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Consumer Interactions and Influences on Farmers' Market Vendors

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Abstract

Consumers interact with each other and vendors on a social level at farmers' markets. Some consumer social interactions, such as enjoying the market, talking with farmers about seasonal products and making a trip to the market a family event, are significant and positive influences on spending at farmers' markets as identified through a survey of 216 shoppers at eight farmers' markets in Maine. Vendors at these markets were also surveyed, with 65 of the 81 vendors being farmers. Through direct farmer/consumer relations, farmers indicated a willingness to reduce chemical inputs to meet customer demands, suggesting that customer interaction has the potential to affect environmental quality. By examining the linkages between producers and consumers at a direct market—often embedded with a sense of local identity—there is the potential to better understand social interactions that can support the economic and environmental sustainability of local agriculture.

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... Besides those factors, Hunt [47] linked the demographic factors with the motivating factors to shop in farmers' market. He believed that the social interaction is a significant motivator for consumers based on their demographic characteristics. ...
... The study by Conner et al. [45] on consumers showed that the average education level was college. Hunt [47] also had similar outcomes on his research. Brown [22] described most consumers as middle aged, middle income or above, well educated women. ...
... Previous studies indicated that there are both benefits and challenges for farmers to sell their products in farmers' markets. In terms of benefits, from vendor's perspective, first, to sell in local market can shorten the distance they travel, which means it reduces the transportation cost [47]. Second, selling in local market enables them to have more interactions with consumers, and improve their operations by understanding consumers' demands. ...
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By deploying a systematic review approach, this chapter provides a holistic exploration of AFNs which contributes to further mobilization of locally produced products. This chapter explores the constituents of AFNs by studying food citizenship , sustainability and food democracy, food safety and quality, embeddedness and social capital, the relationship between the level of participation in AFNs and consumers' demographics, consumers' motivations to engage in buy-local activities, vendors' perspective on selling products in farmers' market, and the development of short food supply chains in the Canadian context. Specifically, the social interaction aspect of buying local, for example, engaging with vendors and other consumers, has been cited as a factor that motivates consumers to buy local food products from the farmers' market; however, consumers had to deploy online ordering channels with door delivery option during COVID-19 pandemic to access locally produced products safely. To capture one aspect of the potential impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on AFNs, future research can explore whether social interaction is still an influential factor in consumers decision to buy local, or the importance of the social interaction aspect of buying local will be replaced by the convenience of receiving the fresh, locally produced food products at consumers' doorstep via online ordering process.
... Several contributions discuss the particular features of the bundles of formal rules-e.g., certifications and public regulations-and informal rules-e.g., norms of behavior and shared values-that characterize a local food system (e.g., Hinrichs 2000;Hunt 2007;Jarosz 2008;Mount 2012). As conventional food systems adopt the strategy of supplying local food to compete for consumers interested in participating in the local food movement (see Kirwan 2004;Trivette 2017), greater attention is put on the comparative institutional features of local food systems. ...
... The available empirical evidence reinforces the argument. In the case of farmers' markets, Hunt (2007) shows that consumers who travel additional miles to purchase food will face a lower probability to meet somebody they know. Similarly, Rushing and Ruehle (2013) use descriptive statistics to argue that the distance between the consumer and the farm affects the perceived level of trust in the local food movement. ...
... Household size is negatively correlated with Institutionalbased trust and Trust in food information. Our findings are consistent with the results described by Hunt (2007), who shows that a smaller household size is correlated with a stronger demand for organic food and fresh vegetables and fruits. We hypothesize that the greater level of institutionalization of practices in mainstream grocery stores appeals to bigger families, whose members often have diverse preferences. ...
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How do calculative trust and relational trust influence the emergence of institutional-based trust in farmers’ markets? We fill a gap in the literature by studying how diverse forms of trust influence the way frequent consumers evaluate the institutions of a farmers’ market. We analyze a data set of 687 frequent shoppers from the U.S. state of Missouri, assessing the institutional-based trust in farmers’ markets in comparison with the level of institutional-based trust in conventional food systems. The results suggest that calculative trust plays an important role in the consolidation of institutional-based trust in local food systems. More specifically, consumers who shop frequently and live closer to a farmers’ market tend to trust more in local food systems than in conventional food systems. Likewise, affinity towards conventional food systems—i.e., convenience-oriented lifestyle preferences—seems to influence the level of institutional-based trust in local food systems. Consumers who eat out more often tend to trust less in local food systems, possibly due to the lack of repeated experiences with sellers. Following the literature, we also show that consumers search for a broader set of attributes when shopping at a farmers’ market. Even though relational trust is correlated with higher levels of institutional-based trust in alternative food systems, strong ties do not increase the trust in the information found in a farmers’ market.
... Fonte (2013), based on several authors, questions if they are fairer and more sustainable pre-figurative ways of political models of consumption. This is because the sustainability is assumed from a closer relationship between producers and consumers in opposition to the distance established in the conventional chain (Cicatiello et al. 2015;Hayden and Buck 2012;Hunt 2007;Lass, Lavoie, and Fetter 2005;Thilmany 2008;Vermeir and Verbeke 2006). Shorter distances involve not only the geographic dimension, but also informational gaps. ...
... Different from other options of AFN, box-schemes do not necessarily involve face-toface contact. This characteristic is very strong in the case of farmers' markets and is considered a significant step change in the quality of the relationship between buyers and sellers (Cicatiello et al. 2015;Hunt 2007;Spilková, Fendrychová, and Syrovátková 2013;Thilmany 2008). Some researchers say that face-to-face contact is imperative for the establishment of a trustworthy tie (Bos and Owen 2016;Thorsoe and Kjeldsen 2016). ...
... In other words, the search for trade conditions that are fairer may coincide with a transformation of purchase habits when women and men revisit their roles regarding non-remunerated tasks related to the family support. In search of new retail formats, AFN can be identified as more trustworthy due to its supposed stronger social embeddedness (Cicatiello et al. 2015;Hinrichs 2000;Hunt 2007;Lass et al. 2005;Thilmany 2008). ...
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Abstract As a growing option for small farmers, alternative food networks (AFN) have attracted the attention of researchers around the world. Nevertheless, not much focus is given to box-schemes as a format itself. The nomenclature is often associated with community-supported agriculture (CSA) and solidarity purchase groups (SPG), but many companies have reduced geographic and informational distances without demanding such a narrow relationship between collaborators. The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between companies and their customers. A theoretical framework was built based on thoughts about economic integration and the relationship in the retail environment to examine the possibility of reciprocity and redistribution. The fieldwork was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. Technology is found to be fundamental to the rise of such companies, but the Internet is not the only key, the telephone is also important for a warmer and closer relationship. The interviews revealed different signals of reciprocity supporting a trusting relationship while the occasional buyers demonstrate more opportunistic behaviors. Of the cases studied, one successful company demonstrated signs of reciprocity between companies and customers, as well as customer integration based on redistribution characteristics. This confirmed the possibility of the box-scheme contributing to rural sustainability, related to customers who have built a broader perspective, going beyond price and quality. The article concludes defending that this format of commerce should be further studied to confirm its capacity to support rural development and continue to deepen the understanding of the conditions that can make it successful.
