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On the obsolecence of the concept of honor

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... En este sentido, mi formulación inicial -que sugería la existencia de déficits de ciudadanía en aquellos casos en los que no existía un equilibrio adecuado entre los principios de justicia y solidaridad, o entre el respeto por los derechos del individuo y la consideración hacia la persona del ciudadano (Cardoso de Oliveira, 1996) * Este texto es una adaptación, con modificaciones, del proyecto que presenté ante el Consejo Nacional resultó ampliada gracias a la investigación sobre las concepciones de la igualdad, dado que la oposición entre visiones igualitarias y jerárquicas mostró ser insuficiente para la comprensión del fenómeno. Vale decir que, si bien la demanda de reconocimiento de Quebec reveló los límites de la concepción de la igualdad como uniformidad para viabilizar el respeto a los derechos de ciudadanía, la noción de jerarquía asociada a la idea de honra como una característica intrínseca de ciertas personas o grupos -à l'Ancien Régime - (Berger, 1983;Taylor, 1994) o bien a la precedencia de la totalidad social como ocurre en la India (Dumont, 1992) -en perjuicio de la autonomía del individuo, entendida como un valor-, no obstante tampoco propicia una reflexión adecuada sobre las asimetrías legitimables en las democracias occidentales contemporáneas (Cardoso de Oliveira, 2002: 57-58). En el mismo sentido, la importancia que el republicanismo francés atribuye a las ideas de fraternidad y solidaridad en el mundo cívico sugiere diferencias significativas si se la compara con el individualismo y el igualitarismo vigentes en el liberalismo anglosajón (Habermas, 1998: 262). ...
... La noción de ciudadanía es un valor importante en las democracias occidentales y, como he indicado anteriormente, refiere a un estatus igualitario (Marshall, 1976) y al ejercicio de derechos básicos ampliamente compartidos por todos. Autores como Berger (1983) y Taylor (1994) asocian el desarrollo de la ciudadanía a la transformación de la noción de honra en la de dignidad en el pasaje del Antiguo Régimen a la sociedad moderna, y a la instauración de una perspectiva universalista respecto de los derechos. En tanto la honra era una cualidad mal distribuida que reflejaba una visión jerárquica de la sociedad (algunos tenían mucha honra y otros poca o ninguna), la dignidad, en cambio, podía ser equitativamente compartida por todos. ...
Chapter
La alteridad nos constituye como seres humanos y, a la vez, desafía nuestra imaginación social. Vivimos con otros, y nos hacemos, entrelazadamente. La cuestión del otro no es un tema presente sólo en la antropología, pero no hay antropología que no aborde la cuestión de la otredad. En tanto disciplina constituida históricamente para comprender a "los otros", la antropología acuñó una serie de términos que condensan algunas de sus contribuciones más significativas para el conjunto de las ciencias sociales. Sin duda, uno de los más conocidos es el concepto de "etnocentrismo"; sin embargo, sus ecos no se agotan en sus formas más evidentes y simples. En sus variaciones más complejas y sutiles, incrementa sus efectos sobre lo que podríamos denominar la "naturalización del autocentramiento". A la luz de este contexto, este libro aborda desde múltiples enfoques uno de los grandes dilemas de las ciencias sociales contemporáneas: ¿hasta qué punto son universales o contextuales las categorías teóricas y las políticas?
... En este sentido, mi formulación inicial -que sugería la existencia de déficits de ciudadanía en aquellos casos en los que no existía un equilibrio adecuado entre los principios de justicia y solidaridad, o entre el respeto por los derechos del individuo y la consideración hacia la persona del ciudadano (Cardoso de Oliveira, 1996) * Este texto es una adaptación, con modificaciones, del proyecto que presenté ante el Consejo Nacional resultó ampliada gracias a la investigación sobre las concepciones de la igualdad, dado que la oposición entre visiones igualitarias y jerárquicas mostró ser insuficiente para la comprensión del fenómeno. Vale decir que, si bien la demanda de reconocimiento de Quebec reveló los límites de la concepción de la igualdad como uniformidad para viabilizar el respeto a los derechos de ciudadanía, la noción de jerarquía asociada a la idea de honra como una característica intrínseca de ciertas personas o grupos -à l'Ancien Régime - (Berger, 1983;Taylor, 1994) o bien a la precedencia de la totalidad social como ocurre en la India (Dumont, 1992) -en perjuicio de la autonomía del individuo, entendida como un valor-, no obstante tampoco propicia una reflexión adecuada sobre las asimetrías legitimables en las democracias occidentales contemporáneas (Cardoso de Oliveira, 2002: 57-58). En el mismo sentido, la importancia que el republicanismo francés atribuye a las ideas de fraternidad y solidaridad en el mundo cívico sugiere diferencias significativas si se la compara con el individualismo y el igualitarismo vigentes en el liberalismo anglosajón (Habermas, 1998: 262). ...
... La noción de ciudadanía es un valor importante en las democracias occidentales y, como he indicado anteriormente, refiere a un estatus igualitario (Marshall, 1976) y al ejercicio de derechos básicos ampliamente compartidos por todos. Autores como Berger (1983) y Taylor (1994) asocian el desarrollo de la ciudadanía a la transformación de la noción de honra en la de dignidad en el pasaje del Antiguo Régimen a la sociedad moderna, y a la instauración de una perspectiva universalista respecto de los derechos. En tanto la honra era una cualidad mal distribuida que reflejaba una visión jerárquica de la sociedad (algunos tenían mucha honra y otros poca o ninguna), la dignidad, en cambio, podía ser equitativamente compartida por todos. ...
