and Nair, 2004) and the progressive revival of interest in organically grown coffee, which is closely coupled with fears about environmental health and biodiversity (Van der Vossen, 2005), are additional problems to millions of coffee farmers in developing countries. These problems make it essential to look for alternative strategies that can ensure competitive coffee yields while protecting the health of soils. ...
... While the use of mineral fertilizers is considered the quickest and y of boosting crop production, their cost and other environmental hazards. The current crisis in coffee prices in the world market due to over production (Albertin and Nair, 2004) and the progressive revival of interest in organically s closely coupled with fears about environmental health and biodiversity (Van der Vossen, 2005), are additional problems to millions of coffee farmers in developing countries. These problems make it essential to look ure competitive coffee The current need for economically and ecologically acceptable fertilizer sources has prompted the search for a new approach to sustainable agriculture. ...
Article
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Phosphate solubilising rhizobacteria associated with Coffea arabica L. in coffee plantations of North Eastern Ghats, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India, were investigated. the main purpose os to screen for potential microbial biofertilizers by assessing the isolated strains for phosphate solubilization efficiency and initial screening was performed on Pikovskaya's agar(PA). The present study could therefore be important with respect to screening of Coffea arabica associated rhizobacteria that possess direct plant growth promoting traits for extending the use of indigenous microbe as microbial biofertilizers.
... Pohon pelindung cenderung mengurangi produksi kopi, namun secara ekologis peran pohon pelindung bagi tanaman kopi memiliki banyak dampak positif (Van Der Vossen, 2005). Pohon pelindung dapat mengurangi temperatur tanah, menahan kekuatan angin dan hujan lebat, mengendalikan erosi pada lahan miring, mengendalikan pertumbuhan gulma, menghasilkan bahan organik, mendaur ulang hara tanah, mengurangi pencucian hara, mencegah pembuahan yang berlebihan dan mati pucuk akibat pengurangan intensitas cahaya, memberikan tambahan penerimaan dari pohon pelindung (papan, kayu bakar, dan buah-buahan), berpotensi mengurangi penyakit hawar daun, memperbaiki cup quality terutama di wilayah kopi suboptimal secara ekologi akibat temperatur tinggi. ...
... Dengan kata lain, usaha tani kopi berpelindung menjadi insentif yang menarik bagi petani jika dan hanya jika peningkatan produksi yang tidak signifikan tersebut dapat dikompensasi dengan harga premium biji kopi di tingkat petani. Penerapan harga premium menjadi konsekuensi logis karena kopi yang terintegrasi dengan pohon pelindung kualitasnya lebih baik (Moreira, Fernandes, & Tagliaferro, 2008;Van Der Vossen, 2005;Yadessa et al., 2008) dibandingkan dengan usaha tani kopi konvensional. ...
Article
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Monoculture farming of arabica coffee plantation does not support environmental sustainability. International market demands arabica coffee product in compliance with an environmentally friendly standard which promotes ecological-based management. This study aims to identify the ecological aspects of specialty arabica coffee cultivation, and to analyze the effect of shade tree population, the use of organic fertilizer, the pruning of coffee crop, land conservation, and the control of coffee berry borer on specialty arabica coffee production. The data of ecological aspect was collected from three regencies in North Sumatera Province, namely Simalungun, North Tapanuli, and Dairi. Production determinant was analyzed concerning farming cultivation in three districts of Simalungun Regency namely Sidamanik, Pamatang Sidamanik, and Dolok Pardamean. The location was determined with multi-stage cluster sampling and the farmer samples with simple random sampling. The ecological aspect was analyzed descriptively while the determinant of arabica coffee production was analyzed with multiple regression method. The result shows that the shaded arabica coffee farming covers only 32% of the total arabica coffee production in the study area with a population of 54 trees/ha. Land conservation conducted by the farmers utilizes coffee fruit mulch (92%), individual terrace (3%), rorak (4%), and bench terrace (1%). The arabica coffee farming system managed by the farmers consists of monoculture (30%), mix farming (24%), shade coffee (32%), and multistrata coffee (14%). The pruning of coffee plants and integrated control of coffee berry borer has a significant effect on specialty arabica coffee production. Land conservation, population of shade tree, and organic fertilizer are an important production determinant on arabica coffee production in the short-term. These three ecological variables play a role to maintain land preservation and support sustainable arabica coffee production in the long-term.
... N inputs from fertilizers were estimated as the quantity of each type of fertilizer (kg of synthetic and organic fertilizer) multiplied by the known (or estimated) N concentration per kilogram of fertilizer. N contents of organic material used as fertilizer are generally not measured and estimates are based on existing literature [60,61]. Nitrogen inputs from crop residues were estimated as the annual amount of crop residues (kg of dry matter per year), multiplied by the average estimated N concentration per kilogram of dry matter (% N per kg dry matter) [62][63][64]. ...
... More frequent pruning improves ventilation and increases penetration of sunlight into the canopy, avoids excessive competition for nutrients and water between the cherries, and reduces non-productive structures of trees [8,55]. Additionally, a part of the nutrients taken up by coffee trees is available to coffee plants in following years, by placing the pruning residues into soils [60]. Coffee trees with better structural and physiological characteristics have higher yields and therefore reduce the social profit inefficiency of coffee farms. ...
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If we aim to increase the sustainability of farming, we must be able to measure the sustainability of individual farms and relate this sustainability to the characteristics of the farm and its management. We hypothesized that (i) sustainability can be expressed using social profit, and (ii) socio-economic characteristics and management practices of farms explain differences in sustainability. The objective of our work was to provide empirical evidence for these hypotheses. Data was collected data over two years from 361 coffee farms in Vietnam to calculate social profit. We found that the average social profit of farms was 2300 USD. The main source of social profit inefficiency is the sub-optimal allocation of resources and levels of production. Statistical association between the set of socio-economic characteristics and management practices and social profit inefficiency shows that social profit inefficiency is increased (sustainability is decreased) by larger distances from the coffee farm to the closest town/city center and to the closest coffee factory/traders and by a high frequency of spraying. On the other hand, sustainability is increased when coffee producers belong to the ethnic group JoRai, when using more hired labor and frequency, and when there are a larger number of fertilizing and pruning activities. We conclude that social profit inefficiency can be used to summarize sustainability.
... Biologically produced organic foods started to gain popularity amongurban consumers in Northwest Europe, North America, and Japan over the past 30 years without concern for the harmful effects of conventional crop production on the [72] environment and human health. Organic agriculture combines ecological sustainability with lower health risks and sound economic viability based on the principles to use: (1) Composted organic matter to improve soil quality, (2) Soil conservation (contour planting, terracing, cover crops, mulch, and shade trees), (3) Natural methods of disease, insect and weed control, (4) Minimum fossil fuels in the production system and (5) Post-harvest handling with low environmental pollution (IFOAM, 2000 andvan der Vossen, 2005). ...
... Their already low coffee yields further decline, especially during the very low world coffee price. Due to a lack of financial resources, these most smallholder coffee producers in Ethiopia are effectively produced without inorganic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides and, therefore, organic by default, but do not automatically qualify as organic coffees since some of the assumptions made in organic farming such as soil quality improvement and plant nutrient management are missing scientific proofs (van der Vossen, 2005). Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare conventional and organic coffee soil management in terms of chemical and microbiological soil quality parameters and find scientific proof for the differences between the two comparative soil management in Ethiopia. ...
Book
ECSS (2022). Sirawdink Fikreyesus Forsido, Getachew WeldeMichael, Esayas Mendesil, Gezahegn Berecha, Taye Kufa, and Kifle Belachew (Eds.). Proceedings of Ethiopian Coffee Science Society (ECSS): Coffee Science and Innovation for Climate Resilience and Sustainable Coffee Value Chain in Ethiopia. Second Biennial Conference of Ethiopian Coffee Science Society (ECSS) Held on 24– 25 May 2019, Bonga, Ethiopia, pp. 181 ISBN 978-99944-3-585-2
... In some cases high density and large canopy shade trees were found to harbor pests such as coffee berry borer. Similar finding was reported by Van Der Vossen (2005). Additionally, failure to manage the old coffee shrubs has resulted in the expansion of epiphytic plants and other parasitic epiphytes to grow on coffee shrub which result in reduced coffee productivity. ...