... A legtöbb tanulmány a felső-középosztályt azonosította be a tipikus termelői piacra járó fogyasztó jövedelmi osztályának. Ez a kifejezés minden esetben a vizsgált területi egység (nemzeti, vagy a vizsgált termelői piachoz kapcsolódó város/régió) átlagfizetését meghaladó jövedelmi szintet jelentette [többek között: Abelló et al., 2014;Dodds et al., 2014;Garner -Ayala, 2018;Hunt, 2007;Jadudova et al., 2018;Szabó -Juhász, 2015]. ...
... A gazdasági tényezőkkel szemben fontosabbnak bizonyultak a társadalmi jelleggel bíró értékek. Sok tanulmány hangsúlyozza, hogy a kényelem és a társadalmi szempontok járultak hozzá ahhoz, hogy a fogyasztók termelői piacokat válasszák [Abelló et al., 2014;Baker et al., 2009;Carson et al., 2016;Dodds et al., 2014;Gumirakiza et al., 2014;Hunt, 2007]. Ezek közül a jó megközelíthetőséget és a kedélyes hangulatot említették a legtöbbet. ...
... Fogyasztói preferenciák és motivációkBaker et al., 2009;Carson et al., 2016;Conner et al., 2010;Dodds et al., 2014;Dukeshire et al., 2015;Fehrenbach -Wharton, 2012;Garner -Ayala, 2018;Grebitus et al., 2017;Gumirakiza et al., 2014Gumirakiza et al., , 2017Halldorsdottir -Nicholas, 2016;Kadanali -Demir, 2018;Shi -Hodges, 2016;Spilkova et al., 2013] Jellemző fogyasztók a termelői piacokonAbelló et al., 2014;Berg -Preston, 2017;Grebitus et al., 2017 Fogyasztók és termelők közötti kölcsönhatásokat, motivációs különbségekCarson et al., 2016;Hunt, 2007;Leiper -Clarke- Sather, 2017 ...
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A termelői piacok a nemzetközi szakirodalom gyakran vizsgált területének számítanak, mint a rövid élelmiszer ellátási láncok egyik meghatározó értékesítési csatornái. Egy fejér megyei kis településen végzett felmérés eredményei szinte teljesen megegyeznek a nemzetközi trendekkel: ezeket a piacokat leginkább a jól képzett, felső-középosztályba tartozó, középkorú nők látogatják, elsősorban azért, mert szerintük az itt megvásárolható élelmiszerek frissebbek, környezetbarátabbak és egészségesebbek. A piacokon emellett a vásárlás hangulata kedélyes és a magasabb árak elfogadhatóak annak fényében, hogy ezzel a helyi gazdaságot támogatják. = Farmers’ markets are often investigated by the international literature, as important sales channel of short food supply chains. Based on a survey conducted in a small settlement of Fejér county, Hungary, we can conclude that the trends identified in the mainstream literature are also valid for this case: the typical consumers of farmers’ markets are the welleducated, middle aged women from upper-middle income class. They visit such markets because they consider these products fresher, more environmentally-friendly and healthier. Moreover, the jovial atmosphere of such markets also contributes to the acceptance of higher consumer prices, as they stimulate the local economy.
... For articles that explored SOC among populations living with low incomes, all 10 disclosed that study participants were recipients of one or more income-based federal food assistance programs. For articles that explored SOC among shoppers living with middle to high incomes, five (Alonso & O'Neill, 2011;Baker et al., 2009;Eastwood, Brooker, & Gray, 1999;Feagan, Morris, & Krug, 2004;Feagan & Morris, 2009) disclosed that participants had middle to high incomes based on their city or region, and one (Hunt, 2007) disclosed the average income of participants was over US$75,000, which is nearly 600% of the U.S. Federal Poverty Level for a household of one. Regarding race and ethnicity, 25% (n=6) included farmers market shopping experiences of BIPOC, while 37.5% included experiences of primarily white farmers market shoppers. ...
... In 50% of the articles (n=12) (Alonso & O'Neill, 2011;Baker et al., 2009;Buman et al., 2015;Dailey et al., 2015;R. Feagan et al., 2004;Feagan & Morris, 2009;Garner, 2015;Grace, Grace, Becker, & Lyden, 2007;Hunt, 2007;McGuirt, Ward, Elliott, Bullock, & Jilcott Pitts, 2014;O'Kane, 2016;Payet, Gilles, & Howat, 2005), the authors described 'social interactions' among community members, farmers market vendors, or other patrons as a primary barrier to or facilitator of farmers market usage. Other aspects of SOC discussed in the articles included 'social and community connectedness' (29.2%, n=7) (Alkon & McCullen, 2011;Alonso & O'Neill, 2011;Freedman et al., 2018;Garner, 2015;A. ...
... J. Johnson, 2013;O'Kane, 2016;Savoie Roskos, 2017), 'social benefits' (12.5%, n=3) (Baker et al., 2009;Feagan et al., 2004;Velasquez, Eastman, & Masiunas, 2005), 'community pride' (12.5%, n=3) (A. J. Johnson, 2013;Payet et al., 2005;Savoie Roskos, 2017), and participation in special events or community activities hosted by the farmers market (16.7%, n=4) (Eastwood et al., 1999;Grace et al., 2007;Hunt, 2007;Walkinshaw et al., 2018). Additionally, in 50% of the articles (n=12) (Colasanti et al., 2010;Eastwood et al., 1999;Feagan & Morris, 2009;Freedman et al., 2018;Grace et al., 2007;Hunt, 2007;Misyak et al., 2014;O'Kane, 2016;Ritter, Walkinshaw, Quinn, Ickes, & Johnson, 2018;Sommer, Herrick, & Sommer, 1981;Velasquez et al., 2005;Wetherill & Gray, 2015), the authors described the 'shopping atmosphere and/or environment' as either welcoming or unwelcoming, which served as a barrier to or facilitator of farmers market usage based on the shopper's perspective of the shopping atmosphere. ...
Article
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Farmers markets are valuable for reducing food insecurity and delivering healthy food options to populations living with low incomes. However, farmers markets have developed a reputation for being exclusive shopping spaces devoted to affluent, white shoppers. Sense of community (SOC), or a person’s feelings of belonging at farmers markets, could be an important, under-addressed asset or barrier to farmers markets patronage for people living with low incomes. To document and describe how SOC influences customer engagement with farmers markets, we conducted a systematic review of published, peer-reviewed literature following PRISMA guidelines. Systematic review protocol involved three stages: identifying peer-reviewed articles using key search terms, screening abstracts and articles for inclusion and exclusion, and analyzing articles for SOC at farmers markets. Of the 24 articles included in the systematic review, 10 addressed SOC in farmers markets shoppers living with low incomes, 6 addressed SOC in farmers markets shoppers living with middle to high incomes, and 8 did not indicate the shoppers’ income level. SOC served as both a barrier and facilitator to farmers markets patronage for all income levels. However, farmers markets shoppers who received federal food assistance reported a feeling of exclusion discouraging them from shopping at farmers markets. These negative experiences were more prominent among Black, Indigenous, and other People of Color (BIPOC) living with low incomes. SOC appears to be an important factor in determining who shops at farmers markets and the frequency with which they visit. Farmers markets managers should consider how to strengthen SOC to improve engagement with people living with low incomes, and more specifically, BIPOC living with low incomes.
