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Embodiment in musical knowing: how body movement facilitates learning within Dalcroze Eurhythmics

Authors:
  • Sibelius Academy, University of the Arts, Helsinki

Abstract

This paper examines how body movement within the frames of Dalcroze Eurhythmics can facilitate musical knowing. Merleau-Ponty's philosophical ideas seem to correspond with the specific empirical findings of Jaques-Dalcroze. Hence, our viewpoint is based on Merleau-Ponty's notions of ‘knowing the world through the body’ as well as of gesture, habit and reversibility. We argue, along with Merleau-Ponty, that the body is our primary mode of knowing. Furthermore, we suggest that body movement represents pre-reflective knowing and can be understood as physical metaphor in the process of musical understanding from the concrete doing/musicing to the abstract and (or) conceptual.
199
B. J. Music Ed. 2004 21:2, 199-214 Copyright © 2004 Cambridge University Press
DOl:10.1017/S0265051704005686
Embodiment in musical knowing: how body movement
facilitates learning within Dalcroze Eurhythmics
Marja-Leena Juntunen and Leena Hyvönen
mljuntun@cc.oulu.fi
This paper examines how body movement within the frames of Dalcroze Eurhythmics
can facilitate musical knowing. Merleau-Ponty’s philosophical ideas seem to
correspond with the specific empirical findings of Jaques-Dalcroze. Hence, our
viewpoint is based on Merleau-Ponty’s notions of ‘knowing the world through the
body’ as well as of gesture, habit and reversibility. We argue, along with Merleau-
Ponty, that the body is our primary mode of knowing. Furthermore, we suggest that
body movement represents pre-reflective knowing and can be understood as physical
metaphor in the process of musical understanding from the concrete doing/musicing
to the abstract and (or) conceptual.
Introduction
‘This is a quarter note; usually it is black, but here on the blackboard it is white.’ This
is how the very first music theory lesson for young children began in a Finnish music
school last September. But this is nothing new or exceptional: 100 years ago Emile
Jaques-Dalcroze (1865-1950), as a professor of harmony, solfège and composition at
the Geneva Conservatory, noticed that students were taught theory by rules and
writing, not by sound. In fact, he was horrified at the theoretical emphasis and
fragmentation of all musical study.
What happened in that first music theory lesson, we presume, reflects the usual
way of teaching, not only in music but in education in general. Teaching, even in arts,
is often conceptual, non-experiential, non-illustrative, and takes place on the abstract
level. Often, decisions to teach through conceptual abstractions are based on
assumptions that ignore the crucial facts of our embodiment and instead advance
reason and abstraction as the primary, if not exclusive, modes and results of knowing.
In general education, the arts and other subjects that rely on and develop bodily
knowing are considered less important than and a refreshing supplement to the ‘more
important’ studies that favour the disembodied ‘intellect’. Indeed, the valuing of
conceptual knowledge over bodily knowing and experiential learning, and the distinct
separation of the two modes, reflects the mind-body separation of Cartesian dualism
that is typical of Western thinking.
When Jaques-Dalcroze recognised these defects in music education, he started
exploring the possibilities for incorporating natural movements into the musical
learning processes. Little by little, he came to a conclusion that musical learning and
Marja-Leena Juntunen and Leena Hyvönen
200
understanding should be based on bodily experiences. Today his ideas of applying
body movement in teaching music are known as
Dalcroze Eurhythmics
. It is an
approach to music education that incorporates rhythmic movement, solfége and
improvisation and aims at developing musicianship in a broad sense. It usually
completes and supports other musical studies and is applied in various ways in
different countries.i When interviewing the Dalcroze master teachers in the U.S.,
Juntunen (2002a) discovered that they strongly believe that the approach ‘works’.
However, the actual role of body movement in musical learning and knowing has been
poorly examined.
This article examines how bodily movement within the frames of Dalcroze
Eurhythmics can facilitate musical knowingii and how the body can function as a
constitutive attribute of such knowing; and how bodily experience provides a means of
developing skills, competencies and understanding necessary to work in the
expressional mode of musical knowing. The philosophical ideas of Maurice Merleau-
Ponty (1908-1961) seem to support the specific empirical findings of Jaques-
Dalcroze; thus, our viewpoint is based on Merleau-Ponty’s notions of ‘knowing the
world through the body’ as well as of gesture, habit and reversibility. Along with
Merleau-Ponty, we argue that the body is a primary mode of knowing, and that what
can be known via bodily experience, while often incapable of being expressed in
words, is known at a deeper level. Furthermore, we suggest that body movement
represents pre-reflective knowing and can be understood as physical metaphor in the
process of musical understanding from the concrete to the abstract, or conceptual. In
our exploration of physical metaphor, we lean on George Lakoff’s and Mark Johnson’s
(1980, 1999) theory of embodied metaphor from cognitive psychology, rather than
traditional theories from philosophy and literature studies.
Body in knowing
In the present quite extensive literature on embodiment, Descartes is cited as the
philosopher who, for ‘modern’ philosophy, separated mind and body and thus the
material and the spiritual from each other. According to him, we are human beings
because of the mind and its capacity for rational thinking. General knowledge can be
gained only through an analytical process of itemisation and abstraction. The chain of
reasoning that led Descartes to his statement that “
cogito, ergo sum“
also led him to
differentiate the body from the mind (soul) (see Descartes, 1975).
This Cartesian mind-body dualism has been criticised within phenomenology. One
outcome of this criticism is Merleau-Ponty’s writings, which cast doubt upon
Descartes’ notion of
cogito
. The central feature of Merleau-Ponty’s
Phenomenology of
Perception
(1962) is his critique of Cartesian intellectualism. Merleau-Ponty argues
that all theoretic thinking, and all achievements of science, are based on the stratum
of the primordial experiences that are attained through our bodily contact with the
world. In his writings, he studies how man comes to know the world by ‘being-in-the-
world’ through the body. He reminds us that the body can never be viewed as an
object simply because one can never disengage oneself from it; our lived experience
of this body thus denies the detachment of subject from object, mind from body, etc.
(Merleau-Ponty, 1962: 27-29, 82, 144, 206, 430). Understanding arises first at a
bodily, pre-reflective level; any intellectual processing occurs afterwards. (Ibid.: 203-
Marja-Leena Juntunen and Leena Hyvönen
201
204; Merleau-Ponty, 1968: 28, 35).
In his later work, Merleau-Ponty (1968: 130-155) introduces his
reversibility thesis
:
my body is a two-dimensional being; it is at once phenomenal body and objective
body, the body as sensible and the body as sentient (ibid.: 136). ‘[T]he body sensed
and the body sentient are as the obverse and reverse’ (ibid.: 138). This means that
sensing and being sensed are intertwined with each other, two different faces of the
same thing. Nonetheless, divergence (
écart
) makes them unknown to each other
(ibid.: 215-217, 263; also Dillon, 1997: 163).
During the last decades of the 20th century Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy provoked a
growing amount of commentary (e.g., Dillon, 1997; Heinämaa, 1999; Langer, 1989;
Leder, 1990; Priest, 1998), as well as applications in numerous scientific areas
involving innovative ideas, for instance research in the arts and arts education (e.g.