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La antropología nació como una disciplina abocada a comprender a los otros. Al acuñar el concepto de “etnocentrismo”, reveló y cuestionó, en un gesto fundante, la percepción de la diferencia como exotismo incomprensible e irracional. Los contextos actuales –caracterizados por los desplazamientos y la hiperconexión–, parecen exigir el replanteo acerca de quiénes son esos otros y quiénes somos, también, nosotros. Las voces reunidas en este libro dan cuenta de la preocupación de los más eminentes antropólogos de la región sobre cómo abordar hoy la comprensión de la alteridad, en términos teóricos pero también políticos, recogiendo los debates cruciales con los que la antropología refuerza su compromiso de desprenderse de todos los centramientos: de raza, de género, de clase, de época. Así, Antropología ahora propone una lectura crítica del discurso eurocéntrico que moldeó las reflexiones sobre el desarrollo del capitalismo, del empleo monopólico de categorías y de las operaciones epistémicas por las que Occidente se afirma como fuente única de modelos generalizables, del papel históricamente hegemónico de las antropologías metropolitanas y el subordinado de las periféricas, del reconocimiento dispar que han recibido las actividades intelectuales indígenas, por un lado, y las académicas, por el otro. Los textos reunidos por Grimson, Noel y Merenson constituyen una selección de las conferencias dictadas en la Reunión de Antropología del Mercosur celebrada en Buenos Aires en 2009 y son una contribución concreta a la expansión, más allá de las fronteras nacionales o disciplinarias, de las resonancias de la antropología contemporánea. Son también un registro patente de la mirada antropológica, que nos enseña que la alteridad nos constituye como seres humanos a la vez que desafía inevitablemente nuestra imaginación social.
... Det arkaiske forhold mellem aere og personlig kamp på liv og død var blevet stadig vanskeligere at opretholde i det moderne retssamfund, hvor aeren ikke er andet end en kappe, som skal rives af, for at det moderne menneske -mennesket alene -kan komme til syne. Berger (1970) peger således på, at den tidsalder, der var vidne til aerens fald, også så fremkomsten af nye moraliteter og en ny humanisme og isaer en historisk hidtil uset bekymring for vaerdigheden og individets rettigheder. Moderniseringen med dets fremskridtsorientering, de-institutionalisering og individuelle subjektivering satte ganske enkelt udfoldelse af aere i stabile institutionelle roller ud af kraft. ...
... Efter 1. verdenskrig, hvor den personlige, heroiske kamp var blevet afløst af en moderne, industrialiseret krig, viste aeresbegrebet sig for alvor at vaere foraeldet (Berger 1970, Pedersen 2003, Bowman 2006. Eftertiden synes at have bekraeftet dette udsagn. ...
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Da jeg begyndte at studere psykologi på Aarhus Universitet i 1970, ville jeg være sportspsykolog. I 1968 var min korte cykelsportskarriere kulmineret, men cykelsporten havde ikke sluppet sit tag i mig. I foråret 1972 debuterede jeg således med en psykologiopgave (Jespersen 1972) om mit forbillede, cykelrytteren Niels Fredborg, der senere dette år vandt guld til Danmark ved de Olympiske Lege (OL) i München. På baggrund af mit personlige forhold til Niels Fredborg vil jeg i dette essay skrive om hvorledes cykelsport – når det går bedst for sig – er liv og ære om at gøre.
... Por dignidade devemos entender não a categoria que, no Ocidente, veio a ocupar o lugar da honra na passagem do ancien régime para a modernidade (Berger, 1983;Taylor, 1994), mas sim o sentido nativo abundantemente usado em Timor-Leste, marcado pelas características próprias da honra. Ter "dignidade", em Timor-Leste, é ter sinais de distinção e ser tratado de acordo com a posição de pessoa que se conquistou. ...
... While acknowledging that the quest for status recognition does not only serve material interests but also social and perhaps even emotional needs, they deemphasize outmoded notions of self-worth such as honor. This is in line with an exalted tradition highlighting the obsolescence of honor (Montesquieu 1750;Schumpeter 1951;Berger 1970;Taylor 1994). ...
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This article introduces an intercultural theory of international relations based on three distinctive ways of establishing self-worth: honor, face, and dignity. In each culture of self-worth, concerns with status and humiliation intervene differently in producing political outcomes. The theory explains important variation in the way states and nations relate to members of their own culture of self-worth, as well as members of other such cultures.
... In many courts, honor-related cases were more common than, for instance, violent crimes (Larsdotter 2012). Peter Berger (1970) argued that the declining importance of honor reflects a general trend in which individuals are freed from traditional hierarchies and ascribed status is replaced by status that depends on personal achievement. ...
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Under scrutiny (what we term a “bribery gaze”), many interpersonal exchanges in work contexts are perceived as bribes rather than gifts, tokens of appreciation, or mundane favors. Current Swedish bribery laws are strong, and the media keep a vigilant eye out for suspicious activities. From a wide set of qualitative data, we selected 13 interviews with formally-accused middle managers and low-level officials in Sweden who claimed to be innocent of small corruption. We discovered that they were more concerned with defending their honor than with job losses, material losses, or legal repercussions. The interviewees used a contrast structure: While they defined the humiliating accusations and disproportionate measures as turning points, they narrated their moral struggles and claimed their innocence by retelling significant events. These personal narratives from those accused of corruption showed that honor remains very important in contemporary society.
... Furthermore, an individual may adopt different moral behavior in different situations. 3 The first two terms have been used in sociology for some time (e.g., Berger (1970), Ayers (1984), Cooney 1998) and continue to be important (e.g., Leung and Cohen (2011), Aslani et al. (2011), Campbell and Manning (2014). The third has also been used but it appears to be a more recent development. ...
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Many pages would be require to discuss Private Governance’s important contributions, so I focus on a relatively minor flaw: chapter 9 on moral beliefs is inconsistent with Stringham’s general treatment of private governance institutions as endogenous. Moral beliefs are essentially depicted as unchanging, but they actually are endogenous too. Individuals can pursue wealth through cooperative interaction, which requires trust, creating incentives to develop beliefs that encourage ethical and benevolent behavior. Alternatively wealth can be taken from others through force and/or guile. Beliefs to facilitate involuntary transfers also are institutionalized. For instance, in order to benefit from coercive wealth transfers “in good conscience,” recipients have incentives to see their victims as enemies to justify a moral “right” to transfers. Changing moral beliefs is costly, however, so they tend to be fixed in the short term. Once it becomes apparent that existing beliefs significantly conflict with an individual’s interests, she is forced to question those beliefs. The impetus for rationalizing new beliefs arises. The direction of evolution can be predicted with a rational decision-making model. To illustrate the endogeneity of moral beliefs, three institutional settings are examined: “dignity culture,” “honor culture,” and “victimhood culture”.
