L'élevage porcin au Tchad: Bilan de l'introduction, de l'amélioration et de la diffusion des races exotiques

Animal Genetic Resources Information 03/2006; 38:87 - 98. DOI: 10.1017/S101423390000208X


The local pig from Iberian peninsula was introduced to Chad in 1918 by missionaries arriving from Cameroon. In 1951, the Limousine breed from France was introduced by artificial insemination in order to improve the conformation and meat yield of the local pig. After five years of trials, the program failed in the northern part of the country for religions reasons. Nevertheless, in the southern region, which is mostly non-Muslim, the expansion achieved relative success until 1958. In addition, breeding stocks of Yorkshire and Berkshire pigs were imported from the middle Congo. A few semi-industrial farms, established in the 1950, adopted these breeds and have contributed to the export of meat in the sub-region of French Equatorial Africa. In its expansion the pig farming traditions have been supported by agricultural services and development societies (peasantries and village communities). Moreover, the lack of precise technical data on the performance records did not permit the evaluation of the performances of these breeds and crossbreeds. Feed issues, faulty herding and a lack of access to markets have been the major obstacles to the expansion and popularization of pig farming in rural areas.

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Available from: Youssouf MOPATE Logtene, Feb 17, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Pig domestication began around 9000 YBP in the Fertile Crescent and Far East, involving marked morphological and genetic changes that occurred in a relatively short window of time. Identifying the alleles that drove the behavioural and physiological transformation of wild boars into pigs through artificial selection constitutes a formidable challenge that can only be faced from an interdisciplinary perspective. Indeed, although basic facts regarding the demography of pig domestication and dispersal have been uncovered, the biological substrate of these processes remains enigmatic. Considerable hope has been placed on new approaches, based on next-generation sequencing, which allow whole-genome variation to be analyzed at the population level. In this review, we provide an outline of the current knowledge on pig domestication by considering both archaeological and genetic data. Moreover, we discuss several potential scenarios of genome evolution under the complex mixture of demography and selection forces at play during domestication. Finally, we highlight several technical and methodological approaches that may represent significant advances in resolving the conundrum of livestock domestication.Heredity advance online publication, 30 July 2014; doi:10.1038/hdy.2014.68.
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