Bowman, 1998; Parviainen, 1998; Rouhiainen, 2003; Sheets-Johnstone, 1979, 1981,
1999) and in cognitive science (e.g. Johnson, 1987; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999;
Varela
et al
., 1993) In cognitive science there has been a particular interest in the
notion of ‘embodied mind’. For example, Lakoff and Johnson (1980, 1999) argue that
bodily or experiential knowledge is the basis on which new knowledge is built. Their
studies explore the body’s crucial role in even the most seemingly cerebral type of
cognitive activity.
Starting at the end of 20th century, praxial music education has emphasised the
importance of action and knowing-through-action in musical learning and knowing
(Bowman, 1998, 2000; Elliott, 1996; Regelski, 1996, 1998). In particular, Wayne D.
Bowman (2000) stresses the meaning of the body in these processes. In philosophy,
Michael Polanyi has written about the embodied nature of truly effective learning. He
tries to shed light on the bodily roots of all thought, including man’s highest creative
powers (Polanyi, 1966: 15). For him, the body is the instrument of all our external
knowledge, whether intellectual of practical (ibid.: 15). The core of his philosophy rests
on the concept of
tacit knowing
(see ibid.; Polanyi, 1969), which will be discussed
later.
Although the strict dualistic way of thinking was not totally adhered to by any of the
successors of Descartes (Alanen, 2002: 15), until now this notion has strongly
influenced the Western scientific contemplation which emphasises the logical
reasoning and conceptualisation that detaches the body completely from the
processes of the mind. As Lakoff and Johnson (1999: 400-1) state, Cartesianism has
affected not only the field of the philosophy and other academic disciplines but
education and popular culture as well. It has also led to laying aside the emotional
and aesthetic regions in our culture. This article attempts to dispute the disembodied
thinking based on the philosophy of Descartes and to share some light on
embodiment in musical knowing.
Bodily knowing in musical action
Instead of focusing only on the technique necessary to play an instrument, Dalcroze
teaching aims to develop bodily knowing and an awareness of the physical demands
of performing (Juntunen, 2002b). The idea is that the bodily skills developed in the
exercises enable the student to manage his/her movements in related activities such
as playing an instrument, singing and conducting. Bodily knowing also refers to the
Marja-Leena Juntunen and Leena Hyvönen
202
sense through which we know ourselves as whole, which is the backdrop for all our
(musical) knowing and sense of self (Stubley, 1999).
Merleau-Ponty (1962) refers to body’s skilfulness as
habit
. For him, habit is
‘knowledge in the hands, which is forthcoming only when bodily effort is made, and
cannot be formulated in detachment from that effort’ (ibid.: 144). In the acquisition of
habit, it is the body that ‘understands’; in action the body ‘catches’ and ‘comprehends’
movement. The acquisition of a habit is the motor grasping of a motor significance
(ibid.: 143). Therefore, in Merleau-Ponty’s terms, to learn to play an instrument is
neither a matter of intellectual analysis and reconstruction nor a mechanical recording
of impressions. It is a question, rather, ‘of the bodily comprehension of a motor
significance which enables me to lend myself completely to expressing the music
without having to think about the position of my fingers...’ (Langer, 1989: 47).
We can also approach bodily knowing in terms of Polanyi’s (1966) notion of
tacit
knowledge
,iii which shares similarities with Merleau-Ponty the implication that we know
more than we can tell. In tacit knowing we incorporate an object, an operation, or an
understanding in our body (ibid.: 16). Furthermore, one can come to know another
person’s bodily skilfulness by a tacit act of comprehending it (ibid.: 33). Polanyi
compares our tacit knowing of world with the way our bodies are commonly known to
us. We do not normally need to focus on our body parts when acting in the world, only
when we have a problem with them. Accordingly, the competent performance occurs
when a subject has internalised the actions and has no further need to focus on the
action of each body part, as the beginner has to do. Merleau-Ponty (1962: 145)
emphasises the principal role of intention in this process and uses as an example the
ability of an organist to easily adapt his or her movements easily to a structurally new
instrument. The choices of which manuals and registers to use are made in a holistic
process guided by the musical images of the player.
In terms of phenomenology, according to Jaana Parviainen (2000), tacit
knowledge refers to the moving aspect of the body, such as in playing the piano.
Focal knowledge refers to the body, which has moved. In piano playing this would
mean the fingers being pressed against the keys and giving us feedback of our
movement through sounds. Polanyi (1969: 148) writes: ‘Every time we make sense of
the world, we rely on our tacit knowledge of impacts made by the world on our body
and the complex responses of our body to these impacts.’ As I reach out to press the
keys of the piano, the tactile sensations and a stream of kinaesthesia course through
my fingers, but I am not usually aware of them as such. I utilise my body to attend
from
it
to
an external world. (See Leder, 1990: 16.) This means that in any act of
attention we not only attend
to
a thematic object but
from
a set of cues and conditions
(ibid.: 15). This ‘from-to’ structure, which characterises experience in general, has
been employed by researchers to shed light upon the phenomenon that Merleau-
Ponty (1968) calls ‘the chiasm’, that is, the reversibility and the reciprocity of sensing
and being sensed, which was discussed earlier in this paper. This two-sided, circular
alternation facilitates bodily reflection: that is, instead of responding automatically to
the world, my moving body is able to reflect and adjust its own actions (Parviainen,
2000).
In skilful movements the focal and tacit dimensions are in balance. For Jaques-
Dalcroze, excessive intellectual thinking in action – that is, the imbalance between the
intellect and sensing - results in
arhythmism
, the inability to master rhythmic
movements. In musical performance, this presents itself in various faults such as the
Marja-Leena Juntunen and Leena Hyvönen
203
tendency to jerkiness when the movement should be flowing, inability to integrate two
movements of different types, or starting or finishing too early or too late, just to
mention a few. (Jaques-Dalcroze, 1910; 1921/1980: 52.)
When applying Polanyi’s terms of knowledge to bodily skills, Parviainen (2000)
employs the notion of ‘bodily knowledge’. Bodily knowledge is not only knowledge of
the body’s own internal functioning: it originates in the interaction with the world. We
acquire this knowledge through observing our own movements, through listening to
our kinaesthetic sensations (O’Donovan-Anderson, 1997). It is as much a question of
knowing and understanding the movement as being able to accomplish it. Therefore,
one can be extremely skilful technically but still not have understanding of the
movement, and vice versa: one can lose the ability to move but still have knowledge
about the movement. Likewise, one’s bodily skilfulness does not guarantee the ability
to lecture about that skill (Parvianen, 2000). Skills are very difficult to articulate and to
transfer between individuals as they include a large proportion of tacit knowing.
Hence, a person must be able to focus on and be aware of his/her tacit process-of-
knowing in order to articulate and communicate it in a social context (see Sveiby,
1997).
Sensing quality through kinaesthesia
One of the basic principles in the Dalcroze approach is that the performance of a fine
musician should reflect an inner physical sense of the relationship of time, space and
energyiv in music (Jaques-Dalcroze, 1921/1980: 38-44). Sensing these qualities of
movement happens through kinaesthetic sense.v Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (1999:
131) maintains that kinaesthetic sense has a central, organizing role in perception of
the body as a whole. Being sensitive to kinaesthetic sensations means to listen to and
to observe one’s own movements.
