Article

Reconciling productivity with protection of the environment: Is temperate agroforestry the answer?

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Meeting the needs for a growing world population calls for multifunctional land use, which can meet the multiple demands of food and fuel production, environmental and biodiversity protection, and has the capacity for adaptation or resilience to climate change. Agroforestry, a land-use system that integrates trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock production, has been identified by the International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) as a ‘win–win’ approach that balances the production of commodities (food, feed, fuel, fiber, etc.) with non-commodity outputs such as environmental protection and cultural and landscape amenities. Evidence is now coming to light that supports the promotion of agroforestry in temperate developed countries as a sustainable alternative to the highly industrialized agricultural model with its associated negative environmental externalities. This paper reviews this evidence within the ‘ecosystem services’ framework to evaluate agroforestry as part of a multifunctional working landscape in temperate regions. Establishing trees on agricultural land can help to mitigate many of the negative impacts of agriculture, for example by regulating soil, water and air quality, supporting biodiversity, reducing inputs by natural regulation of pests and more efficient nutrient cycling, and by modifying local and global climates. The challenge now lies in promoting the adoption of agroforestry as a mainstream land use through research, dissemination of information and policy changes.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Agroforestry is projected as a promising form of agro-ecological management 9 . Presently, there is discussion to include financial incentives linked to agroforestry's environmental performance as compared to cropland monocultures, e.g., in the European Common Agricultural Policy 10 . ...
... Open croplands in our study were conventionally managed rotations of crop-monocultures (receiving customary applications of fertilizers and agrochemicals; Supplementary Table 1) without trees; open grasslands were permanent grassland without any trees. We used multiple distinct indicators of different ecosystem functions 9 Table 1). We hypothesized that alley-cropping agroforestry will promote beneficial ecosystem functions as compared to open croplands or open grasslands and will foster multifunctionality. ...
... We hypothesized that alley-cropping agroforestry will promote beneficial ecosystem functions as compared to open croplands or open grasslands and will foster multifunctionality. Based on the ecosystem functions considered vital in assessing the benefits of agroforestry 9 , we quantified 47 indicators of seven ecosystem functions in croplands and 16 indicators of four ecosystem functions in grasslands (Supplementary Tables 2-4), which included the following: provision of food, fiber and fuel, carbon sequestration, soil nutrient cycling, habitat for soil biological activity, soil GHG abatement, water regulation, and erosion resistance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Intensively managed open croplands are highly productive but often have deleterious environmental impacts. Temperate agroforestry potentially improves ecosystem functions, although comprehensive analysis is lacking. Here, we measured primary data on 47 indicators of seven ecosystem functions in croplands and 16 indicators of four ecosystem functions in grasslands to assess how alley-cropping agroforestry performs compared to open cropland and grassland. Carbon sequestration, habitat for soil biological activity, and wind erosion resistance improved for cropland agroforestry (P ≤ 0.03) whereas only carbon sequestration improved for grassland agroforestry (P < 0.01). In cropland agroforestry, soil nutrient cycling, soil greenhouse gas abatement, and water regulation did not improve, due to customary high fertilization rates. Alley-cropping agroforestry increased multifunctionality, compared to open croplands. To ameliorate the environmental benefits of agroforestry, more efficient use of nutrients is required. Financial incentives should focus on conversion of open croplands to alley-cropping agroforestry and incorporate fertilizer management. Alley-cropping agroforestry enhances carbon sequestration compared to open cropland and open grassland, and improves soil biological habitat and erosion resistance relative to open cropland, based on measured ecosystem functions at five sites in Germany.
... Agroforestry systems take advantage of the mostly poorly understood interactions that occur amongst crops, trees and livestock. Agroforestry has been demonstrated to present numerous benefits which include conservation of biodiversity 1 , regulation of natural pests and diseases, regulation of soil, increased air and water quality, efficient cycling of nutrients, and resilience to climate change (Rao et al., 1997;Mateo-Sagasta et al., 2009;Smith et al., 2013;Khan et al., 2021). This form of land management is not a novel idea, and dates back to at least the middle ages in the developing world, and probably earlier in other cultures (Steppler and Nair, 1987). ...
... As the world population increases, there is a growing need for multi-functional land use systems that can meet the multiple demands of food and fuel production, environmental and biodiversity protection, and has the capacity for adaptation and resilience to climate change (Hislop and Claridge, 2000;Smith et al., 2013). Agroforestry can be a sustainable alternative to traditional agricultural practices by reducing its negative impacts by, for example, regulating soil, water, and air quality (Hislop and Claridge, 2000;Smith et al., 2013;Augère-Granie, 2020). ...
... As the world population increases, there is a growing need for multi-functional land use systems that can meet the multiple demands of food and fuel production, environmental and biodiversity protection, and has the capacity for adaptation and resilience to climate change (Hislop and Claridge, 2000;Smith et al., 2013). Agroforestry can be a sustainable alternative to traditional agricultural practices by reducing its negative impacts by, for example, regulating soil, water, and air quality (Hislop and Claridge, 2000;Smith et al., 2013;Augère-Granie, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Agroforestry can be defined as an agroecosystem whereby soil is used holistically and synergistically by various stakeholders including farmers, livestock, and plants. As such, agroforestry offers numerous benefits that include conservation of biodiversity, regulation of pests and diseases, increased quality of soil, air and water, efficient cycling of nutrients, and resilience to climate change. Review of published studies in agroforestry shows however that research in this area could benefit from increased real-time, spatial and temporal measurements. This situation is to be contrasted with that of precision agriculture in monocultures and precision livestock farming where progress made in sensor systems has attracted considerable research interest. It is advocated in this review article that wireless sensor networks could also significantly impact agroforestry through the monitoring of the local real-time interactions that occur between the various components constituting agroforestry systems. This review article proposes therefore the new field of data-driven agroforestry which lies at the intersection of precision agriculture, precision livestock farming, permaculture, and agroforestry. Data-driven agroforestry has the potential to not only help farmers harness the interactions between the different components of an agroforestry system to their advantage but also shine light on fundamental interactions between soil, plants, trees, and livestock while offering a sustainable agricultural method beneficial to all agroforestry stakeholders.
... Agroforestry is highly appreciated by farmers for its capacity to create a diverse farm economy and stimulating the entire rural economy (Walker, 2013). In light of increasing production, agroforestry supports the production of a wide range of products due to the diversity of planned species within the system (Smith et al., 2012). On the other hand, agroforestry has recently experienced a surge in interest, from the research and development communities, as a cost-effective means to enhance food security (Mbow et al., 2014). ...
... Agroforestry is a pathway toward more resilient livelihoods for millions of African farmers whose livelihoods are threatened by climate change and land degradation (Mbow et al., 2014). More general, integrating trees into the agricultural landscape has the potential to impact the local economy through diversi cation of local products, diversi cation of rural skills, improvements to the environment, landscape diversi cation, and economic stability (Smith et al., 2012). ...
... Barbieri and Valdivia (2010) indicated that agroforestry adoption is important as a means to increase the non-economic values of landscape beauti cation and maximization of recreational enjoyment. Evidence suggests the recreational value of the agroforestry landscape is providing opportunities in the area of agritourism that can bene t the general public and farmers (Smith et al., 2012;Valdivia et al., 2012). For farmers, agritourism has a positive impact on farm pro ts (Barbieri and Tew, 2016), and there may be bene ts from enjoying and appreciating an agroforestry landscape for the general public (Mcadam et al., 2009). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Agroforestry systems have become increasingly relevant in recent days as they introduced new commercial opportunities to smallholder farmers. In the same vein, being an eco-friendly practice has gained agroforestry systems popularity as a climate-smart agriculture practice. However, exploiting the investment potential of agroforestry systems requires understanding their challenges and opportunities as a business. The review addresses the combination of annual crops with trees to ensure stable income, social, and environmental justice. In a nutshell, by creating a productive, resilient, and low-emission land-use for smallholder farmers, agroforestry systems can be an effective and efficient pathway towards climate-smart agribusiness and to the achievement of the Global Goal of Sustainable Development.
... The strongest positive biodiversity effects of agroforestry systems were on birds, while the effects on plants, fungi and insects were weaker and non-significant. Previous review articles have identified the potential for agroforestry systems to provide other ecosystem service benefits including carbon sequestration, water quality, air quality and productivity (Smith et al. 2013a;Tsonkova et al. 2012). In addition, Stamps and Linit (1998) identified the potential for temperate agroforestry systems to enhance natural pest control, although this was largely based on theoretical potential with limited evidence available at the time. ...
... Several reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated that temperate agroforestry systems generally enhance biodiversity and some ecosystem services compared with arable cropping (Smith et al. 2013a;Stamps & Linit 1998;Torralba et al. 2016;Tsonkova et al. 2012). However, the effects of silvoarable systems on pest control and pollination services remain poorly understood in temperate regions; all but two of 42 studies included in a recent meta-analysis of pest, disease and weed control were conducted in the tropics and sub-tropics, which typically have different mechanisation requirements and utilise different tree/crop combinations to those used in temperate regions (Pumariño et al. 2015). ...
... Our findings therefore provide further support for the role of silvoarable systems in sustainable intensification, in conjunction with the demonstrated benefits to other ecosystem services (e.g. Smith et al. 2013a;Torralba et al. 2016;Tsonkova et al. 2012 ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The intensification of agricultural production in recent decades is widely recognised to have contributed substantially to global declines in biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, such as natural pest control and pollination. Agroforestry systems, where trees and/or shrubs are integrated into agricultural fields or landscapes, have the potential to increase biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. This thesis therefore aims to evaluate how agroforestry systems affect invertebrate pests, their natural enemies, and pollinators, in addition to productivity and farm income, relative to arable monocultures. A review and meta-analysis of the literature revealed that arthropod pests are significantly suppressed, and natural enemies significantly enhanced, in agroforestry systems relative to arable monocultures. However, the results were equivocal with high heterogeneity. Empirical data collected from three agroforestry sites with paired arable controls confirmed higher levels of plant and invertebrate biodiversity in agroforestry systems, and also revealed that the agroforestry systems led to a change in plant and invertebrate communities. These changes could be explained in terms of life-history traits, for example, plant communities in agroforestry systems were more perennial while invertebrates were less likely to be winged. Functional trait diversity of natural enemies was significantly higher in the agroforestry systems, indicating a higher level of biological control. Furthermore, species-level pollinator data from the same sites revealed that additional bee species in agroforestry contributed to functional trait diversity through niche complementarity. To further explore causes of heterogeneity, understorey management was manipulated at one agroforestry site, and was found to significantly affect natural enemy abundance and diversity, aphid suppression, and pollinator visitation. Although arable yields were up to 11% lower in agroforestry than arable systems, financial modelling predicted that agroforestry systems were capable of increasing farm income after at least seven years. Agroforestry systems therefore represent a viable option to restore farmland biodiversity and improve agricultural sustainability.
... Mezi významné environmentální dopady aplikace agrolesnictví patří například sekvestrace uhlíku v biomase dřevin (Montagnini, Nair 2004;Nair et al. 2009 (Mason et al. 2012;Pantera et al. 2021). Výhodou kombinovaného využití půdy je souběh produkčních funkcí podporujících udržitelnost hospodaření, environmentálních funkcí podporujících biodiverzitu (Mcneely 2004;Thevathasan, Gordon 2004;Mcadam et al. 2007; García de Jalón et al. 2018) a také zachování kulturní, esteticky funkční krajiny (Eichhorn et al. 2006;Grala et al. 2010;Smith et al. 2013). Námi studovaný extenzívní agrolesnický systém tyto parametry splňuje např. ...
... Přesto existují snahy obracející pozornost k širší aplikaci agrolesnictví (Current et al. 2009;Kotrba et al. 2015;Santiago--Freijanes et al. 2018;Pantera et al. 2021;Lojka et al. 2022). Opětovné zavedení agrolesnických systémů v temperátním klimatickém pásu má význam právě v souběhu produkčních a environmentálních funkcí krajiny (Reeg 2011;Smith et al. 2013;Nerlich et al. 2013). Bylo prokázáno, že menší farmáři vnímají environmentální benefity stromů ) a také návrhy týkající se nové zemědělské politiky počítají s dotacemi na podporu agrolesnictví. ...
Article
Full-text available
At experimental submontane site with woody-species strips and extensivelymanaged meadow intercropping, production characteristics of hay harvested from the meadows and impacts of the strips on microclimate were studied. Microclimatic conditions were monitored using a set of meteorological stations. The site characteristics such as soil moisture and temperature, air temperature and precipitation were measured in transect C. The meadows were experimentally cut twice a year (June 1st cut, September 2nd cut), and herbal species were determined in the sampling points of transects. Impacts of the woody-species strips on the crop properties such as water content and its dry weight were found. The strips affected the soil temperature and the moisture compared to the open area conditions and the strips also reduced precipitation. Moreover, reduced numbers of herbal species were found in the vicinity of the strips.
