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... Objetivou-se analisar a relação entre o processo variável e as atitudes linguísticas. O estudo orientou-se pela Sociolinguística Variacionista (LABOV, 2008(LABOV, [1972) e pelo estudo de atitudes linguísticas (KAUFMANN, 2011;VANDERMEEREN, 2005;LABOV, 2010). Constatou-se que a proporção de desvozeamento na análise de regra variável foi 2,6% e verificou-se no estudo de atitudes linguísticas que os núcleos familiares, geralmente compostos por avós, pais, irmãos, tios e tias, influenciam as práticas sociais, linguísticas e culturais na comunidade. ...
... The objective was to analyze the relationship between the variable process of bilabial, alveolar and velar Brazilian Portuguese plosives and Hunsrückisch and linguistic attitudes. The study was guided by Variationist Sociolinguistics (LABOV, 2008(LABOV, [1972) and by the study of linguistic attitudes (KAUFMANN, 2011;VANDERMEEREN, 2005;LABOV, 2010). The proportion of devoicing in the variable rule analysis was 2.6%. ...
... Para tanto, utilizaram-se dados de vinte e quatro entrevistas sociolinguísticas 3 , levantados por entrevistas sociolinguísticas, analisados por Lara (2013), de acordo com a linha laboviana (LABOV, 2008(LABOV, [1972). Para o estudo de atitudes linguísticas, com base em Kaufmann (2011), Vandermeeren (2005) e Labov (2010), a autora elaborou o questionário "As atitudes linguísticas no Português em contato com o Hunsrückisch" (LARA, 2017, p. 144-155), estruturado em seis blocos com perguntas para captar o perfil, comportamento e a realidade linguística dos informantes de Glória. ...
Article
O desvozeamento variável das plosivas bilabial, alveolar e velar do português brasileiro foi estudado a partir do contato com a língua de imigração alemã, hunsrückisch. Objetivou-se analisar a relação entre o processo variável e as atitudes linguísticas. O estudo orientou-se pela Sociolinguística Variacionista (LABOV, 2008 [1972]) e pelo estudo de atitudes linguísticas (KAUFMANN, 2011; VANDERMEEREN, 2005; LABOV, 2010). Constatou-se que a proporção de desvozeamento na análise de regra variável foi 2,6% e verificou-se no estudo de atitudes linguísticas que os núcleos familiares, geralmente compostos por avós, pais, irmãos, tios e tias, influenciam as práticas sociais, linguísticas e culturais na comunidade. Os resultados evidenciaram também que a escolaridade contribui para as atitudes, com práticas linguísticas em português brasileiro local no ambiente escolar, pois os falantes se orientam à cultura brasileira e à fala em português brasileiro local e buscam fugir ao estereótipo (LABOV, 2008 [1972]) do desvozeamento das plosivas.
... But do e-mails, for instance, really make for similar relationships, irrespective of whether they are queries, requests, invitations, or complaints? These kinds of communication are the realm of qualitative approaches to communication like conversation analysis and interactional sociolinguistics (Schegloff 2007;Schiffrin 1994;Tannen 2004). Their methods should be picked up on to complement the formal analysis of events in networks. ...
... Sociolinguistics examines language with regard to the social context, for example the intermingled use of two languages in multi-cultural contexts (Gumperz 1982). Interactional sociolinguistics observes the impact of this context on the interaction between the people involved, linking Gumperz's micro-studies of linguistic meaning to Goffman's "participation framework" (Schiffrin 1994: 97ff;Tannen 2004). For example, discourse markers like "but" or "you know" link discourse units, and they position speaker and listener to each other (Schiffrin 1987). ...
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How can we detect and analyze network ties in non-reactive communication data? Previous network research mostly relies on the mere occurrence of events between actors (e.g., e-mails, citations). The paper proposes combining qualitative interpretation of communication and formal quantitative analysis. Conversation analysis and interactional sociolinguistics give us methods to qualitatively discern how actors are related in communication (relational meaning). This can be typified into kinds of relational events like “attack” or “support”. Types of social relationships (“alliance” or “conflict”) are characterized by specific combinations of relational events. These methods are used exemplarily to analyze a televised political debate between six party representatives in Germany. Three prominent types of relational events are identified qualitatively: interruptions that are supportive or adversarial, and accounts of action. Hierarchical cluster analysis shows these relational events to fall into four types of relations (alliance, all-out attack, moderate attack, ignore).
... The issue of attitudes to language and its culture is of great importance mainly in the language teaching classroom. Ammon (2004) states that the way learners respond to the target language culture affects their attitude towards the language itself. Khuwaileh (2000) suggests the same point of view and depicts language classroom as a group of several cultural variables .He asserts that culture always manages to become part of the language classroom .Moreover, the introduction of target culture in foreign language classroom leads to improving the social attitude as well as increasing the positive view point towards the target language community. ...
... As shown in Table (3), results indicate that the overwhelming majority of the learners have positive attitudes towards learning the Arabic culture and have reacted strongly towards integrating Arabic culture in the classroom as well as in the textbooks .These results are in line with Cook (2000) who stated that positive attitudes ease the learning process and help to gain insight into the language learning and teaching process. Furthermore, these results correspond with Khuwaileh (2000) and Ammon (2004) who confirmed that the introduction of the target culture in foreign language classroom leads to improving the social attitude as well as increasing the positive view point towards the target language and the target language community. ...
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This paper investigates attitudes of non-native learners towards learning aspects of Arabic culture. To achieve the goal of the study, the researchers used a questionnaire. The sample included 43 students enrolled at Ali Baba International Center, Qasid Arabic Institute and Modern Arabic Language International Center (MALIC). Results showed that the non-native learners of Arabic have positive attitudes towards Arabic culture and they favored aspects such as rules and behaviors, customs and festivals, political institutions, history, family life and food.
... Современная социопрагматическая теория языка исходит из тезиса о том, что центральным феноменом социальной жизни является потребность в коммуникации. Именно от потребности в коммуникации зависит "[der Grad] der Komplexität der Koordinierungsaufgaben, die durch Sprache gelöst werden müssen (= степень сложности координационных задач, которые должны быть разрешены посредством языка)" [Mattheier 1988[Mattheier : 1436 . . . jede Sprache [ist] eine Widerspiegelung des Kommunikationsbedarfs einer Gesellschaft. ...
... Эволюцию языка, с точки зрения исторической социолингвистики и лингвопрагматики, предлагается рассматривать в том числе как эволюцию исторического языка [Mattheier 1988[Mattheier : 1432Giova nar di 1999: 18-24;Koch 1988;Dräxler 1989: 18-28;Berutto 2004], в том смысле, какой придавал этому термину Эуженио Косериу: ...
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This paper examines the notion of ‘language history,’ which has taken on a different meaning in the Russian linguistic tradition compared to its usage by Western European scholars. The article starts with an analysis of contemporary Western European theories according to which one should consider language history as a historical discipline, and draw a clear distinction between language history and historical grammar. According to the currently accepted socio-pragmatic approach, the subject of language history is, first of all, the history of communication. It is this approach that is presented in the first section of the paper. The history of this notion is then further analyzed. The dichotomy between ‘language history’ vs. ‘historical linguistics’ is not entirely new but goes back to the dichotomy between ‘external’ and ‘internal’ language history, which was widespread at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries and still remains important. In the second section, the author compares linguistic studies in the sphere of historical Slavic studies from the last third of the 19th to the first decades of the 20th centuries to the contemporary theories in Western European historical linguistics in the context of the model of external and internal language history. It is the interpretation of the notion ‘literary language’ that is of special interest. In the works of historians of language from the late 19th–early 20th centuries, it was used interchangeably with the term ‘written language,’ i.e., the language of writing in general. The phenomenon of ‘written language’ constituted an aspect of the ‘external history of a language.’ In the theory of functional linguistics developed by the Prague linguistic circle, the notion of the ‘literary language’ acquired a new meaning, i.e., ‘standard language.’ However, in Soviet linguistics the new concept was denoted by the old term with a different tradition behind it. This led to a confusion regarding the concepts and the subjects of research: the separate aspect split off to form a new discipline—the history of literary language—which inevitably resulted in a reduced field of research. This matter is examined in the third segment of the paper. The concluding section returns to the socio-pragmatic approach to the history of language described at the beginning of the paper, suggesting an alternative model for the study of Russian language history, which should be regarded as the history of language and its usage.