The knowledge we achieve by ‘listening’ to our body movements is also knowledge
about the world; and it comes into being through bodily interaction with the world
(Parvianen, 2000; Reuter, 1999, Sheets-Johnstone, 1999). Through kinaesthetic
empathy we can understand other people’s movements as well (Parvianen, 2000).
According to Polanyi (1966), we are able to do that by a tacit act of comprehending.
This kind of understanding and learning is crucial, for example, in voice lessons. As
one cannot see what is happening inside the body, one can only try to feel and
thereby to imitate what is happening in another person’s body. Jaques-Dalcroze
(1921/1980: 156) argues that people who have had Dalcroze training do not watch
other people move by following them only with the eye, but actually with their whole
being. They enter into close communication ‘to vibrate in unison with those they see
expressing themselves in physical movement’ (ibid.: 155-6).
In Dalcroze teaching there is a constant call for awareness of kinaesthetic
sensations. The goal is to show music’s heard and felt qualities in body movement
(Juntunen 2002b). In order to help the students to become more sensitive to and
aware of kinaesthetic sensations, variations of movements are encouraged. When
accomplishing any movement for the first time, we become aware of its felt qualitative
character (Sheets-Johnstone, 1999: 142). Thus, in order to get a sense of this original
experience in habitual movements, such as walking, we need to try different ways of
doing them. ‘By making the familiar strange, we familiarize ourselves anew with the
Marja-Leena Juntunen and Leena Hyvönen
204
familiar.’ (ibid.: 143). Other types of Dalcroze exercises can also be applied. One is
called the technique of
excitation and inhibition
in a constantly changing musical
environment
(see Choksy
et al.,
1986: 35). For instance, students walk with the pulse
of the music. Every time they hear a triplet, they stop or start walking again. However,
they are not supposed to react to any other kind of change in the music, for example
to stop walking if the music stops; in other words, they have to resist the 'natural'
reaction. They have to be simultaneously ready to react and to resist reaction. This
sort of exercise forces constant attention and conscious control over the kinaesthetic
processes. Another way to increase bodily awareness in relation to musical sounds is
to study the gestural points of departure and arrival: anacrusis, crusis and metacrusis
(Jaques-Dalcroze, 1924). Choksy
et al
. (1986: 38) name these phases as preparation,
attack and prolongation.
Musical understanding as a habit of musical action
It is commonplace to think that concepts are prior to experience, that they give
experience its categorical structure (see Määttänen, 1993: 153). Also, musical
concepts are often taught prior to the empirical experience of the external world. The
Dalcroze approach is based on the principle that students should not be taught
concepts or rules before they actually experience the practice in question (Jaques-
Dalcroze, 1921/1980: 63). Rhythmic movement experiences are incorporated into
musical learning and the conceptual understanding of music is based on those
experiences. Through movement the mindful body explores the musical world. In the
following, we will examine the role of body movement in musical understanding.
Jaques-Dalcroze (1921/1980: 39) argues that musical consciousness is the result
of physical experience. Musical consciousness can be acquired by repeated exercises
of ear, voice and movement of the whole body and refers to the ability to ‘place’
successions and combinations of sounds and time (ibid.: 36-37). For Jaques-
Dalcroze, bodily experience is a primary way of access to musical knowledge; just as
for Merleau-Ponty (1962: 140) it is a primary way of access to the world and to objects
in general. Knowledge gained through bodily experience is not, however, ‘objective
knowledge’ but, rather, contributes to one’s unique subjective understanding of some
particular matter.
Within the Dalcroze approach it is common to explain that musical understanding
is
based on
bodily experiences that combine music and body movement. However, if
we consider the phenomenon of habit more closely, as Merleau-Ponty (1962: 144)
invites us to do, it prompts us to revise our notions of understanding and of the body.
As Merleau-Ponty states (ibid.: 235), the body is the general instrument of
comprehension. It is the body that understands in the acquisition of habit. For him,
understanding means experiencing the harmony between intention and performance.
In these terms, musical understanding as a habit of action means that the body
understands what, for example, a musical phrase means in practice and is able to
perform that phrase vocally, instrumentally, or in movement. As I play a musical
phrase on an instrument, I experience at every stage of movement the fulfilment of an
intention which is not directed at my instrument as an object, but is incorporated into
my bodily space (see ibid.). Thus, the musical action is not only a means of showing
musical understanding;
it is
the bodily understanding of a musical phenomenon as a
Marja-Leena Juntunen and Leena Hyvönen
205
habit of action.
From physical metaphor to musical understanding
One way to understand how body movements may facilitate musical understanding
and intensify musical experience is to analyse their use as physical metaphor (see
Wis, 1993). In this section we will focus on how bodily-based experience functions as
a foundation for abstract cognitive operations in the process of learning music and
how this happens with projection from the bodily to the abstract level occurring via
metaphor.
Our notion of metaphor builds upon writings by Lakoff and Johnson (1980, 1999).
Their findings include that (1) cognition is not only inseparable from, but also
dependent upon, bodily experiences (Johnson, 1987), and that (2) metaphor provides
a link between concrete, bodily domain and abstract, conceptual domain (Lakoff &
Johnson, 1980). Lakoff's and Johnson’s viewpoint is based on a belief in a conceptual
system that is experientially based and that functions metaphorically to project from
the level of bodily experience to the level of abstract thought.
For Lakoff & Johnson (1980), metaphor is primarily a matter of thought and action,
a vehicle of understanding, not only derivatively a convention of language. It is a
process of human understanding by which we achieve meaningful experiences that
we can make sense of (ibid.: 5, 153, 160). They argue that most of our normal
conceptual system, the terms in which we both think and act, is fundamentally
metaphorical in nature and metaphorically structured; that is, most concepts are
partially understood in terms of other concepts (ibid.: 3, 56). Thus, metaphor allows us
to understand and experience one kind of thing in terms of another
(ibid.: 5). ‘[W]e
typically conceptualize the non-physical
in terms of
the physical – that is, we
conceptualize the less clearly delineated in terms of the more clearly delineated”
(ibid.: 58). The understanding of the non-physical can only occur in terms of the
physical (ibid.: 59) and what began as a physical experience evolves into an abstract
concept.
Along with Ramona Wis (1993: 102), we argue that musical concepts that have not
previously been known or clearly understood can be taught by seeking similarities
which obtain in two seemingly different domains of experience - the concrete and the
abstract - and by joining them together metaphorically to create new understanding.
Even though bodily activities and abstract concepts represent two different
experiential domains, it is possible that bodily movement can be used to express
physically what exists temporally in the music being studied. ‘The characteristics
shared by both domains (the similarities) bind the domains together and make a
metaphoric connection possible; but the differences between the domains themselves
allow an old idea to be seen in a new light, energizing the learning activity and leading
to the acquisition of new knowledge’ (ibid.: 103).