... Fictional representations of gangs ranging from the late 18th century Räuberroman or novel of banditry to the Mafia novels of Mario Puzo have exerted an enduring grip on the popular imagination. They do so in part by their treatment of the theme of honour: an apparently superfluous principle in modern societies that retains its sway only in counter-cultural groups or in cultures deemed to be anti-modern (Berger, 1970). In this essay, I will attempt to account for the prominence of the honour theme in the German novel of banditry by relating it to changes in the economy of prestige around 1800 as experienced by authors and readers. 2 In doing so, I want to use the honour theme to address a larger question, that of the complicity between authors and readers at a time of significant change in reading practices. ...
Article
This article performs a reading informed by Honneth’s theory of recognition of the two best-known German novels of banditry of the 1790s, Johann Heinrich Zschokke’s Abaellino der große Bandit (1794) and Christian August Vulpius’ Rinaldo Rinaldini (1799) in an effort to understand how popular literature participates in and reflects upon the discourse on honour and recognition around 1800. Its status as popular genre makes the novel of banditry (Räuberroman) a potentially interesting source on shifts in the theory and practice of honour as experienced by ordinary Europeans at the turn of the 19th century. The genre was found to relate to the honour discourse not directly, but in the manner of a heterotopia, simultaneously located outside that discourse and referentially connected to it. Taken in isolation, the novel of banditry is not an informative source on the changing role of honour and new patterns of intersubjective recognition in late 18th century Europe. Seen as part of a particular constellation of textual production and reception, however, the genre sheds light on the aporias of honour experienced by those socially marginal ‘new readers’ intent on exploiting literature in the struggle for enhanced social recognition.
... As related work on youth subcultures has shown, marginalized youth seek alternative forms of worthiness when they are shut out of the dominant award structure (Bettie 2014;MacLeod 1995;Wilkins 2008). When recent work in the youth criminalization literature has invoked dignity, this has resembled inherent dignity, or the basic humanity of all people irrespective of status or other differences (Berger 1970). A third meaning of dignity, substantive dignity, goes beyond basic rights to include worthiness that accrues from a sense of belonging in wider communities (Glenn 2011;Pugh 2009). 2 Across these accounts, dignity is a focal point of age narratives: of how institutions nurture or restrict the development of youth and how youth themselves envision their futures in the transition to adulthood (Fader 2013). ...
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An enduring finding is that marginalized young men of color aggressively seek “respect,” or masculine status. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork at an all-boys public high school, the author found that respect—a desire to “be known”—offers an incomplete explanation for how young black men claim recognition in an era of surveillance. These findings reveal an alternative and more complex portrait of criminalized young black men in search of multiple dignities. With the help of adults, the young men in this study made claims to the right to grow as individuals. They also continued to yearn for a form of respect that rejected a sexually victimized identity, in a manner rarely captured in previous research. Their yearnings also highlight claims to a third form of dignity: to “be unknown,” or the privilege of anonymity.
... But what is it that binds the living in each community into preserving the rights of its own successor generations? Peter Berger (1983) suggests that this might indeed be the role of honor, the link between every living self and her own community. ...
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The idea of human rights either as a moral system or as a set of legal practices does not sit well with the concept of honor. This is true for both ontological reasons and because of some reprehensible misuses of the term in constructs such as “honor killings.” Yet the absence of honor as an argument for human rights comes with a high cost in the defense of human rights generally. As Hobbes made clear in his early theory, rights—and dignity—are grounded in the human capacity to make promises and in the necessity of honoring them. In his view then, honor is an essential feature of human rights and one closely linked to the human capacity for dignity. In this article, I explore how environmental human rights place a renewed emphasis on honor as a requirement for the protection of the rights of future generations. In the process, I explore the general relationship between honor, dignity, and human rights.
... The implicit sociology views all biological and historical differentiations amo.ng men as either downright unreal or essentially irrelevant. The implicit anthropology locates the real self over and beyond all these differentiations ( [5], p. 176). ...
Chapter
The concept of a specifically human dignity is one of the fundamental philosophical innovations of the Renaissance. Parallel to the emergence of the portrait as an independent artistic genre within the field of painting and the autobiography as a new literary genre, a comprehensive series of writings on the dignitas hominis by Petrarca, Giannozzo Manetti and Pico della Mirandola grew to the dimensions of an independent literary genre. These works of art, literature and philosophy lent expression to that new, human self-understanding which was to become fundamental to the Modern Age. Of course, the concept of human dignity did not emerge as a creatio ex nihilo: it is rooted in Ancient philosophy, as well as in Christian theology. In Ancient times, the concept of dignity usually referred to respect for individuals with a high social status: a Greek king or a Roman senator, for example. It was the Stoics who first developed the idea of a dignity attributable to the human being per se, i.e. independently of individual characteristics. In Cicero’s writings, we find both interpretations side by side. Christianity picked up on the second meaning and interpreted the dignity of all human beings theologically: the latter’s origins may be attributed to the special position which the human being assumes within creation as imago dei. Human dignity is viewed here as reflecting the dignity of God.
... Whether we construe those imposed roles as capitalistic "false consciousness," the Cartesian subject, or the secular marketplace, the bearded man seeks to liberate himself: "In a world of dignity, history is the succession of mystifications from which the individual must free himself to attain 'authenticity'." 18 In our neoliberal age, though, can authenticity be anything more than a brand whose use of history consists of fragmented and carefully curated samplings? Is not authenticity a series of mystifications involving multiple gazes among multiple Others? ...
