Article

Anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract from Myagropsis myagroides on murine macrophages and mouse ear edema

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.02). 10/2012; 12(1):171. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-171
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background
This study aims to investigate anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Myagropsis myagroides (EMM) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced ear edema in mice, and to clarify its underlying molecular mechanisms.

Methods
The levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by Griess assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and Akt were measured using Western blotting. Nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were determined by immunocytochemistry and reporter gene assay, respectively. PMA-induced mouse ear edema was used as the animal model of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory compounds in EMM were isolated using high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance.

Results
EMM significantly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. EMM strongly suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB by preventing degradation of inhibitor of κB-α as well as by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs. EMM reduced ear edema in PMA-induced mice. One of the anti-inflammatory compounds in EMM was identified as 6,6’-bieckol.

Conclusions
These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of EMM are associated with the down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines through the inhibition of NF-κB pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Minsup Lee
  • Source
    • "In the previous studies, we demonstrated anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the ethanolic extract of M. myagroides using RAW 264.7 and BV2 cells and identified active compounds as phlorofucofuroeckol B and sargachromenol [16] [19] [20]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myagropsis myagroides, a brown alga, showed strong anti-inflammatory activities in the previous studies. In this study, we isolated a strong anti-inflammatory compound, sargaquinoic acid (SQA), from M. myagroides and investigated the anti-inflammatory action using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. SQA suppressed the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in LPS-stimulated cells as well as that of reactive oxygen species. As a result, SQA inhibited the production of NO, prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. LPS-induced transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was remarkably inhibited by SQA treatment through the prevention of inhibitor κB-α degradation. The regulation of NF-κB activation was also mediated by the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, SQA induced the production of heme oxygenase 1 via activation of transcription factor Nrf2. These results indicate that SQA inhibits the LPS-induced expression of inflammatory mediators via suppression of ERK and Akt-mediated NF-κB pathway as well as up-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, indicating that SQA has a potential therapeutic and preventive application in various inflammatory diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · International immunopharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Microglial activation has been implicated in neurological disorders for its inflammatory and neurotrophic effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of the hexane fraction from Myagropsis myagroides (Mertens ex Turner) Fensholt ethanolic extract and its underlying molecular mechanism in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia. Various solvent fractions prepared from the ethanolic extract of M. myagroides were analysed for total phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production in activated BV-2 microglia. We measured prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of inflammatory enzymes was analysed by Western blot. Nuclear translocation and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) were determined by immunofluorescence and reporter gene assay, respectively. Among the fractions, the hexane fraction (MMH), rich in fatty acid, showed the highest inhibitory activity on NO generation. Pretreatment with MMH decreased mRNA and protein levels of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, resulting in a decrease in NO and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Furthermore, MMH inhibited the production of inducible pro-inflammatory cytokines at their transcriptional level via inactivation of NF-κB. MMH inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These results indicate that MMH has a strong anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated microglia, suggesting that MMH can be used as a therapeutic agent against neuroinflammatory diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Marine brown algae have been identified as a rich source of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Whether Myagropsis yendoi ethanolic extracts (MYE) inhibit inflammatory responses was investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. MYE inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in BV-2 cells. MYE also reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. LPS-induced nuclear factor- (NF-) transcriptional activity and NF- translocation into the nucleus were significantly inhibited by MYE treatment through preventing degradation of the inhibitor . Moreover, MYE inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK, JNK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. These results indicate that MYE is a potential source of therapeutic or functional agents for neuroinflammatory diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Fisheries and Aquatic Science
Show more