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Issue Voting in Gubernatorial Elections: Abortion and Post-Webster Politics

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Nearly all studies of gubernatorial voting focus on the role of state economic conditions and incumbency on vote choice. Yet gubernatorial campaigns frequently focus on social issues such as abortion, the death penalty, and gun control. Using data from 1989 and 1990 exit polls in 10 states, we find that abortion was a significant predictor of vote choice in all but one. Our logistic regression analysis suggests that abortion position had a greater impact on vote choice than state economic conditions in eight of the 10 states in our analysis, and that abortion was a stronger predictor than even partisanship in Pennsylvania. This suggests the need to consider noneconomic issues in gubernatorial voting studies.
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Issue Voting in Gubernatorial Elections: Abortion and Post-Webster Politics
Author(s): Elizabeth Adell Cook, Ted G. Jelen and Clyde Wilcox
Source:
The Journal of Politics,
Vol. 56, No. 1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 187-199
Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Southern Political Science
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Issue Voting in Gubernatorial Elections:
Abortion and Post-Webster Politics
Elizabeth Adell Cook
The American University
Ted G. Jelen
Illinois Benedictine College
Clyde Wilcox
Georgetown University
Nearly all studies of gubernatorial voting focus on the role of state economic conditions and in-
cumbency on vote choice. Yet gubernatorial campaigns frequently focus on social issues such as abor-
tion, the death penalty, and gun control. Using data from 1989 and 1990 exit polls in 10 states, we
find that abortion was a significant predictor of vote choice in all but one. Our logistic regression
analysis suggests that abortion position had a greater impact on vote choice than state economic con-
ditions in eight of the 10 states in our analysis, and that abortion was a stronger predictor than even
partisanship in Pennsylvania. This suggests the need to consider noneconomic issues in gubernatorial
voting studies.
M ost studies of gubernatorial elections have used aggregate analysis to in-
vestigate the role of economic issues and incumbency on candidate success.
Chubb (1988) reported that institutionalization has partially insulated incumbent
governors from state economic conditions, but that state and especially na-
tional economic conditions still affect the outcome of gubernatorial elections.
Holbrook-Provow (1987) also found that national economic conditions are im-
portant predictors of electoral outcomes, and added that presidential popu-
larity and incumbency are also significant factors. The latter finding supports
Piereson's (1977) report that incumbency has become a more important predictor
of gubernatorial voting while party has declined in significance.
Although these and other studies focus on the role of the economy in guberna-
torial elections, there has been much less work on the impact of noneconomic is-
sues. Indeed, Chubb argued that the "unpredictable" portion of the variation in
gubernatorial outcomes must be due to candidate characteristics, not noneconomic
issues. We argue, however, that noneconomic issues can play a major role in state
The data were made available by the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research.
We alone are responsible for all interpretations.
THEJOURNAL OF POLITICS, Vol. 56, No. 1, February 1994, Pp. 187-99
C 1994 by the University of Texas Press, P.O. Box 7819, Austin, TX 78713-7819
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188 Elizabeth Adell Cook, Ted G. Jelen, Clyde Wilcox
gubernatorial elections. Gubernatorial candidates frequently stress noneconomic
issues in their campaigns. In 1988 and 1990, candidates touted their positions on
education, environment, death penalty, gun control, and abortion.
Moreover, although governors can have some influence on the economic for-
tunes of their state, national economic conditions have a profound impact on state
economies. Voters may be aware that governors are more likely to have an impor-
tant impact on the other issues listed here. For some voters, such issues may have
a bigger influence on their gubernatorial vote than state economic fortunes.
The Webster v. Reproductive Health Services decision in 1989 seemed to invite
state governments to regulate access to abortion. Although prochoice voters had
previously believed that the abortion right created in Roe v. Wade was immune
to interference by state legislatures and governors, in the aftermath of Webster
a number of states moved to restrict legal abortion. Prochoice citizens became
aware of the political consequences of electing prolife officials, and prolife citi-
zens saw the opportunity to enact at least some restrictions on legal abortion in
many states.