Let us take a practical example from Dalcroze teaching used with children. As a
child explores a world around him, his sensory perceptions evoke active movements
in which rhythms are spontaneously developed. He also receives aural and visual
rhythmic experiences, for example of a horse galloping (Findlay, 1971). In Dalcroze
teaching, these original rhythmic experiences are deepened by imitating, for example,
the galloping of a horse along with pertinent musical accompaniment. The physical,
Marja-Leena Juntunen and Leena Hyvönen
206
visual and aural rhythmic experience of a horse galloping connected with music
functions as a bodily metaphor for understanding how the rhythmic pattern feels and
what it means. Especially, such concepts as high /low, fast/slow or soft/loud in music
can be reflected by analogous body movement embodying these abstract musical
qualities and can thus be understood in the most primal way, based on bodily
experienced, spatial concepts (Wis, 1993: 16). The bodily realisation of qualities of
music enables the learner to experience them without naming them, thus avoiding the
use of language, a discursive form, as a means of grasping a non-discursive form
(ibid.: 122).
This level of knowing is situated between the pre-reflective and the conceptual
domains, and could be called ‘mindful’. Later, when the student is taught to become
aware of the bodily experience in relation to, for example, a written form of this
rhythmic pattern (a quarter and an eighth note), the conceptual level of knowledge is
reached based on the earlier experience. In short, the bodily metaphor for a musical
concept, which could be referred to aurally in teaching, is explored through bodily
movement and put in musical context. Within the Dalcroze approach, teachers are
encouraged to emphasise the bodily, the pre-reflective level of knowing with young
children and to consider carefully when reflective, conceptual thinking is meaningful.
Nevertheless, the children are always encouraged to use their imagination, to find
various ways to move with music as well as to become aware of the qualities of
movement and music.
A musical phenomenon such as ternary form (ABA) can also be explored as a
metaphor. In the bodily exploration of this form, it is possible to experiment with how
the movement is similar to, or different from, what is understood as ABA. The
understanding of ABA guides the movement while the movement reciprocally mirrors,
or possibly transforms, this understanding and reversibility occurs (Stubley, 2003).
Such exploration may even initiate much richer and certainly dissimilar understanding
than that of the teacher. It can also initiate new ways of applying musical symbols.
Concepts that occur as metaphorical definitions (or define other concepts) are
those that correspond to natural kinds of experiences (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980: 118).
Therefore, natural kinds of experiences should be used also when teaching musical
concepts. That actually happens in Dalcroze teaching as it aims to bridge natural,
habitual movements such as walking, pulling or pushing, picking up or reaching out,
etc. to musical concepts or phenomena.
It is important to note that there is no one single way to combine body movement
and music because there is no one single movement appropriate for a certain musical
phenomenon. On the contrary, as metaphor unites reason and imagination, and as
our conceptual systems operate in terms of an inconsistent set of metaphors (Lakoff &
Johnson, 1980: 193, 221), it is useful to have a rich range of physical experiences
joined to a single musical idea. Hence, when transferring the bodily experience to a
musical performance, one can apply a large store of metaphors or images.
Movement as metaphor applies within music education situations where the sense
of the musical meaning is transmitted or illustrated by gesture in order to solve a
technical problem or to enliven musical expression. According to Timothy Caldwell,
this is one reason why Jaques-Dalcroze insisted that music teaches music. ‘[M]usical
behavior, on the teacher’s part, facilitates the learning of new musical and technical
behaviour on the student’s parts because few words from the teacher are needed’
(Caldwell, 1995: 109-10). Since we know more tacitly than we can tell (Polanyi, 1966),
Marja-Leena Juntunen and Leena Hyvönen
207
there may not even be words for what we want to communicate.
As Jonathan Matthews (1994: 130) notes, metaphor implies imaginative bodily
engagement; further, verbal metaphor connects to one’s earlier bodily experiences.
However, this requires the learner to have had embodied learning experiences
relevant to the current domain that can serve as a store of representations, or images,
which the new educational challenge can apply through imagination. We also need to
be aware that all metaphors are culturally determined, which means that when
approaching a musical concept via metaphor, one has to find body movement that is
meaningful within the particular musical culture. In fact, this applies to bodily
experience in general: it cannot be adequately studied in abstraction from the
belonging of the body-subject to a particular culture. Monica Langer (1989: 174) has a
valid point when she suggests that Merleau-Ponty’s description of perception might
well need to be much more culturally specific than in fact it is.
For Lakoff and Johnson, a metaphor works as a functional connection between
concrete and abstract thinking in general. We have applied the same idea to teaching
music by arguing for body movement as a physical metaphor between musical
activities and conceptual thinking. Jerome Bruner’s (1974) notion of
iconic
mode of
knowing can also be understood as a metaphorical transference between immediate
experience and conceptual thinking.vi If we apply this idea to teaching music the iconic
mode reaches new dimensions. For example, a line drawn to illustrate a melody can
be an icon of that melody. If that line is drawn by hand in the air the icon is
kinaesthetic. A visual icon of a chord could be the positioning of the hand on the
keyboard or on the guitar’s fingerboard, but the sensation in the fingertips of the
positioning could also be an icon – a sort of tactile icon (see Hyvönen, 1988). Hence,
although Bruner writes only about images and pictures as icons, the same
phenomenon can also happen in tactile and kinetic areas. For instance, Wis’s (1993)
notion of physical metaphor could refer to such icons.
Towards the reflective level of knowing through words
Usually, the notion of metaphor is primarily connected to verbal metaphors.
Nevertheless, according to Johnson (1987: 7), verbal metaphor is only the
propositional result of a much more ‘complex web of connections in our experience’;
and while language may be the only way we have to describe this metaphorical
process, the process is not reducible to the verbal or linguistic description of it. Put
simply, verbal metaphor presumes the pre-existence of metaphorical process and is
therefore an after-the-fact, linguistic description of the way in which we naturally think
(Wis, 1993: 14).
Verbal metaphor can also be related to one’s own verbal expression of bodily
experience. Eleanor Stubley (2002) uses the notion of ‘my words, moving words’
when referring to such a case. This echoes what Dalcroze teachers note about
students having words to talk about their embodied experiences (see Juntunen,
2002a). It necessitates, as discussed earlier, a reflective and listening attitude toward
moving and kinaesthetic sensations. Following Merleau-Ponty’s thinking, ‘my words’
imply a linguistic expression of corporeal reflexivity. It is the level where the
tacit
cogito
, ‘I can’, becomes
cogito
, ‘I think’ (Dillon, 1997: 110-11).
In action, the pre-reflective level of knowing includes intuitively the same elements
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208
as the reflective level. For instance, a child masters the grammar of a language before
being able to articulate the rules of it. In music, musical behaviour reflects embodied
musical knowledge, for example being able to sing without being capable of knowing
the intervals between the notes. An experienced listener can also recognise the style
and the structure of music based only on culturally shaped intuition (Lerdahl &
Jackendoff, 1985: 3).
In music making, the pre-reflective level of knowing is extremely essential.