... Mezi významné environmentální dopady aplikace agrolesnictví patří například sekvestrace uhlíku v biomase dřevin (Montagnini, Nair 2004;Nair et al. 2009 (Mason et al. 2012;Pantera et al. 2021). Výhodou kombinovaného využití půdy je souběh produkčních funkcí podporujících udržitelnost hospodaření, environmentálních funkcí podporujících biodiverzitu (Mcneely 2004;Thevathasan, Gordon 2004;Mcadam et al. 2007; García de Jalón et al. 2018) a také zachování kulturní, esteticky funkční krajiny (Eichhorn et al. 2006;Grala et al. 2010;Smith et al. 2013). Námi studovaný extenzívní agrolesnický systém tyto parametry splňuje např. ...
... Přesto existují snahy obracející pozornost k širší aplikaci agrolesnictví (Current et al. 2009;Kotrba et al. 2015;Santiago--Freijanes et al. 2018;Pantera et al. 2021;Lojka et al. 2022). Opětovné zavedení agrolesnických systémů v temperátním klimatickém pásu má význam právě v souběhu produkčních a environmentálních funkcí krajiny (Reeg 2011;Smith et al. 2013;Nerlich et al. 2013). Bylo prokázáno, že menší farmáři vnímají environmentální benefity stromů ) a také návrhy týkající se nové zemědělské politiky počítají s dotacemi na podporu agrolesnictví. ...
Article
Full-text available
Agroforestry systems do not belong to a common agricultural practice in the Czech Republic. These approaches are, however, seen as potentially beneficial in terms of sustainable use of landscape resources. At experimental submontane site with woody-species strips and extensively managed meadow intercropping, production characteristics of hay harvested from the meadows and impacts of the strips on microclimate were studied. Microclimatic conditions were monitored using a set of meteorological stations. The site characteristics such as soil moisture and temperature, air temperature and precipitation were measured in transect C. The meadows were experimentally cut twice a year (June 1st cut, September 2nd cut), and herbal species were determined in the sampling points of transects. Impacts of the woody-species strips on the crop properties such as water content and its dry weight were found. The strips affected the soil temperature and the moisture compared to the open area conditions and the strips also reduced precipitation. Moreover, reduced numbers of herbal species were found in the vicinity of the strips.
... This could lead to improved yield stability under climate change (Quinkenstein et al., 2009;Reyes et al., 2021), though with potential consequences for disease pressure and yield reductions under optimum growth conditions through shading. Modern alley cropping systems, whereby annual crops are grown between tree lines or hedges, have shown to achieve higher system yields than sole cropping systems and can provide diverse ecosystem services, such as water regulation, soil protection and biodiversity (Don et al., 2018;Palma et al., 2007;Smith et al., 2012). In addition, trees and hedges contribute to climate change mitigation through enhanced carbon sequestration in aboveground and belowground biomass, as well as soil organic carbon (Cardinael et al., 2017;Golicz et al., 2021). ...
... Turbulences are also related to the length of the windbreak, whereby a length of at least 10 times the height of the windbreak is recommended (Gordon et al., 2018). Direct benefits of reduced wind speed include reduced thigmomorphogenesis, i.e. the response of plants to mechanical stress, reduced damage to the surface of the crops (Davis and Norman, 1988) and avoidance of wind-related soil erosion (Kort, 1988;Smith et al., 2012). A negative or non-existent effect of tree rows on wind speed is usually observed in cases where the windbreaks are not properly implemented (Kort, 1988). ...
Article
Climate change scenarios predict an increased occurrence of droughts and heatwaves, as well as extreme rainfall events in Central Europe. Alley cropping, which is the inclusion of rows of trees and shrubs in agricultural land, could enhance the resilience of cropping systems, as these systems are expected to positively modify the microclimate and water balance of croplands. This review analyses the effect of alley cropping on the micro-climate and water balance, based on the available evidence from temperate alley cropping systems. Within alley cropping systems, the tree rows generate gradients in microclimatic variables, whereby strongest effects are observed in or close to the tree rows. Field-scale studies on light intensity (n=20), wind speed (n=4) and surface runoff (n=3) all reported a reduction compared to sole cropping systems. Effects on air temperature (n=10), relative humidity (n=5) and evapotranspiration (n=6) varied among studies, with the majority reporting a decrease in daytime temperatures (50% of studies), variable effects on relative humidity (60%) and an increase in evapotranspiration (50%) due to higher evapotranspiration by trees. Highest variation among studies was found for soil moisture, with 41% of studies reporting temporal and spatial differences within the system. This variation among studies likely depends on the purpose of the trees (short rotation coppice vs. fruit and/or timber trees) and design of the system. Also site context, such as topography, landscape diversity and climate, could play a role, but these factors are rarely taken into account. Only few studies investigated landscape-scale effects (n=3), such as groundwater recharge and moisture recycling. Future research should investigate the role of site context in the functioning of alley cropping systems and quantify landscape-scale effects. The process understanding gained from those studies will contribute to designing alley cropping systems that enhance the climate change resilience of current central European cropping systems.
... A key question in tree-crop interactions is whether trees could uptake water from deeper soil horizons to reduce competition with annual crops in topsoil [32]. In this regard, some authors are also considering the process of hydraulic lift as a possible way for increasing soil moisture in shallow soil layers [60][61][62][63][64]. Although the hydraulic lift has been reported in species such as Quercus, Pinus and jujube tree with a high contribution in agroforestry farming systems [65][66][67], scientific evidence is not yet available in temperate climates with olive trees. ...
... Therefore, the preservation of soil moisture recorded in the two agroforestry systems seems to be related to the effects of microclimate buffering exerted by the olive trees during the whole crop cycle, i.e., shading, reduced air temperature for some day hours and windbreak effect. A reduction of soil evaporation and crop transpiration were reported by other authors to explain higher soil moisture [55,61,62]. However, soil moisture conservation is debated in recent literature, as some authors consider water as the main limiting factor in intercropping between woody plants and crops. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the current context of climate change, the impact of trees in agroforestry systems is expected to mitigate water and heat stresses, particularly in semi-arid environments. Within this framework, in a two-year trial conducted at INRAE in Southern France, the dynamics of microclimatic parameters and the edaphic environment of durum wheat were investigated under a yearly-pruned (AF) and a never-pruned (AF+) 6-m apart alley olive orchard, in comparison with controls under full sun. Here it was recorded a reduction of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) by 30% and 51% in AF and AF+, respectively, during the wheat cycle, together with a marked reduction of wind speed compared to controls (–85% in AF and -99% in AF+). A significant buffer effect was also highlighted for air temperature, averagely +1.7 °C during the night and -3.2 °C during the daytime under the moderate shading of AF. The positive effect of trees on soil water conservation increased with the intensity of shading, particularly during the critical wheat stage of grain filling, with benefits on wheat root mycorrhization, and NH4+ and NO3- abundance in the arable layer. Despite some of the environmental modifications being favorable for the understorey wheat, these were not translated into yield improvements, suggesting that the severe shading associated with the small inter-row and evergreen trees has a prevailing effect, that requires to be managed through appropriate tree pruning.
... Shelterbelts provide a range of ecosystem services which deliver benefits to agroforestry practitioners (farmers or landholders who practice agroforestry). These services include wind speed reduction, habitat provision, wood production, and carbon sequestration (Jose, 2009;Asbjornsen et al., 2014), and benefits include agricultural productivity improvements and risk mitigation (Smith et al., 2012;Baker et al., 2018;England et al., 2020). While private, farm-scale benefits are often key drivers for establishment, shelterbelts can also provide public benefits including climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation (George et al., 2012). ...
... wind speed reduction, wood production, habitat provision, and carbon sequestration). However, shelterbelts also: improve onfarm water and air quality, regulate soil erosion, provide visual screening or noise attenuation, enhance soil formation and nutrient cycling, mitigate salinity impacts, and improve the aesthetic appeal of a property (Jose, 2009;Smith et al., 2012). Although there may be differences in provision of these services between species compositions, quantifying these differences was beyond the scope of this study. ...
Article
Shelterbelts are a popular form of agroforestry, providing a wide range of ecosystem services (e.g. wind speed reduction and wood production) which deliver farm-scale benefits. Variation in species composition and planting density drives structural differences in shelterbelts which directly influence the provision of ecosystem services and consequently the range of benefits received by farmers. Although specific structural characteristics of shelterbelts that determine provision of these services have been identified, little is known about how these characteristics vary with shelterbelt species composition and age, and how such variation may affect provision of a range of key services and benefits. This study explores the effects of shelterbelt composition and age on structural characteristics that determine ecosystem service provision. Structural characteristics (including vegetation height and porosity) were measured and compared across shelterbelts with three common species compositions (Eucalyptus nitens, Pinus radiata, mixed native) and three age classes (2–5 years, 6–14 years, 15–30 years) in the Midlands region of Tasmania, Australia. Species composition and age were key determinants of structural characteristics. For example, height, carbon sequestration, and stand basal area increased and porosity decreased with shelterbelt age, with rates of increase/decrease varying significantly between species compositions. We outlined how these structural characteristics affect provision of ecosystem services and showed that fine scale benefits are likely to be highly dependent on the species composition of the shelterbelt. These findings can assist agroforestry practitioners in designing shelterbelts that maximise benefits to their enterprise. There is value in expanding the approach used in this study to develop decision-making tools for practitioners, and to facilitate more meaningful application of natural capital accounting to agroforestry at the farm scale.
... Instead, the land was often leased [7] to large agricultural companies who continued the process of amalgamating fields and removing trees [8]. Although the scientific evidence is relatively scarce in comparison to other parts of Europe [9,10], the current intensive and highly specialized agriculture based on excessive use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides leads to low (floral and faunal) diversity and (often irreversible) soil degradation [11]. ...
... More specifically, we focused on: (i) the historical background of AF, including its former use and the drivers of substitution by recently common industrial agriculture; (ii) estimation of the current extent of AF practices in the Czech Republic following the classification proposed by Dupraz et al. [26]; (iii) detection of the key barriers and motivation for AF adoption based on the farmers' perception (including their concerns and expectations); and (iv) identification of legal support and barriers for AF on EU level and in the Czech Republic, while also reviewing existing research, education and training. We hypothesized that the main challenge for re-adoption lies in the insufficient promotion of AF as a mainstream land-use through research, dissemination of information and policy changes [11] as well as in the insufficient adaptation and optimization of various AF practices to specific environmental, socio-economic and legislative conditions in the Czech Republic. ...
Article
Full-text available
The interest in re-implementing agroforestry (AF) in European agriculture due to its environmental benefits has been growing exponentially. We reviewed the historical background and the current state (extent, farmers’ perception, legislative support, and barriers) to evaluate the future perspectives of AF in Czechia by identifying the key factors hampering further extension. Our results confirmed that AF almost disappeared after the middle of the 19th century due to agricultural intensification and collectivization. Currently, AF is not defined in the Czech legislation and no modern AF has been encountered by this study. Areas falling into AF definition recently comprise only traditional AF (less than 1% of agricultural area remaining) represented only by silvopastoral AF. The results of a farmers’ survey indicated that despite relatively high interest in AF, excessive bureaucratization, high costs of establishment and uncertain profitability are severe concerns among farmers. We therefore conclude that there is a lack of legal recognition and marginalization of AF as the key obstacles of low adoption rates. We suggest that systematic support beyond subsidies should include raising awareness, research, policy, legislation changes, training, and advisory service, as a cornerstone for progressive development of AF and thus conservation and creation of economically and environmentally sound landscapes throughout Czechia.
... Agroforestry systems, in addition to providing various production assets, also support a scale of environmental and socioeconomic benefits. This traditional practice is regarded as a promising tool for climate change adaptation and mitigation [4][5][6], enhancing biodiversity [7,8] and overall landscape resilience [9]. As a specific measure within agroforestry, wood pastures, due to their specific environmental, cultural, social, and economical aspects, enjoy a high level of interest from scientists, conservationists, farmers, and members of the public. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wood pastures represent specific ecosystems across Europe with diverse ecological, agricultural, and socioeconomic roles. Land-use changes and the cessation of traditional management in conjunction with socioeconomic changes led to shifts in their spatiotemporal distribution. Despite a recent increase in scientific interest, data on historical patterns of wood pastures in many European locations remain insufficient. This study presents wood-pasture habitat continuity and analyzes changes in their distribution over space and time in selected parts of Slovakia. Simultaneously, we analyzed the relation of wood pastures to selected environmental and landscape features. To achieve this, we examined the historical distribution of wood pastures using aerial imagery from the 1950s. We thoroughly examined an area of 16,209 km2 to identify preserved wood pastures. To identify the present conditions and the spatial distribution of wood-pasture habitats, we compared the historical data with recent ortophotomaps. Based on landscape–ecological analyses of historical distribution, we determined prevailing environmental conditions of wood-pasture locations. The findings reveal that over 90% of wood pastures from the first half of the 20th century have now been lost or encroached and preserved in the form of a closed-canopy forest. In most of the encroached sites, we identified the presence of vital core veteran trees. For the identification of wood pastures and further analyses of the environmental variables, the ArcGIS 10.3 program was used; the R software was used for all statistical evaluations. The results show that the studied wood pastures were not established randomly, but were rather set within a certain landscape context, characterized by elevation, soil quality, and distance from settlements.