... The peer-reviewed research that explores farmer or vendor participation in farmers markets focuses on vendor characteristics and experiences (Oths et al. 2019;Campbell 2014;Govindasamy et al. 1998;Griffin and Frongillo 2003;Hughes and Mattson 1992;Schmit and Gómez 2011), farmer satisfaction regarding sales or participation in food assistance programs (Brown et al. 2007;Govindasamy et al. 2003;Oberholtzer et al. 2012), business or economic development opportunities (Feenstra et al. 2003;Kassai et al. 2018;Lyson et al. 1995;Morckel 2018;Oths et al. 2019;Schmit and Gómez 2011), farmers' goals and behaviors regarding environmental and social justice (Alkon 2008;Pilgeram 2012), and the interactions between farmers and consumers (Tsai 2019;Andreatta and Wickliffe II 2002;Baber and Frongillo 2003;Bubinas 2011, Hinrichs et al. 2004Hunt 2007). ...
... The literature, however, does suggest that farmers involved in farmers markets are motivated by more than financial returns. Studies suggest that farmers believe farmers markets are an important source of income and provide better opportunities for financial return than other outlets (Andreatta and Wickliffe II 2002;Bubinas 2011;Govindasamy et al. 1998;Griffin and Frongillo 2003;Hughes and Mattson 1992;Hunt 2007;Lyson et al. 1995). Nonetheless, the literature indicates that financial motivations are often accompanied by social motivations (Andreatta and Wickliffe II 2002;Govindasamy et al. 2003;Griffin and Frongillo 2003;Henneberry and Agustini 2002;Hinrichs 2001;Hughes and Mattson 1992;Hunt 2007;LeRoux et al. 2010;Lyson et al. 1995). ...
... Studies suggest that farmers believe farmers markets are an important source of income and provide better opportunities for financial return than other outlets (Andreatta and Wickliffe II 2002;Bubinas 2011;Govindasamy et al. 1998;Griffin and Frongillo 2003;Hughes and Mattson 1992;Hunt 2007;Lyson et al. 1995). Nonetheless, the literature indicates that financial motivations are often accompanied by social motivations (Andreatta and Wickliffe II 2002;Govindasamy et al. 2003;Griffin and Frongillo 2003;Henneberry and Agustini 2002;Hinrichs 2001;Hughes and Mattson 1992;Hunt 2007;LeRoux et al. 2010;Lyson et al. 1995). Andreatta and Wickliffe II (2002), for example, found that farmers sold at farmers markets because they thought they could command better prices in these venues and because they valued the personal interaction with consumers. ...
Article
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Farmers markets in low-income, urban areas (LIUA) struggle to establish and sustain themselves. Accordingly, farmer recruitment and retention remain a challenge. This paper examines the perspectives of farmers who have been recruited to participate in farmers markets located in LIUA. Taking an ethnographic approach, we seek to understand why farmers join, stay, and/or leave newly-developed farmers market in LIUA. In-depth interviews revealed different motivations for joining new LIUA markets and that these motivations were closely tied to farmers’ reasons for farming. We identified four categories of motivations: farming as (1) a primary livelihood strategy; (2) a new business opportunity; (3) recreation; (4) a social mission. Retention differed across these motivational categories. Farmers who joined LIUA farmers markets to support their livelihoods were the most likely to drop out of these markets. Farmers who used the farmers market to explore a new business opportunity were less likely to drop out and those who farmed for recreation or for a social mission were most loyal and did not drop out. The results indicate that understanding the motivations of farmers may be crucial to retaining farmers at LIUA farmers markets. They also indicate that farmers who are most suited to LIUA farmers markets may be currently overlooked by market managers who regularly target full-time livelihood vendors. These findings have implications for creating more stable farmers markets in LIUA.
... Department of Agriculture [USDA], 2020[USDA], , 2015. The overall growth of farmers markets is attributable to several factors, that is, burgeoning consumer interest, increased government support, support for local farmers, the organizing efforts of local farmers, the provision of increased access to freshly produced food through direct-to-consumer sales, and efforts to enhance social interactions and build a sense of community in neighborhoods and cities (Hunt, 2007;Kahin et al., 2017;Brown & Miller, 2008;Oberholtzer & Grow, 2003). ...
... Researchers studying farmers market managers have found that such staff usually identified themselves as farmers. They also found that the managers were younger and more educated than other farmers in their state and region (Hunt, 2007). Others such as C. L. Miller and McCole (2014) also found that farmers market managers were younger and more educated than other farmers. ...
... Few studies examine the characteristics of farmers market vendors. In one such study, Hunt (2007) studied 81 farmers market vendors in Maine and found that the farmers market vendors tended to be younger than other farmers in the state. While the mean age for the farmers market vendors was 44 years, the mean age of Maine's farmers was 54 years. ...
Article
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In recent decades, the number of farmer’s markets has increased dramatically across the country. Though farmers markets have been described as White spaces, they can play important roles in reducing food insecurity. This is particularly true in Michigan where farmer’s markets were crucial collaborators in pioneering programs such as Double-Up Food Bucks that help low-income residents and people of color gain access to fresh, healthy, locally grown food. This article examines the questions: (1) What are the demographic characteristics of the farmers market managers, vendors, and customers and how do these influence market activities? (2) To what extent do farmers markets participate in programs aimed at reducing food insecurity? (3) To what extent do farmers markets serve low-income residents and people of color? and (4) How has the Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19) affected the operations of farmers markets. This article discusses the findings of a 2020 study that examined the extent to which Michigan’s farmer’s markets served low-income customers and people of color and participated in food assistance programs. The study examined 79 farmers markets and found that 87.3% of the farmer’s market managers are White. On average, roughly 79% of the vendors of the markets are White and almost 18% are people of color. Most of the vendors in the markets participate in nutrition assistance programs. Market managers estimate that about 76% of their customers are White and about 23% are people of color. Farmers markets operated by people of color attract higher numbers of customers and vendors of color than those operated White market managers. Almost half of the farmer’s markets started operations later than usual in 2020 because of the pandemic. More than a third of the markets reported that their funding declined during the pandemic. Moreover, the number of vendors declined at two thirds of the markets and the number of customers dipped at more than 40% of the markets. On the other hand, the number of people requesting food assistance during the pandemic increased in more than half of the markets.
... Many consumers who shop at farmers' markets believe that the products sold are of good quality. Previous studies have also confirmed that quality is an important source of motivation for consumers visiting farmers' markets [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]14]. ...
... In previous studies, the number of consumer segments determined for consumers who shop at farmers' markets varied between three and five [10,28,29]. According to this study, there are two consumer segments shopping at farmers' markets. ...
... Additionally, there are consumer segments that are partially similar to the findings of other studies. The Seasonal Shoppers and Utilitarians segments determined by Hunt [10] for Maine farmers' markets in the US are similar to the Conventional Consumer segment in this study. Enthusiasts, one of the segments determined by Arrington et al. [28] for ...
Article
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The main purpose of this study is to determine the factors that motivate consumers who shop at farmers’ markets. The data for this study were gathered from questionnaires of 363 consumers from eight farmers’ markets in seven districts of Izmir province, Turkey. To reveal the consumer profile of the farmers’ markets examined in this study, consumer segments were determined using factor and cluster analysis. Two different consumer segments—‘conventional’ and ‘conscious’—were identified in the farmers’ markets examined. ‘Conventional Consumers’ reflect typical consumer behaviours and give more importance to factors such as the location of and access to the market, quality and freshness of the products, activities at and around the market and the availability and variety of products. ‘Conscious Consumers’, in contrast, represent a group that is more sensitive about food safety. The majority of consumers (63.64%) who visited farmers’ markets were from the Conscious Consumer segment. The majority of the consumers who visit farmers’ markets are conscious consumers, requiring the strategies related to these markets to be revised. Farmers’ markets should be improved in terms of selecting vendors, food safety, physical facilities and social activities.