... The clear advantage of phonetic transcriptions is that they provide the linguist reader with an accurate description of the target contact language. However, Ammon, et al. (2005) suggest that the diacritics used in some phonetic transcriptions make it rather hard to access the target linguistic item using electronic search tools. They thus suggest that compilers of creole speech-based corpora might consider improving the ease of access to the required piece of information by basing their transcription on the conventional spelling of the language rather than providing full phonetic transcriptions. ...
... Indeed, there can be other hindrances when transcribing the interviews. For example, choosing the appropriate transcription protocol can be problematic and controversial, especially since it greatly influences the questions that can be answered (see Todd 1990, Ammon, Dittmar, andMattheier 2005, see also the discussion in 1.4 ...
Chapter
The paper is a report of an investigation of factors influencing variation among expat speakers of Gulf Pidgin Arabic (GPA). Evidence from GPA indicates that the morpho-syntactic features of the pidgin speakers’ L1 have a very low impact on their choice of its variants. A significant relation between the subjects’ L1 and their GPA speech was only found in one feature, conjunction, out of six morho-syntactic features. Comparison between newcomers and long-term residents in the Gulf reveals that GPA speakers shift towards Gulf Arabic, the lexifier language in one feature only (conjunction). In the rest of the features, they either fossilise or shift towards a GPA norm.
... None of these are spoken natively by the majority or even a plurality of the population. Swahili, a Bantu language used as a lingua franca, is the language in which primary education is administered and literacy is taught (English is also used for this Linguistic Diversity: Basic Concepts and Implications for Reading Research purpose), but only 10% of the population speak Swahili as their native language, and fluency in Swahili as a second language varies among the adult population (Ammon et al., 2006). Thus, many children may not have sufficient exposure to this language prior to the start of schooling. ...
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It is generally assumed that learning to read involves a straightforward learning of the mappings from speech to spelling. Yet, the majority of the world’s children learn to read frst in a language or dialect that is not what they speak at home or in the neighborhood with their families and friends. Some of these children must learn to read frst in a foreign language (e.g., Bemba speakers in Zambia learning to read in English), but many are learning to read in a dialect that shares some similarities with the formal written word but that also differs substantially from it. Positioned within an extended ecological approach to literacy development (McBride, 2016), this Handbook highlights some of the theoretical and practical issues that a mismatch between dialect and literacy requirements involves. These include a variety of lin�guistic aspects, but they also affect individuals demonstrably at many levels, includ�ing psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, education, and many aspects of social interactions. A broad understanding of the interface between dialects and literacy acquisition is fundamental for all research that highlights interactions among lan�guage, literacy, and society. The current Handbook studies literacy acquisition at the intersection of sociolin�guistics and psycholinguistics by addressing literacy acquisition in diglossia and in dialectal contexts. The Handbook emanates from an international conference orga�nized in 2018 by Elinor Saiegh-Haddad and Lior Laks at Bar-Ilan University, Israel, under the auspices of the Israel Science Foundation (Grant number 2346/17) and the Arabic Language Academy in Israel. The conference brought together researchers from various regions across the world including Asia, Europe, the Far East, and North America to share research questions, methods, and fndings on literacy devel�opment in diglossic and in dialectal contexts. The Handbook at hand features some of the talks presented at the conference in 2018 and additional chapters addressing similar questions in various other regions and languages in the world. Some of the questions that are addressed include the following: How does dialect factor into literacy development and disorder in children? Which sociolinguistic features of dialectal contexts affect literacy acquisition? Is the role of sociolinguistic features of dialectal variation similar or different in different contexts and languages? Do dif�ferent dialectal contexts differ in the settings and functions of language, and do the differences yield different literacy outcomes for children? What are the milestones of literacy development in different dialectal contexts? How should educational assessment of language and literacy address sociolinguistic features of dialectal contexts? What are the most benefcial instructional practices for children raised in dialectal contexts. Given that the majority of the world’s children learn to read in a context that includes diglossia, dialectalism, and multilingualism, much more of an understand�ing of the complexities of these contexts is needed. The various perspectives offered in this Handbook underscore some of the most important issues in the feld of lit�eracy in relation to diglossia and dialectalism. We hope that this Handbook contrib�utes critically to inquiry that will beneft our children’s well-being and their prospects for success.
... Distinguish between 'natural' bilingualism and 'artificial' bilingualism, 'pure' and 'mixed' bilingualism, 'contact' and 'non-contact' bilingualism, 'individual' and 'mass' bilingualism. A review of recent sociolinguistic works has shown that the study of types of multilingualism is quite active: issues of language policy, problems of regional and local languages, attitudes towards native languages of representatives of different ethnic groups and their linguistic choice are investigated and discussed (Ammon et al., 2006;Glen, 2010;Millar, 2012). The issues of interaction of languages in international companies have been analyzed in a sociolinguistic way. ...
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The purpose of the research. This paper describes the linguistic situation in the oil industry of Kazakhstan. The linguistic situation in the oil industry of Kazakhstan is characterized by functioning of the trilingualism with three languages being used simultaneously – Kazakh, Russian and English. Methods and procedure of research. A survey was conducted among industry staff for the level identification of Kazakh-Russian-English trilingualism. Based on questionnaire method, we interviewed 600 oil industry specialists comparing the level of proficiency in the second and third languages, identifying the level of activity and particular spheres of communication for L1, L2, L3 for informants with different socio-demographic characteristics as well as individual motivations when choosing, studying and using the second and third languages Results. Obtained records point out that the forms of interaction of the Kazakh, Russian and English languages are far from being similar. Kazakhs who do not know their native language, but only understand certain phrases make up 2.7%. Statistical data analysis revealed that 80.6% of Kazakhs are fluent in Russian, 1.4% of Kazakhs do not know Russian, 1.0% of Kazakhs are able to understand certain phrases. The age groups of 21-25, 26-35, and 36-45 have the highest English speakers percentage. Conclusions. The Kazakh-Russian-English trilingualism is widespread among representatives of various social and professional groups of the oil industry, who speak their native Kazakh and Russian languages fluently, and also know how to communicate in English.
... None of these are spoken natively by the majority or even a plurality of the population. Swahili, a Bantu language used as a lingua franca, is the language in which primary education is administered and literacy is taught (English is also used for this Linguistic Diversity: Basic Concepts and Implications for Reading Research purpose), but only 10% of the population speak Swahili as their native language, and fluency in Swahili as a second language varies among the adult population (Ammon et al., 2006). Thus, many children may not have sufficient exposure to this language prior to the start of schooling. ...
Chapter
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Arabic is considered a classical case of diglossia because conventionally, one form of Arabic is spoken (SA) and another is used in the domain of written language (MSA). In the recent past, globalization of English-based technology, together with the absence of Arabic supporting keyboards, had resulted in the reliance on Latin script as the main writing system when communicating through computers (CMC). This writing was known as ‘Arabizi’, which represents Spoken Arabic (SA). The advent of Arabic supporting software has allowed the writing of SA in Arabic letters, but has not completely eradicated Arabizi. Although the use of Arabizi today is less ubiquitous than it was half a decade ago, its effects on the cognitive processes involved in literacy are scientifically interesting. The present chapter explores the way that Arabizi affected reading, writing, and personal and social dynamics in a sample of Arabic-speaking adolescents in 2014. We focused on three areas of inquiry: The first aimed to provide a description of writing practices, perceptions, and attitudes for the two writing systems, Arabizi and MSA. The second examined literacy skills and abilities in MSA and Arabizi. And the third tried to evaluate the stability of the Arabizi orthography in order to evaluate to which extent it is standardized.