However, the pre-reflective level and the reflective, conceptual level of knowing are
not really comparable. Bodily knowing cannot replace conceptual knowledge and vice
versa; they are two faces of the same thing, which positively interact and complement
each other (see Parvianen, 2000). Yet, as Merleau-Ponty (1962: 242) reminds us, the
reflective ideal of positing thought should have its basis in experience and the
‘reflection does not itself grasp its full significance unless it refers to the unreflective
fund of experience that it presupposes’. Therefore, in teaching it is the teacher’s task
to provide students with embodied experiences that can serve as the basis for
conceptual, reflective knowledge, and to be aware of which level of knowing it is
meaningful to reach in a certain situation. Much learning can take place through
embodied activities without reflection, but a reflective attitude or awareness is
necessary in order for the thought in the act to emerge (Clifton, 1983: 37).
It also may be noted that the task of reflection is never-ending, as the chiasm is
never-ending. The properties of an object are not fixed, but are experienced by a
person located in a definite time and place (Clifton, 1983: 37). As Merleau-Ponty
(1962: 153) states, in new situations new clusters of meanings are formed through
bodily interaction with the world. Therefore, within Dalcroze practice this means that
even accomplished musicians can benefit from experiences that combine music and
body movement by attaining a richer or transformed musical understanding and by
receiving enriching experiences. Also, in general, as Matthew (1994: 122) notes, even
though the students were perfectly capable of comprehending formal operations, they
could benefit from enriching, embodied context.
Listening through the body
For Jaques-Dalcroze, good hearing is one of the most important qualities of a
musician (Jaques-Dalcroze, 1945/1981: 227; 1930/1985: 49-50). In Dalcroze
exercises the body and the ear form a dynamic partnership. In this partnership
listening inspires movement expression, while moving guides and informs listening.
Body movement is used to reinforce musical experience and to improve musical
hearing. But there are other aspects too. Let us think of an exercise which Juntunen
recalls from her early music theory studies. The students were asked to identify major
and minor triads and to write down on the paper ‘M’ for a major and ‘m’ for a minor
triad. In a Dalcroze lesson, the students might be asked to cross their arms when
hearing a minor triad and to keep their arms open when hearing a major one. The
question is, what is the difference in experience between these two exercises from the
student’s and the teacher’s perspective? If we take a moment to think about it, we
realise that the bodily involvement compels the student to react in bodily ‘terms’ and -
in order to be right - to concentrate. The bodily reaction gives the student something
concrete to do, at the same time as it supposedly clarifies and reinforces listening and
Marja-Leena Juntunen and Leena Hyvönen
209
understanding the musical phenomenon. The students learn from each other without
having to be afraid of being judged for a wrong answer. In addition, the teacher is able
to see the responses of all of her students at the same time.
For Jaques-Dalcroze (1921/1980: 98), musical training should specifically develop
inner hearing, which is, according to him, a capacity for hearing music mentally as
distinctively as physically. Inner hearing enables the student to make up sound
images that serve as bases for reading and writing (
idem,
1930/1985: 107). Stubley
(2002) maintains that we also employ inner hearing when we move: that is, we listen
to our bodies’ mechanisms though we may not be conscious of doing so.
One reason for integrating body movement into the teaching of music is that
musical sounds naturally vibrate in the whole body and cause bodily reactions. This is
especially evident with little children; as David M. Levin (1989: 45) notes, the infant’s
ears are the body as a whole. When we listen to a musical performance, we do not
just hear or think, we participate with our whole bodies; we enact it. We feel melodies
in our body as much as we process them in our brains (Bowman, 2000). As Jaques-
Dalcroze (1921/1980: viii, 49) states, perceiving music does not depend only on
hearing, but aural sensations need to be completed by muscular sensations. He
wanted his students to enter into closer communication with music through
movement, to have them respond with everything in their being that is capable of
vibrating (e.g. Jaques-Dalcroze, 1927). Following Merleau-Ponty’s (1962: 211)
assertion that a musical interval can be heard based on the ‘the final pattering of a
certain tensions felt throughout the body’, we could say that as students generally
become more sensitive to and aware of their kinaesthetic sensations they also
become more capable of recognising the felt qualities related to hearing music.
Hearing is a very physical thing. It is a form of vibration that starts off as a
kinaesthetic sensation. The eardrum receives sounds initially as tactile vibrations that
resonate through the body (Stubley, 1999). Visual, tactual, gustatory, and even
olfactory imagery may be in some degree aroused by a stimulus reaching the mind
through the ear alone (Ferguson, 1973: 13). According to Merleau-Ponty, such cross-
activation of the senses is always happening: ‘The sound and the colour are received
into my body, and it becomes difficult to limit my experience to a single sensory
department: it spontaneously overflows toward all the rest’ (Merleau-Ponty, 1962:
227). Merleau-Ponty refers to this as ‘synaesthetic experience’ (ibid.: 229). Dalcroze
teaching aims to reinforce this cross-activation so that all sensations from different
senses fuse into one synergetic experience.
Jaques-Dalcroze (1920: iii) shares with Merleau-Ponty (1962: 234; see also 1968:
144) the view that music is not purely intellectual; it works through the senses and
sets the whole sensory being echoing to the vibration of sound. In fact, although
Merleau-Ponty talks about sounds, he uses this notion metaphorically to note that the
human body as a whole holds a listening attitude. Listening to music with the whole
self refers not only the physical reactions of the body, but also to the listening that
comes from a ‘felt’ bodily understanding of what it means (see Levin, 1989: 84; also
Merleau-Ponty, 1968: 155). Levin (1989) uses the notion of ‘preconceptual’ listening:
a listening that involves the entire body, the body of felt experience. It is a listening
structured not only by the intentionality of conceptual grasping, but is rather listening
attuned through feeling (ibid.: 21-2). The skilful listening of a musician is developed,
according to Levin, by allowing his/her body to become itself a medium, an
instrument, for the resonance of sound (ibid.: 84). Stubley (1998) employs the notion
Marja-Leena Juntunen and Leena Hyvönen
210
of ‘being in the sound’ as she describes how the musician can fuse with his music,
when the sound opens up the channel that enables him to encounter the music as a
living being.
If we understand musical listening as received and felt through the whole body, we
find in listening the reciprocity, a sense of a ‘double belongingness’, discussed earlier.
As my body sees itself seeing, touches itself touching (Merleau-Ponty, 1964/1989:
162), it analogically also listens to itself listening. As Stubley (1999) notes, this implies
that music is simultaneously both heard and felt. The two-sided, circular alternation
discussed in relation to bodily skills is present in listening too.
The Dalcroze approach develops this type of listening that is tuned to one’s self.
As a teacher asks students to listen to the reactions in their bodies, he is enabling
them to connect, not only to music but to their own response to music, to themselves
(see Juntunen, 2002a). It seems that this echoes what Levin (1989) tells us about the
skilful listening in general. He argues that the cultivation of listening is a ‘practice of
the Self’ which enables us to listen to our body‘s felt needs (ibid.: 38). That kind of
listening happens in our inner ear as a capacity of the body in its ontological
wholeness (ibid.: 62). It seems that Jaques-Dalcroze had ideas similar to those of
Levin, but in the context of music education: namely, how to make ‘musicing’ more
personal and connected to one’s own self. In this perspective, Dalcroze teaching, by
encouraging students to listen sensitively to their own reactions in the body, that is,
sensing the psycho-physiological self, includes the practice of self. Thus, the moving
and sensing body, by resonating through sounds, contributes a sense of wholeness
(Stubley 1999). In the bodily exploration of the world, the knower and the process of
knowing become inseparable.