... The distinct difference between these two channels is the social aspect of buying local. Knowing that consumers care about how their purchased food is grown [53] and that the social interaction is a factor in buying local [47], some may associate an authentic buy-local experience with physically seeing the product, as well as meeting with the farmer to ask questions about the origin of the product and how it was made. On the other hand, some consumers may be satisfied with reading about the origin of the product and how it was made on a website. ...
... On the three matters of mobilization and increasing demand for locally produced products in remote rural communities [25,26], whether consumers care about how their purchased food is grown [53], and whether consumers are becoming more interested in knowing about the origin of their food and how it is produced [4], our study suggested that neither gender nor any of the societal variables influenced the consumers' decisions regarding the selection of a channel to buy local. ...
Article
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Investigating the viability of alternative food networks (AFNs) is more important than before because of the disruptions in global supply chains and evolving resident composition in different regions. In this regard, this paper reports on findings of a project aimed at identifying factors influencing support for local, sustainable food production, and distribution systems. In the first phase, local residents and international students in Cape Breton, Canada, were surveyed prior to the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to assess their attitudes and values relative to shopping at farmers markets and buying local. In the second phase, mid-pandemic, text mining of Twitter data was used to gauge sentiments related to these same activities. The results of our explanatory analysis suggest that the top two factors influencing decisions to buy local farm products were food attributes and supporting community economic development. In contrast to previous studies, we included an alternate sample group, namely, international students, and explored the relevance of the social aspect of buying local, e.g., meeting the farmer. Among our findings from the application of a logistics regression model to our survey data (N = 125) is the suggestion that the senior non-international student residents of the Cape Breton Island were more probable to be in the category of consumers whose perception of an authentic buy-local experience was limited to distribution channels that allowed for the social aspect of buying local, e.g., meeting the farmer.
... Although previous research demonstrates that an assortment of complex and interrelated factors influence one's choice to shop at farmers markets, the majority of evidence points to market shoppers being more likely to be female (e.g., Byker et al., 2012;Wolf, Spitter, & Ahern, 2005;Zepeda, 2009). Some studies find insignificant differences between farmers market customers and noncustomers based on income (e.g., Zepeda, 2009), but several studies found that farmers market customers earned an average household income of $50,000 a year, in line with our sample (Baker, et al., 2009;Conner et al., 2010;Elepua et al., 2010;Hunt, 2007). 9 Also, similar to our sample, a majority of studies find that the average age of farmers market shoppers is over 40 (e.g., Byker et al., 2012). ...
... The largest red cluster, where the majority of respondents live, is close to the WFM and a reasonable distance for travel by foot or bike. In addition to validating Lohr et al.'s findings, these location trends are in line with the few other studies that report the proximity of farmers markets to consumers' residences (Hunt, 2007;Onianwa et al., 2006;Robinson-O'Brien et al., 2009). One should note, however, that the gradient we observe moving away from the WFM is a result of the attrition due to the inconvenience of driving, but also population density, which decreases as one moves away from the center of town where the WFM is located. ...
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Farmers markets, an important direct‐to‐consumer market, have shown signs of declining sales since 2007. This trend has raised concern about their future viability, inciting stakeholders to consider new marketing and development approaches. Unfortunately, the literature on these approaches is largely qualitative, with little empirical or experimental evidence assessing impact or effectiveness. We present results from a randomized control trial measuring the efficacy of an informational nudge—a mailed coupon—in attracting new customers to a winter farmers market in Northern Colorado. Previous research identified perceived lack of product assortment at farmers markets as a major barrier to consumer attendance; accordingly, half of the coupons in our experiment emphasized the wide range of products sold at the market, while the control coupons presented general market information. We mailed 6000 physical coupons redeemable for $10 to randomly selected households in Fort Collins, Colorado, during the 2017–2018 market season. One hundred and eleven coupons were redeemed (1.85%), of which 58 were treatment and 53 control. While the coupon was somewhat effective at attracting new customers (36% had never attended the winter farmers market), there were no statistically significant differences in redemption rates between treatment and control. We thus find that the information nudge was not enough to influence the decision to attend the winter farmers market. EconLit citations: Q13, Q18.
... In these interaction processes, the farmers can personally explain the unique qualities of their agricultural products, the environment they are produced in, and the ways they can be eaten. Thus, consumer participation in farmers' markets include consumption-oriented economic interactions and leisure-oriented social interactions [13]. The former involves the economic perspective of the consumer purchase behavior at farmers' markets, which mostly focuses on three aspects. ...
... They enable direct, face-to-face interactions, which enhances the social embeddedness between consumers and farmers. This social embeddedness improves local identity, community solidarity, family life satisfaction, and personal subjective well-being [13,[33][34][35]. The purpose of this framework is to determine the influence of the performance evaluation given by consumers to products at farmers' markets and the relational capital that they accumulate during social interactions on their repurchase intention and subjective well-being. ...
Article
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Farmers’ markets have received much attention in many countries, and the amount of research on farmers’ markets is gradually increasing. The consumption process of consumers at farmers’ markets include both economic and social aspects, but most past studies have only focused on a single aspect. The economic perspective mainly focuses on transaction issues such as purchase motives, quality, satisfaction, purchase behavior, and post-purchase behavior, whereas the social perspective focuses on the social relations and psychological feelings created when consumers go to markets. This study aimed to integrate the economic and social perspectives and analyze the relationships among product performance evaluation, relational capital, repurchase intention, and subjective well-being of consumers at farmers’ markets after their purchase experiences. I chose three recurrent farmers’ markets in Taiwan, obtained 358 valid samples, and performed structural equation modelling analysis. The results indicated that the economic product performance exerted a significant and positive influence on repurchase intention, but its influence on subjective well-being was not significant. In contrast, the social relational capital was found to be a positive and significant factor of both repurchase intention and subjective well-being. On the whole, relational capital is more important than product performance. The suggestions for practice were as follows. First, farmers’ markets have economic and social value and are thus worth being promoted by government agencies. Second, the managers of farmers’ markets should implement a set of management mechanisms to ensure product performance and also create a market atmosphere that facilitates social interactions between farmers and consumers.
... Farmers' markets act as a catalyst in reducing the gap between the urban and rural landscape wherein every consumer wants home-grown organic food with less chemical input and available at an affordable price. The ruralurban interface in farmers' markets facilitates communication and an exchange of culture and trade relations between farmers and local residents, thereby building trust and customer loyalty to improve business (Feagan & Morris, 2009;Hunt, 2007). Direct marketing through farmers' markets also encourages farmers to grow independently and sustain competition, and helps to produce a wider variety and quality of farm products. ...
... Kezis et al. (1998) investigated customers who said that they would be willing to spend more for local produce at farmers' markets. Other studies (Feagan & Morris, 2009;Gumirakiza, Curtis, & Bosworth, 2014;Hunt, 2007) have attributed numerous reasons to why customers attend farmers' markets, including social interaction. Similarly, Gumirakiza et al. (2014) indicated that buyers who visit farmers' markets intend to purchase fresh food and interact with farmers. ...