... Em outras palavras, o comportamento linguístico de um indivíduo ou grupo é regulado por crenças construídas por ele em relação às línguas/variedades e às pessoas, por intermédio da família, escola, profissão, classe social e religião, entre outros. Assim, as atitudes são ajustadas pelo indivíduo de acordo com o grupo com o qual se identifica ou a que deseja pertencer (LE PAGE, 1980;KAUFMANN, 2006 Desse modo, deve-se reconhecer a importância das atitudes linguísticas na vida dos usuários de uma língua, pois elas são sobretudo atitudes sociais, estando em estreita relação com o sentimento de identidade de seus falantes. Tais apontamentos são fundamentais para que se interprete a substituição linguística em um contexto bilíngue e bicultural, como é o caso de São Bento de Urânia. ...
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Este artigo busca analisar o papel do sentimento de identidade para a manutenção ou a substituição da língua de um grupo minoritário. Especificamente, pretende-se analisar o processo de substituição da língua falada pelos imigrantes vênetos que se fixaram no distrito de São Bento de Urânia, em Alfredo Chaves, uma região bastante significativa para a história da imigração italiana no estado do Espírito Santo. Os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados para a obtenção dos dados foram: a aplicação de 118 questionários a moradores da comunidade de diferentes faixas etárias, a realização de 62 entrevistas semiestruturadas e a observação participante. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os sujeitos se identificam como descendentes de imigrantes italianos, sendo esse sentimento de identidade um forte fator da manutenção da língua vêneta, apesar da significativa perda de seus domínios de uso, no decorrer dos anos, relacionada a causas como a política de repressão do Estado Novo, na era Vargas; o papel da escola como instituição pública veiculadora de um ensino homogeneizador da língua portuguesa; e o preconceito linguístico.
... The ongoing growth experienced by the community of non-native speakers of English -whose members, according to Crystal (2008), outnumber the native English-speaking users roughly 4 to 1 -has created the appropriate conditions to study and describe the use of English as a Lingua Franca (henceforth ELF), i.e., as a "lingual medium of communication between people of different mother tongues, for whom it is a second language" (SAMARIN, 1987apud SEIDLHOFER, 2004. ...
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RESUMO: Este estudo tenciona investigar os aspectos de pronúncia que impediram a inteligibilidade entre três falantes brasileiros e três falantes franceses de inglês. Para tanto, além de identificar os fatores que causaram problemas de comunicação no nível fonológico, almejamos também relacionar tais fatores com o modelo de ensino proposto por Jenkins (2000), o Lingua Franca Core. Mais precisamente, o presente estudo objetiva responder às seguintes perguntas: 1) quais aspectos de pronúncia impediram a inteligibilidade entre seis falantes de inglês língua franca?; e 2) como os fatores identificados são abordados no modelo de pronúncia fornecido por Jenkins (2000)? A análise das interações envolvendo os seis participantes corrobora o modelo de ensino proposto por Jenkins (2000). PALAVRAS-CHAVE: pronúncia; inteligibilidade; inglês língua franca. ABSTRACT: This study aims at investigating the pronunciation aspects which hindered the intelligibility between three Brazilian and three French speakers of English. For this, besides identifying the factors which led to communication problems in the phonological level, we also intend to relate such factors to the teaching model proposed by Jenkins (2000), the Lingua Franca Core. More precisely, this study aims at answering the following questions: 1) what pronunciation aspects hindered the intelligibility of six speakers of English as a lingua franca?; and 2) how the factors identified are approached in the pronunciation model provided by Jenkins (2000)? The analysis of the interactions involving the six participants corroborates the teaching model proposed by Jenkins (2000).
... In diesem Sinne verknüpft bspw. die Ideologie des "homogeneism" (Elspaß & Niehaus 2014: 48) Bartsch 1987;Gloy 1975Gloy , 2004Vergeiner 2021 Wie Tabelle 1 zeigt, lässt sich das Datenmaterial von DiÖ und VAMUS nicht nur wegen der Befragungsmethode, sondern auch wegen ähnlicher Erhebungsräume, -zeitpunkte und ähnlich großer GP-Zahlen (> 100) gut vergleichen. Es bestehen allerdings gewisse Unterschiede bei den befragten Gruppen: Während im DiÖ-Korpus mehrere Untersuchungsorte berücksichtigt werden (je eine städtische und eine ländliche Schule in Salzburg und Tirol), beschränkt sich VAMUS auf nur einen Standort. ...
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Der vorliegende Beitrag zielt darauf ab, Varietätenkonzeptionen im sekundären und tertiären Bildungsbereich in Osterreich zu analysieren. Dabei wird gefragt, (a) was Sprecher/innen an Schule und Universität unter Varietäten wie DIALEKT und STANDARD verstehen, (b) wie sie sie jeweils bewerten und (c) welche normativen Erwartungen sie zu ihrer Verwendung in Bildungskontexten haben. Um diese Fragen zu beantworten, wurden halbstrukurierte Interviews einer inhaltsanalytischen Untersuchung zugeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass es sowohl an Schule als auch Universität zum Teil ähnliche Varietätenkonzepte gibt. Zugleich werden jedoch auch Ambiguitäten und Widersprüche zwischen beiden Bereichen ebenso wie innerhalb dieser offengelegt. Dies spiegelt die komplexe DIAGLOSSISCHE, z. T. auch DIGLOSSISCHE Situation in Osterreich, wo DIALEKT und STANDARD im Alltag gleichermaßen präsent sind und einzelne Varietäten regionen-, situations- und wohl auch individuenspezifisch unterschiedlich bewertet und verwendet werden. The aim of this paper is to analyse concepts of language varieties in secondary and tertiary education in Austria. The questions put forward are (a) what speakers’ notions of varieties such as dialect and standard are at schools and universities, (b) how they evaluate them and (c) what normative expectations they have for their use in educational contexts. To answer these questions, semi-structured interviews were subjected to a content analysis. The results show that there are some similar variety concepts at school and university. At the same time, however, ambiguities and contradictions between the two areas as well as within them are disclosed. This reflects the complex diaglossic and partly also diglossic situation in Austria, where dialect and standard are equally present in everyday life and individual varieties are evaluated and used differently depending on the region, situation and probably also on an individual basis.
... Vgl. für die Diskussion in der Linguistik bspw.Gloy (1975Gloy ( , 2004Gloy ( , 2012;Bartsch (1987);Hundt (2009);Vergeiner (i. Dr.). ...
Article
University teaching is characterised by an increasing international orientation, which in turn is accompanied by certain linguistic challenges. One main question in that respect is, which languages are considered to be appropriate in which contexts at university. The aim of the present article is to address this question by using the university of Salzburg as an example. Based on interview and questionnaire data, the norm concepts of both students and lecturers are investigated. The analyses show that in both groups most participants favour a German/English bilingualism at university. While the approval for German is triggered mostly by identity-related motivations, the expectations in favour of English are generally legitimized by its utility. Conversely, the use of other languages – migration languages (e. g. Turkish) as well as other widespread foreign languages (e. g. French) – is opposed. Regarding the situational conditions for the choice between German and English, the subject matters and the participant configurations are crucial. Especially in lingua franca contexts English is approved as a means for mutual comprehension. In general, the norm concepts also include a certain amount of linguistic tolerance and flexibility.
... Undoubtedly, it is not easy to give foreign language lessons to students so they can enjoy learning and take an interest in the subjects without the hard work of the teacher in delivering the subject matter (Al-khresheh, 2010&2011). Teachers need to prepare appropriate and applicable materials in conveying new vocabulary and letters of the foreign language that is new to students who have never before been studied in public schools especially for Japanese and Arabic lessons (Fairclough, 1989;Ammon, 2004;Blachman, Tangel, & Ball, 2004). Japanese, which has three letters (Hiragana-Katakana-Kanji) needs to be introduced with more applicable teaching methods so that the learning will be accepted by students well and pleasantly. ...