... In addition, the presence of SOC in each sub-optimal dryland needs to be maintained and increased, especially in open land, moorland, grasslands, rainfed rice fields, forest bushes, and shrubs due to their little vegetation. In the primary forest, pine forest, eucalyptus forest, teak forest, and mixed gardens, this management model is worth maintaining and needs to be expanded to neglected areas so that with the increasing amount of biomass produced in an area, the better it is in maintaining environment quality [47] [48]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to compare the content of carbon in soil and in biomass vegetation in various types of sub-optimal dryland in Aceh Besar district, Indonesia. Soil samples were collected from seven soil depths from 0 to 100 cm under 12 land uses including primary forest, secondary forest, pine forest, Eucalyptus forests, teak forest, forest shrubs, shrublands, and grasslands, mixed gardens, moorlands, rainfed rice fields, and bare lands. The measurement of plant biomass is differentiated according to the type of vegetation based on the BSN (2020) procedure [1]. The biomass of vegetations used allometric equations. The results of the study showed that the C content of the soil at a depth of 0-30 cm was higher than the C content at 30-100 cm. Carbon soil potential at the depth of 0-100 cm and biomass carbon contents in the sub-optimal dryland of Aceh Besar varies greatly between land-use types. The primary forest has the highest potential for soil carbon and biomass carbon compared to other land-use types. Soil and biomass C potentials in the primary forest were 332.28 ± 28.75 t ha ⁻¹ and 241.71 ± 24.46 t ha ⁻¹ (70.4%), respectively, with soil C stock of 25,103.68 Gg. The lowest soil C potential was found in bare land, namely 57.54±5.87 t ha ⁻¹ with a biomass C potential of 0.53 ±0.06 t ha ⁻¹ , while the lowest soil C stock was found in the teak forest, which was 4.83 Gg. There is a positive correlation between soil C stock and biomass C content. The ratio of soil C and biomass C in the sub-optimal dryland of Aceh Besar varied from 0.01 to 1.57.
... By promoting a closed system with internal recycling of nutrients, whereby nutrients are accessed from lower soil horizons by tree roots and returned to the soil through leaf fall, agroforestry systems enhance soil nutrient pools and turnover and reduce reliance on external inputs (Smith et al., 2013). ...
Article
Protection forests are state forests that are authorized by the government to be managed, but on the other hand, indigenous peoples already exist and manage forests that are claimed as customary forest. How is the management of protection forests between the government and indigenous peoples? The purpose of this study is to examine the management of protection forests between the government and indigenous peoples and the collaboration in the management of protection forests between the two. The results showed that the management of protection forests by the government was not optimal at the site level based on the principles of protection forest management that had only been done with boundaries: only area boundaries, not blocks and plots, forest protection such as area patrols, installation of prohibition boards and appeals) and land rehabilitation (planting with woody plant species and multi-purpose trees. Protected forest management by indigenous peoples has touched the site level on several aspects of protected forest management principles. Protected management activities by indigenous peoples following the principles of protected forest management are the cultivation of fruit plants, land use with dusung/traditional agroforestry cropping patterns, forest protection is prohibited from cutting trees at water sources, along riverbanks, replanting if cutting fruit trees that are not productive, utilizing non-timber forest products. The government as the planner but implementing it in the field is the indigenous people who are accompanied by the government and joint monitoring and evaluation. Protected forest management based on the principle of protected forest management is more optimally carried out in a collaborative and complementary manner between the government and indigenous peoples.
... Alley cropping systems can be combined with grassland to form a silvopastoral system (Ehret et al. 2018). Such systems can be sustainable and productive especially under conditions of a changing climate (Tsonkova et al. 2012;Smith et al. 2012Smith et al. , 2013Torralba et al. 2016;Kay et al. 2019). The grassland between tree lines underlies spatially and temporally varying growth conditions because the availability of light, nutrients, and water for the grass sward is affected by competition with the trees (Jose 2009;Gamble et al. 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
In legume-based grassland, legumes supply the sward with nitrogen (N) from biological N2-fixation. Previous studies in silvopastoral systems have emphasized that legume proportions decline near trees which would cause spatial variation of the N supply and the concentration of N in the harvested herbage of grass swards between trees. In natural ecosystems, it was shown that the N resorption efficiency (NRE) increases with nutrient limitation, hence, near trees where legumes are scarce. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that the NRE increases near trees and compensates for the loss of legumes with respect to N concentration in live herbage. For this, two vegetation compositions consisting of legume-based grass swards were analyzed across positions between tree lines in an alley cropping system established five years prior to this study. Legume proportion declined up to 45% towards the tree line and thus, also N concentration in live and dead herbage but on average only by 15%. As a consequence of a reduced N concentration and also herbage mass close to trees, the N yield decreased by up to 50%. Despite the loss of legumes near trees, the NRE was unaffected by the tree line irrespective of vegetation composition. Further, the results indicate that internal N cycling of managed grass swards in silvopastoral grassland with short defoliation intervals between harvests is of lesser relevance than in unmanaged ecosystems. Legume proportions control the N concentrations of live and dead herbage irrespective of tree shading in silvopastoral systems.
... Agroforestry is well studied as a sustainable-ecological-solution for agriculture in a changing climate [8,[27][28][29] and has proven to have many ecological benefits such as CO 2 sequestration [30,31], increased biodiversity [32][33][34], changed microclimate [35,36] and prevention of erosion by water and wind [13,28]. There a many different types of agroforestry, for example silvopasture, riparian buffers, shelterbelts and forest farming, and in general these all have a positive effect on wind erosion due to reduced wind speeds [28]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wind erosion is seen as one of the main risks for modern agriculture in dry and sandy regions. Shelterbelts and agroforestry systems are known for their ability to reduce wind speed and, consequently, wind erosion. The current study considers temperate alley cropping agroforestry systems, where multiple tree strips (shelterbelts) are interleaved with either annual rotating crops or perennial grassland. The aim was to quantify the potential wind erosion reduction by alley cropping agroforestry systems and the effect of design decisions for a case study in Germany. By combining wind measurements and Large Eddy Simulations, the wind speed and potential wind erosion inside an agroforestry system were estimated. Our model simulations result in an average reduction in wind speed between 17% and 67%, and a reduction of average potential wind erosion between 24% and 97%. The most optimal reduction of the average potential wind erosion was larger than 92% for tree strips orientated perpendicular to the main wind direction, whereas for a diagonal orientation of the tree strips to the main wind direction we found an average reduction of 86%. Parallel orientated tree strips reduce wind erosion on average by less than 35%. Tree strips planted with ≤48 m distance provide a strong and constant reduction of wind erosion, even for tree strips of 2 m height the average reduction was 86%, when the tree strips were orientated optimal to the dominant wind direction. Our model simulations showed that alley cropping agroforestry systems in a temperate climate have a large potential to reduce wind erosion by more than 80% when the system is well-designed and managed.
... Our study thus provides a reliable and essential development pathway for ecologically fragile KRD areas to improve the overall quality of local ecosystems, and promote sustainable socioeconomic development. Relevant reviews of studies on AFES have been reported, such as taxonomic category elaboration (Sileshi et al., 2007;Jose, 2009), Meta-analysis (De Beenhouwer et al., 2013Torralba et al., 2016;Kuyah et al., 2019), and summary and discussion of the supply, regulation, support and culture of AFES in different regions (Smith et al., 2013;Casanova-Lugo et al., 2016;Vandermeulen et al., 2018;Moreno et al., 2018;Jose and Udawatta, 2021). These studies provide a focused overview to assist decision-makers in optimising ecological conservation planning and agronomic management measures and to promote the participation of AF in the sustainable development of human society and the natural environment. ...
Article
Agroforestry (AF) has become an important strategy in reconciling the contradictory requirements of environmental protection and economic development in ecologically fragile areas, and whose multiple ecosystem services provide effective ways to promote the restoration of degraded ecosystems in the region. However, agroforestry ecosystem services (AFES) are usually constrained by their generative elements (vulnerability, structure, function, and ecological assets) and service management—both crucial for informed decision-making which enhances AFES supply capacity and AF sustainable management. Karst rocky desertification (KRD) is a typical case in an ecologically fragile area, and within the KRD region greatly relevant for promoting AFES as a strategy for restoring degraded regional ecosystems and for achieving sustainable development goals. In this study, a total of 164 publications related to AFES that met a set of inclusion criteria were obtained through the Scopus database using the literature review method of searching, appraisal, synthesis, and analysis. From the systematic literature review results, (i) we found that the number of relevant publications generally exhibited a year-on-year growth trend, with AFES generation elements being the most common topic (68.11 % of publications), and service management research being the second most common (31.89 % of publications); (ii) we summarised the main progress and landmark results of AFES generation elements and service management research and explored the relevant key scientific questions; and (iii) the above information enlightened the key improvement areas of KRD control ecosystem within three aspects: natural environment, agricultural development, and human-environment relationship. This study provides agroforestry practitioners and relevant decision-makers with information for improving and managing the supply capacity of AFES, and also presents important insights on the KRD control ecosystem to land degradation restoration technicians.
... By promoting a closed system with internal recycling of nutrients, whereby nutrients are accessed from lower soil horizons by tree roots and returned to the soil through leaf fall, agroforestry systems enhance soil nutrient pools and turnover and reduce reliance on external inputs (Smith et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Microbes are important rhizosphere constituents for providing nutrients in the soil. This study analyzes the dynamic of soil functional microbes' populations on land managed as an agroforestry (AF) system. The AF system consists of a 2-years old auri tree combined with several crops, i.e., wild grasses, peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), and maize (Zea mays). Soil samples were collected from each rhizosphere and then analyzed for their chemical properties such as N, P, K, pH, and C organic contents. The population of functional microbes was observed by isolation of the non-symbiotic N-fixer microbes (BNF), the cellulose-degrading microbes (CDM), and the phosphate solubilizing microbes (PSM) in their selective media. The total soil sugars were also tested for root exudates. The results showed that in an auri agroforestry system, the kind of crops determines the content of the soil organic material that is turned-offer into the soil. This affects the population structure and functional microbial abundance in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, microbial colonization in the rhizosphere affects plants in producing root exudates. Then, root exudates shape the structures of the microbial community, as well as an influence among inhabitants in defining mineralization of soil organic matter, nutrient availability, and trees performance.
... By promoting a closed system with internal recycling of nutrients, whereby nutrients are accessed from lower soil horizons by tree roots and returned to the soil through leaf fall, agroforestry systems enhance soil nutrient pools and turnover and reduce reliance on external inputs (Smith et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Microbes are important rhizosphere constituents for providing nutrients in the soil. This study analyzes the dynamic of soil functional microbes' populations on land managed as an agroforestry (AF) system. The AF system consists of a 2-years old auri tree combined with several crops, i.e., wild grasses, peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), and maize (Zea mays). Soil samples were collected from each rhizosphere and then analyzed for their chemical properties such as N, P, K, pH, and C organic contents. The population of functional microbes was observed by isolation of the non-symbiotic N-fixer microbes (BNF), the cellulose-degrading microbes (CDM), and the phosphate solubilizing microbes (PSM) in their selective media. The total soil sugars were also tested for root exudates. The results showed that in an auri agroforestry system, the kind of crops determines the content of the soil organic material that is turned-offer into the soil. This affects the population structure and functional microbial abundance in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, microbial colonization in the rhizosphere affects plants in producing root exudates. Then, root exudates shape the structures of the microbial community, as well as an influence among inhabitants in defining mineralization of soil organic matter, nutrient availability, and trees performance.
... In the intermediate and advanced phases of AF, where the tree crowns are close to each other and the relative sunlight intensity reaching the ground surface is lower, shade tolerant crop species should be chosen. This is because the shade from trees has a negative effect on crop growth and yield [129]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing need for forest resources and cultivated land requires a solution in forest management to realize sustainable land use. Smart agroforestry (SAF) is a set of agriculture and silviculture knowledge and practices that is aimed at not only increasing profits and resilience for farmers but also improving environmental parameters, including climate change mitigation and adaptation, biodiversity enhancement, and soil and water conservation, while assuring sustainable landscape management. SAF, a solution for land management systems to reduce the rate of deforestation, is a smart effort to overcome the food crisis and mitigate climate change that is prospectively applied mainly in the social forestry area. Optimized forest land utilization could be achieved by implementing SAF and applying silvicultural and crop cultivation techniques to optimize productivity and meet sustainability and adaptability goals. This paper reviews the existing conditions, opportunities, and challenges in the mainstreaming of SAF in social forestry implementation to support the Sustainable Development Goals in Indonesia. Mainstreaming SAF should include policy innovation and regulation implementation, the use of appropriate technology, and compromises or trade-offs among benefits, risks, and resources. SAF is a strategy to revive the rural economy and community prosperity through the optimal use of local resources as well as a form of smart landscape and land-use management that has significant roles in soil and water conservation, bioenergy, climate change responses, and enhanced biodiversity conservation.