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Beards are a sort of dwelling. Much like Heidegger's linguistic play with related etymologies of building and dwelling, beards are in a constant state of becoming, forever changing length, shape, and color. To the person—usually, but not always, a man—who grows a beard, the end product is always projected out into the future, like Heidegger’s concept of being. The beard is trimmed and groomed constantly; it is cultivated in a way that feels authentic to its wearer. But the same ontological problems that Heidegger applies to dwelling in a home also apply to beards. Long facial hair symbolizes wisdom in many cultures, but anyone who has grown a beard can attest to the existential dilemma of long facial hair. I didn’t recognize you with the beard, someone will say. Beards can serve as symbols of erudition, yes, but they are also masks for our social selves. The beard is, after all, is a curious appendage, as it is an extension of the self, but not the self per se. Herman Melville called beards “suburbs of the chin.” If, like Heidegger, we are to see being as not a fixed entity divorced from other beings, but a being-in-the-world, a set of relations among other beings, then beards are not simply static accessories or styles, but an example of the slippery nature of being itself.
... Similarly, respect and obedience seem appropriate when arguing that children ought to obey their parents or soldiers ought to obey their superior offi cers. But, as the theory also predicts, in societies that are, or profess to be, more equal-such as Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich Democracies (WEIRD) (Henrich, Heine, & Norenzayan, 2010 )-deference and respect for power appear 'obsolete' (Berger, 1970 ). ...
Chapter
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What is morality, where does it come from, and how does it work? Scholars have struggled with these questions for millennia. But we now have a scientific answer. The theory of ‘morality as cooperation’ uses the mathematics of cooperation—the theory of nonzero-sum games—to identify the many distinct problems of cooperation and their solutions, and it predicts that it is the solutions employed by humans that constitute ‘morality’. Thus, morality turns out to be a collection of biological and cultural solutions to the problems of cooperation and conflict recurrent in human social life. This theory generates a comprehensive taxonomy of moral values—a Periodic Table of Ethics—that includes obligations to family, group loyalty, reciprocity, bravery, respect, fairness, and property rights. And because morality as cooperation makes principled predictions about the structure and content of human morality, which can be tested against those of rival theories, it reveals that the study of morality is simply another branch of science.
... The results support MAC's prediction about the content of morality, namely that each of the seven types of cooperation would be considered morally relevant, and judged morally good. The one partial exception – dove-ish signals of submission – may reflect contemporary egalitarian ambivalence about deference (Berger, 1970). The results also provided strong support for MAC's predictions regarding the structure of morality, namely that each of the seven types of cooperation would constitute a distinct domain. ...
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What is morality? What explains its content and structure? And how is it best measured? The theory of Morality-as-Cooperation (MAC) argues that morality is a collection of biological and cultural solutions to the problems of cooperation recurrent in human social life. Using evolutionary biology and nonzerosum game theory, MAC identifies seven distinct types of cooperation (helping kin, helping group, reciprocating, hawkish signals of prowess, dove-ish signals of deference, dividing disputed resources, and respecting prior possession), and predicts that each will be considered morally relevant, and each will give rise to a distinct moral domain. By starting from these fundamental principles, MAC offers a novel, systematic and comprehensive alternative to previous accounts of morality. Here we test MAC’s predictions against those of one such account: Moral Foundations Theory (MFT). We develop a new self-report measure of moral values, the Morality-as-Cooperation Questionnaire (MAC-Q; Study 1: N=1,392), examine its psychometric properties, and compare its performance to the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ; Study 2: N=1,042; Study 3: N=469; Study 4: N=137). The results support MAC’s predictions: each type of cooperation is considered morally relevant; and each gives rise to a distinct moral domain (family values, group loyalty, reciprocity, heroism, deference, fairness and property rights). The results do not support MFT’s five-factor model. Thus the MAC-Q emerges as the best available map of morality; and MAC emerges as the best available compass to guide further exploration of the moral landscape.
... Z. Bauman analysing the crisis of the nation-state in the modern age described it as "a situation without any centre that can hold", but he noted that "people can thrive ... only in an organized (structured, regular) environment ... where the essences are clearly outlined and the probability of events is clearly differentiated, managed and counted" (Bauman, 2008, p. 219). The social constructivist P. Berger justifies the need for such an environment with the "fundamental constitution of a human" that "will inevitably again build institutions in order to create an orderly reality for themselves" (Berger, 2009). ...
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It is ascertained that the strengthening of ethnical and cultural diversity, the social differentiation of modern societies, the policy of recognizing the identities of minority groups in liberal states objectively neutralize the integrative potential of the national identity, deepen the crisis phenomena associated with the de-legitimization of state institutions and policies which remain without support and loyalty of citizens. Ensuring the integration of modern societies requires the formation of identification models that take into account growing social differentiation and cultural diversity, do not limit individual and group autonomy, but preserve the integrity of society. It is proved that at the core of them there is the societal culture, values and institutions that harmonize and guarantee the compatibility of particular and macro-level identities, redefining the national identity of the age of globalization and multiculturalism.
... In der arbeitsteiligen Gesellschaft sind Individuen in eine Vielzahl loser und heterogener Netzwerke eingebunden, was zur Folge hat, dass Solidaritäten sich auf der einen Seite multiplizieren und auf der anderen Seite schwächer ausfallen, da die Interaktionsdichte innerhalb der Netzwerke vergleichsweise schwach ist. Mit Peter Berger (1970) ließe sich ähnlich argumentieren, dass in (westlich-)modernen Gesellschaften mit der Etablierung des Individuums als Adressat von Rechten und Pflichten und der sich etablierenden Dominanz des restitutiven Rechts eine De-Institutionalisierung von Gruppenzugehörigkeiten stattfindet. Die Konsequenz ist, dass Ehre als Modus der Vermittlung zwischen Individuum und Gesellschaft an Wichtigkeit verliert und durch den Modus der Würde ersetzt wird, der auch gegen Institutionen in Anschlag gebracht werden kann. ...