... On the other hand, the study finds that it decreased total household income as farmers converted land from non-coffee crops, thus depriving them of these other sources of income. Moreover, Van Der Vossen (2005) argues that the land use changes associated with organic coffee certification require large additional amounts of composted organic matter to sustain economically viable yield levels. According to the author, most smallholders will be unable to acquire such quantities and therefore face declining yields and lower incomes. ...
Article
What is the impact of sustainability certification on food security in developing countries? This article explores the issue through a systematic review of the extant scholarship, complemented by a selective review of key studies examining the wider socio-economic effects of certification that may affect food security indirectly. To guide the analysis, we identify three main causal mechanisms – economic, land use and land rights, and gender effects – that link certification to local food security. Our review finds that food security remains a blind spot in the literature on certification impacts. Existing research points to a positive, albeit weak and highly context-dependent, relationship between certification, farmers’ income, and food security. However, there is only indicative evidence about the relationships that link certification to food security via its influence on land use, land rights, and gender equality.
... About 40% of the world coffee is processed according to the wet method, including most of the organically produced coffees. Washed coffees are generally of superior quality, although certain Ethiopian or Brazilian dry-processed Arabicas are much sought after for their specific taste and flavour [17]. Quality is the most important parameter in the world coffee trade, and it is determined by 40% in the field, 40% at the post-harvest (Fig. below) primary processing, and 20% at secondary processing. ...
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g Quality is the most important parameter in the world coffee trade, and it is determined by about 40% in the field and the rest 60% at the post-harvest (40% at primary, and 20% at secondary processing methods). Generally, among several factors which can affect coffee quality includes water status of the soil, climatic conditions, berries maturity at harvest and bean processing methods, agricultural (field) management and genetic properties of different cultivars. Comparing to dry processing, wet processing method can greatly improve coffee quality (both cup and physical quality) though its current status is very low. In relation to coffee processing, waste utilization (for instance, as a fertilizer, as a fuel) as well as treatment of coffee effluents before discharging to the surroundings (more specifically to the nearby rivers) can tackle the risk of environmental pollution. Because different investigators approved that the releasing of un-treated effluents and other solid by-product significantly affects the quality of river water. Particularly, effluents released to the river causes severe illnesses (overexcitement, skin irritation, stomach pain, nausea and breathing problem); can kill the micro-organisms and plants that eliminate and absorb the contamination in the water generated by the wet mill (wet processing). Thus, it needs a critical set up of west management strategies which include the way of effluent treatment before unwisely discharging to the environment and alternative west utilization opportunities Keywords: Coffee; Quality; West Management; Wet Processing
... It has been established also that application of B. subtilis, Pochonia chlamydosporia, and P. fluorescens can effectively control the diseases caused by nematodes [231]. The high cost of pesticides, the emergence of fungicide-resistant pathogens and other health-related impacts of conventional agriculture on the environment have increased interest in agricultural sustainability and biodiversity conservation via phytobeneficial soil bacteria [232]. ...
Chapter
Faba bean is the most vital legume crop in Ethiopia, but abiotic stresses primarily soil acidity are an obstacle for its production. Soil acidity disturbs and potentially limits nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. The interruption of nitrogen fixation and faba bean rhizobia interaction as a result of soil acidity leads to decreasing crop production. Sole dependence on chemical fertilizers for agricultural growth would mean further loss in soil quality and increased environmental damage. Rhizobial species show off sizable metabolic abilities to mitigate abiotic and biotic stresses, and mechanisms in stress tolerance are advancing fast, offering a strong foundation for the choice and engineering of rhizobia and legume hosts with better tolerance to soil acidity accordingly. The vast efforts to pick bioinoculants that can restore nitrogen under acid-affected soils are producing competitive crop yields. The main challenge of using single-type bioinoculant in field application can lead to variable and inconsistent outcomes. Co-inoculation of compatible microbes with organic farming which does not involve use of synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers is an imperative element in sustainable agriculture. Therefore, the present chapter focuses on the field application of faba bean rhizobial inoculants in acidic soils as a promising potential input in organic farming system. Moreover, the mechanism of N2 fixation and plant growth promotion systems under severe salt, drought, acidity, temperature, and heavy metal stresses is also highlighted.
... Proper maintenance and sustainability of agricultural land is prerequisite and addition of organic sources like poultry manure, and kitchen compost can play a vigorous part in the sustainability of fertility status of soil and crop production (Shahariar et al., 2013). Proper use of organic amendments is an environment-friendly, economical and ergonomically sound practice which has already been established by many researchers (Van der Vossen, 2005). Therefore, to increase the production of Okra and to meet the demand for food the use of organic amendments as a fertilizer source is getting prime importance day by day. ...
Article
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Vegetables produce a great contribution in maintaining the proper diet of human beings. Especially Okara has been gained more importance due to its nutritional value. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 100 grams of okra contains about 1.93g, 0.19 g, 7.45 g 3.2 g and 1.48 g of protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and sugar, respectively. As well as one gram of okra contain 31.3 mg and 299mg of vitamin K and potassium, respectively. Therefore, to examine the effect of different forms of fertilizers (organic and inorganic) on the yield and physiochemical attributes of okra Abelmoschus esculentus a field trial was conducted. For this purpose, organic form of fertilizers like kitchen waste, poultry manure and compost were used while the inorganic sources were NPK fertilizer. This experiment was laid out in the field area of soil and water testing laboratory for research, Bahawalpur in growing seasons from July to October of 2017. Treatments were arranged in Two factorial Completely Randomized Design CRBD fashion with three replications and six treatments. Treatments are arranged as control T1 (Without fertilizer + No Poultry Manure + No compost), T2 (NPK full dose @ 150 kg ha-1N, 75 kg ha-1P and 60 kg ha-1K), T3 (full dose of poultry manure (PM) @ 30 ton ha-1), T4 (50% NPK+50% Poultry Manure i.e. 75 kg ha-1N, 37.5 kg ha-1P and 30 kg ha-1K +15 ton ha-1 PM), T5 (full dose compost @ 30 ton ha-1), T6 (50% NPK+ 50% compost i.e. 75 kg ha-1N, 37.5 kg ha-1P and 30 kg ha-1K + 15 ton ha-1 compost). Plants growth and yield parameters were determined like the total number of leaves per plant, plant height, fruit length, root and shoot dry weight, fresh fruit weight, the total number of fruits per plant, fruit yield and total yield increase. No significant increase was observed in the yield and growth of okra under control and full NPK fertilizer treatment. Application of organic fertilizers like poultry manure and compost as well as its mixture with full NPK considerably increase the growth and total yield attributes of Okra. On the other hand, in contrast to all other treatments, the joint use of 50% NPK+50% PM exhibits the most significant impact on okra growth
... The disease is responsible for reduction in the production of coffee beans, since it severely attacks the vascular system of the plant causing wilting and eventually dieback (Tesfaye Alemu, 2012). It has been reported that the high cost of pesticides, emergence of fungicide-resistant pathogen biotopes and other social and health related impacts on the environment have increased interest in agricultural sustainability and integrated disease management (Cook et al., 1996;Vander Vossen, 2005). Thus, there is a need for sustainable solutions such as biological control agents and integrated disease management to reduce coffee wilt disease problems that could provide effective control, while minimizing cost and rate of application antagonists for establishment of sustainable agricultural development and ecofriendly/dynamic farming system for human health and the environment. ...
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The current research work was designed to evaluate, test, and characterize effective antifungal extracts from Trichoderma isolates against coffee wilt pathogen (Gibberella xylarioides). For extraction of antifungal extracts from fungal mycelium different organic solvents, viz., chloroform, ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane and butane were used. A direct bioautographic procedure was conducted, involving spraying suspension of Fusarium xylarioides on Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) plates developed in solvents of varying polarities to detect a number of antifungal substances present in the extracts. Moreover, in vitro antagonistic bioassays were performed to evaluate and determine the potentiality of Trichoderma isolates as biocontrol agents against F. xylarioides. Antifungal extracts were successfully extracted from malt extract agar medium with all organic solvents used except from hexane. Bioautography assay revealed 60 zones of inhibition spots and the highest inhibition zone was observed in AUT5 (51 mm) and AUT6 (44 mm) with ethanol extract at Rf value of 0.43. In in vitro bioassay, the highest mean inhibitory effect on the growth of the pathogen was achieved by AUT2 (77.4%) isolate in dual culture. In general, TLC-directed bioautography assay was found to be useful in isolating active compounds with antifungal activity and all Trichoderma isolates significantly reduced mycelial growth of the test pathogen compared to the control under in vitro condition.