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Research Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose a plan that will effectively integrate a 3-years foreign language program of Arabic-English-Japanese in three different Islamic schools, “Madrasah Ibtida’iyah, Madrasah Tsanawiyah, and Madrasah Aliyah” in Cipadung Sub-District, Cibiru District. Research Method: The study utilizes a mix of both qualitative and quantitative research approach with a detailed analytical method. The research gathered its primary data by the school (madrasah) statistics, for example, curriculum activity assessments, student’s involvement in the lecture, test scores, sample questionnaires, and some sample exercises. However, the data is analyzed by organizing the primary data in charts or graphs. Principal Findings: The main findings obtained from this study is, the implementation of smart and creative learning methodologies will create a student’s engaging and enjoyable learning environment. A properly designed curriculum developed teaching strategies, utilization of audio/visual resources boosts the student’s interest in learning foreign-language courses. Thus, the effective implementation of foreign-language-programs can create better growth opportunities for the youngsters of Indonesia. Application: The integration of three different foreign languages into a single curriculum is although very difficult, but once it is embedded in the course, it has several applications as well. This study is an inherent part of most academic research, which is based on creative curriculum designs for schools and colleges. This is also impactful and suitable in modern technological based teaching and learning research activities. Novelty/Originality of this study: The novelty that makes this study more prominent as compared to the previous ones is the blend of technology in the traditional way of teaching. The use of audio/visual gadgets firmly grasps the interest of students of all ages throughout the lecture. Similarly, the smartly planned curriculum based on student’s caliber has ultimately helped in advancing the existing knowledge of each understudied student.
... This account is managed in a closed manner so that the series of conversations between people who will meet is supervised directly by the admin. Through this account, many followers have successfully married (Saifullah, 2018;Ammon, 2004;Bell, 2005;Blachman, Tangel, & Ball, 2004;Cook, 1991;Fairclough, 1989). ...
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Purpose: This study aims to analyze the perception of the millennials of Javanese, Sundanese, and Minang in choosing a spouse, arranged marriage, and forced marriage based on a West Sumatra’s ancient manuscript, al Mu'āsharah by Sheikh Abdul Laṭīf Shakūr. Methodology: This research is a quantitative study using a questionnaire as a method and instrument. Based on the variables contained in the manuscript, a closed statement questionnaire was compiled and responded by 111 respondents using purposive sampling. SPSS was used for data analysis and results formulation. Main Findings: The results show that the female’s millennials still adhere to noble values in determining future husbands such as taqwa and good character, good health, broad-minded, and wise. The difference of opinion between the groups lies in the appearance of the prospective husband and the pleasure in receiving gifts. Meanwhile, the male’s millennials also want a future wife who has good morals, comes from a good family, and has a beautiful face. The differences of opinion of the groups are in the age and status variables of the prospective wife. In terms of arranged marriages and forced marriages, all refused to be married to people they unknown, even though the parents are the ones who forced them. They choose ta’aruf as a method of introducing a spouse before marriage. Implications/Applications: The findings of this research can be helpful for readers in understanding the phenomena of marriages in Islam and characteristics prefer while choosing a spouse. Novelty/Originality of this study: The number of sites and online matchmaking accounts both Muslim and non-Muslim has an influence on Indonesian Muslims who have diverse tribes. Dating selection is not only based on pleasure through the appearance and profile displayed online, but the in-depth search is required. This study has highlighted matchmaking preferences in Javanese culture and also analyzed aspects of Islam based on the work of scholars then compare it with other ethnicities in Indonesia.
... Intonation can deliver syntactic and semantic signals. At a pragmatic level, Pike (1964) explained that differences in pitch configurations in speech can imply a change in the relationship of the speaker or sentence to his environment (Pike, 1964;Ammon, 2004;Cook, 1991;Fairclough, 1989). Inaccuracies in the use of intonation patterns in certain communication contexts and their interpretation can lead to failure of delivery and meaning of messages. ...
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Purpose: Ideally, students as future educators of the Arabic language are required to possess competent language skills. However, it was discovered that the students were still lacking knowledge and skills in speaking with accurate intonation. Therefore, the researchers aimed to analyze the application of the intonation pattern to the students. This research examined the intonation pattern of interrogative sentences of Arabic Education students and its acceptance by native speakers as well as its implications on the learning of mahārah al-kalām. Methodology: Data sources in this research consisted of primary data and secondary data. Documentation, interview, and observation methods were used for data collection. The data was processed digitally with the Praat version 6.1.01 program. Main Findings: The results were that students could apply the intonation pattern of Arabic interrogative sentences and were accepted by native speakers with varied acceptance values. Implications/Applications: The implications of the learning mahārah al-kalām demonstrated that students and lecturers could apply the principles and fulfil the components of Arabic in general. Novelty/Originality of this study: Inaccuracy in concluding by listeners of messages delivered by speakers can occur due to misperceptions caused by the use of unsuitable intonation patterns. The inaccuracy in applying this intonation pattern also occurs in the speech of Arabic education students. However, currently, there is no research that further inquiries the results obtained in the realm of foreign language education, particularly on speaking skills. This study has investigated the application of the interrogative sentence intonation patterns spoken by students and their implications for learning speaking skills.
... Vgl. für die linguistische Diskussion beispielsweiseDittmar und Schmidt-Regener (2001);Takahashi (2004);Gloy (1975Gloy ( , 1995Gloy ( , 2004; vgl. auchBartsch (1987);Dovalil (2006);Hundt (2009); Vergeiner (2019a).Sprachnormbezogene Akkommodation ...
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This paper examines the relationship between accommodation processes and social norms in varietal choice within tertiary education in Austria. The investigation consists of (a) a content analysis of metalinguistic statements in semi-structured interviews and (b) a variable rule analysis of actual language variation in university lectures. The findings show that there are norms prescribing that listeners must have at least be able to comprehend a particular variety, whereas accommodation to actual language use does not appear to be required to the same extent. However, the norms depend strongly on group membership: while there is a norm prescribing the use of the standard variety in the presence of speakers of German as a foreign language, there is no such norm for Austrians vis-à-vis people from Germany, although speakers from both groups may lack the ability to understand the respective nonstandard varieties. This difference can be explained by the sociocultural context and differing language attitudes.
... The term "standard variety" cannot be discussed here. SeeAuer (2011) andAmmon (2004) for a discussion.Grammatical features ...
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... Age is also one of the most important that cause variations in the language in the community. According to Ammon (2006Ammon ( : 2334 "Age is a core" factor "taken into account in sociolinguistic variations. The age of stratification of linguistic variables (how, on average, one of the most diffuse uses) is to reflect change in one or both two senses: (a) change in the normative speech of the community over time (indicating historical change); (b) change in speech of individuals as they move through life. ...
... In the last few decades, the debate on the methodological, theoretical and practical implications of the complex relationship between language and society has been a major focus of linguistic research. This has spawned a number of important studies (for some recent and useful surveys, see: Coulmas, 1997;Ammon et al., 2006;Wardhaugh, 2006;Mesthrie, 2011) aiming not only to define the exact position of sociolinguistics among language sciences but also to identify its purpose, its areas of interest and the issues to be investigated. ...
... Furthermore, Tshivenda is a tonal language and acoustic prominence is awarded to the penultimate syllable of the last word in a sentence. Tshivenda is an agglutinative code with a very complex morphology and its orthography makes extensive use of diacritic symbols for the representation of speech sounds foreign to English (Ammon 2006;Meshtri 2002;Van Wyk 1966). These salient features differ distinctly from English and, although not the focus of this study, may account for some of the challenges faced by learners. ...
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... Y dado que la sintaxis histórica depende en una gran medida de las obras literarias para obtener datos de lengua, este individualismo, carente de interés, en principio, para la gramática, no así para la estilística, queda reflejado en las diacronías sintácticas. La consecuencia lingüística esperada de este desarrollo es que se reduzcan los cambios en la lengua o se hagan más lentos porque, como ya comenté al inicio de este trabajo, la imprenta produce un efecto de generalización de formas y construcciones, además de que las sociedades cultas opacan la oralidad mucho más que las comunidades iletradas y, por lo tanto, se oculta el dinamismo de la lengua en su uso real oral (Haugen 1966;Ammon 2004). Pero al mismo tiempo, el siglo XVII es un periodo de una elevada sensibilización lingüística, de una fuerte conciencia de lengua y de una alta elaboración lingüística, manifestadas en la constante crítica ejercida por los escritores, en las tertulias, en la creación de academias y en el teatro, entre otros, al punto de que Menéndez Pidal (1991: 173) habla de la "literaturización del habla común" en el periodo de los Austrias. ...
