Article

Comparaison de l'efficacité de deux méthodes de multiplication rapide de plants de bananier à partir de l'étude des caractéristiques agronomiques d'un hybride de bananier plantain (Musa spp.)

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Abstract

Introduction. The objective of our study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of plantain hybrid plants (CRBP-39, Musa cv. AAAB) obtained through two vegetative propagation methods: in vitro culture, called the “CIV technique”, and a newly developed technique of plants derived from stem bits, called the “PIF technique”. The study, carried out in Cameroon, took place at a high altitude (1250 m) and covered one cropping cycle. The CRBP-39 hybrid was chosen because of its resistance to Black Leaf Streak Disease and its agronomic performance. Materials and methods. Vitroplants and plants obtained through the PIF technique developed at CARBAP (Cameroon) were planted separately in elementary plots of 16 plants. No chemical control was administered against Black Leaf Streak Disease. Observations were essentially made on agronomic characteristics. Results and discussion. For the mother crop, there was no significant difference between the plants obtained from one or the other vegetative propagation method concerning their pseudo-stem height and girth; the number of functional leaves at shooting; the duration of the production cycle; the bunch weight; the number of hands and fruits of the bunch; and the length and circumference of the fruit. For the ratoon crop, significant differences were observed concerning the pseudo-stem height and girth, and the number of emitted and functional leaves at harvest. These results globally indicate a strong similarity in vegetative and bunch characteristics of plants propagated with one or the other method. The PIF technique, which is used more and more by small-scale farmers because of its simplicity, rapidness and low cost of production, is a method of vegetative propagation that helps to produce plants similar to tissue cultured plants in terms of agronomic qualities.Resumen Introducción. Nuestros estudios tuvieron como objetivo la comparación de los resultados agronómicos de los plantones de un híbrido de banano plátano (CRBP-39, Musa cv. AAAB), obtenidos mediante empleo de dos métodos de multiplicación vegetativa: el cultivo de tejidos in vitro (CIV) y una técnica de propagación basada en la multiplicación de plantones a partir de fragmentos de ramas (llamada: técnica PIF), desarrollada recientemente. El estudio, llevado a cabo en Camerún, se realizó en altitud (1250 m); se refirió a un ciclo de cultivo. Se eligió el híbrido CRBP-39 por causa de su resistencia a la enfermedad de las rayas negras y de sus resultados agronómicos. Material y métodos. Tanto vitroplantones como plantones obtenidos mediante la técnica PIF, técnica de propagación hortícola desarrollada en el CARBAP (Camerún), se plantaron separadamente en bloques, en parcelas de terreno elementares de 16 plantas. Ningún tratamiento químico se aplicó contra la enfermedad de las rayas negras. Se realizaron las observaciones esencialmente sobre las características agronómicas. Resultados y discusión. En cuanto a la planta-madre, entre las plantas obtenidas a partir de un método de multiplicación vegetativa u otro, no hubo ninguna diferencia significativa en relación con el tamaño y el perímetro de la seudo-rama; ni con el número de hojas funcionales en la floración; ni con la duración del ciclo de producción; ni con el peso de régimen; ni con el número de manos y de frutos del régimen; ni con la longitud y la circunferencia del fruto. Para el vástago sucesor, existieron diferencias significativas de tamaño y de perímetro de la seudo-rama, así como del número de hojas emitidas y funcionales en la cosecha. Dichos resultados muestran globalmente una gran similitud de las características agronómicas de los plantones pertenecientes a ambos métodos de multiplicación vegetativa. La técnica PIF, cada vez más empleada gracias a su simplicidad, a su bajo coste de producción y a su rapidez de puesta en ejecución, resulta, por lo tanto, una técnica hortícola que permite la producción de plantones de calidad agronómica comparable a la de los vitroplantones.

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... To achieve this goal, we used: i) healthy plants issued from the Plants Issued from Fragments (PIF) method (Lefranc et al., 2010;Sadom et al., 2010), a method of vegetative propagation instead of suckers which are most of the time already infected by pests; ii) nutrient supply with organic fertilization with vermicompost instead of mineral fertilizers, and iii) use of a cover crop instead of herbicides to control weeds. ...
