Comparison of the Diversity of the Vaginal Microbiota in HIV‐Infected and HIV‐Uninfected Women with or without Bacterial Vaginosis

Department of Immunology/Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 09/2008; 198(8):1131-40. DOI: 10.1086/591942
Source: PubMed


Whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a change in the diversity of genital microbiota in women was investigated.
Amplicon length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene were used to analyze the diversity of the microbiota in HIV-positive (HIV(+)) and HIV-negative (HIV(-)) women with or without bacterial vaginosis (BV).
LH-PCR analysis revealed significantly more microbiota diversity in BV-positive (BV(+)) women than in BV-negative (BV(-)) women, but no significant difference was noted between HIV(+) women and HIV(-) women. Pyrosequencing revealed that Lactobacillus organisms constituted a median of 96% of the bacteria in BV(-) women. BV(+) women had a significantly higher number of taxa found at > or =1% of the total genital microbiota (median, 11 taxa). Common taxa in BV(+) women were Prevotella, Megasphaera, Gardnerella, Coriobacterineae, Lachnospira, and Sneathia. There was a trend (P = .07) toward the presence of a higher number of taxa in HIV(+)BV(+) women than in HIV(-)BV(+) women. Propionibacterineae, Citrobacter, and Anaerococcus were the taxa found only in HIV(+) women (P < .05).
The present study demonstrated that both LH-PCR analysis and pyrosequencing differentiated microbiota in BV(+) women from that in BV(-) women and that pyrosequencing indicated a trend toward increased diversity in BV(+)HIV(+) women, suggesting that HIV infection is associated with changes in the diversity of genital microbiota.

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    • "Metagenomic sequencing represents a powerful alternative to 16S rDNA sequencing when analyzing complex microbial communities (Riesenfeld et al., 2004; Tringe and Rubin, 2005; von Mering et al., 2007). Illumina HiSeq 2000 has fewer errors than 454 sequencing (Smith et al., 2008) and it could provide a higher phylogenetic resolution than 454 based approaches (Spear et al., 2008). The advantage of Illumina is that it provides 30 times more reads and this enables us to perform indepth sequencing of hundreds of samples in one run at a fraction of the costs, making it an excellent tool for microbial diversity studies. "
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    • "Prevotella spp. have been found in the majority of patients in culture-based surveys of vaginal microbiomes [44] and are one of the most common operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present in recent molecular studies [45]. Prevotella spp. "
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    • "Pyrosequencing is a relatively novel technique which may help to decipher complex viral populations in terms of their diversity and structure. To date, it was successfully used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research to identify minor drug resistant variants, analyze variable regions of heavy and light chains of neutralizing antibodies against HIV, as well as to determine HIV tropism, analyze superinfections and assess diversity of genital microbiota in HIV-infected women [27–31]. Ultradeep sequencing strategies also offers a new approach in HCV research. "
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