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Der Umstand, dass Grammatikschriften miteinander in mannigfaltigen Beziehungen stehen und durch die Auseinandersetzung mit vorangegangenen sprachbeschreibenden Werken wirkmächtige Traditionslinien ausbilden, gehört seit Jahrhunderten zu den von Verfasserinnen und Verfassern solcher Texte gerne aufgegriffenen Gemeinplätzen. Während Wechselbeziehungen auf theoretischer Ebene (etwa im Zuge der Frage nach der Evolution verschiedener Grammatikmodelle) regelmäßig zum Gegenstand meta-grammatikographisch angelegter germanistischer Forschung werden, wurde das breite Feld der in den Texten herangezogenen Sprachbeispiele sowie des zugehörigen Bewertungsvokabulars bisher nur selten dafür verwendet, die Tiefe der Verflechtungen zwischen einzelnen Grammatiktexten auszuloten und die materielle Gestalt entsprechender Traditionen zu eruieren. Noch seltener gerieten dabei Impulse aus dem Bereich des Deutschen als Fremdsprache in den Fokus. Die vorliegende Arbeit, deren Fundament ein umfangreiches Korpus einschlägiger deutsch- sowie englischsprachiger Grammatiktexte der deutschen Sprache bildet, hat vor diesem Hintergrund ein zweifaches Erkenntnisinteresse: Zum einen macht sie sich – im Sinne variationslinguistischer Grundlagenforschung – zur Aufgabe, den Umgang mit Varianten in der germanistischen Grammatikographie zwischen 1958 und 2015 mit den Mitteln computergestützter qualitativer Datenanalyse zu skizzieren. Zum anderen wird versucht, anhand dieser Wissensbestände intertextuelle Verweisstrukturen zu rekonstruieren, um so einen tieferen Einblick in die historische Genese dessen zu gewinnen, was als deutscher Grammatikkodex bezeichnet werden könnte. Dabei deutet sich nicht zuletzt an, dass einzelne englischsprachige Publikationen stark am grammatikographischen Diskurs partizipieren und das engmaschige Textnetz gerade zu Beginn des Untersuchungszeitraums von prägnanten Impulsen aus dem fremdsprachlichen Raum profitiert.
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Book
Die sprachliche Verwandtschaft zwischen Latein und Italienisch waren im Mittelalter nur vage bekannt. Dies ändert sich mit einer Diskussion im Jahre 1435, an der maßgebliche Humanisten wie Leonardo Bruni und Flavio Biondo beteiligt sind, die sich im Geiste der Rückbesinnung auf die Antike fragen, welche Sprache, d.h. welche Art von Latein, die Römer einst gesprochen haben mögen. Hieraus entspinnt sich nun eine Debatte (bis 1601) zwischen Lateinhumanisten und Vulgärhumanisten, an deren Ende sich die Erkenntnis durchsetzt, dass sich das Italienische (und andere romanische Sprachen) aus dem gesprochenen Latein der Antike, dem Vulgärlatein, herleitet. Die sprachwissenschaftliche Aufarbeitung dieser Debatte im Rahmen der italienischen Sprachenfrage (questione della lingua) ist Ziel und Gegenstand vorliegender Abhandlung.
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Este terceiro número do volume dezoito da Revista do GEL apresenta nove artigos da edição temática “O contato linguístico e a área transatlântica”, organizada pelos professores doutores Alexander Yao Cobbinah (USP, Brasil), Carlos Filipe Guimarães Figueiredo (UM, Macau, China) e pela professora doutora Márcia Santos Duarte de Oliveira (USP, Brasil). Além disso, esse número apresenta seis artigos do fluxo ordinário e uma resenha crítica, em que são discutidas diferentes materializações do fenômeno linguístico por meio da Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional, Análise Crítica do Discurso, Ecolinguística, Sintaxe Funcional, Sociolinguística Laboviana, Morfologia Prosódica, Gramática do Design Visual, Teoria da Metáfora e Metonímia Conceptuais e Historiografa da Linguística.
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Die Frage, was Sprecherinnen und Sprecher von ihrer eigenen Sprache wissen und wie sie ihr gegenüber eingestellt sind, wurde von der Forschung von einigen Seiten beleuchtet. Allerdings steht bisher eine gemeinsame theoretische wie empirische Basis noch aus. Der vorliegende Sammelband gibt deshalb einen Überblick über die aktuellste Forschung auf dem Gebiet der Laienlinguistik und versammelt Beiträge mit neuen theoretischen Impulsen, innovativen methodischen Ansätzen sowie praktischer Forschung.
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The aim of this study was to check out the status of English language after the decision of Supreme Court of Pakistan about Urdu language to be declared as official language of Pakistan in 2015. Urdu language being national language of Pakistan has been facing threats of extinction due to over emphasis being given to the English language which is being used as official language of Pakistan for last many decades. A self-report questionnaire was used to check out the status of English language with perspective of the opinion and observations of the common masses. The study was survey based research and adopted mixed method approach to gather and interpret data. 423 males and 177 females were selected as a sample through using multi-staged sampling technique. In first stage systematic and then convenient sampling techniques used to get information from the respondents. The maximum 56.33 percent of the respondents were strongly agree that English is the leading language of science and technology. The maximum 75.67 percent of the respondents were strongly agree that English language is necessary for the usage of internet and computer. However on the other hand, a maximum 75.16 percent of the respondents were strongly agree that people feel difficulty to exchange ideas in English language. It was found that people from different fields of life acknowledge the importance of English language at personal or official level, however they were in favor of giving due importance and credit to the Urdu language as well. Keywords: language policy of Pakistan, English as international language, native language, foreign language
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O presente trabalho propõe o estudo da formação de redes de apadrinhamento, buscando investigar sua utilização como estratégia de atuação e reprodução social entre as famílias de uma comunidade sul-rio-grandense em meados do século XVIII. Para tanto, faz uso de fontes eclesiásticas, registros de batismo sobretudo, além de outros materiais auxiliares, a fim de promover o mapeamento de tais redes. O recorte estabelecido abrange o período de 1747, data do primeiro registro de batismo da freguesia de Nossa Senhora da Conceição de Viamão, até 1773, momento em que ocorreu a transferência da Câmara de Vereadores para Porto Alegre, totalizando 1384 registros analisados. As análises foram realizadas a partir do recurso às ferramentas Análise de Redes Sociais (SNA, na sigla em inglês), como ferramenta de ensaio, interpretação e crítica. A partir do mapeamento e análise dessas redes de apadrinhamento, procuramos comparar como a instituição do compadrio era utilizada pelos diferentes agentes sociais naquela sociedade, abordando sua apropriação enquanto estratégia social por diferentes estratos e grupos. Como resultado, identificamos que o compadrio era utilizado de forma consistente enquanto estratégia de atuação social por aquela comunidade, embora não fosse a única forma de interação social de que se dispunha, nem tampouco tenha tido um uso exclusivamente estratégico, do ponto de vista do ganho social. De modo geral, observou-se que as redes do compadrio estavam incorporadas às práticas costumeiras daquela sociedade, constituindo parte importante das sociabilidades locais, embora tenham sido apropriadas de maneiras distintas pelos diferentes agentes que às compunham.