... Peeling of the corm was supposed to delay the development of nematode infestation, while cutting the pseudostem reduces bulkiness and improves early growth of the newly planted sucker. The second cropping system was agroecological and integrated 3 innovations (Table 1): i) healthy plants, obtained through the PIF technique (Lefranc et al., 2010;Sadom et al., 2010), were used in order to reduce pest infestations at the beginning of the plantation; ii) vermicompost (mixture of cattle manure and green wastes transformed by local epigeic earthworms) was applied in order to fertilize plants and stimulate soil food web; and iii) a living vegetal covering using Arachis pintoï Krapov. and W.C. Greg (Fabaceae) was used to control weeds through mulching. ...
Article
Plantain (Musa paradisiaca AAB) is one of the main staple food crops in tropical areas, particularly in the Caribbean region. Therefore, supporting a sustainable production of plantain in this zone is crucial to secure food and to provide income to millions of people. We hypothesized that agroecological practices based on multi-functionality and biodiversity and that preserve soil should i) increase macrofauna abundance, ii) enhance soil chemical fertility, iii) improve soil physical structure, iv) reduce plant infestation by parasitic nematodes, and v) immediately achieve similar yield as in conventional systems. For this purpose, we compared plantain conventional and agroecological systems at the farm scale. The agroecological system consisted in a combination of three innovations: i) inputs of vermicompost to replace mineral fertilizers, ii) use of healthy planting material and iii) use of a mulching of living crop to control weeds. Ten months after the plantation, soil macrofauna abundance had doubled and taxonomic richness had increased by 45% in the agroecological system. In addition, soil structure was improved in the agroecological system (52% of biogenic aggregates in the agroecological system vs. 21 % in conventional systems), as well as the abundance of free-living nematodes associated to plantain roots increased by 73 % in the agroecological system. The abundance of Radopholus similis, one of main plant parasitic nematodes, decreased in the agroecological system. Moreover, the agroecological system achieved similar crop yield level than conventional systems. Agroecological practices are thus an efficient option to allow a fast transition from conventional to environmentally friendly cropping systems.
... This technique is suitable for producers because it requires few resources [19]. Studies have shown that there is no difference in agronomic characteristics between in vitro plants and banana plants resulting from the PIF technique, hence it is important to adopt this technique for the production of healthy banana planting material because of its simplicity, low cost and speed [20]. ...
... This lifting occurs following the destruction of the apical meristem. Twenty (20) suckers were used for each of the three varieties. ...
Article
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Banana is an important crop in many countries of the intertropical zone. The major problem in increasing production is the lack of healthy planting material. The classic discards often used by producers, are in small quantities and carry diseases germs. In vitro culture and other macropropagation methods such as PIF technique are being developed to produce healthy plant material for planting. In vitro culture is more expensive and slow compared to PIF technique which is cheaper and faster hence its adoption in this study. The general objective of this study is to help support the dessert banana and plantain banana sector in Togo. It is more specifically; to know the latency time (TL), to assess the rate of bud break at forty (40) days (TD); know the time necessary to wean the first shoot in each explant (TS), know the total number of young plants weaned (S) at 150 days after planting in sawdust; know the number of days between the appearance of the first shoot and the achievement of the first weaning (TS-TL); then compare the success percentages (PR) of rearing these young plants in the nursery after weaning. The varieties selected for the study are Savé (plantain), Dankodu (dessert) and Tsikodu (dessert). PIF technique was used to produce the healthy planting material. After experiment, the TL parameter is on average 2 weeks (14 days) for Savé and Tsikodu varieties and 3 weeks (21 days) for Dankodu variety. The TS parameter is 4 weeks (28 days) for Savé and Tsikodu varieties and 6 weeks (42 days) for Dankodu variety. For the TS-TL parameter, it is 2 weeks (14 days) for Savé and Tsikodu varieties and 3 weeks (21 days) for Dankodu variety. For S parameter, Plantain banana Savé is more prolific with 13 young plants per explant while it is 3 young plants per explant for Dankodu and Tsikodu varieties. For TD parameter, Savé variety has 100% while Tsikodu (66.66%), Dankodu (55%). For PR parameter, Dankodu variety is the best with 90%, Tsikodu (76.19%) and Savé (77.03%). PIF technique can be used to propagate bananas in general, but it needs to be improved for dessert bananas in particular.