Article
This research explores indicators of the attitudes, preferences, and features of customers who buy at farmers’ markets in India, using an intercept survey design. Single-stage purposive sampling was carried out in which consumers were targeted at weekend farmers’ markets at nine different locations within the state of Maharashtra, India. Over a 2-month period of data collection (eight weekend visits) a total of 255 consumers were interviewed on site at the time of purchase, from whom we collected 235 completed questionnaires. Consumers in the sample were divided into three clusters and were rated positively on all seven factors considered. The findings of the study are that in cluster 1, about 80% of consumers were willing to pay more at the farmers’ market rather than to go to a nearby retail outlet or supermarket. Cluster 2 comprised those consumers who prefer value for money while cluster 3 includes those consumers who gave a high rating to the hygiene and service conditions at the market. This research concludes that consumers are positive about the operation of farmers’ markets held near their home.
... Leur présence dans ces quartiers défavorisés permet ainsi à des groupes marginalisés sur le plan socioéconomique d'accroitre leur consommation d'aliments sains, ce qui contribue à améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et produit des retombées positives en matière de santé publique (Young et al., 2011;Bertmann et al., 2012;Minaker et al., 2014). Sur le plan environnemental, les conversations avec les consommateurs inciteraient même les agriculteurs à adopter des pratiques plus respectueuses de l'environnement (notamment en matière d'usage de pesticides et de gestion des sols) afin de répondre aux attentes de leurs clients (Hunt, 2007;Hedberg & Zimmerer, 2020). ...
... Certains marchés accordent une priorité aux candidats qui cultivent ou transforment leurs produits à la ferme, l'accueil de revendeurs Dans la littérature, la place des activités récréatives et des produits non alimentaires dans les marchés fermiers est un sujet qui continue à faire débat (Abelló et al., 2014). D'une part, miser sur l'animation et la présence d'artisans non alimentaires permet d'augmenter le nombre de visiteurs surtout durant les périodes de vacances estivales (Hunt, 2007;Andrews & Ball, 2020). D'autre part, une telle stratégie peut être à la source de divers conflits entre usagers et réduire l'attractivité du marché aux yeux des meilleurs clients à savoir ceux qui s'y rendent d'abord pour acheter des aliments frais (Hofmann et al., 2009;Mars & Schau, 2018). ...
Technical Report
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Le nombre de marchés fermiers en Amérique du Nord connait une croissance rapide depuis plusieurs décennies. Aux yeux des clients qui les fréquentent, ils se distinguent par une offre spécifique. En résumé, les acheteurs s’attendent à acheter des produits cultivés ou transformés par des agriculteurs locaux et vendus sans intermédiaire directement par ces mêmes agriculteurs. Dans la réalité, la situation est plus complexe. Aux côtés des agriculteurs qui ne commercialisent que leurs propres produits, on va trouver des revendeurs qui ne sont pas producteurs, mais seulement commerçants. On va aussi trouver des agriculteurs – revendeurs qui mettent en marché leur propre production enrichie par divers produits achetés, produits qui ne sont pas toujours « locaux ». On va encore trouver des salariés qui commercialisent les produits d’une ferme, voire de plusieurs, des artisans transformateurs qui ne sont pas producteurs, etc. Bref, derrière l’image de la relation directe entre agriculteurs et consommateurs véhiculée par les marchés fermiers, se cache en pratique une variété de situations, sans que celles-ci soient toujours transparentes pour les clients. Le risque est de voir un jour la réputation des marchés fermiers ternie parce que les clients s’apercevraient tout d’un coup que l’image qu’ils se font de leur marché ne correspond pas à ce qu’il est vraiment. Outre des cas de fraude, se pose plus largement la question des règles que se donnent les marchés fermiers pour encadrer les pratiques. Doit-on ou non autoriser la présence de revendeurs? Un agriculteur a-t-il le droit de faire de la revente en plus de la vente de ses propres produits? Le marché s’ouvre-t-il à des transformateurs? Quel est le périmètre autorisé pour que les produits vendus gardent l’étiquette « produit local »? Autant de questions auxquelles sont confrontés les marchés fermiers, mais également les fédérations qui les rassemblent à l’échelle d’un État ou d’une province. Ce rapport est consacré à ces questions. Après avoir brossé un portrait des risques inhérents à une absence de règles et au caractère encore flou de la définition de ce que devrait être un marché fermier, nous présentons trois études de cas : l’Ontario, la Californie et le Royaume-Uni. Ces études présentent les solutions diverses choisies par les marchés fermiers dans ces trois territoires pour répondre aux questions soulevées ci-dessus. Entre inclusion et définition stricte, entre ouverture et normalisation, les voies choisies sont très variables et présentent toutes des avantages et des inconvénients.
... Les contraintes imposées par les metteurs en marché ne sont bien souvent que des répercussions des exigences des consommateurs. Les consommateurs peuvent encourager la transition agroécologique des agriculteurs via leur acte d'achat en réévaluant leurs exigences de qualité visuelle, de qualité environnementale et de prix (Hunt, 2007;Iles and Marsh, 2012 ...
Thesis
Les consommateurs demandent aux producteurs de fruits, via leurs achats ou leurs représentants politiques, de réduire les impacts négatifs des pratiques agricoles sur l’environnement et la santé. Les pratiques agroécologiques, mobilisant des processus ou produits naturels, permettent de réduire l’utilisation problématique des produits de synthèse. Mais les agriculteurs font face à des décisions complexes pour organiser la transition agroécologique dans leurs exploitations, souvent diversifiées, et l’accompagnement politique de ces transitions est encore hésitant. Face à ces défis, notre étude s’est intéressée aux processus de transition agroécologique dans les exploitations agrumicoles de La Réunion pour comprendre la diversité de leurs dynamiques et mieux les accompagner via des politiques d’aides. La diversité des transitions agroécologiques au sein de 31 exploitations diversifiées a été analysée dans une première étape. Une typologie d’exploitations a été formalisée, sur laquelle s’est appuyée la deuxième phase de la démarche basée sur la conception d’un outil opérationnel d’évaluation ex-ante des politiques publiques. L’outil ENTICIP (EvaluatioN Territoriale des Interactions entre Consommation, Interventions publiques et Production agricole) est un modèle bioéconomique d’optimisation couplant les échelles exploitation et bassin de production. ENTICIP permet de simuler les choix des agriculteurs et leurs conséquences économiques, environnementales et sociales pour des scénarios exploratoires de politiques d’aides sous divers contextes de marché.De nombreux facteurs internes et externes à l’exploitation interviennent dans l’adoption de pratiques agroécologiques, les principaux étant le circuit de vente, la sensibilité environnementale de l’agriculteur et le rôle économique de la production dans l’exploitation. Au sein des exploitations diversifiées, des interactions entre productions favorisant les pratiques agroécologiques apparaissent : échanges de biomasse et de connaissances, ou mutualisations d’intrants alternatifs. L’étude a mis en évidence quelques trajectoires « en rupture » conduisant rapidement à une forte écologisation, mais la majorité des trajectoires est beaucoup plus progressive, avec parfois des retours en arrière. Les vitesses d’écologisation des productions peuvent être hétérogènes au sein de l’exploitation, permettant notamment de minimiser les risques liés à l’adoption de pratiques agroécologiques. ENTICIP a été appliqué au cas de l’ananas et du tangor à La Réunion (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. et Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.). Des scénarios d’augmentation des aides pour l’Agriculture Biologique (AB) dans un contexte de marché favorable ont permis d’identifier les conditions d’un développement massif de l’AB. Les montants d’aides déclenchant la conversion à l’AB sont variables selon la production et le type d’exploitation, en fonction de leurs conditions bioclimatiques et de leurs circuits de vente. Plus les produits conventionnels sont bien valorisés, comme sur le marché export, plus le montant d’aides nécessaire pour passer à l’AB est élevé. Ces scénarios ont été présentés à des décideurs politiques réunionnais, avec qui le modèle a été utilisé de manière participative. La démarche permet de rassembler des connaissances sur le fonctionnement des systèmes productifs et de proposer des pistes d’améliorations pour les politiques agricoles à visée environnementale. Ce travail devrait contribuer à renforcer le partenariat chercheurs-décideur politiques initié à La Réunion, afin de doter les acteurs locaux d’outils pour d’organiser la transition agroécologique de leur territoire. Dans cette perspective, les efforts de recherche pourraient s’orienter vers le développement d’un dispositif multi-échelles et interdisciplinaire autour de l’analyse et de l’accompagnement des changements des agriculteurs.