Research
In a networked global environment in which every single educational institution is visible to each other and with the increase in the weight of global dimension, it is no longer possible for them to seal themselves off the global effect. The English language, in this regard plays a pivotal role because it helps in the network of globalization full throttle. The growing impact of globalization in today's world and the role of English in this is inescapable.English, from the day of-Macaulay's minute‖ has been internalized by the Indiansand today it has become an important part and parcel of our daily life. It has not only helped India connect globally but also helped bring the people of the country to the forum of international arena.This paper attempts to show the role of English in developing the Indian nation thereby depicting the aspect of internalizing the language by the people of the country. During the initial stages of the British rule in India, anynotionofEnglishas a true world language was but a dim , shadowy, theoretical possibility surrounded by various political uncertainties and lacking any clear definition or sense of direction. Suddenly, within a span which can be numerically counted , World English exists as a political and cultural reality today. There was a dramatic linguistic shift in less than a lifetime..English has been lauded as the most ‗successful' language ever, with 1,500 million speakers worldwide. Although the history of English Language is traced back to 31st December, 1600 but English education was in fact introduced in India in the middle of the 19th century when the 3 universities got established one each at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1857.English people came to India with the English language, culture and attitude. Since the English men had come here for the purpose of trade, in the beginning, they did not bother to encourage the teaching of English, and they concentrated their attention only on trade. But with them had come some missionaries who started schools where English was taught as one of the subjects. Initially they did not encourage teaching of English as they feared that they might lose their colonies in India as they did in America. The Senate of University of Calcutta adopted a resolution in 1861 that all examinations should be conducted in English and thus schools were compelled to introduce English at an early stage. When British introduced the modern system of English over a hundred years ago, the study of English was an important part of the liberal and humanistic discipline. English language was initially a major setback because of the prevailing psychological attitude in the minds of the people. People , basically stuck to their own regional dialects and not before the initiation of English as the medium of education did it come to the forefront. Finally , after the introduction of-Macaulay's minute‖, the language made rapid strides and the Indians, though reluctant before, slowing started getting accustomed to the so called ‗alien' English.-itis possible to make natives of this country speak English through teaching good English by Scholars‖ (Minute, T.B. Macaulay, 2nd Feb,1835.) The regionalization of the medium of instruction at the university level resulted in an adequate exposure to the English language. A number of commissions and study groups stressed the need for the rationalization of the English curricula, textbooks and examinations.The Radhakrishnan Commission (1948) recommended the continuance of the study of English. The Kunzru Committee (1955) stressed the importance the special methods in ELT and he study of linguistics as the essential prerequisite for ensuring adequate proficiency in English at the university level.According to the recommendations of theofficial language commission (1956) English should be taught as ‗ a language of comprehension rather than as a literary language so as to develop in the students learning it a faculty comprehending writings in the English language , more specially those relating to the subject matter of their specialized fields of study'. Kothari commission emphasized the role of English as a library language. English teaching in India is the world's largest democratic enterprise of its kind, an economic necessity and Indian have realized that they have the-English advantage‖ over many countries like China and Japan. India today is the third largest English using country in the world, after the United States of America and the United Kingdom. India has shed its colonial complies towards English and has come to term with the language; Indians have separated the English language from the English culture. Today English language has attained such a position that it has emerged to be the global language in a multilingual country.The level of introduction of English is now a matter of political response to people's aspirations rather than an academic or feasibility issue. That knowledge of English is the passport for employment at higher levels in all fields, is the unavoidable avenue to status and wealth and is mandatory to all those planning to migrate abroad, has inevitably made the Indians internalize the language and see it as an indispensable organ of the people in order to establish themselves at the global stage. Indians have now associated themselves in globalization process heavily with the help of English Language. In 1950, the case for English as a world language would have been no more than plausible. Fifty years on, and the case is virtually unassailable' (David Crystal, English as a global language, p. 63).English is in India today a symbol of people's aspirations for quality ineducation and a fuller participation in national and international life. Its colonial origins now forgotten or irrelevant, its initial role in independent India, tailored to higher education (as a-library language‖, a-window on the world‖), now felt to be insufficiently inclusive socially and linguistically, the current status of English stems from its overwhelming presence on the world stage and the reflection of this in the national arena.
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The present article focuses on teachers' and students' concepts of language norms in the realm of higher education in Austria. Starting from a discussion of (language) norm concepts, the article presents a comparative quantitative and qualitative study on results from two projects on teachers' as well as students' language perceptions and language attitudes at the University of Salzburg and at four vocational schools in the regions of Salzburg and Tyrol. Thema des Beitrags sind Sprachnormvorstellungen und -erwartungen an sekundären und tertiären Bildungseinrichtungen in Österreich. Ausgehend von einer Diskussion des sprachlichen Normbegriffs werden im Beitrag quantitative und qualitative Befunde zweier Projekte zu Wahrnehmungen und Einstellungen von Lehrenden und Lernenden – zum einen an der Universität Salzburg, zum anderen an vier Handelsschulen und Handelsakademien in Salzburg und Tirol – präsentiert und in Bezug auf Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede verglichen.
Conference Paper
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Over the last two decades, many researchers investigated the presence of written languages in public space and their proportion to each other. Along with the enhancement of the discipline, the question arose how passers-by perceive the linguistic landscape (LL) and to what extent the signs impact on their language behaviour. This study pursues an interdisciplinary approach and adopts the methodological principles used within perceptual psychology to explore the pedestrians’ reactions on the LL. By means of experiments and interviews conducted in the multilingual town Aosta in Italy, the level of attention paid to the signs and the manner of verbalising their content was analysed. The results of the pilot study prove that the psychological method is fruitful for unveiling the laypersons’ degree of consciousness and for explaining their responses to the LL.
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The Polish language in intergenerational transmission in homogeneous and mixed families in the Lviv region The aim of this article is to analyse the conditions of intergenerational transmission of the Polish language in homogenous and mixed families in Sambir and Dobromyl in Ukraine. 21 families took part in the survey: 13 Polish couples, 6 Polish-Ukrainian and 2 Ukrainian of Ukrainian-Polish origin. The study is based on four layers of data: firstly, semi-structured interviews and unstructured interviews with children and young people from each family (7–25 years of age); secondly, interviews with parents and grandparents; thirdly, family observation and, additionally, interviews with neighbours and friends of the families. The database of analysed audio recordings consists of conversations with 92 respondents (approximately 120 hours). The comparison shows that in Polish families the home language is Polish. Mixed couples, in turn, adopt one of two solutions: parents either apply the one parent – one language strategy (5 couples), or talk to their children in Ukrainian (1 couple). In families who rely on the former principle, in conversations among more household members and among the children themselves the Ukrainian language usually has an advantage. In the case of two Ukrainian couples of Ukrainian-Polish origin, the transmission of the Polish language was discontinued in previous generations: in one case the young participants of the study learned Polish in their childhood from their great-grandmother, in the other – on their own. Children from the presented families (with the exception of the family from Nyzhankovychi near Dobromyl) attended Polish Saturday schools; they also take part in the life of the local Roman Catholic parishes. The interviews and observations lead to the conclusion that the oldest people play a very important role in the transmission of Polish to next generations, especially in three-generation families living in the same household. Close relations between grandchildren and their Polish grandparents strengthen the position of the Polish language in everyday communication and foster their positive emotional attitude to the language. The study also confirms that most young people of Polish descent have a positive attitude towards emigration to Poland, which stems from difficult economic and political situation in Ukraine. The position of the Polish language is twofold: it is associated with the tradition and past of one’s own family on the one hand, and with the future on the other. Polszczyzna w transmisji międzypokoleniowej w rodzinach jednolitych i mieszanych we Lwowskiem Celem artykułu jest analiza uwarunkowań transmisji międzypokoleniowej języka polskiego w małżeństwach jednolitych oraz mieszanych w Samborze i Dobromilu na Ukrainie. W badaniu wzięło udział 21 rodzin: 13 małżeństw polskich, 6 polsko-ukraińskich i 2 ukraińskie o ukraińsko-polskim pochodzeniu. Na potrzeby opracowania wykorzystano cztery warstwy danych: po pierwsze – wywiady częściowo standaryzowane (ustrukturyzowane) oraz swobodne rozmowy z dziećmi i młodzieżą z każdej rodziny (7–25 lat), po drugie – z rodzicami i dziadkami, po trzecie – obserwacje życia codziennego rodzin, i dodatkowo – wywiady z sąsiadami i znajomymi opisywanych rodzin. Na bazę analizowanych nagrań audio składają się rozmowy z 92 respondentami (około 120 godzin). Zestawienie pokazuje, że w rodzinach polskich językiem domowym jest polski. W małżeństwach mieszanych wprowadzono jedno z dwóch rozwiązań. Rodzice albo stosują strategię jeden rodzic – jeden język (5 par), albo rozmawiają z dziećmi po ukraińsku (1 para). W małżeństwach wykorzystujących zasadę jeden rodzic – jeden język, we wspólnych rozmowach domowników, w tym dzieci między sobą, z reguły przewagę zyskuje język ukraiński. W wypadku małżeństw ukraińskich, transmisja języka polskiego została przerwana w poprzednich generacjach. Młodzi uczestnicy badania nauczyli się języka polskiego: w jednej rodzinie – w dzieciństwie od prababci, w drugiej – samodzielnie. Dzieci z przedstawianych rodzin (za wyjątkiem rodziny z Niżankowic pod Dobromilem) uczyły się w polskich szkołach sobotnich. Łączy je też udział w życiu miejscowych parafii rzymskokatolickich. Wywiady i obserwacje prowadzą do wniosku, że bardzo ważną rolę w przekazie polszczyzny następnym pokoleniom odgrywają seniorzy, zwłaszcza w mieszkających razem rodzinach trójpokoleniowych. Bliskie kontakty wnuków z dziadkami-Polakami wzmacniają pozycję języka polskiego w codziennej komunikacji, wpływają też na pozytywny emocjonalny stosunek dzieci do tego języka. Badania potwierdzają ponadto, że wśród młodzieży polskiego pochodzenia utrzymuje się orientacja emigracyjna (wyjazdy na studia i do pracy do Polski), na co ma wpływ trudna sytuacja gospodarcza i polityczna na Ukrainie. Pozycja języka polskiego jest dwojaka: z jednej strony jest kojarzony z tradycją i przeszłością własnej rodziny, z drugiej – z przyszłością.