... For the production and coffee quality, there is no significant difference between shaded and sun coffee. Van der Vossen (2005) stated negative impact of shade trees, namely, if the shade tree population increases then bean production will decrease due to process of flowering is reduced; water use competition between shade and coffee plant at the time of dry season; an increase in labor cost to shade pruning, potentially increasing pests and diseases, for example CBB. Nevertheless, shade tree has positive role to improve quality of cup coffee. ...
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The study was conducted in six subdistricts of Simalungun district, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The research objective is knowing the influence of socioeconomic and ecological factors on production of specialty Arabica coffee. Determination of the households sample was using Probability Proportional to Size and Simple Random Sampling for 79 units certified coffee farms and 210 units conventional coffee farms. Farmer’s data was analyzed with multiple linear regression model. Benefit of coffee certification compared to conventional coffee was analyzed by independen t-test. Increased production of arabica coffee could be achieved by intensification strategy through: increased application of suitable fertilizer recommendations, facilitation of coffee farm credit, optimization of land use (intercropping or multistrata coffee), optimization of family labour used, and application of GAPs (shade tree, organic fertilizer, coffee pruning, land conservation, and control of CBB). Ecological dimensions have important role in the development of specialty arabica coffee in the Simalungun highland; i.e. enhance productivity, improve coffee quality and support sustainability of coffee production. Productivity of certified arabica coffee is lower (8%) than conventional coffee, meanwhile premium price of certified coffee is only slightly higher (3.57%) than conventional coffee.
... Elgon. Van der Vossen (2005) and Rahn et al. (2018) indicated that cropping systems in Africa and in the Mt. Elgon, in particular, mix organic and inorganic inputs and soil and water conservation. ...
Article
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Despite the importance of coffee and banana as key income and food sources for millions of farmers inhabiting the densely populated East African highlands as well as and urban dwellers, there are declining yields. One of the causes for this decline is increased soil degradation that has led to recent conversions of more forest land into crop land in marginal and sensitive mountain ecosystems. However, evidence shows that only a few households manage the desired shift to sustainable production systems, mainly due to social, economic and environmental constraints. In this study we therefore, we set out to find out the farm typologies of coffee-banana farms based on intensification levels using a number of agricultural intensification surrogate indicators. We also sought to find the driving factors and barriers for intensification. Using Principal Component, cluster and Pearson correlation analysis, and later a Generalised Linear and a Multinomial Logit models, results revealed four distinct intensification pathways, one of which is a high-input-high-output conventional and three were low-to-medium input agroecological. Adoption of an intensification pathway could be impeded by geographical location, wealth status in form of livestock, land and lack of credit access. We found the hypothesis that resource-rich farmers intensify by capital investments, while the resource-constrained farmers intensify through labour true for the conventional and agroecological intensification pathways respectively. The existence of intermediary pathways under the agroecological classification, creates opportunities for interventions that target to increase yields while reducing degradation and negative environmental impacts of agriculture.
... As long as the organic sector provides a less protected economic environment than conventional farming, the conversion will remain problematic (Kerselaers et al., 2007). Some literature have established that proper market demand and adequate price premium for organic food will lead to reasonable profit for farmers involved in organic farming (Argilés and Brown, 2010;Pimentel et al., 2005;Van der Vossen, 2005;Klonsky and Tourte, 1998;Singh and Grover, 2011). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to carry out an empirical investigation of the role of various factors such as economics, social, marketing, cultivation and government in adoption of organic farming. Further, this study examines the factors that influence farmers’ choice of adopting organic farming, based on their demographic classification such as education level, farm size, farming experiences and land ownership of the organic farmers. Design/methodology/approach To address the research objectives, the primary data were collected with the help of a structured questionnaire from 200 respondents. In this study, the QUAL–QUAN sequence of mixed method design was used. Four focus groups were conducted to identify the factors of organic farming adoption. Further, multinomial regression analysis was applied to analyze the differential impact of these factors in relation to the farmers’ demographic classification. Findings The study found five major factors that affect the adoption of organic farming (economic, social, marketing, cultivation, government policy) in India. The study also observed that marketing and government policy factors were most crucial in influencing all types of farmers irrespective of their educational level. The farmers with more farming experience were more concerned about social factors. Similarly, the farmers using lease farms were found to be concerned about the economic viability of organic farming. Social implications This study suggests that without government support, the adoption of organic agriculture seems to be a highly challenging task in a situation, where majority of the farmers fall under the small and marginal category. Hence, to promote organic farming in a developing country like India, the government has to invest more in schemes where farmers should get exclusive training and support to strengthen their intention behind the adoption of the organic farming. Originality/value Based on the collective insights from the studies, the different stakeholders with interest in organic agriculture may frame necessary strategies to promote organic farming.
... Soil fertility is the result of physical, chemical and biological processes interacting together to alter crop growth (Stockdale et al., 2002). Various studies dealing with the impact of agrochemicals, liming and mulches on soil fertility parameters and yield have shown the importance of soil nutrients in achieving expected yields in coffee farms (Njoroge, 2001;Van Der Vossen, 2005;Paulo and Furlani, 2010;Chemura, 2014;PVFCCo, 2016). For instance, N, P and K are essential for optimum vegetative growth, cherry filling and in increasing the tree's tolerance to diseases; calcium is needed to ensure good root and leaf growth, whereas zinc and boron are important at the flowering stage to improve berry set and overall coffee yield potential (Kuit et al., 2004). ...
Article
As a commodity for daily consumption, coffee plays a crucial role in the economy of several African, American and Asian countries; yet, the accurate prediction of coffee yield based on environmental, climatic and soil fertility conditions remains a challenge for agricultural system modellers. The ability of an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) model to analyse soil fertility properties and to generate an accurate estimation of Robusta coffee yield was assessed in this study. The performance of 18 different ELM-based models with single and multiple combinations of the predictor variables based on the soil organic matter (SOM), available potassium, boron, sulphur, zinc, phosphorus, nitrogen, exchangeable calcium, magnesium, and pH, was evaluated. The ELM model’s performance was compared to that of existing predictive tools: Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Random Forest (RF). Individual model performance and inter-model performance comparisons were based on the root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), Willmott’s Index (WI), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (ENS), and the Legates and McCabe’s Index (ELM) in the independent testing dataset. In the independent testing phase, an ELM model constructed with SOM, available potassium and available sulphur as predictor variables generated the most accurate coffee yield estimate (i.e., RMSE = 496.35 kg/ha or ± 13.6%, and MAE = 326.40 kg/ha or ± 7.9%). This contrasted with the less accurate MLR (RMSE = 1072.09 kg/ha and MAE = 797.60 kg/ha) and RF (RMSE = 1087.35 kg/ha and MAE = 769.57 kg/ha) model. Normalized metrics showed the ELM model’s ability to yield highly accurate results: WI = 0.9952, ENS = 0.406 and ELM = 0.431. In comparison to the MLR and RF models, the adoption of the ELM model as an improved class of artificial intelligence models for coffee yield prediction in smallholder farms in this study constitutes an original contribution to the agronomic sector, particularly with respect to the appropriate selection of most optimal soil properties that can be used in the prediction of optimal coffee yield. The potential utility of coupling artificial intelligence algorithms with biophysical-crop models (i.e., as a data-intelligent automation tool) in decision-support systems that implement precision agriculture, in an effort to improve yield in smallholder farms based on carefully screened soil fertility dataset was confirmed.
... Most cultivars were derived from wild Arabica populations, such as the germplasm collections of Ethiopia, and they become severely stressed when grown without overhead shade and provide low yields (Van Der Vossen, 1985). However, according to van Der Vossen (2005), almost all current cultivars are descendants of early coffee introductions from Ethiopia to Yemen, where they were subjected to a relatively dry ecosystem without shade for a thousand years before being introduced to Asia and Latin America. Most of these cultivars have retained the physiological attributes as shade tolerant plants and can respond to various conditions, such as a mild drought and full sunlight. ...
Article
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Traditionally, coffee plant has been considered as a shade demanding species and intolerant of direct sunlight, although it performs well without shade. Still controversy result and recommendation have been reported among investigators in the optimal shading level for coffee growth. This controversy will probably continue endlessly until the effects of shade up on the performance of morphology and physiology of the plant is known better. This review discusses the advantages of shade for coffee production, the responses of coffee plants to shade in morphology, physiology, and effects on coffee pest and diseases and finally, the effect of shade on coffee pest and diseases are discussed.