... While it has been reported that larger food retailers have created tension with their involvement in local food systems, there is an opportunity for these types of outlets to contribute to the aggregation of local produce and may support local food systems due their economies of scale. However, their involvement in alternative food systems must be managed appropriately, as it has been argued that, currently, large retailers are causing negative economic, environmental and social effects resulting in the marginalization, inequality and vulnerability of small family farms [41]. The reliance on these outlets by our study respondents also indicates what a major motivating factor convenience is when making food choices. ...
Article
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Regional food systems are complex networks, with numerous retail sources that underpin a local economy. However, evidence is limited regarding how consumers define, identify, and source regionally grown fresh fruits and vegetables (RGFFV). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tasmania (TAS) and South Western Australia (SWA) to compare how RGFFV are defined, identified and sourced by consumers, including self-reported consumption of selected RGFFV. Survey data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and t-tests. Results (TAS n = 120, SWA n = 123) identified that consumers had mixed perceptions of how RGFFV are defined, including produce sold at farmers markets, or grown within their region (TAS/SWA). RGFFV were commonly identified using product labelling (55% TAS, 69% SWA; p > 0.05). Respondents reported frequently shopping for RGFFV at major supermarkets, with more TAS respondents shopping weekly in comparison to SWA respondents (67% vs. 38%; p < 0.001). Supermarkets offered convenience and consumers enjoyed the experience of farmers’ markets, especially in TAS (42%) in comparison to SWA (21%; p = 0.012). The major RGFFV consumed were root vegetables and apples/pears, but consumers were frequently unsure about the produce’s provenance. Our findings indicate multiple opportunities to improve consumption of fresh, regional produce in TAS and SWA, which may positively impact regional economic growth and community health.
... The findings of Hunt [36] on farmers market consumer and vendor data simultaneously, have revealed that female postsecondary educational level consumers with a higher income shop at farmer market. The findings of Hardesty [37] point out that the institutions will rather buy local products if they can bear the higher transaction costs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Local food production benefits sustainable regional development and should be considered as one the pillars of sustainable regional development strategies. Local food producers share a common heritage because of the cultural and historical ties in their regions, while consumers tend to value food products produced locally. The purpose of this article was to explore market participants’ attitudes toward the impact of local food product attributes on sustainable regional development. The authors’ findings on the main advantages and barriers to consumption of local food products have pointed out the complexity of the relationships between market participants (i.e., producers and consumers) and indicated that a deeper understanding is necessary for overall economic development. The problems of local food products in Serbia, in the context of sustainable regional development, have not been investigated so far, and for this reason, it is important to analyze the differences between consumer and producer attitudes to reduce this perceived gap in the literature. In this way, these insights can offer opportunities for strategic actions in regard to the local food product supply and consumption, with the aim of including different regional stakeholders.
... The concept of the TPB was extended in other studies (Giampietri et al. 2018;Mazzocchi et al. 2008), by noting that trust is a behavioral determinant whose nature is jointly relevant to the TPB concepts of attitudes, SN, and PBC. In addition, the studies have found that the direct interaction between local food producers and consumers and repeated exchanges can provide consumers with a sense of trust built on shared know-how and a mutual understanding with local food producers (Hartmann et al. 2015;Hunt 2007;Meyer et al. 2012;Tregear 2011). Moreover, trust can drive loyalty and new solid relationships between producers and consumers (Hartmann et al. 2015). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has changed consumers' habits and behavior for food shopping and consumption in favor of local food. This study sought to determine the intention of Vietnamese consumers to purchase local food in the COVID-19 pandemic context. Data came from the interviews of 286 consumers using standard questionnaire. Five provinces from the North to the South: Hanoi, Quang Ninh, Dong Thap, Ninh Thuan and Dak Lak, which represent typical areas of Vietnam such as urban, rural areas; coastal, plain and mountainous areas, respectively were considered in 2021. Based on an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB), descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and regression analysis were used to establish the relationship between behavioral intention and its determinants. Four determinants affected the intention to purchase local food among Vietnamese consumers in the COVID-19 pandemic context: subjective norm, trust in local food, perceived behavioral control, and attitude of consumers to local food. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumers was found not significant. Policy implications are discussed to promote sustainable local food development in Vietnam in the future.
... While our research focuses on how online marketing can impact producers, consumer impacts could be further investigated. One drawback of online purchases is that consumers do not experience the in-person interactions that are important in traditional DTC marketplaces (Hunt, 2007). However, consumers may benefit from online marketplaces because online purchases may take less time to execute than purchases at traditional DTC marketplaces. ...
Article
Full-text available
Online marketplaces could help direct-to-consumer (DTC) farms compete for customers making grocery purchases on the internet by reducing the search and transportation costs of in-person DTC transactions. While in-person DTC marketplaces have been conducive for metropolitan farms historically, we explore whether rural DTC farms, with distance-based challenges accessing customers, are more likely to have online platforms. We find that rural farms distant from metropolitan counties that are new to DTC marketing are 7% more likely to have online marketplaces than more experienced rural farms, while new metropolitan farms are less likely to have them.
... Ce sont aussi des informations utilisées dans la modélisation du comportement des visiteurs, comme c'est la cas dans (Ray 2017) ou dans (Ram et al. 2015) pour l'étude de la régulation de l'eau grâce aux capteurs intelligents en agriculture. D'autres comme (Hunt 2007) utilisent des études classiques, sur le terrain suite à des questionnaires, ou ciblent une recherche spécifique de textes scientifiques sur l'agriculture (Figueroa-Rodríguez et al. 2019). ...
Preprint
Farming systems include intensive techniques, No-tillage, minimum intervention or organic agriculture. These systems require farmers to have a precise knowledge of agricultural practices. To this, we can add the expertise of new technologies, the control of treatment resistance, the gain of knowledge on seed varieties or the impact on the soil. This mass of information is available on the net : in scientific articles, discussion forums, specialized websites and social networks. It is information in text format, usually unstructured. The objective of this work is to provide an overview of research on textual data mining in agriculture. We present the main methods for extracting relevant information. We test the data mining on data from Scopus, Twitter and a commercial site for agricultural products. We give an example of data classification via machine learning tools. The code to perform this review is on Python.
