Complications of the Catheterizable Channel Following Continent Urinary Diversion: Their Nature and Timing

Department of Pediatric Urological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
The Journal of urology (Impact Factor: 4.47). 09/2008; 180(4 Suppl):1856-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2008.03.093
Source: PubMed


We reviewed the incidence, nature and timing of complications related to the catheterizable channel following continent urinary diversion.
We retrospectively reviewed the records of 67 patients who underwent continent urinary diversion at British Columbia Children's Hospital from 2000 to 2006. Catheterizable channels included 54 Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomies and 13 ileovesicostomies. Medical records were reviewed for predetermined complications and their timing, that is early -12 months or less, or late - more than 12 months.
At a median followup of 28 months (range 3 to 62) a total of 17 complications were identified in 14 patients (21%). Superficial cutaneous stenosis developed in 4 of 67 cases (6%) as an early and as a late complication. These cases were initially treated with operative dilation and surgical revision as necessary. Channel stricture, which developed in 4 of 67 patients (6%) as an early and as a late complication, was treated with operative revision in 2 and endoscopic resection in 2. Three patients (5%) had stomal prolapse, which was generally a late occurrence and required operative revision in all. Channel leakage developed in 6 of 67 patients, presenting as an early complication in 50%. Endoscopic injection of bulking agents was attempted in 4 of these patients and it was successful in 2. Overall 82% of complications were successfully managed by endoscopic or superficial procedures.
Complications of the catheterizable channel are a frequent and challenging problem. They appear to occur throughout the life of the channel with most developing within the first 2 years. Further followup is required to assess the performance and durability of continent catheterizable channels in children as patients progress to adulthood.

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    • "Welk et al. demonstrated channel problems in 21% of 67 patients with CCC, with most developing in the first two years after reconstruction [17]. In this study, the relative rates of stenosis and incontinence did not differ significantly during early and late follow–up [17]. Our complication rate is in accordance with the published series [7, 10, 15, 16, 17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the success rate of continent vesicostomy using an ileal segment with seroserosally embedded, tapered ileum for bladder augmentation with continent stoma following bladder neck closure (BNC) for severely damaged bladders or persistent urinary incontinence. A total of 15 patients were treated for persistent urinary incontinence or non-reconstructible bladder outlet between 2003 and 2012. Underlying diagnosis included post-prostatectomy incontinence (n = 5), recurrent bladder neck stenosis (n = 5), neurogenic bladder (n = 3), urethral tumor recurrence following orthotopic neobladder (n = 1) and post-TVT and colposuspension incontinence (n = 1). All patients underwent open BNC, omental interposition and continent vesicoileostomy. The continent outlet was placed in the lower abdomen using a circumferential subcutaneous and skin plasty to avoid retraction. Data collected included age, underlying diagnosis, stoma site, time to complications and need for subsequent surgical revisions. All patients received a standardized questionnaire at the time of data acquisition and were personally interviewed. Median follow-up was 24 months (range: 2-111). Primary BNC was successful in all patients and primary continence rate was 86.7%. Two patients (13.3%) suffered from failure of the continence mechanism, caused by stoma stenosis at skin level and insufficiency of the bladder augmentation and stoma due to local infection. One additional patient developed a mild stomal incontinence without need for further reconstruction. Regardless of the number of revisions, at the last follow-up 93.3% of patients had a functional channel. All complications occurred within the first postoperative year. This technique is an effective last resort treatment for patients with non-reconstructible bladder outlet.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Central European Journal of Urology
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    • "Liard et al. report a 50% complication rate related to the CUC, and that complications may occur precociously as well as tardily [20]. Other studies with shorter follow-ups, most with less than five years, reported that the complications related to the CUC occur mostly in the first two years of follow-up [5] [20] [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate in a rabbit experimental model a mechanism of continence of catheterizable urinary conduits (CUC), focusing on the behavior of intersected rectal muscle fibers in relation to the channel by histological and histochemical analysis, and secondarily to register conduit continence rates from clinical and urodynamic data. Materials and methods: 12 rabbits were submitted to construction of a CUC from two abdominal skin flaps and divided into two groups: 8 with a urinary neo-sphincter created according to Yachia and 4 controls. We registered clinical outcome, urodynamic studies and microscopic analysis of CUC on the surface of the conduit, which was in direct contact with the mechanism of continence. We took muscle samples from the mechanisms of continence and performed histochemical evaluation by enzymatic reactions. Results: Histological evaluation of the CUC showed no difference between groups. Histology and immunohistochemistry of the muscle fibers showed that areas of necrosis, cell atrophy and motor neuron injury from the first eight weeks recovered by the end of 16th week. Conduit complications occurred in 4 animals (33%). The average detrusor leakage point pressure through the conduit was 90 cm H2O versus 39 cm H2O through the urethra. Conclusion: The mechanism of continence did not promote ischemic stress on the conduit, was able to promote high pressure resistance and showed good recovery of intersected muscle fibers, after an initial slight atrophy, suggesting good durability of the neo-sphincter.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of pediatric urology
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    • "In regard to urinary continence, leakage through the stoma is reported in between 2% and 22%, and this is one of the most unpleasant complications for the patient [22]. We have reported data from 93 patients followed for 6.3 years, and our rate of stomal leakage was 3% [23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We investigated continence outcomes for patients undergoing primary or redo reconstruction of a urinary catheterizable reservoir involving the Yachia technique of intersecting two rectus abdominis strips over the outlet channel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of 22 consecutive patients operated from March 2009 to August 2010 was performed, consisting of 16 primary reconstructions (Macedo catheterizable ileal reservoirs) and 6 rescue cases for leaking stomas. Our data comprised 18 spina bifida patients, 1 sacral agenesis, 1 posterior urethral valves and 1 genitourinary tuberculosis. Mean age at surgery was 8.5 years (3-21 years). We evaluated continence at 3, 6, 12 months, and at the last follow-up based on data from urinary charts. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 21.1 months (12-29 months). Overall continence was 100% for the primary cases and 66% for the redos (2/6 failed). Three patients had initial difficulty in performing clean intermittent catheterization but this resolved with time and experience. CONCLUSION: Using Yachia's technique has improved the continence rate of our catheterizable reservoirs and was partially successful for suprafascial revision of incontinent conduits.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of pediatric urology
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