Listening and expression
Dalcroze teaching is based on the musical challenge to listen carefully and to find
ways to express, usually through bodily movement or voice, what is heard, felt,
understood and known (e.g. Choksy
et al
., 1986: 127). Classically, movement, as well
as speech, is viewed as translated thought (see Wis, 1993: 40). Merleau-Ponty
disputes the paradigm of a stimulus-response, mind-body connection and views
speech and gestures as
completed
thought
.
For him, thought is not realised or
completed until put into words or expressed in something other than words. Speaking
and gesturing accomplish thought and emotion. Thought is, therefore, dependent
upon bodily involvement, and thought and expression are one and the same
(Merleau-Ponty, 1962: 174-99.) Likewise, there is no thinking paralleling or following
listening; listening
is
thinking (Langer, 1989: 59).
Sheets-Johnstone’s (1981) notion of ‘thinking-in-movement’ in improvisational
dance and Stubley’s (1998) notion of ‘being in the sound’ in musical performance
apply this. The latter was discussed earlier in this paper. Sheet-Johnstone’s words
echo Merleau-Ponty’s (1964/1989: 178) words about Cézanne’s thinking in painting
as a process in which ‘vision becomes gesture’. Thinking-in-movement is obviously a
bodily phenomenon; the body inhabits movement in the literal sense of living in it. In
thinking-in-movement, perception is interlaced with movement to the point at which it
is impossible to separate when perception begins and movement ends, and vice
versa (Sheets-Johnstone, 1981). In the Dalcroze approach, in a typical musical
Marja-Leena Juntunen and Leena Hyvönen
211
learning situation students listen to music and express in improvised movement what
they hear. If we apply the notions mentioned above, we could say that listening to
music
is
thinking and the body movement that comes out of it
is
a completed emotion
or thought. Thus, there is no ‘one-after-the-other’ process, but listening and moving
inform each other.
In the creative process it is essential that thinking and doing are integrated. The
basis for this is the capacity of thinking-in-movement (ibid.), or, more generally,
thinking-in-action (Schön, 1987). Improvisation offers one example, whether by
playing a musical instrument, singing or moving/dancing. According to Sheets-
Johnstone, dancing towards somebody, which embodies thought while emerging
within the experience of the ongoing present, does not need to interrupt the flow of
movement. Dalcroze teaching aims at this goal - that is, at training musicians who are
able to interact while ‘musicing’ without losing the flow of movement in their embodied
actions (see Juntunen & Westerlund, 2001).
Conclusion
Based on this study, we conclude that within Dalcroze Eurhythmics body movement is
primarily related to bodily knowing, musical understanding, listening, expression, and
sense of self. Dalcroze Eurhythmics seems to be a practice that awakens our
possibility of experiencing music and movement in a sensitive way by attuning the
body’s sensitivity towards the quality of its movements and that of music. Applying
body movement in teaching music develops above all bodily knowing of music. In this
mode musical understanding is manifested in bodily action, which can be seen as a
physical metaphor bridging the concrete and the abstract. Within education, Bruner
(1974) has referred to this mode of knowing as
iconic.
Our study challenges (music) educators to recognise the importance of
embodiment in the arts as well as to reconsider the meaning of bodily knowing in
education in general. Bodily knowing is a non-linguistic and non-propositional style of
cognition and cannot be articulated in the same way as conceptual knowing, yet it is
not therefore either deniable or less important. Rather, it forms the basis for all
knowing without which conceptual knowing remains mechanical and thin. Although it
may be difficult for some of us to acknowledge, bodily involvement and awareness
can serve as educational tools for meaningful experiences and, consequently, for
more embodied learning.
Notes
1.Within music education the Dalcroze approach is currently applied by some conservatories and music
schools to the study of various subject, e.g. solfège, music theory, rhythm, instrumentalb technique,
conducting, and performance studies generally. It is also used in early childhood music education as
well as in primary and secondary schools (Juntunen, 2002b). This paper does not study the approach
itself in detail. However, several authors have written about the principles and practical applications of
Dalcroze Eurhythmics. For the development and principles of the approach, see, e.g., the writings of
Aronoff (1979), Bachmann (1991), Becknell (1970), Choksy et al. (1986), and Carter (1972); for
Marja-Leena Juntunen and Leena Hyvönen
212
practical teaching ideas, see the books by Abramson (1997), Caldwell (1995), Findlay (1991) and Mead
(1994).
2. In this article, musical knowing equals the phenomenologists’ definition of knowledge as a product of
a personal intentional act having social and historical dimensions (Stubley 1992: 8). In content, musical
knowing includes all the skills and understanding that musicians gain and require within a certain
musical practice.
3. Polanyi uses the terms ‘focal’ and ‘tacit’ when referring to two dimensions of knowledge. Tacit and
focal are not levels in hierarchy; they are two complementary dimensions of the same knowledge. Tacit
knowledge functions as a dynamic background knowledge, which assists in accomplishing a task in
focal awareness. For instance, when we read a text, words and linguistic rules function as a tacit
subsidiary knowledge while the attention of the reader is focused on the meaning of the text (Sveiby,
1997). In action, we change from one level to another constantly. The action that yesterday required
focal knowledge can become tacit knowledge today. The tacit dimension of knowing is reached when
we can incorporate a new skill in our body ‘so that we come to dwell in it’ (Polanyi, 1966: 16).
4. These qualitative aspects shared by music and movement are of course separable only reflectively;
experientially, they are all part of the qualitatively felt dynamic movement (see Sheet-Johnstone 1999:
143).
5. Jaques-Dalcroze (1921/1980: 156) and Merleau-Ponty (1962: 206) use the notion of the sixth (the
muscular) sense. Kinaesthesia is a term used in classical psychology, meaning the body’s ability to
monitor, feel or sense movement (e.g. Smyth 1984: 122; Bloom & Anderson 1988: 90; Ferguson 1973:
59). Kinaesthetic sensations refer to the immediate awareness in which bodily movements are
completed without the need of any intermediate step to link intention and action (Langer 1989: 38).
6. Bruner argues that there are three modes of representational systems: enactive, iconic and symbolic.
Enactive representation means knowing through doing. It is a pre-conceptual level and comes before
reflection. The symbolic level is achieved later through reflection over a long period. The iconic mode
places itself within that period: it means knowing through images and pictures. It stands for a highly
stylised analogue of the enactively experienced event (Bruner, 1974, 316-17). Bruner developed the
three modes of knowing mainly when studying mathematical thinking and linguistic learning.
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... Posmatrajući realizaciju klasičnog muzičkog obrazovanja, Emil Žak Dalkroz [Émile Jaques-Dalcroze, , švajcarski kompozitor i istaknuti pedagog, uvideo je da se ono zasniva na mehaničkim interpretacijama i ne doprinosi kreativnosti. Rečenice poput: "Ovo je četvrtina note; obično je crne boje ali pošto je na tabli onda je bela" nisu strane učenicima, a postojale su i pre 100 godina (Juntunen, Hyvönen, 2004;Kim, 2014). Time se potvrđuje stanovište samog Dalkroza da je čisto slušna muzikalnost nekompletna muzikalnost i da se mora dopuniti osećajem u telu, odnosno da je potrebno posedovati unutrašnji osećaj za muzičku harmoniju (Flohr, Persellin, 2011;Martinović, 2015;Nelson, 1955;Steiner, 2004). ...