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Zusammenfassung Solidaritäten sind von beschränkter Reichweite und gehen mit Grenzziehungen einher. Diese sind historisch kontingent und gesellschaftlich umstritten. Eine Vielzahl gesellschaftlicher Konflikte lassen sich soziologisch als Solidaritätskonflikte deuten, in denen widerstreitende Ideen über Zugehörigkeit, Zusammengehörigkeit und wechselseitige Verantwortung verhandelt werden. Ausgehend von der Vorstellung, dass Solidarnormen den Kern des soziologischen Solidaritätsverständnisses ausmachen, geht der Beitrag der Frage nach, was zentrale Dimensionen der Grenzziehung sind. Es wird vorgeschlagen, zwischen sozialen und substanziellen Grenzziehungen zu unterscheiden. Soziale Grenzziehungen beziehen sich darauf, welche Personen(gruppen), Kollektive und Spezies (nicht) zu einem solidarischen „Wir“ bzw. zum Solidaritätsradius gezählt werden. Durch soziale Grenzziehungen wird somit bestimmt, wer (keine) Chancen auf Zuwendung, Aufmerksamkeit und Unterstützung hat. Substanzielle Grenzziehungen adressieren dagegen, welche materiellen oder immateriellen Solidarleistungen die Mitglieder eines Solidaritätsradius in welcher Höhe einander schulden und welchen Verbindlichkeitsgrad Solidarität hat. Durch substanzielle Grenzziehungen bestimmen sich damit Anspruchsniveau und Stärke von Solidarität. In beiden Dimensionen sind Grenzziehungen gekoppelt an legitimierende Ideologien und sozialstrukturelle Voraussetzungen. Ein soziologisches Verständnis empirisch beobachtbarer Solidaritätsverhältnisse verlangt, dass das Zusammenspiel beider Dimensionen rekonstruiert wird und die Mechanismen offengelegt werden, auf denen Grenzziehungen in beiden Dimensionen basieren.
... Berger (1983, 174). Původní vydání:Berger (1970). ...
Book
Justice and the Just War Tradition articulates a distinctive understanding of the reasons that can justify war, of the reasons that cannot justify war, and of the role that those reasons should play in the motivational and attitudinal lives of the citizens, soldiers, and statesmen who participate in war. Eberle does so by relying on a robust conception of human worth, rights, and justice. He locates this theoretical account squarely in the Just War Tradition. But his account is not merely theoretical: Justice and the Just War Tradition has a variety of practical aims, one of the most important of which is to serve as an aid to moral formation. The hope is that citizens, soldiers, and statesmen whose emotions and aspirations have been shaped by the Just War Tradition will be able to negotiate violent communal conflict in ways that respect the demands of justice. So Justice and the Just War Tradition articulates a theoretically satisfying and practically engaging account of the reasons that count in favor of war. Moreover, Eberle develops that account by engaging contemporary theorists, both philosophical and theological, by according due deference to venerable contributors to the Just War Tradition, and by integrating insights from military memoire, the history of war, and the author's experience of teaching ethics at the United States Naval Academy.
Chapter
An important aspect of the community-based philosophy is the issue of justice. This theme was first relevant during the 1960s, when communities were demanding to be treated with dignity. Both around the world and in the USA, demonstrations erupted against the war in Vietnam and many types of discrimination. More recently, however, the topic of justice arose within the context of globalization (Nussbaum, Oxford Development Studies 32(1):3–18, 2004). Many of the protests against this economic and cultural trend have had the retrieval of justice as their key principle. The charge of these movements is that globalization has created a situation where justice has little value. As a result of certain economic policies, the social world seems to be a very hostile and unequal place. For example, vital institutions appear to cater mostly to the rich, while the gap between this class and the rest, in most societies, is expanding (Smart, Economy, culture, and society: A critique of neo-liberalism, 2003). The basic organizations of society are beyond the control of most persons. And as mentioned in the introduction to this book, a credibility gap is prevalent that fosters cynicism and withdrawal. Many communities are caught in the midst of this process and are beginning to deteriorate. And similar to the 1960s, these groups are seeking dignity and some control over their lives (Piven and Cloward, Poor people’s movements, 1979). But a new wrinkle has appeared in this argument. The proponents of change contend that the usual response to this condition is insufficient. That is, the standard forms of charity are considered to be demeaning and ineffective, since this reaction is mostly personal and emotional, with few, if any, obligations. Indeed, charity represents acts of kindness that often require little more than expressions of concern about the condition of many unfortunate persons. In this regard, universal benevolence is deemed to be sufficient to solve the ills related, for example, to poverty or the absence of health care (Tronto, Moral boundaries: A political argument for an ethic of care, 1993).
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Episodes of shame are central events in Mary McCarthy’s two autobiographical works, Memories of a Catholic Girlhood (1957) and How I Grew (1987). McCarthy’s narratives deepen our understanding of shame, a painful moral emotion and sanction of conscience that has often puzzled theoretical reflection. The value of her autobiographies for understanding shame lies in three areas. McCarthy’s first-person narrative examines sources of shame with much greater specificity and detail than theoretical accounts, with attention to recurring patterns and her long-term development. Second, in her assessment of shame McCarthy distinguishes between genuine moral shame and false shame by clarifying the proper grounds for self-esteem and self-respect. And third, her autobiographies provide insights into the healing process by which shame may be surmounted and self-esteem recovered. In these three ways McCarthy’s explorations of shame illuminate the workings of conscience in autobiography.
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Global governance has come under increasing pressure since the end of the Cold War. In some issue areas, these pressures have led to significant changes in the architecture of governance institutions. In others, institutions have resisted pressures for change. This volume explores what accounts for this divergence in architecture by identifying three modes of governance: hierarchies, networks, and markets. The authors apply these ideal types to different issue areas in order to assess how global governance has changed and why. In most issue areas, hierarchical modes of governance, established after World War II, have given way to alternative forms of organization focused on market or network-based architectures. Each chapter explores whether these changes are likely to lead to more or less effective global governance across a wide range of issue areas. This provides a novel and coherent theoretical framework for analysing change in global governance.
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Westerners might wonder why people in India are starving when there are cows lined up at the roadsides. At first sight it looks as if values, or moral rules vary considerably. Often, however, such variation is not due to a difference in moral maxims but rather to a difference in beliefs (Rachels 1993), or moral focusing i.e., the implementation of a general rule in a concrete cultural context. Both people from India and the West agree that we should not remain hungry, suffer from malnutrition or starve to death; they may differ, however, in their assessment of whether the outdoor cow is potential food or a sacred symbol, a “holy cow”.