... The cropping systems concept generally refers to crops, annual crop sequences, and management techniques for agricultural land use. Conventional cropping systems like agronomy, horticulture, forestry, and other types of land uses contribute approximately 24% of global GHGs emissions (Smith et al., 2013). Carbon sequestration through sustainable cropping system management and green energy production for substituting fossils fuel might reduce N 2 O, CH 4 , and CO 2 emissions (Debaeke et al., 2017;Roy et al., 2021;Meena et al., 2022). ...
Chapter
Intensive agriculture and industrial development have damaged ecosystem balance in many parts of the world along with changes in the gaseous composition of the earth atmosphere, hydrology, and the global climate. Legumes are the gift of nature that might appear to safeguard the environment and ensure win–win benefits for society, economy, and environment. Legumes in association with bacteria can fix atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) in root nodules. Globally, land-based biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) exceeds the amount of industrial nitrogen (N) production by 1.1 times. Such fixed N is partly utilized by the succeeding nonlegumes and thus N fertilizer can be reduced without sacrificing cereal yields. Growing legumes in rotation with cereals can increase soil carbon (C) sequestration by 9–45 Mg C ha–1, and reduce greenhouse gases emissions by 5–7 times compared to nonlegumes. Legumes need less N and can be grown under water deficit conditions. The rate of N could be reduced roughly by 200 kg N ha–1 for nonlegumes grown after grain legumes. Such savings of N from BNF could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission by approximately 200 kg ha–1. Beyond BNF, mineralization of legume residues adds N and other nutrients to the soil and improves soil fertility. Legume plants can improve soil aggregates, increase soil water retention, and have a stronger adaptive capacity to adverse environments. Legumes can smartly mitigate the negative effects of climate change and acclimatize to a vulnerable environment. The inclusion of legumes in the cropping systems increases yields of both legumes and nonlegumes. Legume plants, therefore, should get priority to be included in all cropping systems, forestry, and aesthetics to get maximum social, economic, and environmental benefits. Realizing the importance of legumes, the chapter endeavored to fetch an overall scenario of climate change, multiple dimensions of climate-smart legume-based cropping systems, future research avenues, and policy implications.
... Agroforestry is the intentional integration of trees and shrubs into crop and animal farming systems. These systems encompass a suite of multifunctional land-use approaches that can enhance agricultural production, while delivering ecosystem services [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Although the benefits of agroforestry have a strong literature base from a biophysical perspective, advancement of agroforestry requires a comprehensive understanding of adoption by producers. ...
Article
Full-text available
A comprehensive understanding of agroforestry adoption across a landscape is critical for effective agroforestry planning. The objectives of this study are to identify the sources of agroforestry data that can be used in the United States (U.S.) for national inventory purposes, discuss the possible uses and nuances of the datasets, synthesize the data to create regional maps, and provide recommendations for improving future agroforestry inventory efforts. To accomplish this, we queried multiple government databases containing agroforestry inventory data and spoke with agency representatives with in-depth knowledge of each dataset. Data from federal conservation programs were found to be useful for assessing practice-level adoption through a conservation program but not for general inventory use, since agroforestry systems can be established without federal assistance. For inventory purposes, the 2017 U.S. Census of Agriculture was found to be the most comprehensive dataset, with 30,853 farm operations reporting agroforestry use, representing 1.5% of all U.S. farms. However, this value is likely an underestimate, due to respondent unfamiliarity with agroforestry terminology. We propose several strategies to improve the accuracy of future agroforestry surveys, since a greater understanding of agroforestry adoption will influence decisions related to agricultural policies, technical assistance, and planning of these integrated systems.
... Despite the interest in SPS is growing due to the significant role it may play in balancing productivity and environmental protection (Smith et al., 2013) while promoting sustainable rural development (Primdahl et al., 2013), traditional silvopastoral management is under decline in the Mediterranean. This is mainly linked to the rural abandonment process threatening the continuity of SPS that require lowintensity human use (Bugalho et al., 2011;Plieninger et al., 2015), and leading to changes in ecosystem processes and functions, that modify the pool of ES provided to society (Felipe-Lucia et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Silvopastoral systems (SPS) emerge with a renewal interest in the Mediterranean for their promotion of multifunctionality through a variety of ecosystem services (ES). However, the understanding of how combined forestry and pastoral practices affect the ES delivery as well as the synergies and trade-off dynamics amongst them is still very limited. We applied the structured expert consultation Delphi method to assess the medium-term effect of relevant silvopastoral management practices (SMP) on the delivery of provision, regulation and maintenance and cultural ES in Mediterranean mid-mountain SPS in Spain. The deliberation process entailed two rounds and the Delphi panel was finally formed by 69 experts covering a broad spectrum of background and expertise. Results show that some practices, such as silvicultural treatments (e.g., thinning or coppice selection), play a multifunctional role contributing to ES delivery in bundles while some trade-offs are also identified between SMP, such as free animal grazing, and the provision of some ES. Synergies are also found between ES, such as livestock production and recreational hunting and between timber production and carbon sequestration, whereas possible trade-offs were particularly relevant between wildfire prevention and carbon sequestration. These findings can support decision-making processes towards sustainable and multifunctional silvopastoral management in the northern Mediterranean basin.
... Agroforestry can mitigate agricultural impacts and improve ecosystem services by enhancing biodiversity, modifying climate, improving soil properties (e.g., carbon and nitrogen levels and enzyme activities) and the quality of the environment, by improving soil water relations (e.g., increase in storage and decreased evaporation), and by facilitating pest control (Tscharntke et al. 2005;Bianchi et al. 2006;Udawatta et al. 2008;Siriri et al. 2012;Smith et al. 2013). Expanding the conversion of cropping systems into agroforestry systems may accelerate the transition to a more sustainable food system in line with the European Commission's "Farm to Fork Strategy" aiming at making food systems fair, healthy and environmentally friendly (https:// ec. ...
Article
Full-text available
The European Federation of Food, Agriculture, and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT) called for the immediate ban on glyphosate in the 2022 renewal process, promoting the use of natural herbicides and recommending against the use of other harmful or hazardous chemicals. The new chemical testing and selection research agendas should consider the hormetic effects of individual natural herbicides, and their potential mixtures, on targeted and non-targeted organisms to avoid stimulation of pests and negative effects on non-targeted organisms. New scientific research programs are needed to study the effects of mixtures of natural pesticides on soils, plants, animals, and microorganisms within the context of agroforestry. [this is an open-access paper]
... (Smith et al. 2013). Agroforestry systems (AFS) can deliver a range of ecosystem services such as biodiversity conservation, soil fertility and erosion control (Smith et al. 2012;Malézieux et al. 2009;Ong et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
With climate change and an increasing global human population, the concept of agroforestry is gaining economic and environmental interest. The practice of growing trees and crops on the same land is mainly applied in (sub)tropical climate and rarer in temperate areas where farmers fear decreased understorey crop yields due to competition with trees. However, whether competition is stronger below- (soil moisture, nutrients) or aboveground (light) in a temperate silvoarable agroforestry system (AFS) is not clear. The effects of different treatments of light, water and nutrient availability on crop production in two temperate AFS in Central Switzerland were investigated, where summer barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was grown as understorey crop under 90%, 40% and 0% shade nets, with and without irrigation and/or fertilisation in a fully factorial design. Yield was reduced by 26% under heavy shade; yield reductions under moderate shade were not significant. Fertilisation and irrigation increased crop yield by 13% and 6–9%, respectively, independent from shade. Individual seed mass was significantly increased by fertilisation from an average of 0.041 g (± 0.008 SD) in unfertilised treatments to an average of 0.048 g (± 0.010) in fertilised treatments. Fertilisation had the biggest impact on total seed number (p < 0.001) with on average 36 (± 26) seeds per individual in unfertilised plots and 61 (± 33) in fertilised plots. This study demonstrates that moderate shade (as can be expected in modern AFS) was not a major limiting factor for barley yield in these two AFS in Switzerland, indicating that AFS with appropriate management combined with suitable selection of understorey crops are an option for agricultural production in temperate regions without significant yield losses.
... Application of adaptation strategies will enhance goat farmers productivity as climate change is affecting agricultural practices. This result is in agreement with the findings of Smith et al. (2012); IFAD, (2010) who stated that practices such as the diversification of livestock animals and crops, establishing trees alongside crops and pastures in a mix, integration of livestock systems with forestry and crop production, and changing the timing and locations of farm operations were important adaptation strategies to climate change. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the goat farmers' adaptation strategies to climate change in Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. About 105 goat farmers were selected for the study. Statistical tools such as frequency count, percentage, mean score and Pearson product moment correlation analysis were used to analyse data. The result revealed that about 61% of the respondents were males. The average age of the respondents was 57.7 years. About 48.6% of the respondents had primary education. The average years of experience in goat farming was 7 years and the average annual income of the respondents was N65,447.62. About 44.8% of the respondents indicated crop farming as the supportive occupation. The average number of Goats reared was 6 goats and about 58.1% of the respondents' system of goats rearing was semi-intensive system. The main motive for goat production were for financial purpose (43.8%). More than half (56.2%) of the respondents indicated that they had no access to extension services on goat production. About 50.5% of the respondents acknowledged that climate change is occurring. The result revealed that about 52.4% of the respondents had high level of usage of adaptation strategies to climate change. The highest ranked perception statement was that there is increase in temperature (mean=3.45). The result of Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) showed that income (r=0.518), educational status (r=0.425), main motive (r=0.215) and knowledge of climate change (r=0.328) were positively significant to the adaptation strategies to climate change at 5 % level of significance. The study therefore recommends that there should be creation of more awareness on climate change and provision of extension services to goat farmers on adaptation strategies to climate change.
... Agroforestry has risen to prominence as a land-use strategy to help address global climate change and provide other environmental, economic, and social benefits. Agroforestry is promoted for its potential for carbon sequestration, soil erosion and runoff control, and improved nutrient and water cycling, as well as for offering socio-economic benefits and greater agricultural productivity [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. The potential for agroforestry to provide sustainable production, improve food security, increase water quality, combat climate change and biodiversity loss, and reduce poverty, also provides an opportunity to advance the UN 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) [2,11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Agroforestry bridges the gap that often separates agriculture and forestry by building integrated systems to address both environmental and socio-economic objectives. Existing empirical research has suggested that agroforestry—the integration of trees with crops and/or livestock—can prevent environmental degradation, improve agricultural productivity, increase carbon sequestration, and support healthy soil and healthy ecosystems while providing stable incomes and other benefits to human welfare. However, the extent of the literature supporting or refuting these claims has not been well documented. This study addresses this research gap by collating and describing the evidence for the impacts of agroforestry on ecosystem services and human well-being in high-income countries and presents the characteristics and gaps in the literature. Methods We searched 5 primary databases and 24 organizational websites using a pre-defined search string designed to capture articles relating agroforestry practices and policy interventions to outcomes in high-income countries. Searches included peer-reviewed and grey literature published in the English language between January 1990 and June 2020. We screened the identified articles for inclusion or exclusion in two stages: title/abstract and full text. We extracted data from articles included at the full-text stage to form the map and associated database. For inclusion, the study in question must have assessed the impacts of the deliberate promotion and/or actual integration of woody perennials (trees, shrubs, etc.) with agricultural crops and/or animals. Results Our search returned 31,852 articles of which we included 585 primary articles, 6 ongoing primary articles, and 41 systematically conducted literature reviews. The articles spanned three decades and 31 countries. The most studied practices are on linear boundary plantings (hedgerows, shelterbelts, windbreaks, and riparian buffers) and silvopasture systems. The most studied outcome is regulation and maintenance of physical, chemical, and biological conditions as an ecosystem service, followed by agricultural yield and mediation of waste/toxics/other nuisances (nutrient runoff and carbon storage). Conclusions Results highlight key evidence gaps and areas where research has concentrated. Knowledge on the impacts of specific policy interventions to promote agroforestry remains scarce. The impacts of actual agroforestry practices are more well-studied, but the kinds of practices studied are limited, with most research focusing on two-component systems consisting of a simple tree configuration with one crop or livestock species, such as shelterbelts, windbreaks, and hedgerows, riparian buffers, and scattered trees on farms with crops and/or livestock. Regulating ecosystem services outcomes are by far the most studied, followed by agricultural productivity (an aspect of provisioning ecosystem services), while evidence on human well-being remains limited. We also found geographic biases, with little to no evidence for many countries. These biases suggest the strong need for further research to build the evidence base on agroforestry across high-income countries. The results can inform future research and policy decisions by making the evidence easily accessible and highlighting knowledge gaps as well as areas with enough evidence to conduct further systematic review.