... It has been also reported that a closely planting space favors the individual coffee plant to utilize the environmental resources such as light, moisture and nutrients throughout the growing period [16]. In other study, closely planted coffee results almost a complete ground coverage and better uptake of available soil nutrients by denser rooting [17]. In dense plantings, coffee roots develop deeper so that they take up water and nutrients from lower soil horizons [18]. ...
Article
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Abstract An experiment was conducted at Tepi National Spices Research Center for five years, to determine the optimum planting space and vertical numbers that promote growth and yield of hybrid Arabica coffee variety. The treatments consisted of three levels of planting space (2.5 m x 2.5 m, 2.5 m x 2.0 m, 2.0 m x 2.0 m) and three vertical numbers (single stem, two stem, free growth). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The recorded data on yield and yield attributes like internode length of primary branches, number of bearing and non-bearing primary branches, number of nodes of primary branch and the main stem were significantly influenced by the interaction effects of planting space and vertical numbers. Similarly, the coffee yield was also significantly influenced by the interaction of planting space and vertical numbers. The highest plant height and internode length of primary branches were recorded at the same planting space of 2.0 m x 2.0 m with two stem and free growth habit, respectively. Whereas, the maximum node number on primary branches and main stem were recorded from treatments which had the same planting space (2.5 m x 2.0 m) with single stem and two stem, respectively. The maximum number of bearing primary branches were recorded from trees which treated with 2.0 m x 2.0 m with free growth habit. Likewise, the highest coffee yield was found in a planting space of 2.0 m x 2.0 m with free growth habit. Therefore, it could be concluded that using of an optimum planting space of 2 m x 2 m with free growth habit enhanced the growth, yield and yield components of hybrid coffee. However, it is important to repeat the study in different locations for further investigation on yield and quality attributes.
... Nevertheless, increasing use of chemical inputs causes several negative effects, i.e., development of pathogen resistance to the applied agents and their nontarget environmental impacts [7]. Furthermore, the growing cost of pesticides, particularly in less-affluent regions of the world, and consumer demand for pesticidefree food has led to a search for substitutes for these products [8]. Thus, there is a need for supplementary plant disease management options that provide effective management of the disease under question while minimizing cost and negative consequences to human health and the environment [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Evaluate for potential biocontrol agent by assessing isolates for in vitro inhibitory efficacy, probable mechanisms to inhibit fungal pathogen and effect on growth of Faba bean infected with F. solani . Methods The effect of Rhizobium isolates on the development of radial mycelium of F. solani in PDA medium were tested in vitro . The experiments were carried out using the dual culture technique. Isolates that showed inhibitory effect against F. solani in vitro were tested to assess hydrolytic enzymes and growth promoting traits. Subsequently, the three Rhizobium isolates that showed the greatest inhibitions and their combinations were tested in the greenhouse against F. solani root rot on seedlings by applying cell suspensions at three different times of exposure to the pathogen. Results In dual culture, 27 rhizobium isolates inhibited the radial growth of F. solani mycelium more than 25%. Isolates JU26(1), JU15(2) and Ho-1WG, inhibited fungal radial growth by 70.5 %, 64.7% and 63.7%, respectively. Among the 27 Rhizobium isolates tested for hydrolytic enzymes 26.1%, 44.4%, 14.8% were positive for chitinase, protease and lipase production, respectively. Chitinase, protease and lipase positive isolates showed significant fungal mycelia inhibition. Eight (29.6%) were positive for hydrogen cyanide production. Also, 24(88.8%) were positive for IAA production and over 50% formed visible dissolution haloes on PA. Concurrent production of protease, lipases, chitinase, IAA and phosphate solubilization coupled with anti-fungal activity suggests potential plant growth promotion and broad-spectrum bio control of these isolates. Furthermore, combination and Ho-1WG consistently reduced disease incidence and severity; and increased growth parameters on seedling in greenhouse at all times of application compared to diseased (control). Maximum disease severity (73.3%) reduction was observed with application of combination before the pathogen. The combination formulation provided the highest (48 cm/plant) shoot height when applied before the pathogen. Conclusion Beneficial traits strongly assist the efficiency of candidate antagonists for desired biocontrol, emphasizing the value of concerted mechanisms of action. The result indicated the possible use of Rhizobial isolates as an alternative means of BRR management but further study is needed to verify actual use in agricultural production.
... Ces demandes sont liées à l'accroissement quantitatif des demandes alimentaires (transitions démographiques, transitions alimentaires dans les pays émergents ou moins avancés) ou à des demandes industrielles de la bio-économie ou de la production agricole pour l'énergie (Pahun et al., 2018). En relation avec cette demande quantitative, la globalisation du mode de production en AB, en raison de ses faibles rendements (Van der Vossen, 2005 ;Reganold et Wachter, 2016 ;Lesur-Dumoulin et al., 2017 ;Seufert et al., 2019), pourrait conduire à étendre les superficies cultivées. Il en résulterait une destruction potentielle des réserves de biosphère ou, par la délocalisation des zones de production, des conséquences négatives sur le changement climatique (Searchinger et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
L’agriculture biologique offre plusieurs options pour documenter les transitions technologiques vers de nouveaux modèles de production, même si elle présente des aspects controversés : faiblesse des rendements, accessibilité aux normes, valeurs des écobilans ou accroissement du travail. En mobilisant différentes situations en Afrique subsaharienne, ce numéro thématique des Cahiers Agricultures contribue à illustrer ces controverses. Les articles constitutifs montrent comment l’agriculture biologique définie par les normes des pays industriels ne peut rendre compte de la diversité des réalités agricoles africaines. Il s’ensuit l’émergence de nouvelles certifications et demandes des sociétés locales. Cette émergence reste contrainte par l’insuffisance des bases de connaissances comparatives des réalités productives entre l’agriculture biologique et conventionnelle. Des innovations méthodologiques pour réduire les asymétries de connaissances sur la comparaison des performances sont alors proposées. Les résultats interrogent la nécessité de nouveaux indicateurs intégrant les questions de sécurité nutritionnelle et sanitaire. Ils montrent que l’agriculture biologique peut aussi être un levier de l’accroissement des rendements quand la rente forestière a été consommée par l’agriculture d’exportation. Tout en éclairant les controverses, ce numéro thématique pose l’hypothèse, que sous certaines conditions, l’agriculture biologique est une opportunité de rupture de paradigme technologique qui répond aux enjeux de développement en Afrique. Il invite à ne pas confondre cette rupture avec les mécanismes de transition incrémentaux portés par l’agroécologie.
... No obstante, para tener mejores rendimientos y hacer frente a problemáticas como la inci dencia de plagas y enfermedades y a la baja de producción del cultivo de café, los productores han intensificado y especializando el cafetal en los últimos años (Bacon, 2005;Van der Vossen, 2005;Eakin et al., 2006;. ...
Chapter
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Se presentan pronósticos de distribución de las áreas optimas, subóptimas y no óptimas para la producción de café arábiga, café robusta y otras especies con potencial de diversificación productiva como plátano, cacao, naranja, limón y aguacate, que fueron las especies más frecuentemente citadas con potencial de diversificación. Se presenta una lista larga de especies promisorias para diversificación productiva
... No obstante, para tener mejores rendimientos y hacer frente a problemáticas como la inci dencia de plagas y enfermedades y a la baja de producción del cultivo de café, los productores han intensificado y especializando el cafetal en los últimos años (Bacon, 2005;Van der Vossen, 2005;Eakin et al., 2006;. ...
... In our study, full sun production under intensive management performed better in most of the years of evaluation. While cof-fee yields of organic systems are usually lower than conventional ones (Lyngbaek et al., 2001;Van Der Vossen, 2005), this study demonstrated that coffee yields under intensive organic management regimes were similar to those obtained under intensive conventional management yet some significant differences were evident overtime (figure 2, table II). ...