... This study findings are comparable to those ofSadom et al. (2010) who mentioned no substantial difference in plantain banana about pseudostem height. In Orishele, variety at 65 DAP, the number of leaves was significantly high for vitroplant compared to the vivoplant and the sucker. ...
Article
Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the morphological performance of plant material from plantain varieties in order to select the most efficient in Tiassalé locality. Methodology and results: A research program involving three types of plant material (sucker, vivoplant, and vitroplant) from three popularized varieties (Orishele, Corne-1, and Pita-3) was carried out at Tiassalé, precisely at M'Brimbo in Côte d'Ivoire. The experimental design used was a two-factor split plot, the main factor being the type of plant material, and the secondary factor the variety. Data were collected on the number of leaves, the pseudostem height and diameter, the leaf length and width. Results from analysis of variance revealed that in vitro plant was superior for the number of leaves for the three varieties. For the height of the pseudostem, value was high with the sucker of Corne-1 and Orishele varieties, unlike Pita-3 variety in which the in vitro plant recorded the greatest height. Conclusion and application of findings: At the end of this study, most efficient type of material of each variety was suckers for Corne-1 and Orishele varieties, and vitroplants for Pita-3 variety. The type of material that performs well in each variety can be used in genetic improvement programs to increase yield and obtain superior quality fruit to achieve food self-sufficiency. Compared to the suckers of Corne-1 and Orishele, in vitro plantlets of Pita-3 should therefore be promising in the popularization of this variety.
... Plants were identified and collected in peasant plantations in South Kivu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Dowiya et al., 2009), with the support of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture-IITA / Kalambo (Bukavu, RD Congo). All these plants were maintained and multiplicated in the tropical greenhouse (greenhouse n°13; G2) of the Université catholique de Louvain (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) by the PIF technique (Plantes Issues de Fragments de tiges) (Kwa, 2003(Kwa, , 2009Meutchieye, 2009;Sadom et al., 2010;Mbunzu et al., 2019). They were irrigated daily, until they were 40 to 60 days of age (4 to 6 leaf stage), before they were used in bioassays with apterous and alate aphids, and assement of VOCs. ...
Article
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Banana plants are affected by various viral diseases, among which the most devastating is the "bunchy top", caused by the Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) and transmitted by the aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. The effect of BBTV on attraction mechanisms of dessert and plantain banana plants on the vector remains far from elucidated. For that, attractiveness tests were carried out using a two columns olfactometer for apterous aphids, and a flight cage experiment for alate aphids. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emitted by either healthy or BBTV-infected banana plants were identified using a dynamic extraction system and gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. Behavioral results revealed a stronger attraction of aphids towards infected banana plants (independently from the variety), and towards the plantain variety (independently from the infection status). GC–MS results revealed that infected banana plants produced VOCs of the same mixture as healthy banana plants but in much higher quantities. In addition, VOCs produced by dessert and plantain banana plants were different in nature, and plantains produced higher quantities than dessert banana trees. This work opens interesting opportunities for biological control of P. nigronervosa, for example by luring away the aphid from banana plants through manipulation of olfactory cues.
... The result on the recovery time of the different varieties indicates that all the varieties used are of good quality because their recovery time is around 3 weeks. Similar results were obtained by [12] in the Republic of Congo and by [13] in the Democratic Re- [14]. ...