... In addition, regional planners and natural resource professionals were asked to provide recommendations on purposes to include in the DST. Based on this evaluation, 14 purposes were selected for use in Tree Advisor (Table 1), many of which are used across rural to urban landscapes [86,87]. This list of purposes is not meant to be all encompassing, but rather an initial set of primary purposes frequently used in the study region. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purposefully planted trees and shrubs can provide multiple benefits when appropriately planned and designed. Tools to help select species that will function more effectively than other species for ecosystem services, production, and aesthetic purposes are generally lacking. To address this challenge, we developed an interactive plant selection tool entitled Tree Advisor that rates woody species for a wide range of different purposes based on plant attributes. In this prototype decision support tool, 90 species of trees and shrubs are rated for 14 different purposes in the northern and central Great Plains region of the United States. A rating algorithm was developed based on the scientific literature regarding plant functions and related attributes that determine relative performance of a species for each purpose. User input and best practices for developing effective decision support tools informed the tool development process. Based on user feedback, the tool supports multifunctional planning and enables a user to quickly develop a short list of the better species to use which can then be refined by the user based on suitability under local site conditions, commercial availability, and availability of locally adapted cultivars and hybrids. This tool development approach can serve as a model for producing multifunctional woody plant selection tools for other ecoregions.
... Tree-crop agroforestry can provide many ecological benefits such as improved soil and water quality [20], biodiversity [21], forest regeneration [22], resilience to climate change [23,24], landscapes aesthetics [25] and carbon sequestration [26]. ...
Chapter
Agroforestry is an example of a triple-win practice as it can support food security, mitigate climate change and contribute to adaptation to these changes. As such, agroforestry is considered a climate-smart practice. This Study was conducted to analyze the effect of distance from the olive row on soil fertility parameters in intercropping system at two different soil types (Fersiallitic and vertisols) in Saiss region of Morocco. To carry out this work the studies were done in two rainfed olive orchards. The plant material used in this study is local species of legumes (fababean, chickpea and lentil) cultivated in intercropping systems based on olive trees. The experimental design adopted was a randomized complete block. The factor studied is the distance from the olive rows. After harvesting annual crops, soil samples were taken from the 0–30 cm layer at different distances from tree row. These samples were subjected to chemical analyzes to determine their fertility levels. Our results demonstrate that the distance from the olive row had different effects on soil parameters measured in each plot of the intercropping to the olive tree for the two soils type studied. For chickpea-olive intercropping systems, the soil nitrate content is the only parameter that was affected by the distance from the olive row in Fersiallitic soil. In the fababean-olive intercropping systems, the distance from the olive row affected the soil organic matter content in Fersiallitic soil. For lentil-olive intercropping systems, soil fertility parameters did not differ significantly by the distance from the olive row. In Vertisols, the distance from the olive row had no effect on any soil parameter measured for each plot of intercropping to the olive tree.
... In temperate regions, agroforestry systems include many different practices such as windbreaks, riparian buffers, alley cropping, hedgerows, shelterbelts, silvopasture, and forest farming. Agroforestry practices can deliver a suite of ecosystem services from provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services (Smith et al. 2013). With some exceptions (e.g., pollinator hedgerows), ecosystem services provided by insect pollinators are often not specifically considered in the design and management of agroforestry practices (Udawatta et al. 2019). ...
Chapter
An error in the production process unfortunately led to publication of the book before incorporating the below corrections. This has now been corrected and updated throughout the book:
... Agroforestry (i.e., incorporating trees into cropping and livestock production systems) represents an agroecological approach to production that could address some of the present challenges, for example through the provision of multiple outputs from the same area of land (e.g., fruit, nuts, livestock products) and through increased carbon capture (Lampkin et al., 2015). There is increasing evidence that supports the promotion of agroforestry (AF) in temperate developed countries as a sustainable alternative to the highly industrialised agricultural model (Jose, 2009;Kay et al., 2019aKay et al., , 2019bSmith et al., 2012b;Torralba et al., 2016). The positive impact of AF on productivity, resource utilisation and environmental protection could play an important role in maintaining and improving land productivity and protecting resources for future generations. ...
Article
CONTEXT: Agroforestry is gaining interest in in Europe however the trade-offs associated with its uptake are still uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the sustainability trade-offs and synergies associated with a range of agroforestry systems in Europe and assess the underlying reasons for different performance regarding environmental, economic, social and governance domains. METHODS: Five case-studies of agroforestry from nothern, eastern and southern Europe were assessed using an established sustainability assessment tool, the Public Goods tool (PG tool). The case studies were selected to represent a range of innovative and traditional systems, encompassing arable and livestock, wood fuel and tree fruit crops. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: All five of the case studies were performing well across a diverse range of sustainability criteria, with average scores of three out of five or higher across the assessment categories. Social capital and animal health and welfare management scores were particularly high, due to high rates of on-farm employment of between 0.4 and 2.3 full-time labour units per hectare, and a high volume of local sales alongside effective health planning and husbandry through health planning and a lack of restrictions on natural behaviour. Land Equivalent Ratios were greater than 1 within each case and were particularly high for established silvopasture systems (over 1.5). Fossil fuel use was considerably lower than the industry average in most of the case studies (between 17 and 92% of the country-average per hectare for three of the cases). Economic performance was highly variable, with high labour costs contributing to negative margins. SIGNIFICANCE: The assessments show that agroforestry systems have considerable potential to contribute to multiple sustainability objectives, and that environmental and social sustainability objectives are particularly well addressed through increased efficiency of land-use, increased opportunities for on-farm employment and engagement with local communities. However considerable financial barriers still exist and may prevent its further uptake. Promoting the future uptake of agroforestry in Europe therefore requires the commitment of multiple actors in supply chains to plan policies, farm-practices and knowledge exchange that can support the delivery of sustainability benefits.
... Some literature reviews related to the topic were performed at the national [24,29], regional [30][31][32] and global scale [33,34]. However, most of them have focused on one or just a few ecosystem services [21,27,[35][36][37][38][39][40], or on one specific agroforestry practice, such as alley cropping systems [41], cacao agroforestry [34,42,43], or coffee agroforestry [44][45][46][47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Brazil has great potential to expand the area under agroforestry, and thereby simultaneously enhance multiple ecosystem services. However, divergent interests are currently polarized between drastic environmental deregulation and public resource allocation to chemical-intensive land use versus conservation and sustainable agriculture. This highlights an urgent need for a comprehensive overview of the evidence of the benefits to society generated by agroforestry across Brazil. (2) We present a systematic map of the scientific evidence related to the effects of agroforestry on ecosystem services in Brazil. (3) Reviewing 158 peer-reviewed articles, published in international scientific journals (database: Web of Science), we identified a disproportionate emphasis on the Atlantic Forest. Very little research has been published on the Cerrado savanna, Pampa grasslands and Pantanal wetlands. Regulating services were much more frequently studied (85%) than provisioning (13%), while cultural services represent a major gap. A consistent positive effect of agroforestry was demonstrated for soil quality, habitat and food provisioning. Trade-offs were demonstrated for soils and habitats. (4) Our analysis identifies high-priority gaps given their critical importance for human well-being which should be filled: agroforestry effects on water provision and regulation. Moreover, they should assess other ES such as erosion control, flood protection and pest control to enable a more reliable inference about trade-offs.
... Retained woodland patches on farms can also provide social benefits associated with cultural heritage, aesthetics and recreation (Decocq et al. 2016). The presence of woodland patches has been shown to increase the overall aesthetic appeal of the landscape or the property which can positively influence public attitudes, brand appeal, property value and landholder well-being (Smith et al. 2012;Polyakov et al. 2014;Volenec and Dobson 2020). The range of commercial and noncommercial benefits arising from microclimatic changes and other services provided by open woodland may be best explored through development of a conceptual model for ecosystem service valuation (Marais et al. 2019). ...
Article
The retention of native woodland remnants in agricultural landscapes provides a range of benefits, many of which are linked to the ameliorative effects of trees on local microclimatic conditions. We monitored the reduction in wind speed and extreme temperatures that occurred in and around two native eucalypt woodland remnants in the Tasmanian Midlands and discuss the role of woodland remnants in providing both agricultural and environmental benefits. Monitoring wind speed, temperature and relative humidity every 30 min for over a year showed that an average wind speed reduction of 50% occurred within the woodland remnants as well as higher minimum temperatures by up to 0.5 C. The structural characteristics of the woodland remnants mediated the effects observed, with a 50% reduction in wind speed occurring when there was the equivalent of 20 large trees blocking the wind. This demonstrates that areas with low numbers of trees per hectare can have significant impacts on microclimatic conditions. The microclimatic changes observed will likely benefit agricultural productivity, farm aesthetics and ecological processes.
... This term is defined as the "collective name for land-use systems and technologies where woody perennials are deliberately used on the same land-management units as agricultural crops and/or animals in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence" (Nair, 1993). More precisely, the integration of understorey crops or animals in orchards is an emerging practice for an everincreasing number of fruit growers who hope to diversify their income sources and provide partial responses to a number of agronomical challenges (García de Jalón et al., 2018;Smith et al., 2013). These approaches that put tree products at the centre belong to what Pantera et al. (2018) calls "high value tree agroforestry". ...
Article
CONTEXT Agroforestry and, more precisely, the integration of animals into orchards, represent an interesting source of income diversification for fruit growers who are confronted with rising climatic and economic risks. Besides farm resilience and optimisation of land use, this association seems to provide reciprocal benefits for both trees and animals, such as: nutrient cycling, weed management, natural protection and pest control. In particular, poultry and, more specifically, chickens, have caught the attention of numerous fruit growers in search of simple and time-saving agroecological solutions to regulate pests and weeds in their orchards. Yet, whereas traditional silvopastoral systems involving livestock have been extensively studied, the advantages and disadvantages of introducing chickens into orchards have been overlooked. OBJECTIVE In this review, we aimed to build a heuristic representation of a chicken-pastured orchard in order to better understand this complex agroecosystem. We also compared the scientific state-of-the-art concerning some characteristics of this system to situations in the field. METHODS We first carried out a synthesis using an initial set of information (scientific articles, grey literature, testimonies, etc.) to build a simple heuristic representation based on compartments in interaction. We then examined the nature of information on interesting interactions by comparing 86 scientific articles to 26 farmers' testimonies. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION We show that the scientific and empirical knowledge concerning chicken-pastured orchards is uneven. More precisely, we identified four types of divergence on some characteristics of the information from different sources concerning the system. One general finding is that the absence of consensus about crucial aspects of the complex dynamic of chicken-pastured orchards and a lack of quantification approaches on several interactions are not consistent with farmers' needs. We suggest that including farmers in the scientific process as well as fostering interdisciplinary systemic approaches, notably between agronomy, animal science and ecology, could greatly benefit the study and design of agroecological integrated systems such as chicken-pastured orchards. SIGNIFICANCE To our knowledge, this review is the first one to present a global view of chicken-pastured orchards. The review built around the heuristic model aims at helping scientists identify knowledge gaps and new research questions. In addition, the heuristic model can also be a useful tool for designing and managing innovative systems together with the farmers concerned. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03513287v1
... Agricultural producers, academics and policy-makers are increasingly interested in multifunctional tree crop systems as a solution for maintaining ecosystem services and producing food (Hawken, 2017;IPCC, 2019;Mattia et al., 2018), as these systems can sequester carbon, support biodiversity, provide nutrition and support livelihoods Martins et al., 2011;Smith et al., 2013;Wolz et al., 2017). The US Midwest is emerging as a region of the temperate North where such systems are developing in a community of practice as a radical alternative to the region's prevalent annual monocultures. ...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural producers, academics and policy‐makers are increasingly interested in multifunctional tree crop systems as a solution for maintaining ecosystem services and producing food. The US Midwest is emerging as a hotbed of such systems in the temperate North in the form of farm‐scale woody perennial polyculture enterprises, but they are currently only a tiny fraction of the landscape. Understanding how such approaches might be scaled up, thus, requires learning from the farmers that are at the forefront of the transition of land to woody perennial polyculture to answer a range of questions: What unique management knowledge is being implemented by farmers to manage complexity on multiple scales? What key challenges have farmers faced? And what values and motivations underpin these fledgling efforts? From 13 interviews with 18 midwestern perennial polyculture farmers, we found that they largely used a small portion of their farm's land for their perennial enterprises, and did not earn a large portion of their income from them, though this was projected to increase as trees matured. Through experimentation, innovation and farmer networks, the farmers had amassed unique adaptive management expertise for balancing diverse crops and livestock within multifunctional tree crop systems over time and space, an area largely absent from mainstream agricultural science and policy. The barriers these farmers report facing are largely economic rather than biophysical, involving access to capital, insurance, mid‐sized markets and regional processing infrastructure, as well as government programmes mismatched with perenniality. Cross‐cutting these topics, farmers sought to fulfil values anchored in their relationships to land, to the community or to both. The values of long‐termism, learning and sharing, diversity, stewardship and care of farmland, connection to nature and wildlife, self‐sustenance, other‐sustenance and eudaimonia were embodied and expressed in farmer decisions from the practical to the personal. Economic and agrarian policy, as well as programme development for multifunctional tree crop systems, should (a) be designed to align with farmer's values and motivations and (b) take advantage of their expert management and systems knowledge to drive appropriate and successful transitions to sustainable environments and livelihoods. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.