Article
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The suitability and profitability of coffee cultivation in Central America are at risk due to pest and disease outbreaks, price fluctuations and climate change. Proper shading is claimed to be one of the most promising practices to seek sustainability and better adapt coffee cultivation to climate change in marginal areas. This study recorded and compared coffee cherry yields over a ten-year period from shaded coffee (N-fixing-trees and timber trees) agroforestry systems under different management regimes (conventional vs. organic) in a suboptimal site. Significant differences in production were detected between conventional inputs vs. combination of organic inputs and shade types in some years of the evaluation period. Full-sun cultivation under intensive management was the most productive system for coffee yields, followed by shaded systems under timber trees. Interestingly, and regardless of management systems (intensive conventional or intensive organic) the worst combinations in terms of coffee yield were shaded systems under leguminous species (Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd. + Simarouba glauca DC.). Across all experimental plots, the timber species Simarouba glauca and Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC. grew well, reaching a mean annual increment in diameter of 2.5-3.3 cm/year (age 12 years). Average gross revenues were higher in full-sun and timber-shaded agroforestry systems. Overall, intensive management regimes were the most expensive cultivation system to run but also the best in terms of coffee yield performance.
... The wet technique is used to process around 40% of the world's coffee, including the majority of organically grown coffees. Although particular Ethiopian or Brazilian dry-processed Arabicas are highly sought after for their distinct taste and flavor, washed coffees are typical of higher quality [16]. ...
Article
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Coffee quality is critical to the industry and is influenced by a variety of factors both before and after harvest that ensure the final expression of the product's qualification, which is based upon a number of factors including genetics, climate, agronomic practices, harvesting (mature stages), and post-harvest handling from farm to cup. This review aims to stress the importance of coffee processing and how it affects coffee quality attributes as well as fermentation techniques. Fermentation is critical in the coffee processing process, not just for removing mucilage, but also for generating essential sensory quality attributes. If fermentation takes longer than expected, bacteria can degrade the product's quality by producing off-flavors and unappealing qualities. New coffee processing procedures, such as anaerobic and carbonic maceration, have become popular recently. Only a handful of the microorganisms present in natural coffee fermentation can be used as a starting culture. Most microbes recovered from spontaneous coffee fermentation lack sensory quality-enhancing properties. Green coffee beans from farms that employ any of the following processing processes are currently fermented with chosen microbes to improve the coffee's flavor and fragrance. Other molecular sciences can help us understand the chemical components produced during fermentation and their impact on coffee quality, resulting in more reliable and complex data.
... In the 1930s and 1940s, a movement in favor of organic agriculture was set in motion, aiming to reduce dependence on synthetic fertilizers and prioritize a sustainable production system with food security [2]. Organic food production started to gain popularity in the countries of Europe and North America, as well as Japan, approximately 30 years ago [25]. At that time, the organic food production system was recognized by some governments due to its economic growth, raising consumer awareness and preference [26]. ...
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Coffee is a crop of great economic importance in many countries. The organic coffee crop stands out from other production systems by aiming to eliminate the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. One of the most important limitations in the organic system is the management of diseases, especially coffee rust, which is considered the main disease of this crop. Coffee rust causes a production slump of up to 50%, significantly affecting the profitability of coffee growers. This work aims to review the integrated rust management in organic coffee crop in different producing countries. Regarding the disease management strategies, this review addresses the use of rust-resistant cultivars, cultural management, biological control, use of plant extracts, and chemical rust control by cupric fungicides. Considering the importance of the organic system, the increase in world coffee consumption, and the potential market for this kind of coffee, this review may help researchers and producers looking for alternative strategies to control rust in an organic coffee cultivation system.
... Coffee growing area in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa (non-traditional area-NTA) under two tire shade trees [1], with high rainfall across the elevation 900 to 1100 m above MSL [2] are characterized by undulating topography with terraced slopes having narrow valleys with scattered coffee farms are cultivated by the local trebles under natural habitat of Eastern Ghats of Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh -AP) and Koraput (Orissa) districts. The coffee grown in higher elevation under extreme high and low annual temperature along with high rainfall may affect the available nutrients status in soils and these essential plant nutrients will become non available [3]. Under this situation nutrients present in soil are stored in several pools as organic and inorganic forms in soil exchange complex and are very much essential for coffee plants for their growth and development. ...
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Coffee growing areas in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa (non-traditional area - NTA) are characterized by undulating topography with terraced slopes having narrow valleys with scattered coffee farms across the elevation of the Eastern Ghats of Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) and Koraput (Orissa) districts. Under this situation plant available nutrients will become non-available and the nutrients are stored in several pools as inorganic and organic forms in soil exchange complex are very much essential for coffee plants for its growth and development. Hence, a study was conducted to know the soil nutrient status of coffee growing region of NTA. A total of 693 surface soil samples were collected at depth of 22cm randomly from each coffee growing mandals of NTA and assessed the nutrient status (soil pH, OC, available P and K) at Regional Coffee Research Station, Narsipatnam. Results of the soil test results indicated that most of the Arabica coffee soils of NTA are acidic in reaction (72 %) and soil pH > 6.0 in these soils was 28 % in the tested soils. Plant available phosphorous (P) in the soil is low with 33 % soils and 46 % of the soils are medium in range. However, only 21 % of the soils tested are high in available phosphorous content in these soils. The majority of the soils of this region are high in available potassium about 54 % and 31 % of the soils are medium in range but only 15 % of the soils are low in available K status. Coffee soils of NTA are rich in organic carbon status and almost 47 %. 33 % of the tested soils are medium in range but 19 % of soils were low in organic carbon status. Soils are slightly acidic in reaction and were rich in organic carbon and available potassium status.
... Lack of sustainable practice in the agriculture or coffee plantation could consist of (1) poor water management, leading to low yield productivity in farming and coffee cherries production [154]; (2) poor pest and disease management, causing economic loss in coffee farms, such as coffee leaf rust, black rot, and dieback [155]; (3) lack of cropping systems, affecting loss in the overall production of coffee or agriculture farming [156]; (4) scarcity of nutrient management, bringing about impaired quality of a product [157]; (5) lack of labor availability, high-cost investment, and lack of good management, leading to the poor competitiveness [158]; (6) inferior processing methods, affecting the quality of the product [159]; (7) poor drying and storage facilities that damage coffee beans [160]; (8) lack of waste and pollution management, causing severe environmental problems [33]. Additionally, poor farming management can lead to (1) land degradation from poor land and water management, endangering food security and increasing poverty [161]; (2) threatening food security and possibility of water scarcity [162]; (3) poverty due to drop in the GDP [163]; (4) adverse risk in human health from environmental pollution and high-risk pesticides [164]. ...
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Modern agricultural technology management is nowadays crucial in terms of the economy and the global market, while food safety, quality control, and environmentally friendly practices should not be neglected. This review aims to give perspectives on applying big data analytic and modern technologies to increase the efficacy and effectiveness of the coffee supply chain throughout the process. It was revealed that several tools such as wireless sensor networks, cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT), image processing, convolutional neural networks (CNN), and remote sensing could be implemented in and used to improve the coffee supply chain. Those tools could help in reducing cost as well as time for entrepreneurs and create a reliable service for the customer. It can be summarized that in the long term, these modern technologies will be able to assist coffee business management and ensure the sustainable growth for the coffee industry.
... The increased yield of clean coffee in the sole and staggered planting arrangement, it might be due to the increased population density of coffee trees, and the efficient utilization of the growth resources; viz., light, moisture, nutrients, etc. Similar result was observed in the previous works of [40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [45]. They reported that the efficient utilization of the growth resources by the individual coffee plant could be the possible reason for the yield increment. ...
... No obstante, para tener mejores rendimientos y hacer frente a problemáticas como la inci dencia de plagas y enfermedades y a la baja de producción del cultivo de café, los productores han intensificado y especializando el cafetal en los últimos años (Bacon, 2005;Van der Vossen, 2005;Eakin et al., 2006;Schroth et al., 2009). ...
... The increased yield of clean coffee in the sole and staggered planting arrangement, it might be due to the increased population density of coffee trees, and the efficient utilization of the growth resources; viz., light, moisture, nutrients, etc. Similar result was observed in the previous works of [40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [45]. They reported that the efficient utilization of the growth resources by the individual coffee plant could be the possible reason for the yield increment. ...