... Cette technique permet de disponibiliser du matériel amélioré en quantité suffisante, indemne de maladies; mais cette technique n'est pas à la portée des agriculteurs traditionnels (Francisco, 1994). C'est pourquoi, la majorité de producteurs se tournent vers la nature à la recherche des rejets pour répondre à leurs besoins (Sadom et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Description of the subject. A study on the production of banana seedlings by macropropagation was carried out under semi-controlled conditions, from August 10 to December 25, 2015, at the Experimental Garden of the Department of Plant Science of the University of Kinshasa. Objectives. The overall objective of this study is to contribute to the improvement of the production of banana seedlings. Specifically, the study aims to evaluate the influence of explant size on the substantial production of plantain releases under semi-controlled conditions. Methods. The experimental design adopted was the completely randomized design with three replicates and four treatments: T1: Explants 5 to 10 cm in diameter (300 to 900 g); T2: Explants 11 to 15 cm in diameter (1 to 1.5 kg); T3: Explants 16 to 20 cm in diameter (1.6 to 2 kg); T4: Explants 21 to 25 cm in diameter (2,1 to 4 kg). The data obtained was analyzed with Excel (version 2010) and Statistix (version 8.0) software. Results. The results obtained showed that explants with a diametral dimension of 11 to 15 cm (1 to 1.5 kg) produced a high number of banana seedlings (13 per explant), compared to explants of other dimensions. Conclusion. However, further studies are needed to determine the cost of different plant stem plant (PIF) production operations from plantain explants.
... Le rejetonnage comme mode de propagation présente des inconvénients notamment la lenteur dans la multiplication du fait que le nombre de rejet par plante est limité (dépasse rarement 5 et même 3 pour le plantain), l'hétérogénéité du matériel de propagation et enfin la lourdeur et le volume des rejets faisant que leur transport soit coûteux (Kwa, 2003). A cet effet, plusieurs techniques existent pour augmenter la production de rejets sur un pied de bananier, les plus simples sont pratiquées au champ, mais leur rendement reste faible (Sadom et al., 2010). Par ailleurs, la solution de vitro plants qui consiste à disposer et utiliser du matériel amélioré en quantité suffisante, indemne de maladies, n'est pas à la portée des agriculteurs traditionnels (Youmbi et Ngaha, 2004). ...
Article
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Bangata et al, J. Appl. Biosci. 2018 Évaluation du potentiel prolifératif de six cultivars de bananier (cv. AAB, ABB, et AAA) par macropropagation en République Démocratique du Congo.
... Le rejetonnage comme mode de propagation présente des inconvénients notamment la lenteur dans la multiplication du fait que le nombre de rejet par plante est limité (dépasse rarement 5 et même 3 pour le plantain), l'hétérogénéité du matériel de propagation et enfin la lourdeur et le volume des rejets faisant que leur transport soit coûteux (Kwa, 2003). A cet effet, plusieurs techniques existent pour augmenter la production de rejets sur un pied de bananier, les plus simples sont pratiquées au champ, mais leur rendement reste faible (Sadom et al., 2010). Par ailleurs, la solution de vitro plants qui consiste à disposer et utiliser du matériel amélioré en quantité suffisante, indemne de maladies, n'est pas à la portée des agriculteurs traditionnels (Youmbi et Ngaha, 2004). ...
Article
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Black leaf streak disease (BLSD) caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensisa an ascomycete fungus is the most important foliar disease ofbananas (Musa sp.). Losses due to this pathogen can exceed 50% in case of no resistant cultivars and effective treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of four biopesticides on the severity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis. It was conducted under natural infestation conditions in the industrial dessert banana plantation of the Agricultural Company KablanJoublin (SAKJ) at Elima (Aboisso). To make it possible some phytopathological, growth and agronomic parameters of banana plants were evaluated. The results showed that banana trees of plots treated with biopesticides had identical characteristics, about all the assessed parameters, with those of plots treated with the chemical fungicide. In addition, applications of biofungicide contributed to protecting banana leaves, slowed down the onset of necrotic first stage and significantly reduced the disease infestation level in the parcels. The use of aromatic plant essential oils-based biofungicides could be suggested as an ecological efficient solution to dessert banana and plantain producers against Mycosphaerella fijiensis responsible for the black leaf streak disease.