... In temperate regions, agroforestry systems include many different practices such as windbreaks, riparian buffers, alley cropping, hedgerows, shelterbelts, silvopasture, and forest farming. Agroforestry practices can deliver a suite of ecosystem services from provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services (Smith et al. 2013). With some exceptions (e.g., pollinator hedgerows), ecosystem services provided by insect pollinators are often not specifically considered in the design and management of agroforestry practices (Udawatta et al. 2019). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Agroforestry can provide ecosystem services and benefits such as soil erosion control, microclimate modification for yield enhancement, economic diversification, livestock production and well-being, and water quality protection. By adding increased structural and functional diversity in agricultural landscapes, agroforestry practices can also affect ecosystem services provided by insect pollinators. This chapter provides a summary of existing scientific information on how temperate agroforestry systems influence insect pollinators and their pollination services. Our assessment indicates that agroforestry practices can provide three primary benefits for pollinators: (1) providing habitat including foraging resources and nesting or egg-laying sites, (2) enhancing site and landscape connectivity, and (3) mitigating pesticide exposure. In some cases, agroforestry practices may contribute to unintended consequences such as becoming a sink for pollinators, where they may have increased exposure to pesticide residue that can accumulate in agroforestry practices. Through a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of agroforestry practices on pollinators and their key services, we can better design agroforestry systems to provide these benefits in addition to other desired ecosystem services.
Article
Full-text available
Scaling-up agroforestry areas in various forms is a scientific path towards achieving various sustainable development goals (SDGs), especially improving livelihood, reducing poverty, conserving environment and biodiversity, and transforming climate change. In this study, the effort was made to investigate the land potentiality for agroforestry at the district level in Jharkhand State, India by applying geographic information system (GIS) modeling technology using climate (temperature and precipitation), topography (slope and elevation), ecology (percent tree cover and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)), and social economics (poverty rate and tribal dominance) factors. The results revealed that six districts of Jharkhand State had agroforestry potential greater than 60.00%. The highest agroforestry suitability was found in Simdega District (78.20%), followed by Pakur (76.25%), West Singhbhum (72.70%), Dumka (68.84%), Sahibganj (64.63%), and Godda (63.43%) districts. Additionally, we identified 513 out of 32,620 villages of JharkhandState potentially suitable (agroforestry suitability 80.00%) for agroforestry with the objective of life improvement among marginalized society. Under the outside forest area, 8.58% of the total geographical land of Jharkhand State was wasteland, much of which was found suitable for agroforestry practices. The agroforestry setups in those wastelands can absorb 637 t carbon annually in long run and can provide direct economic benefits to the locals besides additional income for carbon emission reduction. This study concluded that Jharkhand State has plenty of high potential land for agroforestry, and adoption of agroforestry at the village level must be given high priority. This study could guide the nodal authorities to prepare appropriate strategies for scaling the tree cover in agroforestry systems in village-level landscape planning which needs policy attention and investment for achieving 9 out of the 17 SDGs.
Chapter
Full-text available
The feasibility assessment (FA) presents a systematic framework to assess adaptation and mitigation options organised by system transitions. This Cross-Chapter Box assessed the feasibility of 23 adaptation options across six dimensions: economic, technological, institutional, socio-cultural, environmental-ecological, and geophysical to identify factors within each dimension that present barriers to the achievement of the option. The results are presented below.
Chapter
Full-text available
Indigenous knowledge refers to the understandings, skills and philosophies developed by societies with long histories of interaction with their natural surroundings (UNESCO, 2018; IPCC, 2019a). Local knowledge refers to the understandings and skills developed by individuals and populations, specific to the places where they live (UNESCO, 2018; IPCC, 2019a). Indigenous knowledge and local knowledge are inherently valuable but have only recently begun to be appreciated and in western scientific assessment processes in their own right (Ford et al., 2016). In the past these often endangered ways of knowing have been suppressed or attacked (Mustonen, 2014). Yet these knowledge systems represent a range of cultural practices, wisdom, traditions and ways of knowing the world that provide accurate and useful climate change information, observations and solutions (very high confidence) (Table Cross-Chapter Box INDIG.1). Rooted in their own contextual and relative embedded locations, some of these knowledges represent unbroken engagement with the earth, nature and weather for many tens of thousands of years, with an understanding of the ecosystem and climatic changes over longer-term timescales that is held both as knowledge by Indigenous Peoples and local peoples, as well as in the archaeological record (Barnhardt and Angayuqaq, 2005; UNESCO, 2018).
Chapter
Full-text available
This Cross-Chapter Box highlights the intersecting issues of gender, climate change adaptation, climate justice and transformative pathways. A gender perspective does not centre only on women or men but examines structures, processes and relationships of power between and among groups of men and women and how gender, particularly in its non-binary form, intersects with other social categories such as race, class, socioeconomic status, nationality or education to create multi-dimensional inequalities
Chapter
Traditional cultural landscapes are classified and described, which might occur all around the globe or only in certain regions of the world. These landscapes have been shaped by humans over the centuries and represent a historical continuity, despite landscape dynamics and historical changes. Typically, these landscapes have a considerable proportion of low-input and extensive land-use types (agriculture and forestry) and/or fishery. The cultural landscape classification encompasses forest landscapes, agroforestry landscapes, pasture landscapes, terraced landscapes, irrigation landscapes, lakescapes, riverscapes, coastal landscapes and seascapes, saltscapes, hunting and park landscapes, monastic landscapes, and sacred and spiritual landscapes. These landscapes integrate natural as well as cultural heritage.KeywordsAgroforestry landscapesExtensive land-use systemsIrrigation landscapeLandscape classificationLow-input agricultureRiverscape
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aim of deliverable D3.1 was to make an initial introductory review of research projects and the wider literature on the topic of mixed farming in Europe, to use as a go-to resource for the further work in the MIXED Project and parallel research projects. A literature review covering a large and broad topic such as ‘mixed farming systems’ is challenging, and the report makes recommendations towards a narrower discipline focused literature search approach. As a research field, mixed farming has increased significantly since 2015 and with a noteworthy leap since 2018. Most of the funding towards mixed farming research is provided by the European Commission and 80% of the research is carried out by 6 countries alone. The data obtained from the literature search shows that agroforestry and mixed farming approaches, which incorporate trees and bushes, hold most of the data. The projects identified within the report also show an overrepresentation of an agroforestry focus and especially research focusing on energy-crops is wanting. The project identification has, however, been supported by project partners and stakeholders, which may have caused a bias in the data. Twenty-two projects were discarded from the analysis, due to not disseminating their research in English. All were from France, which highlights a potential barrier for knowledgebase sharing.
Article
Full-text available
Conversion of monoculture to agroforestry (integrating trees with crops) is promoted as a promising management in reducing N2O emissions from croplands. How agroforestry influences gross N2O emission (N2O+N2 from N2O reduction) and uptake (N2O reduced to N2) compared to monoculture is unknown. We used the 15N2O pool dilution technique to quantify these processes using soil cores (top 5 cm) incubated in the field with monthly measurements over two growing seasons (2018–2019) at two sites (each with paired agroforestry and monoculture) and one site with monoculture only. The unfertilized tree rows showed the lowest gross N2O emissions (P≤0.002). Although tree rows occupied only 20% in agroforestry, gross N2O emissions tended to decrease by 6–36% in agroforestry (0.98–1.02 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1) compared to monoculture (1.04–1.59 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). Gross N2O emissions were influenced by soil mineral N, soil respiration and moisture content rather than by denitrification gene abundance. Soil gross N2O uptake was highest in the tree row and decreased with distance into crop rows (P=0.012). The agroforestry tended to increase gross N2O uptake by 27–42% (0.38–0.44 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1) compared to monoculture (0.30–0.31 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). In tree rows, soil gross N2O uptake correlated with nirK gene abundance which was indirectly influenced by the low mineral N–to–soil CO2-C ratio. Adjusting the tree and crop areal coverages of agroforestry and optimizing fertilization can further augment the benefits of agroforestry in reducing emission and increasing uptake of N2O in soils.
Thesis
Full-text available
Agroforestry integrates woody vegetation with crop and/or animal production. This combination can benefit from ecological and economic interactions that allow better use of natural resources and improved economic performance. But despite financial support offered through policy, the implementation of new agroforestry systems has not been widespread in the European Union. This thesis aimed to develop additional scientific knowledge on the potential of agroforestry systems in terms of productivity and environmental benefits. The method consisted in improving a bio-physical process-based model (Yield-SAFE) and an integrated bio-economic model (Farm-SAFE) and using both to model four different agroforestry systems in different edaphoclimatic conditions in Europe. Four different agroforestry tree-densities were compared to no-tree and tree-only monoculture alternatives. The results showed that: 1) in terms of productivity, the inclusion of trees in agricultural land increases the overall accumulated energy but the accumulated energy per tree decreases as the tree density of trees increases; 2) agroforestry options present a greater capacity of reducing soil erosion, nitrate leaching and increases the carbon sequestration; 3) agroforestry systems can act as more sustainable methods of food production and 4) options without trees are more interesting financially but these option are also the most polluting. And even though the consideration of a monetary valuation of the environmental services offered, agroforestry options would just become more interesting if there is a change on how public financial help is allocated to the sector. The findings of this work reflect what has been previously seen in scientific literature, particularly in terms of the capacity of agroforestry systems to be more productive than monoculture systems, whilst at the same time providing environmental benefits. However, relatively low profitability means that they still fail to attract farmers, the main agents of agroforestry uptake and currently, arable and forestry tend to receive higher subsidies making these land uses more attractive to farmers but considering environmental benefits would make agroforestry a more interesting option.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Given the massive and growing environmental impacts of conventional agriculture, humanity needs new methods for growing food that not only meet dietary needs but also provide for multiple ecosystem functions with potential benefits to people and biodiversity. Concepts from ecology and complex adaptive systems suggest that persistent structural heterogeneity and functional diversity are key for supporting biodiversity, ecosystem services, and resilience, but these concepts have not been extensively applied in agriculture, which is still dominated by annual monocropping systems. Perennial agriculture seems to embody these ecological concepts—particularly perennial polycultures that combine a variety of long‐lived woody perennial food crops with continuous ground cover. However, our understanding of the benefits and trade‐offs of such systems compared to conventional agriculture is limited, especially in temperate climates. Here, we provide a systematic and comprehensive study of the ecological attributes of 14 woody perennial polyculture farm fields to conventional annual and hay fields in the U.S. Midwest, one of the most industrialized food‐producing regions in the world. We found that perennial fields had (1) more diverse soil fungal, invertebrate, plant, and bird communities but found no difference in soil bacterial communities; (2) less compacted soil; (3) denser ground cover; (4) more active carbon, organic carbon, and nitrogen and the same available phosphorus in the top layer of soil; and (5) more species of predatory, detritivorous, and herbivorous insects, and approximately fourfold higher abundance of herbivorous insects. Food production from the oldest half of perennial fields was only 14.7% of a regional corn/soy rotation by weight, but increased with the age of the perennial field and had high nutritional diversity. Together, these findings indicate that woody perennial polyculture fields in the U.S. Midwest are characterized by higher biodiversity and ecosystem functions than adjacent conventional fields. Woody perennial polycultures in the temperate north might play a role in the transition of agricultural landscapes toward sustaining both people and nature over the long term.
Article
Full-text available
This is an Open Access Journal / article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved. The alternation in world's climate is due to the heavy population growth and increasing temperature. Now a days climate alternation is considered to be a big issue as climate change affects, directly and indirectly to all the agriculture and allied sector including animal, aquatic animals where it has both the useful and dangerous consequences. A number of studies is being conducted in various ways to know about the climate change and its impact on food sector. The study includes the effects of climate change on agriculture from different aspects like photosynthesis, transpiration and increase or decrease in productivity, which concluded a significant change in crop yield. Besides food sector the climate change is also creates pressure in ecological sector, socioeconomic sector, etc. As the greenhouse gases are the primary sources of climate change, the effects are getting worsen with the huge amount of industrial establishment which raise the temperature to an alarm level of global warming.
Chapter
Livestock is an important global sector contributing significantly to the economy of a country. It provides food security and livelihoods for a majority of populations around the world. The worldwide demand for livestock products is predicted to double by 2050, mainly due to development in the worldwide standard of living. Meanwhile, due to the effect on the quality of feed and forage, the availability of water, animal and milk production, animal diseases, reproduction, and biodiversity, climate change is a big concern to livestock production. Meanwhile, 14.5% of the world’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions come from the livestock industry, causing more climate change. The livestock will therefore be a key factor in enhancing worldwide food security and mitigating GHG emissions through the production of climate-smart livestock. The two main approaches to make livestock production “climate-smart” have been on adaptation to climatic changes and GHG mitigation. Adaptation strategies include improvements to the production and management systems as well as breeding methods, structural and policy adjustments, advances in science and technology, and changing the understanding and adaptive ability of farmers. Carbon sequestration, enhancing diets to avoid enteric fermentation, improving manure management, and more effective fertilizer usage are mitigation measures to reduce GHG emissions. In order to counter climatic changes and livestock development with successful adaptation and mitigation measures, these measures should be augmented by means of policy.