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In Latin America, the cultivation of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) plays a critical role in rural livelihoods, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable development. Over the last 20 years, coffee farms and landscapes across the region have undergone rapid and profound biophysical changes in response to low coffee prices, changing climatic conditions, severe plant pathogen outbreaks, and other drivers. Although these biophysical transformations are pervasive and affect millions of rural livelihoods, there is limited information on the types, location, and extent of landscape changes and their socioeconomic and ecological consequences. Here we review the state of knowledge on the ongoing biophysical changes in coffee-growing regions, explore the potential socioeconomic and ecological impacts of these changes, and highlight key research gaps. We identify seven major land-use trends which are affecting the sustainability of coffee-growing regions across Latin America in different ways. These trends include (1) the widespread shift to disease-resistant cultivars, (2) the conventional intensification of coffee management with greater planting densities, greater use of agrochemicals and less shade, (3) the conversion of coffee to other agricultural land uses, (4) the introduction of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) into areas not previously cultivated with coffee, (5) the expansion of coffee into forested areas, (6) the urbanization of coffee landscapes, and (7) the increase in the area of coffee produced under voluntary sustainability standards. Our review highlights the incomplete and scattered information on the drivers, patterns, and outcomes of biophysical changes in coffee landscapes, and lays out a detailed research agenda to address these research gaps and elucidate the effects of different landscape trajectories on rural livelihoods, biodiversity conservation, and other aspects of sustainable development. A better understanding of the drivers, patterns, and consequences of changes in coffee landscapes is vital for informing the design of policies, programs, and incentives for sustainable coffee production. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13593-021-00712-0.
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This study attempts to uncover the truth behind an increasing number of smallholder farmers participating in sustainable coffee farming in Vietnam. Using stochastic frontier and cost-benefit analysis, a sample of 316 smallholder farmers in Dak Lak was chosen to analyze the economic impacts of sustainable and conventional coffee farming on farmers’ welfare. In addition, we conducted field observation and key informant interviews to describe several farming practices. The results highlight the fact that farmers’ decisions to participate in sustainable coffee farming are mainly driven by economic benefits. Sustainable farming is more cost-effective and profitable than conventional farming, despite the insignificant difference in production efficiency. Improvement of education, farming knowledge, and collective actions could mitigate negative effects of small-scale production for sustainable coffee farmers. Pesticide management, shade coffee encouragement, and reduction of excessive fertilization, over-irrigation, and unproductive coffee varieties are recommended for sustainable development of the sector.
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Shade trees reduce the stress of coffee (Coffea spp.) and cacao (Theobroma cacao) by ameliorating adverse climatic conditions and nutritional imbalances, but they may also compete for growth resources. For example, shade trees buffer high and low temperature extremes by as much as 5 °C and can produce up to 14 Mg ha−1 yr−1 of litterfall and pruning residues, containing up to 340 kg N ha−1 yr−1. However, N2 fixation by leguminous shade trees grown at a density of 100 to 300 trees ha−1 may not exceed 60 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Shade tree selection and management are potentially important tools for integrated pest management because increased shade may increase the incidence of some commercially important pests and diseases (such as Phythphora palmivora and Mycena citricolor) and decrease the incidence of others (such as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cercospora coffeicola). In Central America, merchantable timber production from commercially important shade tree species, such as Cordia alliodora, is in the range of 4−6 m3 ha−1 yr−1. The relative importance and overall effect of the different interactions between shade trees and coffee/cacao are dependent upon site conditions (soil/climate), component selection (species/varieties/provenances), belowground and aboveground characteristics of the trees and crops, and management practices. On optimal sites, coffee can be grown without shade using high agrochemical inputs. However, economic evaluations, which include off-site impacts such as ground water contamination, are needed to judge the desirability of this approach. Moreover, standard silvicultural practices for closed plantations need to be adapted for open-grown trees within coffee/cacao plantations.
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In areas where traditional multistrata coffee systems have been transformed to systems with patchy or no shade at all, often dependent on high chemical inputs, ecological and socioeconomic degradation has become an increasing issue. During the 1990s, rising environmental and health concerns have promoted the interest in organic production systems and their environmental services for natural resource conservation. This study compared productivity, profitability, producer-defined constraints, and goals and research priorities between ten individually paired organic and conventional coffee farms in Costa Rica. Although five of the organic farms matched or exceeded the production of their conventional counterparts, the three-year mean yield of the organic farms as a group was 22% lower than that of the conventional farms. However, excluding organic certification costs, mean variable costs and net income (NI) were similar for both groups, mainly because organic price premiums received by the farmers compensated for lower yields. If current organic certification costs are included, the price premiums paid to organic producers would have to increase to 38% in order to equal the NI from conventional coffee. Conventional farmers indentified low and unstable prices as the main constraints to sustained production and stated further intensification of production as their main goal. In contrast, the key issues for future development of the organic group centered on farm diversification, agroecological self-sufficiency, and agronomic practices that permit organic farm management.
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The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.
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Lines of Coffea arabica derived from the Timor Hybrid (hybrid between C. arabica and C. canephora) are resistant to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) and to the nematode Meloidogyne exigua. The introgression of C. canephora resistance genes is suspected of causing a drop in beverage quality. Coffee samples from pure lines, compared in a Trial 1, and from F1 hybrids and parental lines from a half-diallel trial in a Trial 2, were studied for beverage quality, chemical composition and amount of introgressed genetic material. Chemical analyses (caffeine, chlorogenic acids, fat, trigonelline, sucrose) were carried out with near-infrared spectrometry by reflectance of green coffee. The number of amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) markers introgressed from the Timor Hybrid varied from 1 to 37 for the lines studied. There were significant differences between lines for all of the biochemical compounds analysed and for the acidity and the overall standard of the beverage. Two lines (T17927, T17924) were significantly poorer than the controls for sucrose and beverage acidity. T17924 also had more chlorogenic acids and was poorer for the overall standard. However, two highly introgressed lines, T17934 and T17931 (25 and 30 AFLP markers, respectively), did not differ from the non-introgressed controls. There were no correlations between the number of AFLP markers and the chemical contents or beverage attributes. Significant correlations were found between the performance of the parents and their general combining ability for beverage quality. It was concluded that it should be possible to find lines with both the desired resistance genes and good beverage quality. Selection can avoid accompanying the introgression of resistance genes with a drop in beverage quality.
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This book contains 23 peer-reviewed papers presented during the 'International Symposium on Balanced Nutrient Management Systems' which was held between 9 and 12 October 2000 in Cotonou, Republic of Benin. This book is presented in seven sections (i) general introduction; (ii) variability on physical and socioeconomic factors and its consequences for selection of representative areas for integrated nutrient management (INM) research; (iii) soil processes determining nutrient dynamics, particularly N and P; (iv) interactions between organic and mineral nutrient sources; (v) improved utilization of rock phosphate; (vi) decision support systems to improve resource use at farm level: on-farm testing of improved technologies; and (vii) recommendations. The currently accepted INM approach advocates the use of organic resources and mineral fertilizer inputs to redress nutrient depletion and sustain crop production. It also ensures that development of nutrient management strategies is problem-driven and involves farmers that are the end-users of such technologies.
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The coffee crop (green beans) includes mineral nutrients which are therefore removed from the plantation system. Compared with some crops (for example, sugar cane) the quantities are not large. Catani and de Moraes (1958) estimated that the major nutrients removed in 1 tonne of arabica green beans amounted to 34.0 kg N, 5.2kg P2O5 and 47.8 kg K2O. However the crop is harvested as cherry which includes pulp and parchment in addition to the beans. In many cases these are not returned to the field so that the nutrients therein are lost to the system. Using data published by Ripperton, Goto and Pahau (1935: 55) the nutrients removed in the bean, pulp and parchment equivalent to 1 tonne of arabica green beans are: in bean, 45.5 kg N, 7.67 kg P2O5, and 37.9 kg K2O; in parchment, 2.27 kg N, 0.3 kg P2O5 and 1.87 kg K2O; in pulp, 15.33 kg N, 3.67 kg P2O5 and 27.4 kg K2O. Ripperton et al. (1935: 47) showed that the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the constituents of the cherry varied according to the soil and fertiliser applications. Roelofsen and Coolhaas (1940) reported that the total losses of nutrients from the plantation equivalent to 1 tonne of robusta green bean were: 35 kg N, 6 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O, 4 kg CaO, 4 kg MgO, 0.3 kg Fe2O3, 0.02 kg Mn3O4. Malavolta, Graner, Sarruge and Gomes (1963) reported the concentrations of macro-and micro-nutrients in pulp and beans of arabica coffee.