... The farmers' market not only supplies local fresh agricultural products, but also a network for the exchange of distinct preference, needs, and supply-related information, which directly translates into reductions in prices and in the transactional costs of gathering information. Many studies on farmers' markets have shown that consumers patronize farmers' markets due in part to the abundant interpersonal interactions that occur [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Farmers’ markets in Taiwan advocate for the sustainable consumption of locally produced food to support sustainability and social justice goals. Institutional trust and interpersonal trust are critical determinative factors in sustaining farmers’ farm-to-consumer venues for the long-run. The purpose of this research was to investigate determinants of customers’ actual purchase behaviors, and the relationships between trust, purchase intention, and actual purchase behavior in the context of farmers’ markets. A questionnaire approach with closed-ended survey questions was conducted with customers in farmers’ markets in different parts of Taiwan. The results revealed that both institutional and interpersonal trust could serve as driving forces influencing a consumer’s purchase intentions, which in turn reinforces their actual purchase behavior. Specifically, the interpersonal trust between consumers and producers includes positive interactions and sufficient communication, enabling producers to share the value and concepts underlying their production processes with the consumers, enhancing customers’ purchase intentions and intensity. Institutional trust generated from a producer’s endeavor to improve the quality of their own products by meeting market standards would impress consumers and build loyalty. It is recommended that farmers’ market farmers or managers continually examine both the institutional and interpersonal needs of customers (e.g., food safety, face-to-face interactions between farmers and consumers) to earn customers’ trust, and to accommodate their expectations by providing sufficient products and services.
... Similarly, other studies have acknowledged local food as a means to enhance the economy of the most closely located country areas, to support local producers and generate job opportunities for locals (Duram, 2011;Martinez et al., 2010;Roseland & Soots, 2007). Similarly, several studies show that local food creates opportunities for direct contact between producers and consumers (Dodds et al., 2014;Feagan & Morris, 2009;Feenstra, 1997;Hunt, 2007) and increases the chance of developing local food systems encompassing urban and rural areas (Berg & Granvik, 2009;Feenstra, 1997). Local food has also been associated (and sometimes identified) with small-scale or organic production, craftsmanship and the promotion of local food traditions. ...
Article
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Local food chains have received increasing attention as an alternative to the mainstream, unsustainable global food model. Farmers who directly sell their products to consumers are an essential link in local food chains. Surprisingly, research on local food chains has mostly focused on the final consumer, leaving the role of farmer–sellers largely unexplored. This study investigates the trade skills of farmers who are selling (their own) products and their knowledge of their consumers’ base. It takes a qualitative approach and uses in-depth interviews with both farmer– sellers and their potential clients. Contrary to existing literature, findings suggest that farmer–sellers have an articulated understanding of local food, possess refined trade skills, and know their customer base well. In line with existing literature, the importance of networks and of learning from customers is confirmed. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
... The presence of children in the family composition was also evident in this cluster. These consumers were comparable to the proposed loyalty cluster, in the search for a quality and seasonal product, but differed in the place of purchase [100,101]. For the value for money cluster individuals, the product price was also an important factor in the FV choice. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study assesses consumer preferences during fruit and vegetable (FV) sales, considering the sociodemographic variables of individuals together with their choice of point of purchase. A choice experiment was conducted in two metropolitan areas in Northwest Italy. A total of 1170 consumers were interviewed at different FV purchase points (mass retail chains and open-air markets) using a paper questionnaire. The relative importance assigned by consumers to 12 fruit and vegetable product attributes, including both intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues, was assessed by using the best-worst scaling (BWS) methodology. The BWS results showed that "origin", "seasonality", and "freshness" were the most preferred attributes that Italian consumers took into account for purchases, while no importance was given to "organic certification", "variety", or "brand". Additionally, a latent class analysis was employed to divide the total sample into five different clusters of consumers, characterized by the same preferences related to FV attributes. Each group of individuals is described on the basis of sociodemographic variables and by the declared fruit and vegetable point of purchase. This research demonstrates that age, average annual income, and families with children are all discriminating factors that influence consumer preference and behavior, in addition to affecting which point of purchase the consumer prefers to acquire FV products from.
... This level of consumer trust and interdependence with the farmer has been shown to be true in numerous studies on farmers' markets (R.B. Feagan and Morris, 2009;Garner, 2017;Hunt, 2007;Robinson and Hartenfeld, 2007). Further, there is a Kansas River Valley farm-tour every Fall in the county, where this market takes place, and many customers have the chance to visit the farms that sell at the farmers' market. ...
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine farmers’ market consumer behavior through a regional food and culinary tourism lens to see the ways these festive and atmospheric markets can be used to develop a regional brand or identity surrounding food production. Design/methodology/approach This study was based on a survey of 270 participants in a farmers’ market in the USA. A combination of descriptive and statistical analyses was used to analyze consumer habits and spending. Findings The findings in this study suggest that while most of the customers live in a town where the market is located, a significant number of customers come from other locations, with some traveling significant distances, to participate in this market, particularly for the Saturday market. Many of the customers come to purchase organic and local foods. Research limitations/implications This work is limited, in that it is a case study at one farmers’ market in the USA, and the work is exploratory in nature. Practical implications This work has implications for market managers seeking to increase their consumer base. Markets that want to increase their reach would do well to promote their events to a wider geographic area. The results presented here showed that consumers are willing to drive upward of 40 miles to attend a high-quality market. Originality/value This work expands our conceptualization of farmers’ markets by suggesting that these markets have the potential to form the backbone of a region is food identity through the creation of a food destination.
... This is an important confirmation of the face-toface retailing that is withering elsewhere. Hunt (2007) spoke of consumers interacting with both each other and vendors. 94% of his Maine respondents indicated not just enjoying social interaction but specifically talking with the farmers. ...
... This group of consumers particularly favour locally produced foods and direct sales channels (Chambers et al., 2007;Póla, 2014;Gonda, 2014;Gulyás, 2017). The fresh, local goods, the unusual regional variants, friendly chats, and the multitude of people mean more than just buying for many people; it is an experience that makes the next farmers' market a worthy visit (Hunt, 2007;Robinson, Farmer, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Direct sales by farmers gained acceptance in Hungary following the incursion of healthy eating and the enhancement of local economic development efforts. Conducting questionnaire surveys and interviews, our research investigated the means through which locally produced goods reach consumers, e.g., short food supply chains, as well as the farmers' motivations and the necessary developments. According to the main results, personal direct consumer relations are vital for local farmers; however, advanced sales channels are not popular nor fully developed in Hungary. Only the capital city shows some development here, catalysing and stimulating the domestic market and consumer behaviour. On the other hand, the age structure of local farmers or the lack of knowledge hinder the advent of advanced sales channels. Nevertheless, there is a continuous and immanent need for development in this sector; although, the recent conditions of subsidies unfortunately do not support small scale local farmers.
... The most important reason is the "feeling" based on interactions and forged connections. Hunt (2007) found 62% of vendors believed their interactions with consumers is the primary driving force that helps them sell products. This has led to some initial research aimed at understanding how farmers markets create a sense of community but focused extensively on place making (e.g., Ball & Wanitshka, 2016). ...