Article
In a survey of farmers' attitudes to four Musa hybrids, the majority (84%) considered them superior to the landraces in terms of plant establishment, plant growth, vigour and fruit yield. The hybrids had more green leaves at harvest, an added advantage as they provided shade for the young cocoa plants grown as an intercrop. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Article
Introduction. In vitro multiplication techniques are not adapted to banana growers. Moreover, the use of in vivo seedbed techniques makes it possible to increase the rate of banana multiplication in the field, but it presents the risk of multiplying contaminated materials and losing many buds present on the mother plant. To mitigate these problems, the CARBAP (Cameroon) have developed a new technique for in vivo mass multiplication, the technique of the “seedlings resulting from stem fragments” (PIF), which allows the activation of latent buds and the quick production of large quantities of healthy plantation materials in soil-less culture conditions. Materials and methods. Activation of latent buds was tested during a first experiment. Explants provided with only one bud were taken from banana shoots of three plantain (AAB) varieties and a banana (AAA) variety, then they were cultured in a germinator. A second experiment tested banana proliferation capacities. Explants with several buds, obtained from small suckers of `Grande Naine' (AAA) and from four plantain (AAB) cultivars, were taken, then incised across before being put in a germinator. The time necessary for the appearance of the first shoots, rate of bud burstings, number of formed and separated shoots, and time for the shoot formation until the seedling isolation were measured. Results. At the end of the first experiment, buds recovered 80 d after the explant culture were (4 to 15) times as numerous as the number of mother plants used. However, this number varied with the variety, the physiological stage and the initial quality of the material. It was the same for the response time, ranging between (3 and 4) weeks, and for the rate of bud burstings. At the end of the second experiment, the average proliferation rates were (10 to 20) shoots per explant, obtained in (30 to 40) d with (60 to 70)% of plantain explants. During the same period, a maximum of 25 shoots per explant was observed with `Bâtard' while `French Clair' could produce between (28 and 36) shoots per explant in 13% of the cases. Conclusion. The PIF technique allows the in vivo induction of an active bud proliferation on banana stem fragments under particular conditions of temperature and hygrometry and without hormone addition. It is easily usable by growers.
Article
Introduction. Banana plantain constitutes an important staple for many people in sub-Saharan Africa. In traditional production systems where this crop is grown by small farmers, its production is threatened by Black Sigatoka, a leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet which causes significant yield losses. To solve this problem, tetraploid Black Sigatoka-resistant plantain-like hybrids were created in Cameroon, then bred at the end of a first phase of evaluation. After vegetative multiplication, hybrids thus selected were evaluated in a research station in order to determine their agronomic characteristics and their yield potential in semi-intensive growing conditions. Materials and methods. From 1996 to 2000, thirty selected hybrids were evaluated, in comparison with their female parents, over two cycles of production, in three trials set up according to an experimental device in completely randomized Fisher blocks with two repetitions of 10 banana plants in each one. Each banana plant was studied, considering agronomic characteristics relating to growth and production. Results and discussion. Seven hybrids were selected on the basis of their high yield potential, precocity in flowering and improved suckering behavior. However, these tetraploid hybrids present several defects, which prevent their diffusion. Some of them are being used as intermediate products in a new breeding scheme at CARBAP. Introduction. Le plantain constitue une importante denrée alimentaire pour de nombreuses populations au sud du Sahara. Sa production dans les systèmes traditionnels de culture par les petits paysans est menacée par la maladie des raies noires, une maladie foliaire due à Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet responsable de pertes importantes de récolte. Pour faire face à cette maladie, des hybrides tétraploïdes de type plantain, résistants à la maladie, ont été créés au Cameroun puis sélectionnés à l’issue d’une première phase d’évaluation. Après multiplication végétative, les hybrides ainsi sélectionnés ont été évalués en station de recherche afin de déterminer leurs caractéristiques agronomiques et leur rendement potentiel en conditions de culture semi-intensive. Matériel et méthodes. De 1996 à 2000, trente hybrides sélectionnés ont été évalués, en comparaison avec leurs parents femelles, sur deux cycles de production à la faveur de trois essais mis en place suivant un dispositif expérimental en blocs de Fisher complètement randomisés avec deux répétitions de 10 bananiers chacun. Chacun des bananiers a été étudié à partir de caractéristiques agronomiques portant sur la croissance et la production. Résultats et discussion. Sept hybrides ont été sélectionnés sur la base de leur rendement potentiel élevé, de leur précocité de floraison et de leur pouvoir rejetonnant. Cependant, ce matériel végétal tétraploïde présente plusieurs défauts qui constituent un frein à leur diffusion. Certains de ces hybrides sont utilisés comme produits intermédiaires dans un nouveau schéma d’amélioration variétale au CARBAP.
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