Article
The initial effect of ‘tonic’ fungicide sprays on Coffea arabica in Kenya is a 2–3 month delay in leaf fall and this causes a marked increase in yield even when the trees are not noticeably diseased. Five field experiments were carried out to investigate leaf abscission responses to 2-chloroethane phosphonic acid (CEPA) of fungicide-sprayed and unsprayed genotypes. Fungicide-sprayed leaves showed a significantly lower abscission response. Fungicides appear to remove a factor, possibly the leaf surface microflora, which causes increased levels of endogenous ethylene. This induces the leaves to senesce and abscise prematurely under natural conditions, or makes them more responsive to exogenous ethylene. There were marked genotype differences in thresholds for leaf abscission, and the locally selected cv SL28 was among the most resistant to CEPA-induced abscission. It was concluded that tonic sprays of fungicide will continue to be effective in Kenya in increasing yields, even after the introduction of new disease-resistant cultivars.
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IntroductionGenetic ResourcesBreedingPropagation of New CultivarsAbbreviationsReferences
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The purpose of this review is to summarise existing information on the physiology of the coffee crop, with emphasis on whole-plant physiology and on those characteristics that influence the yield of beans. Information has been drawn from work in Kenya, which is well known to the author, from published reviews on coffee crop physiology (Huxley, 1970; Cannell, 1975), water relations (Nunes, 1976), eco-physiology (Maestri and Barros, 1977) and flowering (Alvim, 1973; Browning, 1975b; Barros, Maestri and Coons, 1978), and from the more recent literature. Most of the statements made here refer specifically to arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) but many will also be true for robusta coffee.
Article
Indigenas de la Sierra Madre de Motozintla (ISMAM), the world's foremost producer of organic gourmet coffee, is a prominent example of an associative corporation, an organizational form combining aspects of traditional Indian social organization and modern capitalist enterprises. The development of ISMAM's organic strategy is analyzed as acheiving multiple goals, including improving soils and improving marketing conditions by permitting greater value-added to growers through direct access to high-value markets. The role of external brokers and the impact or organic marketing on organizational structure are analyzed. Though not typical, ISMAM is an encouraging example of a viable small-farmer strategy for meeting the economic and political challenge of globalization.
Article
Field experiments comparing 13 winter wheat varieties representing very old, old, intermediate and modern groups were carried out over three seasons. The experimental sites were on soils of high fertility and weeds, diseases and pests were controlled by applications of proprietary agrochemicals. Lodging was prevented by supporting the plants with coarse-mesh netting. The average yield of all varieties over the three harvest years 1984, 1985 and 1986 was 7·7 t/ha (at 15% moisture content). Compared with the very old varieties which were grown by farmers during the 19th century, the modern varieties gave 59% more grain, had 14% more ears/m ² and 30% more grains per ear, but a similar mean grain mass. The modern varieties yielded slightly more biomass (total above-ground dry matter at harvest), were much shorter and reached anthesis about 6 days earlier than the older ones. In 1984, when the yields were greater than in 1985 and 1986, the yield advantage of the modern varieties was more in percentage and absolute terms than in the other years. Also, in 1984, the differences between the very old and the modern varieties in biomass was the greatest. The genetic gain in yield measured in these experiments is compared with those estimated for other countries and reasons for the variation are discussed.
Article
This paper compares nitrate leaching losses from organic farms, which depended on legumes for their nitrogen inputs (66 site years) with those from conventional farms using fertilizers under similar cropping and climatic conditions (188 site years). The conventional farms were within Nitrate Sensitive Areas in England, but sites following special practices associated with that scheme were excluded. Nitrate losses during the organic ley phase (including the winter of ploughing out) were similar (45 kg N ha–1) to those from conventional long-term grass receiving fertilizer N inputs of less than 200 kg N ha–1 (44 kg N ha–1) and from the grass phase of conventional ley-arable rotations (50 kg N ha–1). Losses from conventional grass receiving higher N inputs were greater than from organic or less intensive grass. Nitrate losses following arable crops averaged 47 and 58 kg N ha–1 for the organic and conventional systems respectively, with part of the difference being due to the greater proportion of non-cereal break crops in the latter. Thus under similar cropping, losses from organic systems are similar to or slightly smaller than those from conventional farms following best practice.
Article
This paper reviews current understanding of soil structure, the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in soil structure and evidence for or against better soil physical condition under organic farming. It also includes new data from farm case studies in the UK. Young SOM is especially important for soil structural development, improving ephemeral stability through fungal hyphae, extracellular polysaccharides, etc. Thus, to achieve aggregate stability and the advantages that this conveys, frequent input of fresh organic matter is required. Practices that add organic material are routinely a feature of organically farmed soils and the literature generally shows that, comparing like with like, organic farms had at least as good and sometimes better soil structure than conventionally managed farms. Our case studies confirmed this. In the reviewed papers, SOM was generally larger on the biodynamic/organic farms because of the organic additions and/or leys in the rotation. We can therefore hypothesize that, because it is especially the light fraction of SOM that is involved in soil structural development, soil structure will improve in a soil to which fresh organic residues are added regularly. Thus, we argue it is not the farming system per se that is important in promoting better physical condition, but the amount and quality of organic matter returned to a soil.
Article
Previous studies of the microbial status of soils managed under ‘organic’ and ‘conventional’ regimes have produced conflicting evidence of whether there are distinct differences in the size, composition and activity of the soil microbial biomass which may be attributed to management practice. In the present study, we have compared the microbiology of organically- and conventionally-managed soils at (primarily) two farms in England, over a two year period. Differences in microbial communities in soils under different management practice were subtle rather than dramatic. Many of the parameters measured, including total C and microbial biomass C, often showed no consistently significant differences in soils under different management. In soils from one farm, concentrations of ATP in Ringers solution soil extracts were mostly found to be significantly greater in organically-managed than in comparable conventionally-managed soils. While indirect (plate) counts showed that there were similar numbers of cultivable microorganisms present in these soils, total counts of bacteria (via DAPI-staining) were found to parallel the trends found for readily-extractable ATP. Numbers of metabolically-active bacteria, determined by FISH analysis using a EUB338 probe to detect ribosome-rich cells, indicated that the percentage of metabolically-active bacteria present was not determined by management practice. Total and active fungi were also found to be more abundant in organically-managed soils. It was concluded that changes in soil microbiology may occur as a consequence of switching to organic land management, but these may not be detectable by methods used frequently to assess soil biomass. In particular, increased numbers of viable but non-culturable bacteria and fungi in organically-managed soils points to a greater physiological diversity of microorganisms in such situations.
Article
More than 50 nations, almost all in the developing world, produce and export coffee, one of the world's most valuable traded commodities. Some of these countries are dependent on coffee exports for a very significant portion of their international trade and export income. Between 17 and 20 million families are directly involved in coffee production and most are smallholders utilizing just a few hectares of land. During low price periods, evidence of considerable human hardships in many producing regions confirms coffee's importance as a primary - and sometimes only - source of cash income for many farmers. This study assesses the condition of the world's coffee production and trade and illuminates the profound structural changes that have occurred in recent years. With ample data and thorough analysis of both production and consumption, it clearly illustrates the new trends in the coffee world. Based on this analysis and considerable public-private experience in coffee trade and economics, the authors offers solutions for reducing the impact of inevitable future price collapses and making coffee a less risky source of income for some of the world's poorest.
Article
Complex relationships exist between different components of the organic farm and the quantity and quality of the end products depend on the functioning of the whole system. As such, it is very difficult to isolate soil fertility from production and environmental aspects of the system. Crop rotation is the central tool that integrates the maintenance and development of soil fertility with different aspects of crop and livestock production in organic systems. Nutrient supply to crops depends on the use of legumes to add nitrogen to the system and limited inputs of supplementary nutrients, added in acceptable forms. Manures and crop residues are carefully managed to recycle nutrients around the farm. Management of soil organic matter, primarily through the use of short-term leys, helps ensure good soil structure and biological activity, important for nutrient supply, health and productivity of both crops and livestock. Carefully planned diverse rotations help reduce the incidence of pests and diseases and allow for cultural methods of weed control. As a result of the complex interactions between different system components, fertility management in organic farming relies on a long-term integrated approach rather than the more short-term very targeted solutions common in conventional agriculture.