Gubernatorial candidates in 1989 and 1990 stressed the abortion issue in their
campaigns (Donovon 1990; Idelson 1990). Some scholarly studies have shown that
the abortion issue was a significant factor in the outcome of governors elections in
1989 in Virginia and New Jersey (Dodson and Burnbauer 1990; Cook, Jelen, and
Wilcox 1991), and in Louisiana in 1991 (Howell and Sims 1993). Other research
suggests that abortion may have played a role in electoral outcomes in 1990 as well
(Cook, Jelen, and Wilcox 1992).
Previous research may have ignored the role of noneconomic issues because it is
difficult to incorporate such variables into aggregate models. Data on state eco-
nomic conditions are relatively easy to obtain, and in longitudinal analysis in-
formation on incumbency and presidential popularity is readily available. Yet to
study the impact of noneconomic issues requires individual data from random
samples of state voters. Until recently, such data were rare. In this paper, we ex-
amine the role of the abortion issue in gubernatorial elections in 1989 and 1990.
Using data from exit polls, we focus on elections in a number of key states that
produced prochoice and prolife victors for each party.
In 1989, in the immediate aftermath of Webster, Virginia and New Jersey elected
prochoice Democratic governors over prolife Republican candidates.' In 1990,
prochoice Democrats beat Republicans who took prolife stands in Texas and
Florida. Prochoice Republicans were elected in California, Massachusetts, and
IFor this paper, we use the term prochoice to describe the views of candidates who favor gener-
ally unlimited access to abortion, and prolife to describe candidates who favor sharp restrictions on
legal abortion. Some prolife activists might object to the use of this label for a candidate who would
allow abortion under a few limited circumstances, but we have adopted the term because of its
widespread use in the popular media and because candidates who take a strictly prolife position are
very rare.
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Issue Voting in Gubernatorial Elections 189
Illinois. In Illinois, the Democratic candidate had advocated restrictions on abor-
tion, and in Massachusetts the Republican candidate took a stronger position in
support of abortion rights,2 but in California the Democratic candidate argued
that her gender made her even more committed to abortion rights. Republicans
who favored restrictions on abortion were elected in Ohio and Michigan; the Ohio
contest featured a formerly prolife Democrat who had recently changed his posi-
tion. A largely prolife Democrat was elected in Pennsylvania over a prochoice
Republican. Thus these states provide examples of victory by Democrats and
Republicans who took prochoice and prolife stands.
The Data
The data come from CBS News/New York Times exit polls in Virginia and
New Jersey in 1989, and the Voter Research and Surveys General Election Exit
Poll in 42 states in 1990. The 1989 CBS surveys included this abortion item:
Which of these comes closest to your view?
1. Abortion should be generally available to those who want it.
2. Abortion should be available, but under more strict limits than now.
3. Abortion should be strictly prohibited.
The 1990 exit polls contained a somewhat different question:
Which of these statements comes closest to your view about abortion?
1. It should be legal under all circumstances.
2. It should be legal only in some circumstances.
3. It should not be legal in any circumstances.
In addition, each survey contained a measure of general ideology and of partisan-
ship. The Virginia and New Jersey surveys also included an item that tapped
previous vote history and approval of the outgoing governor. In Virginia, the out-
going governor was a Democrat, while in New Jersey he was a Republican. The
1990 surveys contained items that measured the respondents' evaluation of the
condition of the state economy, the national economy, and of her or his personal
finances.
All surveys contained measures of race, sex, age, education, income, and reli-
gious denomination. We have created two dummy variables from this latter item
to identify Catholics and those with no religious affiliation. Unfortunately, we are
unable to distinguish between evangelical and mainline Protestants with these
data. In the multivariate analysis, the effects of these variables are assessed relative
to Protestants. In all states except New Jersey the surveys also included an item
that tapped frequency of church attendance, and in all surveys except Virginia an
item identified those in union households. Virginia voters were asked whether
they grew up in the South or the North.
2William Weld ran a strong prochoice campaign during his primary election campaign in which he
defeated a prolife Republican for the nomination.
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190 Elizabeth Adell Cook, Ted G. Jelen, Clyde Wilcox
Although it is possible to have a somewhat more narrow list of independent
variables common across all surveys, we have elected to include every relevant in-
dependent variable included in the survey in a particular state in our multivariate
analysis. We have also estimated equations that include only the common inde-
pendent variables, and the results are not substantively different.