... Eurhytmics is the unique method of linking the sound into the body action in which musical skills can be mastered by kinaesthetically exercises. It is applicable in lectures of musical education, culture and education in general and include the rhythmical activities and movements, solfeggio and improvisation, with the goal of musical development in wider sense (Juntunen, Hyvönen, 2004). Maurice Merleau-Ponty developed Dalcroze's ideas. ...
... He thought that body can't be object and person can't be split from it. Because of that each person is a being in its body (Juntunen & Hyvönen, 2004;Merleau-Ponty, 1968;Toadvine, 2016). Thanks to him, researches in humanities and art contributed to generation of two ideas in close time interval: embodied mind -body is the base of experience and has crucial role in the whole development and tacit knowledge -person understands and feels training and skills of other's movements (Johnson, 1987;Lakoff & Johnson, 1980;Polanyi, 1966;Varela, Thompson, & Rosch, 1993). ...
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Purpose: The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the concurrent training method of muscular strength training or muscular endurance training combined with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the aerobic threshold (AerT) and anaerobic threshold (AT). Material and methods: Twenty soccer player from the University team were recruited. Participants were divided into muscular strength training group (MS, N = 10) and the muscular endurance training group (ME, N = 10). All subjects sustained the regular specific training programs during the experimental period and had additional different concurrent training twice per week for twelve weeks. power output during the graded exercise test, peak power (PP), average power (AP), fatigue index (FI) during anaerobic power test were tested by graded exercise test on Wingate anaerobic power test. as well as one-repetition maximum (1-RM) of lower limbs and Romanian Deadlift (RDL)-Hamstring Leg Exercise were tested simultaneously before and after the experiment. Data were analysed by two-way mixed design ANOVA. Results: After 12 weeks of training, the AT power output, 1-RM of half squat and the 1-RM of RDL were significantly higher than before training (MS: 407.12 ± 52.92 vs 431.78± 48.84 watt, 157.45 ± 35.66 vs 169.87 ± 47.31 kg, 120.16± 15.28 vs 122.56± 19.39 kg; ME: 411.11 ± 48.48 vs 429.16 ± 52.13 watt, 135.34 ± 26.27 vs 144.41 ± 35.78 kg, 96.93 ± 24.57 vs 103.46 ± 24.15 kg, p <.05) in MS group and ME group. Time to exhaustion of graded exercise test in ME group was significantly higher than before training (22.13 ± 7.73 vs 25.78 ± 8.74 min, 23.44 ± 7.73 vs 24.78 ± 8.74 p <.05). The AerT power output, PP, AP, and FI were no significant changes in both groups. Nevertheless, all dependent variables were no significant difference between groups before and after training. Conclusion: Conducting the concurrent training method of muscular strength training or muscular endurance training combined with HIIT twice per week for twelve weeks increased soccer players’ aerobic endurance as well as 1-RM of lower limbs. The concurrent training method of muscular endurance training combined with HIIT also promoted the performance of time to exhaustion. However, there were no significant difference between two training methods and minor significant benefits on anaerobic power. © 2022, Pan - European University Apeiron. All rights reserved.
... According to the Dalcroze approach, body movements create a link between ear and brain so that they are a means of embodying musical features and improve the musical understanding. This embodied approach has been taken up recently by various authors (Juntunen and Hyvönen 2004;Gault 2005;Manifold 2008;Abril 2011;Davidson 2012;Kerchner 2014;Liao and Davidson 2016;Nijs 2018;Leman 2014, 2015). ...
... A growing body of literature on music learning aligns with this multimodal perspective (Abril, 2011;Davidson, 2012;Gault, 2005;Juntunen & Hyvönen, 2004;Kerchner, 2014;Manifold, 2008;. Furthermore, the multimodality of human interaction with music is confirmed in a large body of studies on music and movement (Gritten & King, 2011;Leman, 2007; . ...
Thesis
As increasingly confirmed within the paradigm of embodied music cognition, the body shapes the way listeners perceive and make sense of music. Accordingly, this Ph.D research project aims to understand the role of body movement on children’s musical sense-making through two empirical studies setup in an educational ecological setting of primary school. In both studies, the children’s graphical representations of the music and their verbal explanations of the drawings were used to probe children’s musical sense-making. The first study investigated how and in what way a verbal vs. bodily interaction with the music influences the children musical sense-making. Results offer relevant insights into the role of body movement to enhance the identification of more musical features and their temporal organization. Based on the findings of the first study, a second study was carried out to investigate the influence of different qualities (discrete vs. continuous movements) of bodily interactions with music on children’ music meaning formation. Findings of the second study show that based on the quality of movement interaction the children changed the categories of visual representations, arousal, and number of voices of the music described. At a meta- perspective level, the adoption of a multimodal approach (e.g., bodily, visual, and verbal) emerged to be an effective mean to enhance a deeper music understanding. In addition, body movement appears to be a viable way to foster a creative listening through creative navigation of the musical affordance landscape.
... Zapateado is a form of body percussion and so should have models from existing studies relating to its teaching (Romero 2013). The rhythms performed in movement with zapateado must be understood in the same way as traditional methods, such as Dalcroze (Juntunen and Hyvönen 2004)-using corporal movement for learning rhythm (Vernia Carrasco 2014). Various studies link the rhythm of spoken language to that of music (Patel and Daniele 2003). ...
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Flamenco is widely practiced around the world, both in its musical and dance forms. It has been taught and studied through formal, non-formal, and informal teaching processes. Traditionally, it is taught through imitation and repetition and learned by ear. Zapateado is the percussive element of the dance. This study aimed to investigate whether a change in teaching strategy and resources could improve motivation and rhythmic precision when performing zapateado. The research used a quasi-experimental approach. Twelve professional flamenco dancers participated. The most significant results show that a change in methodology can encourage motivation and improve the rhythmic precision of zapateado.
... Émile Jaques-Dalcroze (Jaques- Dalcroze, 1912Dalcroze, , 1915Dalcroze, /67, 1930Juntunen, 2006;Juntunen & Hyvönen, 2004) and more recent innovative approaches to developing the musical imagination (Adolphe, 2013;Karpinski, 2000aKarpinski, , 2000bKarpinski, , 2007aKarpinski, , 2007b. ...
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Se presentan resultados de un proyecto de intervención para el programa de radio Ventana al Sonido (GU, 2020) que se transmite los domingos a las 11:00 de la mañana por Radio UAA (94.5 FM), el cual, desde 2014, ha sido implementado como estrategia de aprendizaje situado en las asignaturas de Cultura y Apreciación Musicales de la Licenciatura en Música de la Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes. En el contexto de un trabajo de titulación de maestría, una estudiante de la generación 2018-2020 diseñó un taller de producción radiofónica desde casa para atender el compromiso de programación anual asumido por la institución, el cual se vio afectado repentinamente por el confinamiento derivado de la pandemia COVID-19. Se presentan resultados de la intervención y reflexiones que se interpretan como indicios de cambio social que podrían impactar significativamente el currículo de la educación musical de nivel superior en los próximos años.