Chapter
Full-text available
The deforestation in Indonesia has begun in the twentieth century due to agricultural expansion and mechanization. The uncontrolled and illegal land conversions have affected forest functions, food security, and soil health. The objective of this study is to evaluate differences in soil properties among major land-use practices and determine agroforestry’s potential for soil rehabilitation. The study design consisted of palm oil plantation (POP), traditional agriculture (TA), agroforestry homegarden (AHG), and natural forest (NF) management treatments in completely randomized block design with three replications. Soil samples were collected from three villages Kuala Pembuang, Muara Dua, and Telaga Pulang within the Rimba Raya Biodiversity Reserve located in Seruyan District, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, in June 2017. Soils from 0–15 cm and 15–30 cm were analyzed for cellulase, PMEase, urease, C, and N. The results showed that enzyme activities and percentages of C and N were significantly different (α 0.05) among management practices within the soil depths. The highest enzyme activities were found in NF, AHG, and TA treatments. The lowest C level was found at 0–15 cm soil depth (1.32%) of POP. The highest nitrogen level was found at NF (1.23%) for 15–30 cm soil depth followed by TA site at 0–15 cm (1.15%). The lowest soil N level was found at POP among treatments and depths (0.43% and 0.21%). The outcomes of this study will help formulate land management recommendations for landowners, palm oil management, government agencies, and communities around the study areas to maintain soil quality for long-term sustainability of the peat forest ecosystems. Homegarden systems can be recommended as the most appropriate alternative land management in Seruyan District, Central Kalimantan. Future research could investigate microbial community structure and characteristics to understand specific soil functions by treatments.
Chapter
Australia is well known for being mostly dry, and for having generally poor soils. Much of the area of the continent which actually has sufficient precipitation to support forests has been cleared of tree cover for agriculture and grazing. Some 100,000 farming properties encompass more than 50 million ha in an arc from tropical far north Queensland along the eastern and southeastern coastlines, with another fertile region in southwestern Australia. Thus there is a role for trees and forests in agroforestry systems that could develop in these often degraded lands. Australia has a strong natural science sector which has contributed useful research on potential agroforestry systems, particularly in the areas of shelterbelts in grazing areas, and the deployment of trees for alleviation of salinity, which is a serious problem in some regions. Efforts to develop the ecosystem services derived from agroforestry have been sporadic, often short-term, in both public and private sectors, although efforts of groups such as Landcare and many regional farm forestry networks have started to make headway.
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
We conducted an experiment to investigate the effects of juglone (5-hydroxy-1, 4-napthoquinone) on the growth and physiology of hydroponically grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seedlings. Three different concentrations of juglone (10^-6 M, 10^-5 M, and 10^-4 M) along with a control were applied. Within 3 days, juglone exhibited significant inhibitory effects on all measured variables including shoot and root relative growth rates (RGR\rm_{s} and RGR\rm_{r}), leaf photosynthesis (P\rm_{net}), transpiration (E), stomatal conductance (g\rm_{s}), and leaf and root respiration. In general, soybean was found to be more sensitive to juglone than corn. RGR\rm_{r}was the most inhibited variable for both species, and reductions of 86.5 and 99% were observed in corn and soybean, respectively, with 10^-4 M juglone concentrations. Among the physiological variables measured, P\rm_{net} showed the greatest impact of toxicity though the other physiological parameters were also impacted. We conclude that both corn and soybean are sensitive to juglone and observed growth reductions in corn and soybean in black walnut alley cropping may partly be due to juglone phytotoxicity. Determination of actual phytotoxicity will require quantification of soil solution juglone levels, particularly in areas where soil solid-phase levels are high in close proximity to trees.
Article
Full-text available
Windbreaks are a major component of successful agricultural systems throughout the world. The focus of this chapter is on temperate-zone, commercial, agricultural systems in North America, where windbreaks contribute to both producer profitability and environmental quality by increasing crop production while simultaneously reducing the level of off-farm inputs. They help control erosion and blowing snow, improve animal health and survival under winter conditions, reduce energy consumption of the farmstead unit, and enhance habitat diversity, providing refuges for predatory birds and insects. On a larger landscape scale windbreaks provide habitat for various types of wildlife and have the potential to contribute significant benefits to the carbon balance equation, easing the economic burdens associated with climate change. For a windbreak to function properly, it must be designed with the needs of the landowner in mind. The ability of a windbreak to meet a specific need is determined by its structure: both external structure, width, height, shape, and orientation as well as the internal structure; the amount and arrangement of the branches, leaves, and stems of the trees or shrubs in the windbreak. In response to windbreak structure, wind flow in the vicinity of a windbreak is altered and the microclimate in sheltered areas is changed; temperatures tend to be slightly higher and evaporation is reduced. These types of changes in microclimate can be utilized to enhance agricultural sustainability and profitability. While specific mechanisms of the shelter response remain unclear and are topics for further research, the two biggest challenges we face are: developing a better understanding of why producers are reluctant to adopt windbreak technology and defining the role of woody plants in the agricultural landscape.
Article
Full-text available
Ecosystem engineers are organisms that directly or indirectly modulate the availability of resources to other species, by causing physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials. In so doing they modify, maintain and create habitats. Autogenic engineers (e.g. corals, or trees) change the environment via their own physical structures (i.e. their living and dead tissues). Allogenic engineers (e.g. woodpeckers, beavers) change the environment by transforming living or non-living materials from one physical state to another, via mechanical or other means. The direct provision of resources to other species, in the form of living or dead tissues is not engineering. Organisms act as engineers when they modulate the supply of a resource or resources other than themselves. We recognise and define five types of engineering and provide examples. Humans are allogenic engineers par excellence, and also mimic the behaviour of autogenic engineers, for example by constructing glasshouses. We explore related concepts including the notions of extended phenotypes and keystone species. Some (but not all) products of ecosystem engineering are extended phenotypes. Many (perhaps most) impacts of keystone species include not only trophic effects, but also engineers and engineering. Engineers differ in their impacts. The biggest effects are attributable to species with large per capita impacts, living at high densities, over large areas for a long time, giving rise to structures that persist for millennia and that modulate many resource flows (e.g. mima mounds created by fossorial rodents). The ephemeral nests constructed by small, passerine birds lie at the opposite end of this continuum. We provide a tentative research agenda for an exploration of the phenomenon of organisms as ecosystem engineers, and suggest that all habitats on earth support, and are influenced by, ecosystem engineers.
Article
Full-text available
In commercial free-range broiler (meat chicken) systems, many birds never leave the houses, making them ‘free-range’ in name only and suggesting that the environment provided is not preferred habitat. We investigated the factors that affect the numbers of birds ranging in 40 flocks, each of 20000 growing broiler chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus, in 14 houses on seven commercial farms and at three seasons of the year. The number of birds found to be ranging outside was positively correlated with the amount of tree cover the range area contained, the time of day and the season of the year. Few birds were seen ranging in the winter but even in summer, the maximum number observed outside during daylight hours at any one time was less than 15% of the total flock. We measured habitat preference of the chickens, using a statistical method previously used for wild birds, and argue that this ‘in situ’ measurement of habitat preference could be widely used in a variety of situations and that it thus constitutes an important noninvasive and nonintrusive method for assessing animal welfare on commercial farms. Copyright 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Article
Full-text available
end of each plot. The switchgrass buffer removed 95% of the sediment, 80% of the total-nitrogen (N), 62% of the nitrate-nitrogen ((NO.sub.3)-N), 78% of the totalphosphorus (P), and 58% of the phosphate-phosphorus ((PO.sub.4)-P). The switchgrass/woody buffer removed 97% of the sediment, 94% of the total-N, 85% of the (NO.sub.3 )-N, 91% of the total-P, and 8o% of the (PO.sub.4)-P in the runoff. There was a significant negative correlation between the trapping effectiveness of the buffers and the intensity and total rainfall of individual storms. While the 7 m (23 ft) switchgrass buffer was effective in removing sediment and sediment-bound nutrients, the added width of the 16.3 m (53.5 ft) switchgrass/woody buffer increased the removal efficiency of soluble nutrients by over 20%. Similar or even greater reductions might have been found if the 16.3 m (53.5 ft) buffer had been planted completely to native warm-season grasses. In this buffer, combinations of the dense, stiff, native warm-season grass and woody vegetation improved the removal effectiveness for the nonpoint source pollutants from agricultural areas.
Article
Full-text available
During the past three decades, agroforestry has become recognized the world over as an integrated approach to sustainable land use because of its production and environmental benefits. Its recent recognition as a greenhouse gas–mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol has earned it added attention as a strategy for biological carbon (C) sequestration. The perceived potential is based on the premise that the greater efficiency of integrated systems in resource (nutrients, light, and water) capture and utilization than single-species systems will result in greater net C sequestration. Available estimates of C-sequestration potential of agroforestry systems are derived by combining information on the aboveground, time-averaged C stocks and the soil C values; but they are generally not rigorous. Methodological difficulties in estimating C stock of biomass and the extent of soil C storage under varying conditions are compounded by the lack of reliable estimates of area under agroforestry. We estimate that the area currently under agroforestry worldwide is 1,023 million ha. Additionally, substantial extent of areas of unproductive crop, grass, and forest lands as well as degraded lands could be brought under agroforestry. The extent of C sequestered in any agroforestry system will depend on a number of site-specific biological, climatic, soil, and management factors. Furthermore, the profitability of C-sequestration projects will depend on the price of C in the international market, additional income from the sale of products such as timber, and the cost related to C monitoring. Our knowledge on these issues is unfortunately rudimentary. Until such difficulties are surmounted, the low-cost environmental benefit of agroforestry will continue to be underappreciated and underexploited.
Article
Full-text available
Due to their potential to enhance soil biodiversity and fertility, tree-based intercropping (TBI) systems are recognized as promising agrotechnologies. However, few studies have examined the effects of TBI on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. To investigate this aspect, and to compare TBI with a more typical forest plantation (FO) system, a field experiment using soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. SO3-W4) and poplar (Populus nigra L. × P. maximowiczii cv. A. Henry ‘Max 5’) was conducted on an arable field site in southwestern Québec. The species of AM fungi colonizing the roots were assessed by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequence analyses of SSU rRNA genes. A total of 13 different phylotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that these belonged to the genera Glomus (11), Acaulospora (1) and Scutellospora (1). The AM fungal diversity, as expressed by the Shannon–Wiener indices, were 0.82 ± 0.08 for the soybean and 0.70 ± 0.11 for poplar under the TBI system, and 0.53 ± 0.08 for poplar under the FO system. The study also investigated the distribution of AM fungal spores in the soil, and this differed in the two systems. Under the TBI system, spore abundance increased with increasing distance from the poplar trunk, while it remained relatively constant under the FO system. Our results also show that neighbouring trees and soybean plants hosted different AM fungal communities, suggesting that TBI systems may enhance AM fungal richness compared to monocultures.
Article
Full-text available
The ecological principles that define the competitive and complementary interactions among trees, crops, and fauna in agroforestry systems have received considerable research attention during the recent past. These principles have not yet, however, been adequately integrated and synthesized into an operational approach. This paper reviews the ecological and ecophysiological bases for interspecific interactions based on data from site-specific research and demonstration trials from temperate agroforestry systems, primarily from temperate North America. The review shows that information on ecological interactions in several temperate agroforestry systems is inadequate. It is recommended that the future research should focus on exploring new species and systems that have received little attention in the past. Priority research areas should include cultural practices and system designs to minimize in-terspecific competition and maximize environmental benefits such as improved water quality. Potential for genetic modification of components to increase productivity and reduce competition also needs to be explored. Process-oriented models may be used increasingly to predict resource-allocation patterns and possible benefits for a suite of site and species combinations.
Article
Full-text available
1. Facilitating adaptive responses of organisms in modified landscape will be essential to overcome the negative effects of climate change and its interaction with land use change. Without such action, many organisms will be prevented from achieving the predicted range shifts they need to survive. 2. Scattered trees are a prominent feature of many modified landscapes, and could play an important role in facilitating climate change adaptation. They are keystone structures because of the disproportionally large ecological values and ecosystem services that they provide relative to the area they occupy in these landscapes. The provision of habitat and connectivity will be particularly relevant. 3. Scattered trees are declining in modified landscapes due to elevated tree mortality and poor recruitment often associated with intensive land use. The continuing global decline of scattered trees will undermine the capacity of many organisms to adapt to climate change. 4. Synthesis and applications. The sustainable management of scattered trees in modified landscapes could complement other strategies for facilitating climate change adaptation. They create continuous, though sparse, vegetation cover that permits multi-directional movements of biota across landscapes and ecological networks. They have the capacity to span ecosystems and climatic gradients that cannot be captured in formal reserves alone. The management of scattered trees should be an integral part of conservation objectives and agricultural activities in modified landscapes. Public investment, through mechanisms such as agri-environmental schemes, in rotational grazing, temporary set-asides, tree-planting and regulations that reduce clearing and early mortality among standing trees will improve the capacity of biota to adapt to climate change.