Abortion Attitudes and Vote Choice
In table 1 we present the distribution of attitudes toward abortion, and the
salience of abortion in each state electorate. Recall that the wording of the abor-
tion item differed somewhat in Virginia and New Jersey compared to the other
eight states. The wording in those states most likely resulted in somewhat more
prochoice respondents than the 1990 item would have identified.3 In addition,
however, the Virginia and New Jersey surveys were held immediately after the
Webster decision, and featured strong efforts by prochoice groups. In Virginia,
for example, NARAL ran independently funded advertisements on behalf of
the Democratic candidate, and the Democratic candidate for Lt. Governor also
stressed the abortion issue in his advertising (Cook, Hartwig, and Wilcox 1992).
For all of these reasons, it is important to compare the attitudes of Virginia and
New Jersey voters only to those in the other state and not in the eight states sur-
veyed in 1990.
In each state, there are more prochoice than prolife respondents, but in most
states a plurality of respondents favor some restrictions on abortion. In Virginia
and New Jersey in 1989, an absolute majority favored legal abortion. In California
in 1990, a majority of respondents favored keeping abortion legal, while in Texas,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Illinois the prochoice contingent comprised fewer than
40% of the electorate.4
Respondents were asked which issues were the most important in deciding their
vote and which issues were the second-most important. In table 1, we see that abor-
3The 1990 surveys included a sample in New Jersey, where 40% took a consistent prochoice posi-
tion, 44% a middle, or situational position, and 16% a prolife position. Elsewhere we have shown that
respondents to general abortion items tend to select the closest possible category. If the middle cate-
gory is relatively liberal, those who favor abortion under only a very few circumstances (e.g., woman's
health and rape) will choose a prolife response rather than agree to a far more liberal response; if the
middle category is relatively conservative then those who approve of abortion in most but not all cir-
cumstances will choose a prochoice position. The 1989 item mentioned "strict" restrictions, while the
1990 question merely noted that it should be legal in some circumstances. Respondents may have per-
ceived that the middle option in the 1989 item was somewhat more conservative. In fact, general items
usually overestimate support for a prochoice and a prolife position. Of course, the difference in re-
sponses between 1989 and 1990 may also have been due to the different context. The 1989 survey was
conducted immediately after Webster and after a campaign that focused on abortion.
4General three-point items such as this overstates the support for both the prochoice and prolife
position. In addition, many of those who take prochoice positions on these types of items favor some
restrictions such as parental notification or consent.
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Issue Voting in Gubernatorial Elections 191
TABLE 1
THE SALIENCE AND DIRECTION OF ABORTION
IN GUBERNATORIAL ELECTIONS- 1989 AND 1990
VA NJ FL TX CA MA IL MI OH PA
Importance of Abortion
1st 27% 30% 10% 12% 12% 7% NA 23% 16% 16%
2nd 23% 3% 17% 15% 17% 7% NA 15% 13% 15%
Abortion Should Be:
Legal 50% 57% 47% 33% 54% 47% 37% 43% 36% 31%
Limited 33% 28% 41% 52% 34% 40% 47% 44% 49% 50%
Not Legal 18% 16% 12% 16% 12% 14% 16% 14% 16% 20%
Percentage of respondents in each state who listed abortion as the most important or second most
important issue in their vote decision, and who took each position on the legality of abortion.
tion was highly salient to voters in 1989 and 1990. Fully half of Virginia voters cited
the abortion issue as important in their vote, as did nearly 40% of voters in
Michigan and nearly one-third of voters in Pennsylvania. Only in Massachusetts
was the issue relatively unimportant to the electorate.
In table 2, we show the bivariate relationship between abortion attitudes and
vote choice, and provide comparable information on partisanship. Although the
relationship between abortion attitude and vote is not surprisingly weaker than
the effects of partisanship, abortion appears to be a source of vote choice in each
state except Michigan. Note that abortion attitudes matter in states such as
Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Massachusetts, where the candidates took positions
that deviated from those of the national parties. The voters seem to have sorted
out these positions, for prolife voters were more likely in those states to support
the Democratic candidate and prochoice voters the Republican candidate.
Also in table 2 we compare the effects of abortion attitudes, holding constant
partisanship. These data show that the abortion issue influences vote choice
among partisans but has a somewhat stronger impact among independents. Note
the strong impact of the abortion issue among voters in Virginia and Pennsylvania
after controls for partisanship.