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Im Verlauf unserer Untersuchung über Jugendliche türkischer Herkunft in Berlin1 ist uns die begriffliche Metapher der “Ehre des Mannes” in Gruppendiskussionen wie auch in einigen biographischen Interviews und auch während der teilnehmenden Beobachtung begegnet2 Hinter dieser Metapher verbergen sich Elemente eines tradierten Habitus, einer Orientierungsfigur, die auch denjenigen Jugendlichen gewärtig ist, die diese begriffliche Metapher selbst nicht häufig verwenden. Dabei erhält diese Orientierungsfigur aber eine sehr unterschiedliche Bedeutung und Gewichtung, die Haltung ihr gegenüber weist eine Spannbreite auf zwischen Identifikation, ironischer Distanzierung und Irrelevanz.
Article
The aim of this article is to bring to social theorists’ attention the growing visibility of the notion of dignity within human rights legislation, bioethics and public discourse generally, as well as to evaluate this term’s potential to enhance our capacities to respond to old and new challenges. The article starts with a short presentation of the career of the concept and discussion of the various impasses and conceptual tensions connected with the notion of human dignity. It is followed by an exploration of how the idea of human dignity has become one of the main achievements of modern times. The question of how respect for human dignity has turned out to be the fundamental feature of democratic society is addressed with help from both Waldron’s perspective on human dignity as the ground of human rights and Habermas’s approach that stresses the moral content of human rights. The final part of the article examines the value of the notion of dignity for social theorizing by looking at ways the employment of the concept may contribute to sociological thought and enquiry.
Article
Hume's Politics provides a comprehensive examination of David Hume's political theory, and is the first book to focus on Hume's monumental History of England as the key to his distinctly political ideas. Andrew Sabl argues that conventions of authority are the main building blocks of Humean politics, and explores how the History addresses political change and disequilibrium through a dynamic treatment of coordination problems. Dynamic coordination, as employed in Hume's work, explains how conventions of political authority arise, change, adapt to new social and economic conditions, improve or decay, and die. Sabl shows how Humean constitutional conservatism need not hinder--and may in fact facilitate--change and improvement in economic, social, and cultural life. He also identifies how Humean liberalism can offer a systematic alternative to neo-Kantian approaches to politics and liberal theory. At once scholarly and accessibly written, Hume's Politics builds bridges between political theory and political science. It treats issues of concern to both fields, including the prehistory of political coordination, the obstacles that must be overcome in order for citizens to see themselves as sharing common political interests, the close and counterintuitive relationship between governmental authority and civic allegiance, the strategic ethics of political crisis and constitutional change, and the ways in which the biases and injustices endemic to executive power can be corrected by legislative contestation and debate.
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This chapter engages in an analysis of the concept of honor. It begins with a critique of the evolutionary account of honor, according to which retribution and revenge are evolutionary adaptations the purpose of which is to deter future harms. In fact, there is a better explanation of honor that gives it a non-instrumental explanation, while allowing that the prevention of future harm is a side effect of the exercise of honor. In order to defend one’s honor, one has to demonstrate a willingness to stand up to the wrongdoer in a confrontation involving significant physical risk. In the modern world, the state has taken on this role on behalf of the victim, by bringing the wrongdoer to justice. We then turn to a defense of the moral value of honor. Although honor is often taken as an obsolete value, in fact it can be understood as rooted in the value of individual dignity and autonomy. Honor is often misunderstood as being merely “external,” i.e. as consisting entirely in public reputation, but a careful analysis shows this to be a misinterpretation. Honor, properly understood, is a legitimate and even essential moral value.
Article
On most accounts present in the literature, the complex experience of shame has the injury to self-esteem as its main component. A major objection to this idea is that it fails to differentiate between shame and disappointment in oneself. I argue that previous attempts to respond to the objection are unsatisfactory. I argue further that the distinction should refer to the different ways the subject's self-esteem is formed. A necessary requirement for shame is that the standards and values by which the subject judges himself are borrowed from a canon of values the subject accepts as a given. The proper focus of shame is the fact of conformity to that canon. Those agents who have a different conception of self-esteem and who freely set and alter their own values are prone to self-disappointment, but not to shame.
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One of the most frequently mentioned quotes in social representations literature is Serge Moscovici’s claim that the “purpose of all representations is to make something unfamiliar, or unfamiliarity itself, familiar” (1984/2001, 37). This short quote not only highlights the importance of sense-making activities but also implies the active role of social actors in understanding their worlds: the familiar is always familiar to somebody, and there is no familiarity in itself. Consequently, Moscovici concludes, a social representation of an object tells more about a group’s identity than about the nature of this object. Social representations denote what “the group thinks of itself in its relationships with the objects which affect it” (Durkheim 1895/1982, 40; cf. Moscovici and Vignaux 1994/2001, 158). Our membership in social groups constrains the ways in which we come to understand an object, and conversely, by positioning oneself with regard to an object and by the style we communicate about it, we ascertain our belonging to a particular group of people, and simultaneously distance ourselves from others (cf. Duveen and Lloyd 1986). “Just as the water level in communicating vessels changes when the content is altered at only one point, the act of categorizing an object similarly places the individual in his or her rightful place, like a bilateral lever arm whose axis is fixed in the social field common to both” (Wagner and Hayes 2005, 207; cf. Clémence 2001; Harré and van Langenhove 1999).
Conference Paper
Research suggests that the disclosure of struggles and the connection with sympathetic others are critical during periods of transition. Whereas disclosure has been studied in various contexts, the disclosure strategies of USA (US) veterans transitioning back into civil society has not been explored. Through a qualitative study with 15 veterans re-integrating into civil society, we find that the culture of hyper-masculinity learned and performed during military service leads to challenges to disclosure, or non-disclosure, post-service, negatively impacting how military veterans navigate the transition back into civil society. We explore the disclosure issues and strategies of veterans in both offline and online contexts, finding that veterans used online platforms to navigate the challenges limiting disclosure and connect with supportive resources. We conclude by introducing the concept of delayed disclosure--when people postpone making their struggles known in transition--and provide implications for policy, design and future work to help veterans manage their transitions.