Article
Full-text available
Agroforestry systems are believed to provide a number of ecosystem services; however, until recently evidence in the agroforestry literature supporting these perceived benefits has been lacking. This special issue brings together a series of papers from around the globe to address recent findings on the ecosystem services and environmental benefits provided by agroforestry. As prelude to the special issue, this paper examines four major ecosystem services and environmental benefits of agroforestry: (1) carbon sequestration, (2) biodiversity conservation, (3) soil enrichment and (4) air and water quality. Past and present evidence clearly indicates that agroforestry, as part of a multifunctional working landscape, can be a viable land-use option that, in addition to alleviating poverty, offers a number of ecosystem services and environmental benefits. This realization should help promote agroforestry and its role as an integral part of a multifunctional working landscape the world over.
Article
Full-text available
The environmental services that agroforestry practices can provide, and especially their potential contribution to the conservation of biodiversity, have only recently attracted wider attention among agroforestry and conservation scientists. This new view is consistent with the ecosystem approach to natural resource management advocated by the Convention on Biological Diversity. This collection of six papers, which is based on a Workshop held in June–July 2004, brings together studies of biodiversity impacts of traditional agroforestry practices from Central and South America, Africa and Asia. The contributions highlight the considerable potential of traditional agroforestry practices to support biodiversity conservation, but also show their limits. These include the importance of sufficient areas of natural habitat and of appropriate hunting regulations for maintaining high levels of biodiversity in agroforestry land use mosaics, as well as the critical role of markets for tree products and of a favourable policy environment for agroforestry land uses. In combination the case studies suggest that maintaining diversity in approaches to management of agroforestry systems, along with a pragmatic, undogmatic view on natural resource management, will provide the widest range of options for adapting to changing land use conditions.
Article
Full-text available
Recent reports clearly indicate that odor emitted from concentrated livestock production facilities in the Midwest of the US is a significant social problem that negatively impacts rural and state economies, human health, and the quality of rural life. A potential incremental approach to dealing with livestock odor is the use of shelterbelts arranged in strategic designs near and within livestock facilities. This review outlines the various ways that shelterbelts can be effective technology which bio-physically mitigates odor thereby reducing social conflict from odor nuisance. The biophysical potential of shelterbelts to mitigate livestock odor arises from the tree/shrub impacts on the central characteristics and physical behavior of livestock odor. As the majority of odors generated in animal facilities that are detectable at appreciable distances travel as particulates, there is compelling evidence that shelterbelts can ameliorate livestock odor by impeding the movement of these particulates. Because the odor source is near the ground and the tendency of livestock odor is to travel along the ground, shelterbelts of modest heights (i.e. 20–30ft) may be ideal for odor interception, disruption, and dilution. Shelterbelts can be adapted to fit almost any production situation. Depending on shelterbelt health, these trees can provide long term, year round odor interception, with increasing effectiveness over time. Additionally, more is becoming known about how landscape aesthetics affect how people might perceive livestock odor, suggesting that landscape elements such as shelterbelts can lead to aesthetic improvements and perhaps more positive opinions of livestock odor and the farm systems that create them.
Chapter
Full-text available
Agroforestry systems have often been neglected in Europe because administrative structures within many national governments have considered that only agriculture or forestry are legitimate within their remit. This has resulted in the loss of agroforestry systems in European countries and an impoverishment of the benefits that they provide. This paper argues that agroforestry systems are a complex interaction of agricultural and forestry elements which can be classified according to their components, spatial and temporal arrangement, agro-ecological zone, and socio-economic aspects. A further breakdown can be made on the basis of ecosystem functions, and their associated goods and services. The ecosystem functions of agroforestry systems can be grouped under production (the creation of biomass), habitat (the delivery of biodiversity), regulation (maintenance of essential processes and life support systems) and culture (cultural heritage, landscape enhancement and recreation). The importance of the multi-functionality of agroforestry systems in terms of their management input and the range of their outputs is stressed and it is proposed that land use decisions should be made within the broader ecosystems perspective so that greater social well-being can be derived from rural areas in Europe.
Article
Full-text available
Losses of carbon (C) stocks in terrestrial ecosystems and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are challenges that scientists and policy makers have been facing in the recent past. Intensified agricultural practices lead to a reduction in ecosystem carbon stocks, mainly due to removal of aboveground biomass as harvest and loss of carbon as CO2 through burning and/or decomposition. Evidence is emerging that agroforestry systems are promising management practices to increase aboveground and soil C stocks and reduce soil degradation, as well as to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In the humid tropics, the potential of agroforestry (tree-based) systems to sequester C in vegetation can be over 70Mg C ha–1, and up to 25Mg ha–1 in the top 20cm of soil. In degraded soils of the sub-humid tropics, improved fallow agroforestry practices have been found to increase top soil C stocks up to 1.6Mg C ha–1 y–1 above continuous maize cropping. Soil C accretion is linked to the structural development of the soil, in particular to increasing C in water stable aggregates (WSA). A review of agroforestry practices in the humid tropics showed that these systems were able to mitigate N2O and CO2 emissions from soils and increase the CH4 sink strength compared to cropping systems. The increase in N2O and CO2 emissions after addition of legume residues in improved fallow systems in the sub-humid tropics indicates the importance of using lower quality organic inputs and increasing nutrient use efficiency to derive more direct and indirect benefits from the system. In summary, these examples provide evidence of several pathways by which agroforestry systems can increase C sequestration and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Article
Full-text available
Agroforestry has importance as a carbon sequestration strategy because of carbon storage potential in its multiple plant species and soil as well as its applicability in agricultural lands and in reforestation. The potential seems to be substantial; but it has not been even adequately recognized, let alone exploited. Proper design and management of agroforestry practices can make them effective carbon sinks. As in other land-use systems, the extent of C sequestered will depend on the amounts of C in standing biomass, recalcitrant C remaining in the soil, and C sequestered in wood products. Average carbon storage by agroforestry practices has been estimated as 9, 21, 50, and 63 Mg C ha−1 in semiarid, subhumid, humid, and temperate regions. For smallholder agroforestry systems in the tropics, potential C sequestration rates range from 1.5 to 3.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Agroforestry can also have an indirect effect on C sequestration when it helps decrease pressure on natural forests, which are the largest sink of terrestrial C. Another indirect avenue of C sequestration is through the use of agroforestry technologies for soil conservation, which could enhance C storage in trees and soils. Agroforestry systems with perennial crops may be important carbon sinks, while intensively managed agroforestry systems with annual crops are more similar to conventional agriculture. In order to exploit this vastly unrealized potential of C sequestration through agroforestry in both subsistence and commercial enterprises in the tropics and the temperate region, innovative policies, based on rigorous research results, have to be put in place.
Article
Full-text available
In this article we review the use of natural enemies in crop pest management and describe research needed to better meet information needs for practical applications. Endemic natural enemies (predators and parasites) offer a potential but understudied approach to controlling insect pests in agricultural systems. With the current high interest in environmental stewardship, such an approach has special appeal as a method to reduce the need for pesticides while maintaining agricultural profitability. Habitat for sustaining populations of natural enemies occurs primarily at field edges where crops and edge vegetation meet. Conservation and enhancement of natural enemies might include manipulation of plant species and plant arrangement, particularly at these edges; and consideration of optimum field sizes, number of edges, and management practices in and near edges. Blending the benefits of agricultural and forestry (windbreak) systems is one promising approach to field edge management that has additional benefits of wind protection and conservation of desirable wildlife species.
Book
Agroforestry refers to land use systems in which trees or shrubs are grown in association with agricultural crops, or pastures and livestock. From its inception, it has contained a strong element of soil management. Well-designed and managed agroforestry systems have the potential to control runoff and erosion, maintain soil organic matter and physical properties and promote nutrient cycling. By these means agroforestry can make a suitable contribution to sustainable land use. This new edition summarises the present state of knowledge and research of agronomy systems: the plant-soil processes; soil conservation and erosion control; soil management and nutrient cycling. It is essential reading for all concerned with agroforestry whether as students, research scientists or for practical purposes of development.
Article
Landscapes are frequently seen as fragments of natural habitat surrounded by a 'sea' of agriculture. But recent ecological theory shows that the nature of these fragments is not nearly as important for conservation as is the nature of the matrix of agriculture that surrounds them. Local extinctions from conservation fragments are inevitable and must be balanced by migrations if massive extinction is to be avoided. High migration rates only occur in what the authors refer to as 'high quality' matrices, which are created by alternative agroecological techniques, as opposed to the industrial monocultural model of agriculture. The authors argue that the only way to promote such high quality matrices is to work with rural social movements. Their ideas are at odds with the major trends of some of the large conservation organizations that emphasize targeted land purchases of protected areas. They argue that recent advances in ecological research make such a general approach anachronistic and call, rather, for solidarity with the small farmers around the world who are currently struggling to attain food sovereignty. Nature's Matrix proposes a radically new approach to the conservation of biodiversity based on recent advances in the science of ecology plus political realities, particularly in the world's tropical regions. © Dr Ivette Perfecto, Dr John Vandermeer and Dr Angus Wright, 2009. All rights reserved.
Article
Windbreaks are a major component of successful agricultural systems throughout the world. The focus of this chapter is on temperate-zone, commercial, agricultural systems in North America, where windbreaks contribute to both producer profitability and environmental quality by increasing crop production while simultaneously reducing the level of off-farm inputs. They help control erosion and blowing snow, improve animal health and survival under winter conditions, reduce energy consumption of the farmstead unit, and enhance habitat diversity, providing refuges for predatory birds and insects. On a larger landscape scale windbreaks provide habitat for various types of wildlife and have the potential to contribute significant benefits to the carbon balance equation, easing the economic burdens associated with climate change. For a windbreak to function properly, it must be designed with the needs of the landowner in mind. The ability of a windbreak to meet a specific need is determined by its structure: both external structure, width, height, shape, and orientation as well as the internal structure; the amount and arrangement of the branches, leaves, and stems of the trees or shrubs in the windbreak. In response to windbreak structure, wind flow in the vicinity of a windbreak is altered and the microclimate in sheltered areas is changed; temperatures tend to be slightly higher and evaporation is reduced. These types of changes in microclimate can be utilized to enhance agricultural sustainability and profitability. While specific mechanisms of the shelter response remain unclear and are topics for further research, the two biggest challenges we face are: developing a better understanding of why producers are reluctant to adopt windbreak technology and defining the role of woody plants in the agricultural landscape.
Article
Interactions between organisms are a major determinant of the distribution and abundance of species. Ecology textbooks (e.g., Ricklefs 1984, Krebs 1985, Begon et al. 1990) summarise these important interactions as intra- and interspecific competition for abiotic and biotic resources, predation, parasitism and mutualism. Conspicuously lacking from the list of key processes in most text books is the role that many organisms play in the creation, modification and maintenance of habitats. These activities do not involve direct trophic interactions between species, but they are nevertheless important and common. The ecological literature is rich in examples of habitat modification by organisms, some of which have been extensively studied (e.g. Thayer 1979, Naiman et al. 1988).
Article
Vegetation filters of fast-growing trees such as willows and poplars are becoming important as an alternative to conventional treatment of wastewater and landfill leachate. Short-rotation willow coppice is a non-edible crop and has many of the requirements for a suitable vegetation filter. The filtering capacity (e.g., of nitrogen) is very high, and the crop promotes denitrification in the root zone. It has a highly selective uptake of heavy metals, especially cadmium, which enables remediation of contaminated soils. In addition, willows have a high evapotranspiration rate facilitating high loads, e.g., of polluted landfill leachate. Because of the pathogens present in municipal wastewater and sludge, special attention must be paid to storage and distribution of wastewater. In many cases vegetation filters are more cost-effective than conventional treatment methods and also facilitate recycling of valuable resources in society.
Article
1. The diversity and abundance of airborne arthropods in a silvoarable agroforestry system with associated forestry and arable control areas in northern England was investigated with yellow water-pan traps. The agroforestry system consisted of alleys of arable crop (peas) separated by production hedges of 3-year-old furniture-timber trees (ash, cherry, sycamore and walnut) and hazel bushes. 2. The most common taxa were more abundant in the agroforestry system than in the adjoining arable control area containing the same arable crop. 3. The diversity of aerial arthropods as measured by the log-series index was also higher in the agroforestry system than in the arable control area. 4. Comparison of diversity around one tree species, sycamore, showed that trees grown at forestry density were better able to provide higher arthropod diversity at the beginning of the cropping season whereas those in production hedges were better later in the cropping season. 5. Studies on the population dynamics of insect pests and their natural enemies in the pea crop suggested that the production hedges can play an important part in attracting and maintaining populations of natural enemies close to an adjacent arable crop.