... If the experience is not explicit and accessible, the opportunity to participate and to be socially integrated diminishes [6]. Auditory feedback is easily embodied, so one can have a bodily experience like clap the hands, or drum one's fingers [14], or even dance [10]. ...
... When we zoomed in and tested the motion quantity at the individual level, however, we did find that instructor motion varied between instructional strategies: overall, instructors moved more when using an explanation approach compared to scaffolding. As such, these results extend previous studies where the movement was identified as a pedagogic tool in teaching 27 and reported to facilitate learning 28,29 , to scaffolding vs. explanation approaches. To date, there has been scarcely any empirical research comparing the nonverbal behaviors between these two approaches. ...
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It is widely accepted that nonverbal communication is crucial for learning, but the exact functions of interpersonal coordination between instructors and learners remain unclear. Specifically, it is unknown what role instructional approaches play in the coupling of physical motion between instructors and learners, and crucially, how such instruction-mediated Body-to-Body Coupling (BtBC) might affect learning. We used a video-based, computer-vision Motion Energy Analysis (MEA) to quantify BtBC between learners and instructors who used two different instructional approaches to teach psychological concepts. BtBC was significantly greater when the instructor employed a scaffolding approach than when an explanation approach was used. The importance of instructional approach was further underscored by the fact that an increase in motion in the instructor was associated with boosted BtBC, but only during scaffolding; no such relationship between the instructor movements and BtBC was found during explanation interactions. Finally, leveraging machine learning approaches (i.e., support vector and logistic regression models), we demonstrated that both learning outcome and instructional approaches could be decoded based on BtBC. Collectively, these results show that the real-time interaction of teaching and learning bodies is important for learning and that instructional approach matters, with possible implications for both in-person and online learning.
... Jaques-Dalcroze (1920) sought an multisensory approach to music education that involves both the mind and the body of students learning to play musical instruments, in order to develop and improve the faculties that are used when engaging in music: the aural, visual, tactile, and muscular senses. All these senses are called upon through individual body movements and group activities, acting as a physical metaphor for musical elements in order to learn musical concepts (Greenhead & Abron, 2015;Juntunen & Hyvönen, 2004). ...
Thesis
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This thesis proposes an overview of the theoretical background on embodied cognition. gesture studies, and L2 phonological acquisition to motivate the use of embodied prosodic training with hand gestures and kinesthetic movements as an efficient method to improve L2 learners' perception and pronunciation. It is composed of three independent empirical studies looking at three different techniques in different learning contexts.
... When we zoomed in and tested the motion quantity at the individual level, however, we did find that instructor motion varied between instructional strategies: overall, instructors moved more when using an explanation approach compared to scaffolding. As such, these results extend previous studies where the movement was identified as a pedagogic tool in teaching 27 and reported to facilitate learning 28,29 , to scaffolding vs. explanation approaches. To date, there has been scarcely any empirical research comparing the nonverbal behaviors between these two approaches. ...
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It is widely accepted that nonverbal communication is crucial for learning, but the exact functions of interpersonal coordination between instructors and learners remain unclear. Specifically, it is unknown what role instructional approaches play in the coupling of physical motion between instructors and learners, and crucially, how such instruction-mediated Body-to-Body Coupling (BtBC) might affect learning. We used a video-based, computer-vision Motion Energy Analysis (MEA) to quantify BtBC between learners and instructors who used two different instructional approaches to teach psychological concepts. BtBC was significantly greater when the instructor employed a scaffolding approach than when an explanation approach was used. The importance of instructional approach was further underscored by the fact that an increase in motion in the instructor was associated with boosted BtBC, but only during scaffolding; no such relationship between the instructor movements and BtBC was found during explanation interactions. Finally, leveraging machine learning approaches (i.e., support vector and logistic regression models), we demonstrated that both learning outcome and instructional approaches could be decoded based on BtBC. Collectively, these results show that the real-time interaction of teaching and learning bodies is important for learning and that instructional approach matters, with possible implications for both in-person and online learning.
Article
Physical activity is essential for children’s current and future health, but most do not get their recommended daily 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Schools are an ideal environment for physical activity since students spend most of their waking hours at school. In this paper, we inquire into a sedentary school environment and its collateral impact on student learning in light of the school experience of Hannah. Grounded in Merleau-Ponty’s theory of body and embodiment and Dewey’s theory of experience in education, the purpose of this narrative inquiry is to challenge an increasingly sedentary environment that undermines the role of body, hence providing a mis-educative experience. In so doing, we intend to raise awareness of the collateral impact of sedentary education on students and rethink the aims of education for the 21st century to foster the child as a whole embodied being. We suggest three aims of education: first, health as the foundation to develop the whole child; second, adding the fifth R, Rhythm, to Doll’s four R’s of richness, recursion, relation, and rigor; and finally, understanding what it means to be physically literate.
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Müzik eğitimi alan yazınında sık kullanılan “yaklaşım”, çok yönlü bir kavramdır. Bazen eğitim ve öğretim sürecinde temel alınan düşünceyi veya anlayışı, bazen dersin ana karakteristiğini, bazen iletişim biçimini veya kimi zaman da yönteme dair işlemleri işaret edebilir. Bu kitapta böylesine farklı kullanım biçimlerinin tümüne değil, “pedagojik yaklaşım” ve “öğretme-öğrenme yaklaşımı (didaktik yaklaşım)” kavramlarına odaklanılmıştır. Pedagojik ve didaktik yaklaşımların bazıları eğitim ve öğretime dair genel çerçeveler sunarken, bazıları kendi içinde sistem oluşturabilecek şekilde çok boyutlu bir yapı göstermekte ve bunlar kitabımızda “çok bileşenli yaklaşım” olarak nitelendirilmektedir. Çok bileşenli olma hâli, yaklaşımın bir veya birden fazla unsurunda bulunabilir. Kitabımızda, müzik eğitiminde çok bileşenli yaklaşımlardan seçki yapılarak bir başucu kaynağının okuyucuya sunulması amaçlanmıştır. 20. yüzyılın ilk yarısında geliştirilen müzik-pedagojik yaklaşımlardan Jaques-Dalcroze Yöntemi, Elementer Müzik ve Hareket Eğitimi/Orff-Schulwerk ve Kodály Yöntemi; 20. yüzyılın ortasından itibaren geliştirilen öğretme-öğrenme yaklaşımlarından da Programlı Öğrenme Yaklaşımı, Tam Öğrenme Modeli, İş Birlikli Öğrenme Yöntemi, Kültüre Duyarlı Müzik Eğitimi ve Yapılandırmacı Öğrenme Kuramı çalışmamıza dâhil edilmiştir. Kitap, yaklaşımların tarihsel gelişiminin, pedagojik ve didaktik niteliklerinin ele alındığı “kuramsal kısım” ve yaklaşımlara ait “uygulama örnekleri” olmak üzere iki ana bölümden oluşmaktadır. Kapsamlı giriş bölümünde ise, her bir yaklaşımın gelişim bağlamı ele alınarak eğitim tarihindeki yerlerinin görünür kılınması amaçlanmıştır.