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Oparta na teorii lingwistyki kontaktu monografia została poświęcona zapożyczeniom angielskim w środowiskowej odmianie języka polskiego, używanej przez pracowników korporacji w Polsce. Zjawisko zapożyczania stało się jednym z centralnych punktów zainteresowania lingwistów już w wieku XIX. Wtedy jeden z pionierów badań nad kontaktem językowym, Schuchardt (1884: 5) stwierdził, że „Nie istnieje język w pełni niezmieszany” (niem. „Es gibt keine völlig ungemischte Sprache”). Także współcześni językoznawcy podkreślają, że tzw. czyste języki naturalne nie istnieją: „W kontaktach językowych zjawisko zapożyczania jest nieuniknione. Zachodzi ono w mniejszym lub większym stopniu we wszystkich językach i we wszystkich epokach” (Mańczak-Wohlfeld 2006: 9). Z kolei Smółkowa (2001: 88) pisze: „Zapożyczanie z innych języków jest bez mała immamentną cechą języka. Żaden język nie może rozwijać się w izolacji. Ewolucja języka to m.in. historia pożyczek”. Tego typu zmiany zachodzące współcześnie w polszczyźnie powstają najczęściej na gruncie kontaktu z językiem angielskim, mającym status lingua franca świata zglobalizowanego. Obecna ekspansja angielszczyzny wiąże się ze zjawiskami i trendami typowymi dla zglobalizowanego, konsumpcyjnego świata Zachodu. Angielski zatem stał się językiem biznesu, nauki, popkultury i komunikacji, w tym także komunikacji prowadzonej przez media społecznościowe pomiędzy ludźmi z różnych części świata. Angielszczyzna w wymiarze komunikacyjnym dawno przestała być jedynie narzędziem rodzimych użytkowników oraz obywateli krajów postkolonialnych. Obecnie wykorzystywana jest również w obrębie tzw. Expanding Circle (Kachru 1992), czyli kręgu użytkowników posługujących się angielskim jako przyswojonym językiem obcym. Co istotne z punktu widzenia celu pracy, angielski zyskał również miano lingua franca komunikacji korporacyjnej (Boussebaa, Sincha, Gabriel 2014). Istnienie środowiskowej odmiany języka polskiego w obrębie korporacji w Polsce jest bezpośrednio uwarunkowane stałym kontaktem z angielszczyzną, stanowiącą podstawowe narzędzie komunikacji międzynarodowej społeczności korporacyjnej. Skutkiem tego kontaktu są procesy zapożyczania. Tzw. polszczyznę korporacyjną wyróżnia widoczna obecność elementów angielskich, cechujących się bogactwem form, językową plastycznością i nieusystematyzowanym uzusem. Omawiana odmiana języka polskiego jest na tyle rozpowszechniona, że zyskała potoczną nazwę korpomowy i stała się popularnym tematem m.in. artykułów w prasie, stron internetowych w serwisach społecznościowych czy gier. Warto podkreślić, że język ten jest często niezrozumiały dla Polaków spoza hermetycznego kręgu korporacyjnego, w tym także dla osób biegle władających językiem angielskim. Monografia składa się z siedmiu rozdziałów. Teoretyczno- metodologiczną część pracy stanowią rozdziały: I. Przedmiot badań, II. Teoria kontaktów językowych oraz III. Socjolingwistyczne tło świata korporacyjnego. Część materiałowa to następne trzy rozdziały: IV. Analiza materiałów z korporacji Motorola, V. Analiza badań ankietowych, VI. Wywiady z pracownikami korporacji. Książkę kończy rozdział VII: Wnioski końcowe. Do pracy dołączono dwa aneksy: słownik zapożyczeń angielskich używanych w polszczyźnie korporacyjnej oraz transkrypcję fragmentów wywiadów z pracownikami korporacji. W rozdziale I określono przedmiot podejmowanych badań, jakim jest środowiskowa odmiana języka polskiego funkcjonująca w korporacjach w Polsce. Opisano w nim cele i metody badawcze, zasady kompletowania materiału, jak również dotychczasowy stan badań nad polszczyzną korporacyjną. Elementy leksykalne o proweniencji anglo-amerykańskiej przenoszone na grunt polszczyzny korporacyjnej nie zostały dotąd jednoznacznie sklasyfikowane. Zasadniczym celem monografii była ich ekscerpcja i analiza. Wstępny etap badań polegał na określeniu statusu tychże elementów, co pozwoliło na stwierdzenie, że w ich przypadku można mówić o zapożyczeniach. W tym celu wykorzystano klasyczny podział zapożyczeń Haugena (1950), poszerzony o uwagi Mańczak-Wohlfeld (1995) oraz Witalisz (2007, 2016), po czym przedstawiono funkcje pełnione przez anglicyzmy w komunikacji korporacyjnej. Następnie wyodrębniono i opisano nową odmianę języka polskiego, zwaną potocznie, jak już wspomniano, korpomową. Dotychczas nie doczekała się ona gruntownego opisu językoznawczego. Zadanie to wiązało się bezpośrednio ze sporządzeniem charakterystyki kręgu pracowników korporacji w Polsce i przypisaniem tej społeczności do jednego z socjolingwistycznych modeli wspólnot. Ostatnim celem monografii było sporządzenie listy pożyczek powszechnie używanych w polskim środowisku korporacyjnym. Rozdział II pt. „Teoria kontaktów językowych” stanowi teoretyczną podstawę pracy. Przedstawiono w nim najważniejsze problemy związane z lingwistyką kontaktu. Centralnym zagadnieniem tej gałęzi językoznawstwa są zmiany w języku zachodzące pod wpływem kontaktu z innym językiem. Mimo iż lingwistykę kontaktu uznano za dziedzinę językoznawstwa dopiero w roku 1979 (Nelde 1997: 287), historia zainteresowania naukowców tego typu zagadnieniami sięga wieku XIX. W rozdziale przedstawiono krótki rys historyczny, uwzględniający różne poglądy językoznawców na zagadnienie kontaktu językowego. Odniesiono się również do pielęgnowanej przez wieki idei lingua franca, postrzeganej jako język znoszący bariery komunikacyjne w różnych epokach i miejscach na świecie. Nie został pominięty język angielski, dzięki któremu lingua franca po raz pierwszy zyskała oblicze globalne. Rozdział zakończony został krótkim opisem nowszych kontaktów języka polskiego z angielszczyzną, a więc tych, które miały miejsce po roku 1945. W rozdziale III nakreślono socjolingwistyczne tło świata korporacji. Scharakteryzowano w nim zjawisko globalizacji oraz opisano korporacje, będące podmiotami typowymi dla świata zglobalizowanego. Odniesiono się również do kwestii działalności przedsiębiorstw międzynarodowych w Polsce, prowadzonej w tzw. sektorze nowoczesnych usług biznesowych. Zarządy korporacji dostrzegają sprzyjającą koniunkturę i coraz częściej przenoszą swe siedziby nad Wisłę. Pracownicy korporacji w Polsce stanowią zatem ciągle poszerzającą się społeczność, liczącą ponad dwieście tysięcy osób (wg raportu sporządzonego przez ABSL, tj. Związek Liderów Sektora Usług Biznesowych w 2016 roku). Istotną część rozdziału stanowi rys socjologiczny społeczności korporacyjnej. Jego stworzenie jest wynikiem prób poszukiwania odpowiedniego modelu socjolingwistycznego, do którego można przypisać użytkowników badanej odmiany polszczyzny. Przedstawiona dyskusja objęła dwa modele wspólnot, to jest speech community (wspólnoty socjolektalnej) oraz community of practice (wspólnoty działań). Jej analiza doprowadziła do wniosku, że za odpowiedni model wspólnoty korporacyjnej