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China is a distant empire, a wondrous kingdom, an economic miracle, a revolutionary utopia; China is where all cheap stuff is made, where pandas come from, and pollution, and bespectacled politicians in black suits with awkward smiles who deny human rights to their people. China is stagnant and history-less, without progress unless foreigners supply it, but also standing up, ever rising peacefully yet menacingly with a Communist Party that bans trade unions on behalf of global capitalism. Today, the East is Red and the dragon finally soars, expanding its influence across the world, lending us money and convincing us all that we need to learn its language. Civilizations are clashing, East and West are meeting, and China is no different from everybody else in an increasingly borderless world, except that the Chinese are xenophobic and two-faced. The twenty-first century belongs to China unless they screw up, global capitalism withdraws its favors, the people revolt, or the rest of the world finally grows tired of China-watching and applies the collection of fanciful metaphors to some other, equally badly understood, country in some other, equally distant, part of the world.
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This is a conceptual paper which is exploring the adaptation of social protection for digital platform workers in Souths Africa within the realm of substantive equality. The paper examines how a substantive conception of equality can contribute toward shaping social protection in South Africa into the digital work era where a new form of work is emerging which does not fit into the framework of traditional contributory social protection systems.
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When reading the masterpiece about “The Agon Motif” by John W. Loy and W. Robert Morford (2019), I was struck by their recurrent reference to the pursuit of honor in agonal sport contests, as it has become common sense to replace honor with dignity in modernity. I take the German social-philosopher Axel Honneth (1995) as a prime example of spelling out the replacement of honor with dignity in what he names “the struggle for recognition”. In a historical perspective, however, it looks like, that dignity can be understood as a distribution of honor rather than as an oppositional concept of honor. Recognition should not only be conceptualized at the categorical level, but also understood in terms of ‘comparative recognition’, which sorts members of a group into an intra-group hierarchy based on their relative merits and, thereby, pave the way for self-esteem (Mark, 2014). Furthermore, Honneth (2008) develops his concept of recognition to a two-level one by including a primordial recognition in terms of mimesis based upon his former concept of basic self-confidence. It is a kind of elementary responsiveness, which always and necessarily contains an element of involuntary openness or devotedness in the bodily-affective sphere. Therefore, I suggest taking mimesis as the precondition of honor into account and understanding dignity as a distribution of honor in the institution of modern sport.
Article
This article explores the role of socio-cultural factors in violence against women and girls, focusing on child sexual abuse (CSA) and sexual violence (SV) in British South Asian communities. Using examples from 13 in-depth interviews with survivors, the researchers examine (1) how abusers gain access to their victims, (2) family and community responses and (3) the role of cultural factors in concealing CSA/SV. The interviews demonstrate that British South Asian survivors are extremely reluctant to disclose SV/CSA due to factors that other groups of victims usually do not face, including a general taboo about discussing sex and strong cultural norms around notions of shame. These fndings are contextualized in relation to a larger study that also involved community focus groups and interviews with professionals in relevant felds. Moving forward, new culturally specifc support pathways for British South Asian victims must be developed that take account of the role that victims and their communities must play if CSA and SV are to be effectively combatted.
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Unlike conventional rhetorical theories of insult, a dialogue rhetorical approach does not focus on the insulting utterances alone, but examines interactional sequences of insults, including practices of ritual insults and banter. Since ancient times, a pragmatic perspective on insults has been developed that takes into account the dialogical and discursive embedding of insults. Based on this historical reconstruction of insult theories, this article critically discusses current linguistic approaches from the field of (im)politeness research. As some newer approaches make recourse to the concept of social identity and describe insults and other face-related interaction as negotiations on (norms of) membership, they can be linked to historical and sociological studies on honour and honour conflicts. Since these studies are interaction-oriented, they may serve as a fruitful framework for a dialogue rhetorical theory of insult. However, this view seems to be restricted to domains with limited publics. Therefore, some implications of internet-based communication with regard insulting practices are discussed.
Article
In dieser Arbeit wird eine Analyse des Begriffs menschlicher Würde unternommen. Ausgehend von der Beobachtung, dass auf die Idee der Menschenwürde in aktuellen Debatten der angewandten Ethik oft in unklarer und problematischer Weise rekurriert wird, soll eine angemessene Konzeption dieses Begriffs entwickelt und verteidigt werden. Dazu werden in einem ersten Schritt die wichtigsten skeptischen Einwände gegen das Würdekonzept diskutiert und an Hand einer Untersuchung von deren Reichweite Adäquatheitsbedingungen für einen in der ethischen Debatte brauchbaren Begriff entwickelt. Auf dieser Grundlage werden im zweiten Teil dann verschiedene Vorschläge zum Verständnis des Menschenwürdekonzepts analysiert und letzten Endes als unzureichend kritisiert. Im dritten Teil wird (in Ansätzen) ein konstruktiver Vorschlag entwickelt, dem zu Folge eine sinnvolle Konzeption von Menschenwürde eng an die Sicherung menschlicher Grundbedürfnisse gekoppelt werden sollte. In this work I examine the concept of human dignity. Starting from the observation that the idea of dignity is often referred to in an unclear and problematic way, I try to defend a conception of human dignity as connected with human needs against the standard sceptical challenges. In the first part I discuss these challenges and develop on that basis requirements for an adequate conception of dignity. In the second part I critically examine the most important conceptions of human dignity and establish that they fail in various respects to meet these requirements. In part three I sketch a conception of dignity based on human needs.
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This paper focuses on establishing a conceptual grounding for the value of dignity in tourism employment for achieving decent work as part of the sustainable development agenda. Dignity is widely acknowledged as a key driver for ‘good’ work, but little conceptual grounding on the value of dignity in tourism employment has been established. This paper will contribute to the theoretical debate on sustainable tourism by providing a critical review of frameworks for decent work, workplace dignity (or its absence), and understandings of identity. We will explore how the context and conditions of tourism employment are conducive (or not) for offering dignified and sustainable employment. This paper makes two original contributions to knowledge. First, it introduces a psychosocial understanding of dignity in tourism employment, reflecting its deeply rooted individual, organisational, societal and policy aspects, and recognising the actors involved. Second, the critical importance of dignity in tourism employment for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is discussed, with future research directions identified.