Finally, in table 2 we show the percentage of all voters in each state who men-
tioned abortion as a salient issue and who took a prochoice or prolife position.
This is one measure of the size of the prolife and prochoice voting blocs in each
state. The figure is a result of the size and intensity of the prolife and prochoice
'Of course, many of those who favored abortion in some but not all circumstances also mentioned
abortion. These situational voters may lean toward one candidate or another depending on the posi-
tions of the candidates and the frame of the issue.
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192 Elizabeth Adell Cook, Ted G. Jelen, Clyde Wilcox
TABLE 2
ABORTION ATTITUDES AND VOTE CHOICE
IN GUBERNATORIAL ELECTIONS-1989 AND 1990
Percentage Voting for Democratic Candidate
VA NJ FL TX CA MA IL MI OH PA
Abortion Should Be:
Legal 70% 70% 69% 67% 58% 44% 53% 56% 58% 45%
Limited 37% 56% 46% 48% 40% 50% 42% 58% 40% 73%
Not Legal 18% 48% 43% 36% 37% 59% 53% 50% 29% 88%
Democrats 85% 88% 87% 84% 83% 67% 76% 79% 76% 80%
Independents 50% 69% 59% 49% 51% 44% 46% 43% 38% 66%
Republicans 18% 27% 26% 19% 13% 24% 16% 22% 15% 50%
Democrats
Legal 92% 90% 95% 91% 87% 60% 78% 80% 84% 62%
Limited 81% 87% 79% 82% 78% 71% 71% 79% 70% 85%
Not Legal 51% 84% 79% 73% 74% 78% 85% 76% 74% 92%
Independents
Legal 68% 76% 67% 68% 62% 39% 51% 42% 53% 41%
Limited 38% 63% 52% 40% 40% 48% 41% 45% 33% 75%
Not Legal 21% 48% 40% 23% 29% 48% 45% 37% 17% 97%
Republicans
Legal 35% 35% 40% 31% 17% 21% 20% 17% 20% 27%
Limited 13% 22% 18% 15% 11% 21% 14% 27% 15% 51%
Not Legal 2% 13% 16% 12% 4% 42% 16% 23% 5% 77%
% of Voters Who
Mention Abortion
as a Key Issue
and Want Abortion:
Legal 21% 23% 5% 8% 13% 7% NA 15% 9% 9%
Not Legal 12% 15% 1% 5% 4% 2% NA 4% 6% 7%
N 1,085 1,559 1,625 2,404 2,766 1,931 2,864 1,565 1,666 1,539
Note: In Virginia, New Jersey, Florida, Texas, California, Michigan, and Ohio, the Democratic can-
didates took prochoice stands. In California, Massachusetts, Illinois, and Pennsylvania, the Republican
candidate took a prochoice position.
blocs. The prochoice forces enjoy a numerical advantage in all states, but the prolife
contingent viewed abortion as more salient in all states. Nonetheless, in all 10 states
there were more prochoice voters who mentioned the abortion issue as salient
than prolife voters. The prochoice advantage was large in Virginia, California, and
Michigan, and small in Texas, Ohio, and Pennsylvania.6
6It should be noted that a number of voters who favored allowing abortion under some but not all
circumstances also listed abortion as a salient issue.
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Issue Voting in Gubernatorial Elections 193
Multivariate Results
To see if abortion attitudes predict vote choice after controls for other variables,
we have estimated separate logistic regression equations for each state. In table 3,
we show the results for Virginia and New Jersey in 1989. The coefficients are un-
standardized and cannot be directly compared within equations to determine the
relative impact of each variable on vote choice. The -2 Log LR (log likelihood) is
TABLE 3
MULTIVARIATE RESULTS: VOTE CHOICE
IN VA AND NJ GOVERNORS' RACES IN 1989
Virginia New Jersey
MLE -2 Log LR MLE -2 Log LR
Partisanship 1.03*** 43.81 1.44*** 192.10
Party Vote History 1.05*** 34.07 .75*** 22.17
Ideology .60*** 11.72 .73*** 36.76
Approval of Incumbent
Governor .72*** 7.32 -1.32*** 50.56
Race 2.79*** 42.63 .38 1.66
Sex .27 0.90 .03 .01
Age .22* 2.80 -.05 .45
Education -.19* 3.15 -.02 .06
Income -.01 0.19 .05 .59
Raised in South 1.01*** 14.82
Union Household -.04 .04
Catholic .15 .19 .07 .00
No Denomination -.42 .54 -.71* 3.17
Church Attendance -.09 .80
Abortion position 1.06*** 37.13 .62*** 30.14
Prochoice .95*** 18.22 .60*** 10.75
Prolife -1.21*** 10.94 -.63*** 6.18
Percentage Predicted Correctly:
Democrat 84% 86%
Republican 87% 72%
Overall 86% 81%
Modal value 62% 50%
Goodman & Kruskal's Tau .37 .28
Model Chi-Square 539*** 545***
Unweighted N 823 1,130
up ? .10; **p ? .05; ***p ? .01. Coefficients for prochoice and prolife dummy variables are from a
separate model, which included the two dummy variables instead of the single abortion item.