należy uznać drugi z nich. Realizacja wymienionych w rozdziale I celów badawczych była możliwa dzięki odpowiedniemu doborowi materiału empirycznego, gromadzonego w latach 2012-2016. Został on zamieszczony w rozdziałach IV, V i VI, składających się, jak już zaznaczono, na materiałową część monografii i stanowiących trzy niezależne od siebie części analityczne, związane z różnorodnymi środowiskami oraz uwarunkowaniami funkcjonowania polszczyzny korporacyjnej. Na poszczególnych etapach badań posłużono się niezależnymi narzędziami, które umożliwiły zbadanie częstotliwości używania zapożyczeń w mowie i piśmie, sposobów i kontekstów ich użycia, jak również możliwych przyczyn ich występowania. Wykorzystano analizę statystyczną, analizę językową oraz pogłębiony wywiad jakościowy, przybierający charakter interakcji pomiędzy osobą prowadzącą a respondentem (Babbie 2007, Flicr 2010). Tak więc w rozdziale IV przedstawiono analizę dokumentów otrzymanych w roku 2014 drogą oficjalną od krakowskiego oddziału korporacji Motorola Solutions Systems. Było to możliwe dzięki współpracy korporacji z Uniwersytetem Jagiellońskim w zakresie wzajemnej wymiany doświadczeń oraz wiedzy merytoryczno-dydaktycznej, podjętej w roku 2013. Firma Motorola udostępniła kilka rodzajów dokumentacji w języku polskim oraz w języku angielskim: a) źródła pisane oficjalne (korespondencję mailową, wewnętrzne dokumenty i broszury), b) źródła pisane nieoficjalne (prywatne rozmowy pracowników Motoroli na komunikatorze wewnętrznym, prywatne komentarze pracowników). Materiały w języku polskim zostały przeanalizowane pod kątem występowania elementów angielskich, które poddano analizie językowej i statystycznej. Rozdział V przedstawia analizę dwóch badań ankietowych przeprowadzonych w Krakowie w roku 2015 i 2016. W tym celu wykorzystano autorski formularz ankiety opracowany na potrzeby niniejszej pracy. Badanie pierwsze z 2015 roku składało się z dwóch części. Ankiety rozdano pracownikom kilkudziesięciu różnych firm podczas targów pracy pt. „Dni Kariery” na Uniwersytecie Jagiellońskim oraz na Uniwersytecie Ekonomicznym. Grupa badawcza liczyła 84 respondentów. Badanie drugie przeprowadzono w 2016 roku na małej, czternastoosobowej grupie pracowników konkretnego działu jednej korporacji. Dobór tej właśnie grupy oparty był na założeniu, że jej charakterystyka może znacząco kontrastować z grupą poprzednią. W rozdziale VI streszczono materiał zebrany w trakcie wywiadów przeprowadzanych z pracownikami korporacji. Ten najdłuższy etap badań rozpoczął się w roku 2012, a zakończył w roku 2015. Polegał on na zapraszaniu poszczególnych osób z różnych firm do rozmów na temat ich pracy. Ze względu na zbyt dużą obszerność zgromadzonego materiału odniesiono się jedynie do kilku rozmów. Zostały one stranskrybowane i dołączone w formie aneksu na końcu pracy. Wszyscy rozmówcy wyrazili zgodę na nagrywanie wywiadów oraz na transkrypcję ich całości bądź fragmentów. Wymienione powyżej części zgromadzonego materiału, a więc dokumentacja z firmy Motorola Solutions, badania ankietowe oraz wywiady indywidualne złożyły się na korpus wykorzystany do przeprowadzenia analizy. Dokonano ilościowej i jakościowej obserwacji angielskich elementów leksykalnych. Analiza językoznawcza badanych jednostek objęła różne procesy adaptacyjne polegające na przystosowaniu anglicyzmów do systemu graficznego, morfologicznego i semantycznego języka polskiego, a w przypadkach, gdy to możliwe – także do fonetyki. Dzięki temu wywnioskowano, że istnieje możliwość klasyfikacji tego typu jednostek leksykalnych według stopnia ich przyswojenia. Analiza statystyczna umożliwiła znalezienie odpowiedzi na pytanie o skalę zjawiska zapożyczania elementów angielskich do codziennej komunikacji w korporacjach. Na podstawie analizy ustnych i pisemnych wypowiedzi pracowników korporacji wyszczególniono funkcje pełnione przez zapożyczenia angielskie w polszczyźnie korporacyjnej. Dobór tak heterogenicznych materiałów umożliwił określenie względnie szerokiego kontekstu funkcjonowania korporacyjnej odmiany języka polskiego, próbę jej klasyfikacji oraz opisu. W rozdziale VII przedstawiono wnioski końcowe. Dzięki przeprowadzonym badaniom wykazano m.in., że przenoszone na grunt polszczyzny jednostki leksykalne pochodzenia angielskiego można zasadnie określić zapożyczeniami. Przedstawiono różne ich stopnie asymilacji w języku polskim. Analiza statystyczna materiałów pisemnych wykazała, że najmniejszym procentowym udziałem anglicyzmów cechują się oficjalne publikacje korporacyjne (niecałe 2%), największym zaś rozmowy nieoficjalne pracowników na komunikatorze wewnętrznym (14%). Jednym z największych walorów stosowania zapożyczeń jest ekonomia wypowiedzi, a więc uproszczenie i przyspieszenie komunikacji uzyskane dzięki zwięzłości i precyzji przekazu. Ponadto istotnym praktycznym uzasadnieniem istnienia tego zjawiska są problemy tłumaczeniowe. Przejmowanie anglojęzycznej terminologii fachowej najczęściej spowodowane jest brakiem polskiego ekwiwalentu, jego niedostateczną precyzją lub koniecznością zastosowania nazwy opisowej w języku polskim. Ponadto korpomowa bywa elementem spajającym zespół pracowników. Sięganie po anglicyzmy może być spowodowane chęcią podkreślenia hermetyczności konkretnej wspólnoty i niekiedy bywa nieuzasadnione. Zdarza się także, że tendencja do bezkrytycznego sięgania po zapożyczenia wynika ze snobizmu językowego. Zdobyta wiedza pozwoliła na wprowadzenie pojęcia korpolekt (Cierpich 2015a, 2015b, 2017), które odnosi się do środowiskowej odmiany języka funkcjonującej w korporacjach w Polsce. Korpolekt jest terminem ogólnym (ang. umbrella term), który obejmuje i systematyzuje wiele socjolektów korporacyjnych wyodrębnianych w trakcie badań empirycznych, ułatwia uchwycenie jak najszerszego obrazu tej odmiany języka oraz umożliwia wprowadzenie nowej systematyki. Cechą charakterystyczną korpolektu jest widoczna obecność angielskich jednostek leksykalnych. Proces ich zapożyczania wiąże się bezpośrednio ze statusem języka angielskiego jako lingua franca komunikacji korporacyjnej. Na końcu pracy dołączono dwa aneksy. Pierwszym z nich jest alfabetyczny „Słownik zapożyczeń w korpolekcie”, zawierający najczęściej używane zapożyczenia o niespecjalistycznym znaczeniu, które funkcjonują powszechnie w większości korporacji w Polsce. Aneks drugi zawiera transkrypcję fragmentów wywiadów z pracownikami korporacji, które z powodu znacznej objętości zostały skrócone.
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This report is to be understood as an introduction to linguistic questions surrounding the analysis of language policy-planning, using the example of the EU as a supranational organization. It is intended to provide a first overview of the specificity of EU discourses on linguistic and cultural diversity.
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