Book
Cambridge Core - Political Philosophy - The Ethics of Multiple Citizenship - by Ana Tanasoca
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Menschenrechte, Grundrechte und Bürgerrechte werden häufig in einem Atemzug genannt, daher sollte man, auch wenn es hier um deren begriffliche Unterschiede gehen muss, mit deren zentralen Gemeinsamkeiten beginnen. Diese betreffen zuvorderst die formale Grundstruktur aller drei Rechtstypen: A hat gegenüber B einen gerechtfertigten Anspruch auf ×. Und diese Rechtsform ist äquivalent mit: B hat gegenüber A die begründete Pflicht zu × (vgl. Alexy 1999). Mit A sind einzelne Rechtssubjekte, mit B die für die Gewährleistung der entsprechenden Rechtsansprüche verantwortlichen Akteure und mit × die von diesen zu gewährleistenden Rechtsgüter gemeint (z. B. Leben, Freiheit, Sicherheit, Gleichheit). Dass es sich um ›gerechtfertigte‹ Ansprüche handeln muss, bedeutet, dass alle von den konkreten Rechtsrelationen Betroffenen (sämtliche As und Bs) diese Ansprüche wechselseitig mit rationalen Gründen akzeptieren können müssen (z. B. weil entsprechende Vereinbarungen bestehen oder allgemein anerkannte Gesetze gelten).
Book
This book offers a critical, sociological analysis of the domino effect of neoliberalism and austerity politics on the role of social work and wider welfare provision. It argues that social work should move away from the resultant emphasis on risk management and bureaucracy, and return to a focus on relational and community approaches as the cornerstone of practice. Applying theoretical frameworks to practice, including those of Bourdieu and the recent work of Wacquant, the book examines the development of neoliberal ideas and their impact on social welfare. It explores the implications of this across a range of areas of social work practice, including work with children and families, working with asylum seekers and refugees and mental health social work.
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Dignity and Society. A critical and sociological approach If the concept of dignity is everywhere in the public space, it is nevertheless strongly contested. This article aims to understand the current use of this concept in numerous public debates and in many social movements. It will show that far from being useless and hollow, the idea of dignity has become a central value for our modern consciousness. This paper argues that if we link this concept with the ideas of autonomy, rights and liberty, it must be considered as the normative basis of our societies and as the ethical justification of all social criticism for greater justice. Subsequently, this article will attempt to show that this concept can be of great use for the sociological analysis of a large number of contemporary social problems.
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This chapter discusses the concepts of dignity and respect in relation to the situation of the descendants of immigrants, the so-called ‘second generation’. The discussion will be based, on the empirical data of a research study carried out with the children of immigrants in Italy (Colombo and Rebughini 2012) and, on a theoretical reflection about the relation among the concepts of dignity, respect and justness. It will shed light on the practices of dignity, respect and justness carried out by social actors – in this case the children of immigrants – who can be involved in situations of discrimination, where their personal feelings of dignity are under threat.
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O presente artigo propõe que a datificação dos processos de reconhecimento modifica como os sujeitos se relacionam com o mundo e com suas próprias identidades. A sociologia da comunicação, com frequência, pensa as plataformas digitais como potenciais amplificadoras das vozes de grupos historicamente silenciados que lutam para serem reconhecidos nas suas diferentes dimensões pela sociedade. Partindo de uma perspectiva alternativa, com foco nos processos de datificação que atravessam estas plataformas, o artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre os modos e as lógicas que permeiam os processos de reconhecimento ocorrendo no Facebook, Twitter e outras plataformas similares. Em última análise, o trabalho sugere que os processos de vigilância, metrificação e processamento das sociabilidades online, dentro das lógicas econômicas vigentes, restringem possibilidades expressivas do sujeito que não se enquadrem em modelos individualizados de autopromoção.
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В диссертации анализируется социальная роль и механизмы борьбы за позиции и этническое пространство между элитами в региональных этнополитических конфликтах. Этнополитический конфликт рассматривается как форма межэтнического противостояния, связанная с притязаниями на изменение контроля над политическим пространством. English Abstract: The social role and mechanisms of struggle among elites for positions and ethnic space in regional ethnopolitical conflicts are analyzed in this dissertation. Ethnopolitical conflict is analyzed as a form of interethnic tension, connected with the aspirations to control ethnic space, The author suggests some practical recommendations to stabilize interethnic relations in Russian society.
Article
This article investigates the relationship between asabiyya (esprit de corps) and political violence within the context of the Kurdish experience, which relies heavily on the presence and activities of armed groups within the society. Furthermore, this article reveals different possibilities for how an armed group can be diffused into a close ethnic unit and transforms its collective solidarity and consciousness by orienting it towards the use of violence. Lastly, it concludes that this engagement changes the content and forms of asabiyya while reshaping social identities in a complex way.
Article
Cet article propose un approfondissement de la notion d’ethnicité à partir de ses définitions et usages dans le champ universitaire international ainsi que de sa mise en jeu dans les questions contemporaines de reconnaissance et de justice sociale. Il explore la réception et la charge encore négatives du concept d’ethnicité dans la production française en sciences sociales et dans les débats animant la société civile. Il montre que l’ethnicité y est interprétée à la fois comme un leurre efficace pour détourner des véritables mécanismes de domination à l’oeuvre dans les sociétés, et en concurrence potentielle avec le système d’interprétation et les acteurs organisés autour de ces dominations. À partir de l’exemple du débat sur les statistiques ethniques contre les discriminations en France, il envisage un recours à une politique de reconnaissance permettant aux individus de participer à la construction des identités collectives par la prise en compte de leur « ressenti ». Il montre que si les individus construisent les frontières de leurs identités et celles des autres, leurs opportunités à proposer des – ou de contribuer aux – définitions des situations sont fonction de la position qu’ils occupent dans les rapports sociaux. C’est l’accès à la construction de ces labels collectifs qui peut alors constituer une source nouvelle et contemporaine de justice sociale. Enfin, l’article interroge l’ethnicité comme catégorie pratique pouvant contribuer à une théorie de l’action sur le rôle de l’identité et de la culture dans la construction des rapports sociaux.
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