Article

Biodistribution of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles After Intravenous Administration: Effect of Particle Size

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, Japan.
Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces (Impact Factor: 4.15). 11/2008; 66(2):274-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2008.07.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Purpose of the present research work was to evaluate the biological distribution of differently size gold nanoparticles (NP) up on intravenous administration in mice. Another objective was to study effect of particle size on biological distribution of gold NP to enable their diverse applications in nanotechnology. Gold NP of different particle sizes, mainly 15, 50, 100 and 200 nm, were synthesized by modifying citrate ion concentration. Synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and their size distribution was studied by particle size analyzer. Gold NP was suspended in sodium alginate solution (0.5%, w/v) and administered to mice (1g/kg, intravenously) [n=3]. After 24h of administration of gold NP, blood was collected under light ether anesthesia, mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and various tissues/organs were removed. The tissues were then washed with saline, homogenized and lysed with aqua regia. The determination of gold in samples was carried out quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). SEM study revealed spherical morphology of gold NP with narrow particle size distribution. Biodistribution study revealed gold NPs of all sizes were mainly accumulated in organs like liver, lung and spleen. The accumulation of gold NP in various tissues was found to be depending on particle size. 15 nm gold NP revealed higher amount of gold and number of particles in all the tissues including blood, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, stomach. Interestingly, 15 and 50 nm gold NP were able to pass blood-brain barrier as evident from gold concentration in brain. Two-hundred nanometers gold NP showed very minute presence in organs including blood, brain, stomach and pancreas. The results revealed that tissue distribution of gold nanoparticles is size-dependent with the smallest 15 nm nanoparticles showing the most widespread organ distribution.

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    • "Nanoparticles are generally defined as particles between 1 and 50 nm in size. Studies have shown that the nanoscale objects smaller than 12 nm may cross the blood-brain barrier [1] [2] and objects smaller than or equal to 30 nm may be endocytosed into cells.[3] It is not surprising that intensive research is carried out on biomedical applications of nanoparticles. "
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    • "AuNPs and other xenobiotics are taken from the blood circulation system by the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprising mainly the macrophages of the liver and the spleen [15]. Gold nanoparticles usually are phagocytosed by Kupffer cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), and if not broken down by intercellular processes, will remain in this body location for a long time [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The gold nanoparticles (AuNP's) exhibit interesting chemical and physical properties and for this reason are intensively tested in medicine. However there is a lack of information about toxicity of those nanoparticles as well as their excretion from the body. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the route of administration of gold nanoparticles to rats on their distribution in tissues and excretion rate. The experiment was carried out on male Wistar rats. The colloidal gold suspension containing 0.3619mg of particles per milliliter, was administered per 1kg of body weight. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and ferric reducing ability of plasma were measured in all investigated animals. It was shown that after oral administration only a small amount of AuNPs was absorbed. In addition, excretion of the metal during consecutive days after po or iv administration was examined. Moreover, the impact of AuNPs on some biochemical parameters 3 days after intravenous administration was studied. It was shown that the AuNPs are mainly cumulated in the liver, lungs and in spleen after iv administration and only slightly removed from the body in urine and feces. Accumulation of those nanoparticles effect in increases of FRAP and glucose level up to 27% and 73%, respectively. This in turn suggests that iv administration of AuNPs may effect in serious medical complications. On the other site, the accumulation in the liver of about 50% of introduced particles to the rats body is promising for phototherapy and it opens "door" for drug transport to this organ. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.
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