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194 Elizabeth Adell Cook, Ted G. Jelen, Clyde Wilcox
similar to a T-value in regression and is preferable to the Wald test for the sta-
tistical significance of the coefficients (Hosmer and Lemeshow 1989; Hauck and
Donner 1977; Jennings 1986).7
To assess the substantive importance of abortion, we have estimated separate
equations in which we entered abortion attitudes as two dummy variables identi-
fying those who took a prochoice and prolife position, leaving those who sup-
ported legal abortion under some but not all circumstances as the excluded
category.8 These coefficients are denoted by two asterisks and appear below the
coefficient for the single abortion item. We have converted these coefficients into
probabilities, which we will discuss later.9
In both Virginia and New Jersey, abortion is a significant predictor of guberna-
torial vote. Note that we control for both partisanship and past party vote, so that
the effects of party loyalty is shared between these two variables. Abortion was a
strong predictor of vote choice in each state, and the analysis with the two dummy
variables shows that both prolife and prochoice citizens were likely to vote their
abortion preferences. In New Jersey, after holding constant demographic charac-
teristics, ideology and partisanship, prolife voters had a .47 probability of voting
for the Democratic candidate compared with a .61 probability for prochoice vot-
ers. In Virginia, prolife voters had a .39 probability of casting a Democratic ballot
while prochoice respondents had a .64 probability of doing so.
In table 4, we show the equations for the 1990 gubernatorial contests. Abortion is
a statistically significant predictor in each of the states except Michigan and is a
strong predictor in six of the eight states. We experimented with other specifica-
tions, including removing the item on the respondent's personal finances to include
only evaluations of the state economy, substituting the respondents evaluations of
the national economy in those states in which the item was asked, and including all
three measures of economic attitudes. The results were substantially identical to
those presented here: abortion attitudes remain a strong, statistically significant
predictor of vote choice. In Pennsylvania, abortion attitudes were especially power-
ful predictors of vote: after multivariate controls the probability of a Democratic
vote by a prolife citizen was .81 compared with only .42 for a prochoice voter.
Because the logistic regression coefficients are unstandardized, it is difficult to
compare the impact of variables within an equation. Moreover, there is no widely
7We used the SPSS-X mainframe version of logistic regression.
8See Howell and Sims (1993) for a discussion of this procedure.
9Logistic regression coefficients provide an estimate of the log odds after adjusting for other in-
dependent variables. The log odds is the log of the odds ratio for x = 1 (e.g., prochoice) and x = 0
(e.g., not prochoice). The log odds can be transformed into probabilities which assume that the other
independent variables in the model assume the value of the sample mean. The procedure involves
computing a variable x for each case that represents a linear combination of the unstandardized
logistic regression coefficients. The calculation involves raising e to the X power, and dividing by
1 + e to the X.
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Issue Voting in Gubernatorial Elections 195
accepted procedure for producing standardized coefficients. We transformed the
coefficients for partisanship and for evaluations of the state economic conditions
into probabilities (now shown), and compared the impact of these variables on
vote choice. In almost all states, the differences in probabilities of Democratic
voting between Democrats and Republicans were far greater than those between
prolife and prochoice voters, although in Pennsylvania abortion appears to have
swayed slightly more votes.'0 In eight states the probabilities associated with
abortion suggested a greater impact on vote choice than evaluations of the state
economy."