Article
A review is made of the ecological interactions that occur between shade trees and the perennial crops: coffee (Coffee spp. L.), cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze). These interactions are classified firstly as advantages or disadvantages, and secondly as: effects on crop management; effects on the hydrological cycle; effects on pathogens, insects and climatic conditions; and effects on soils. References are given for the 20 advantageous and 16 disadvantageous consequences of using shade trees, emphasizing publications that provide original data and useful methodologies. Finally a check list of desirable characteristics for perennial crop shade trees is presented.Se hace revisin de las interacciones ecolgicas que ocurren entre rboles de sombra y los cultivos perennes: caf (Coffee spp. L.), cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) y t (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze). Estas interacciones fueron clasificadas en primer nivel como ventajas o desventajas, y en segundo nivel como: efectos sobre manejo de los cultivos; efectos sobre el ciclo hidrolgico; efectos sobre patgenos, insectos y condiciones climticas; y afectos sobre los suelos. Se dan referencias para 20 consecuencias ventajosas y 16 consecuencias desventajosas al utilizar rboles de sombra, dando nfasis a publicaciones que proveen datos originales y metodologias tiles. Finalmente se presenta una lista de las caractersticas deseables para rboles de sombra para cultivos perennes.
Article
The Meloidogyne incognita nematode is a destructive, widespread pathogen of Coffea arabica varieties in Guatemala and in other coffee production countries. Nematode resistant Robusta (Coffea canephora) is frequently used as a rootstock; however, as it is not adapted to high altitudes, this is an inadequate solution. Arabica varieties resistant to the nematode would avoid the need for grafting at altitudes of more than 800–1000 m. Trials were carried out to test the response to an M. incognita isolate from Guatemala on; 50semi-wild Ethiopian and Sudanese accessions, 20 F1hybrid families obtained by crossing eight accessions with three susceptible varieties and five F2 populations. An additional trial was conducted to compare resistance to the Guatemalan nematode isolate with a M. incognita isolate from Brazil. The inoculum doses was 1000 ± 200 eggs for each 2–3month old coffee seedling, and the number of egg masses per plant was observed. Resistance to M. incognita observed in the Ethiopian accessions was important, as 40% of the accessions tested were totally resistant. Resistance was dominant in F1 and transmitted to the F2 generations. Segregation in the F2 populations indicated the presence of a single dominant gene for some crosses and two complementary dominant genes for others. The reactions of the Ethiopian accessions to the Brazilian isolate of M. incognita were similar to those of the Guatemalan isolate. These results confirm the necessity of widening the genetic base of C. arabica breeding populations using semi-wild Ethiopian trees as a source of resistance to M. incognita.
Article
The relative importance of N fixation, organic material inputs and nutrient inputs in litterfall, as justifications for including shade trees in plantations of coffee or cacao, is discussed. According to existing data, N fixation by leguminous shade trees does not exceed 60 kg.N/ha/a. However, these trees contribute 5,000–10,000 kg. organic material/ha/a. Comparisons are made between the leguminous shade tree Erythrina poeppigiana and the non-leguminous timber tree Cordia alliodora. The former, when pruned 2 or 3 times/a., can return to the litter layer the same amount of nutrients that are applied to coffee plantations via inorganic fertilizers, even at the highest recommended rates for Costa Rica of 270 kg.N, 60 kg.P, 150 kg.K/ha/a. The annual nutrient return in this litterfall represents 90–100 percent of the nutrient store in above-ground biomass of E. poeppigiana, and hence the consequences of competition with the crop should not be a serious limitation. In the case of C. alliodora, which is not pruned, nutrient storage in the tree stems, especially of K, is a potential limiting factor to both crop and tree productivity. It is concluded that, in fertilized plantations of cacao and coffee, litter productivity is a more important shade tree characteristic than N fixation.
Article
Nitrogen inputs to the coffee ecosystem are dominated by additions of fertilizer-N (100–300 kg N ha−1 yr−1). Small nitrogen inputs from rains and variable from inputs fixation by the leguminous shade trees can amount to 1–40 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Organic matter mineralization can be an important nitrogen source also. Nitrogen losses from the system include removal of N in the harvest (15–90 kg N ha−1 yr−1), the removal of coffee and shade tree prunings for firewood, losses from erosion, leaching losses and gaseous losses. Unfortunately, very little information exists for leaching and gaseous losses and for the factors that regulate these processes. The overall nitrogen cycle in shaded coffee plantings includes three interrelated subsystems. These are the coffee, shade and weeds subcycles.
Article
Soil fertility is de®ned as the ability of a soil to provide the conditions required for plant growth. It is a result of the physical, chemical and biological processes that act together to provide nutrients, water, aeration and stability to the plant, as well as freedom from any substances that may inhibit growth. Within this de®nition, it is useful to distinguish between those components of fertility which change relatively slowly, perhaps over the course of a rotation, or in some cases, decades, and the more immediate contribution from materials such as fertilizers and manures. The term `inherent fertility' is used to describe these more stable characteristics, while recognising that they are, to a large extent, products of soil management. We conclude that, although nutrient management in organically managed soils is fundamentally different to soils managed conventionally, the underlying processes supporting soil fertility are not. The same nutrient cycling processes operate in organically farmed soils as those that are farmed conventionally although their relative importance and rates may differ. Nutrient pools in organically farmed soils are also essentially the same as in conventionally managed soils but, in the absence of regular fertilizer inputs, nutrient reserves in less-available pools will be of greater signi®cance. DEFRA
Article
Special issue - Soil fertility in organically managed soils This paper reviews information from the literature and case studies to investigate whether productivity in organic systems is restricted by the supply of available N during the major phases of crop growth. Organic systems have the potential to supply adequate amounts of available N to meet crop demand through the incorporation of leys, N rich cash crop residues and uncomposted manures. However, this is seldom achieved because leys are only incorporated once every few years and organically produced crop residues and manures tend to have low N contents and slow mineralization rates. N availability could be improved by delaying ley incorporation until spring, applying uncomposted manures at the start of spring growth, transferring some manure applications from the ley phase to arable crops, preventing cover crops from reaching a wide C:N ratio and better matching crop type with the dynamics of N availability. DEFRA
Conditions de durabilit´ e d’un syst` eme agraire caf´ eicole: bilan des transferts de mati` ere organique ` a l’´ echelle de la colline, au Buyenzi (Burundi)
  • Metzler
  • V Amieux
  • M Dosso
Metzler-Amieux, V. and Dosso, M. (1998). Conditions de durabilit´ e d’un syst` eme agraire caf´ eicole: bilan des transferts de mati` ere organique ` a l’´ echelle de la colline, au Buyenzi (Burundi). Cahiers Agricultures 7:271–279
Report of a coffee advisory mission to Peru
  • H Toxopeus
Toxopeus, H. (2003). Report of a coffee advisory mission to Peru, May 2003. PUM/NMCP, The Hague, The Netherlands. Mimeo.
Foreword to supplement "Soil fertility in organically managed soils
  • K Kilham
Kilham, K. (2002). Foreword to supplement "Soil fertility in organically managed soils". Soil Use and Management 18:238.
Introduction and recommendations
  • B Vanlauwe
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  • R Merckx
Vanlauwe, B., Diels, J., Sanginga, N. and Merckx, R. (2002). Introduction and recommendations. In Integrated Plant Nutrient Management in sub-Saharan Africa: from Concept to Practice, 1-5, 333-338 (Eds B. Vanlauwe, J. Diels, N. Sanginga and R. Merckx) Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
A case study on organic coffee farming
  • Kamala Bai
  • S Haryappa
  • N Mani
  • S D Seetharama
  • H G Shivaram
  • G T Raghuramulu
Kamala Bai, S., Haryappa, N., Mani, S. D., Seetharama, H. G., Shivaram, G. T.and Raghuramulu, Y. (2000). A case study on organic coffee farming. Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium on Coffee December 4, 2000, CBI-CCRI Bangalore India. 148–152
Management of hybrid Ruiru II arabica coffee – a review Comparative evaluation of the flavour qualities of Ruiru II and SL28 cultivars of Kenya arabica coffee
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  • H A M Njoroge
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Njoroge, J. M. (1991). Management of hybrid Ruiru II arabica coffee – a review. Kenya Coffee 56:1027–1035. r472 H. A. M. VAN DER VOSSEN Njoroge, S. M., Morales, A. F., Kari, P. E. and Owuor, J. B. O. (1990). Comparative evaluation of the flavour qualities of Ruiru II and SL28 cultivars of Kenya arabica coffee. Kenya Coffee, 55:843–849
Coffee and the environment
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E.D.E. Consulting (1997). Coffee and the environment. E.D.E.Consulting GmbH, Hamburg, Germany. Mimeo. Report.