Bruce J. Allyn is Director of the Kennedy School-Soviet Project on Crisis Prevention at the Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University, with primary responsibility in the preparation of this article for Soviet conferences and interviews, and for the translation and analysis of Soviet transcripts and other documents.
James G. Blight is Director of the Nuclear Crisis Project and Assistant Director, Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University, with primary responsibility for the acquisition and analysis of Cuban materials.
David A. Welch is Research Fellow, Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University; in addition to conducting interviews in Moscow and Havana, he was primarily responsible for the analysis and integration of new Soviet and Cuban data, and for the preparation of the manuscript.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Graham T. Allison, Jr., Jorge Domínguez, Alexander L. George, Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Scott D. Sagan, Georgy Shakhnazarov, and the staffs of the Center for the Study of the Americas (Havana), the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (Moscow), and the National Security Archive (Washington, D.C.). The authors also thank the Carnegie Corporation of New York, George Keros, The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Ploughshares Fund, and Carl Sloane.
1. The main pre-glasnost Soviet treatments of the crisis include Anatoly Gromyko, "The Caribbean Crisis," Voprosy istorii, Nos. 7 and 8 (1971), trans. William Mandel reprinted in Ronald R. Pope, ed., Soviet Views on the Cuban Missile Crisis: Myth and Reality in Foreign Policy Analysis (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1982), pp. 161-226; Anatoly Gromyko, 1036 dnei prezidenta Kennedi (Moscow: Politizdat, 1971), reprinted in the United States as Through Russian Eyes: Kennedy's 1036 Days, trans. Philip Gavon (Washington, D.C.: International Library, 1973); Anatoly Gromyko and Andrei Kokoshin, Brat'ia kennedi (The Kennedy brothers) (Moscow: Mysl, 1985), ch. 11, "Karibskii krizis," pp. 188-221; Khrushchev's speech to the Supreme Soviet, December 12, 1962, reported in Pravda and Izvestia, December 13, 1962, and translated in The Current Digest of the Soviet Press, January 16 and 23, 1963; and the memoirs of Chairman Nikita S. Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers, trans. and ed. Strobe Talbott (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970), and Khrushchev Remembers: The Last Testament, trans. and ed. Strobe Talbott (Boston: Little, Brown, 1974).
For a compilation of excerpts from these various sources through 1980, extensively annotated, see Pope, Soviet Views on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Useful and revealing treatments stimulated by the Cambridge and Moscow conferences include Aleksandr I. Alekseev, "Karibskii krizis: kak eto bylo" (The Caribbean crisis: as it really was), Ekho planety, No. 33 (November 1988), pp. 27-37; A.I. Alekseev, "Karibskii, Kubinskii, Oktiabr'skii krizis" (The Caribbean-Cuban-October crisis), Ekho planety, No. 7 (February 1989), pp. 16-18; A.I. Alekseev, "Uroki karibskogo krizisa" (Lessons of the Caribbean crisis), Argumenty i fakty, No. 10 (1989), p. 5; Georgy Bolshakov, "Goriachaia liniia: kak diestvoval sekretnyi kanal sviazi Dzhon Kennedi-Nikita Khrushchev" (The Hot-Line: the secret communication channel between John Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev), New Times, Nos. 4-6 (1989); Georgy Bolshakov, "Karibskii krizis: kak eto bylo" (The Caribbean crisis: as it really was), Komsomolskaya pravda, February 4, 1989, p. 3; F.M. Burlatsky, "Karibskii krizis i ego uroki" (The Caribbean crisis and its lessons), Literaturnaya gazeta, November 11, 1987, p. 14; Fyodor Burlatsky, Sergo Mikoyan, and Georgy Shakhnazarov, "New Thinking about an Old Crisis: Soviet Reflections on the Cuban Missile Crisis," in Graham T. Allison and William L. Ury, with Bruce J. Allyn, eds., Windows of Opportunity: From Cold War to Peaceful Competition in U.S.-Soviet Relations (Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger, 1989); S. Chugrov, "Politicheskie rify karibskogo krizisa" (Political reefs of the Caribbean crisis), Mirovaia ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, No. 5 (1989), pp. 19-32; Andrei A. Gromyko, "Karibskii krizis: o glasnosti teper' i skrytosti togda" (The Caribbean crisis: on openness now and secrecy then), Izvestia, April 15, 1989, p. 5; Stanislav Kondrashov, "Eshche o karibskom krizise: v kriticheskom svete glasnosti" (More on the Caribbean crisis: in the critical light of glasnost), Izvestia, February 28, 1989, p. 5; S.A. Mikoyan, "A War That...