Not surprisingly, abortion was an especially strong predictor in those states in
which at least one candidate chose to focus on the issue. In Florida, the Re-
publican incumbent had called a special legislative session in an unsuccessful ef-
fort to limit abortion, although the Democratic candidate did not emphasize the
issue. Yet prochoice voters responded negatively to the position of the Repub-
lican incumbent while prolife voters were not significantly different from those
who took a moderate position on abortion. In Pennsylvania, the incumbent Demo-
cratic governor had signed a restrictive measure in 1989, and his prochoice Re-
publican opponent tried to make abortion a central issue in her campaign. In
Ohio, the Democratic candidate had changed from a prolife to a prochoice posi-
tion before the election, and the Republican candidate sought to capitalize on
that change.
Dodson and Birnbauer (1991) reported that abortion was more salient for
women than men in Virginia and New Jersey in 1989. We estimated equations
with interactions between sex and abortion attitudes for each state. In only one
state, Michigan, was there a significant interaction with women more likely to vote
the abortion issue. We also tested for the interaction between religion and abortion
positions and found significant interactions in Illinois, Pennsylvania, Texas, and
New Jersey. Catholics were more likely to cast a vote based on abortion than either
Protestants or those without religious attachments.'2
10The probability of a Republican voting for the Democratic incumbent was 49%, and the
Democratic odds were 73%.
"For example, the odds of voting for the Democratic candidate in Ohio by about 10% be-
tween those who thought the state economy was excellent or poor, but the spread on the abortion
issue was 18%. The spread of probabilities across party was 43%. Interestingly, our analysis sug-
gests that the abortion issue helped the Democratic candidate, although a good deal of attention
was paid to his recent conversion to pro-choice politics. We estimate that the abortion issue
produced about a 1.5% vote swing to the Democratic candidate, after all other variables were
controlled.
12With one significant interaction in 10 equations for gender, we are not especially confident that the
result is not due to chance. At the .05 level of significance, we have a 50% chance of getting a false pos-
itive in 10 equations. The interactions for religion are more persuasive, and they are found in states
where there is some religious pluralism, and in generally in states where the Catholic church has been
active on this issue.
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198 Elizabeth Adell Cook, Ted G. Jelen, Clyde Wilcox
CONCLUSIONS
We draw three broad conclusions from this study. First, abortion has become
an important issue in state elections. In the aftermath of Webster, voters consid-
ered the positions of gubernatorial candidates on abortion and were willing to
cross party lines to support the candidates who supported their positions. Should
the Court reverse Roe in the near future, it is likely that abortion will become an
even stronger predictor of gubernatorial vote choice. As state legislatures in many
states move to restrict abortion rights, the issue will prove significant in other state
elections as well.
Second, studies of gubernatorial elections would benefit from a consideration of
noneconomic issues. In six of the eight states in the 1990 study and both states in
1989, abortion attitudes were more important than attitudes toward the state (and
national) economy. Of course, the recession was still young in 1990, and we do not
suggest that abortion or any other social issue would be more salient than eco-
nomic conditions in the depths of an economic downturn. Yet voters may be
aware that governors can do more concretely to affect legal abortion than they can
do to improve the state or especially the national economy. Other noneconomic is-
sues, such as gun control and capital punishment, may also be important predic-
tors of gubernatorial votes.
Finally, although aggregate studies remain the only way to study a number of
governors' races in longitudinal perspective, the recent availability of state exit
polls by national media provide the possibility to examine individual vote choice
in a number of gubernatorial elections. These data may alter our understanding of
the determinants of such elections. For example, studies of congressional voting
have shown a wide disjuncture between the impact of economic variables at the
aggregate and individual level, an anomaly that has been explained by sociotropic
voting (Kinder and Kiewiet 1981) and by strategic politicians (Jacobson and
Kernell 1983). Our results hint at a similar disjuncture in gubernatorial elections,
although we find no evidence for sociotropic voting. It may well be that the im-
portance of economic issues is more evident in the results of aggregate analyses
than in the study of individual-level data. More research is needed to resolve the
question.
Manuscript submitted 4 April 1992
Final manuscript received 3 June 1993
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Elizabeth Adell Cook is visiting assistant professor of government, The Ameri-
can University, Washington, DC 20016.
Ted G. Jelen is professor of political science, Illinois Benedictine College, Lisle,
IL 60532.
Clyde Wilcox is associate professor of government, Georgetown University,
Washington, DC 20057.
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