Article
More research needs to evaluate links between community psychology and event impacts. Events are not just entertainment focused economic drivers, but gatherings contributing to society, community, and local cultural identity. There is also a need to address “green” philosophies, while visible and widespread, are not just environmentally focused, but also local community focused—concerning elements of social sustainability, belonging and sense of community. This makes the discussion of “green events” relevant to community psychology and local well‐being researchers. The aim of this study is to find other possibilities of how green events could contribute to local community well‐being by investigating how farmer markets unite people to understand how such events reinforce and shape a sense of community. This paper is based on participant observations and semistructured interviews to explore the conceptual notion of sense of community. Three emerged themes are presented: local participation, social atmosphere, and a sense of belonging.
... The synthesis of the pertinent literature (Bimbo et al, 2015;Tanasă, 2014;Hunt, 2007) revealed a list of advantages for any regional economy and companies involved in short supply chains: a) The development of social interaction and trust between producers and consumers, b) The improvement of the so-called social capital, c) The enhancement of the sense of community, and d) The increase of consumers' knowledge on and understanding of concepts related to food, agriculture and environment, which in some cases might result in change in behavior (for example to green products). The social benefits of Local Supply Chains are most likely to be associated with the development of a sense of community within a local society, the exchange of knowledge and know-how, and the development of skills at an individual and social level which, in turn, are related to health and well-being. ...
Article
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Purpose: This paper explores the procurement management strategies adopted in 100 five-star hotels operating in a highly touristic area in South Greece. The study identifies and discusses the benefits and the challenges of managing short supply chains in the selected region. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative data were gathered by using a questionnaire with 16 closed-ended and 3 open-ended questions. The sample included the Managing Directors and some Administrators. The questionnaire was filled in between April 2017 and June of the same year. Findings: The majority of the respondents prefer to do business with local suppliers for a variety of reasons, the most important being the boost of local economy and immediate delivery which improves response time. High prices of local products and the availability of sufficient quantities were found the main concerns for the smooth running of operations. Research limitations/implications: The research uses data from two prefectures of Crete; a wider sample including other prefectures in Greece and in South Europe would provide a more holistic view on the effectiveness of short food supply chains. Originality/value: This paper makes a contribution by examining how short supply chains can be developed in local economies. This paper explores the procurement management strategies adopted in 100 five-star hotels operating in a highly touristic area in South Greece. The study identifies and discusses the benefits and the challenges of managing short supply chains in the selected region. The majority of the respondents prefer to do business with local suppliers for a variety of reasons, the most important being the boost of local economy and immediate delivery which improves response time. High prices of local products and the availability of sufficient quantities were found the main concerns for the smooth running of operations. Supplier selection criteria are also discussed.
... ;Zapata, Isengildina- Massa, Carpio, et Lamie (2016) Le profil et les motivations des clients et vendeursAbelló, Palma, Waller, et Anderson (2014) ;Berg et Preston (2017) ;Byker, Shanks, Misyak, et Serrano (2012) ;Carson, Hamel, Giarrocco, Baylor, & Mathews (2015) ;Connell, Smithers, et Joseph (2008) ;Farmer, Chancellor, Robinson, West, et Weddell (2014) ;Gumirakizaa, Curtis, et Bosworth (2014) ;Hunt (2007) ; McEachern, Warnaby, Carrigan, et Szmigin (2010) ; Schmit et Gómez (2011) L'impact économique des marchés fermiers Bertmann, Ohri-Vachaspati, Buman, et Wharton (2012) ; Colasanti, Conner, et Smalley (2010) ; Freedman, Mattison-Faye, Alia, Guest, et Hebert (2014) ; Larsen et Gilliland (2009) ; Minaker et al. (2014) ; Wang, Qiu, et Swallow (2014) ; Young, Karpyn, Uy, Wich, et Glyn (2011) La gouvernance et l'organisation des marchés fermiers Les marchés fermiers sont des lieux où les vendeurs sont à la fois concurrents et partenaires. La concurrence est reconnue par les agriculteurs comme étant une caractéristique des marchés fermiers qui les incite à innover de façon continue. ...
Article
Full-text available
Les marchés fermiers sont au cœur du mouvement pour le développement d’une agriculture de proximité. Ils offrent aux agriculteurs la possibilité de ne pas dépendre des circuits de commercialisation conventionnels en vendant directement à leurs clients et permettent aux consommateurs de trouver des produits frais et locaux. La popularité croissante des marchés fermiers a suscité et suscite encore l’intérêt d’un grand nombre de chercheurs et beaucoup de recherches ont été menées pour mieux comprendre à la fois le fonctionnement des marchés ; les raisons de leurs succès ou de leurs échecs ; et le rôle que jouent les marchés fermiers, tant dans le développement des circuits courts alimentaires que dans une amélioration de la qualité de l’alimentation. Mais la diffusion de ces recherches reste souvent limitée à un lectorat académique et il est donc intéressant de transmettre les enseignements tirés de ces travaux aux acteurs impliqués dans le développement des marchés fermiers. Avec cette synthèse, nous visons avant tout à donner aux lecteurs un aperçu global de la recherche ayant pour objet les marchés fermiers, en espérant que les résultats présentés pourront être utiles aux acteurs, professionnels ou bénévoles, qui œuvrent au développement des marchés fermiers. Pour ce faire, nous avons mené une revue systématique de l’ensemble des études publiées depuis 2005 sur le thème des marchés fermiers. Au total, 232 articles scientifiques ont été repérés et analysés.
... As expected, a lower level of socialization was recorded within supermarkets in comparison to greengrocers where most of social interaction where observed, despite few regular customers. These results are corroborated by Hunt (2007) who found that in FMs customers, as well as interacting with the vendors, they can meet people they know. This aspect broadens the potential of enjoying moments of socialization during the food purchasing activities. ...
Article
In recent years, a dramatic increase in Alternative Agri-Food Networks (AAFNs) has been interpreted by experts of the sector as triggered by innovative food supply chains capable to reconnect producers with consumers. Simultaneously, the worldwide growth of consumers’ initiatives towards AAFNs is reducing the distance with producers shortening the supply chain and enhancing its value added. Examples of these consumers’ experiences have been reported in Japan, Europe, the USA, and Canada, and differ according to the degree of participants’ commitment to the logistics and the management of the initiatives. In general terms, these experiences could represent instances of co-production practices involving thousands of citizens who are seeking quality, sustainable, healthy, and ethical products and services reducing the uncertainty of food credence attributes. In this framework, the overall objective of this paper is to contribute to the scanty literature on food associations and cooperatives co-producing private goods with citizens contributing to marketing services such as procurement, storage, pricing, and quality assurance. Specifically, the focus is on the experience of Camilla, a food consumption cooperative that recently established an outlet to stock and sell food and non-food quality goods in Bologna (Italy). Camilla is the first Italian experience of a shop self-managed by its customers - who are also the owners - who practice critical consumption by supplying organic products at fair and sustainable prices while promoting small local productions as well as Fair Trade productions. A deep, participatory, and immersive ethnographic project was carried out between January and October 2019 to understand the functioning, the motivations and the drivers underpinning the process of citizens’ self-organisation in the domain of the food sector. Results provide useful insights on the way in which these innovative AAFNs are organised and on the reasons pushing people to join these initiatives. Key questions emerging from outcomes of the Camilla case study are discussed from an empirical and theoretical point of view.
... Le recours aux substances chimiques est donc considéré par les agriculteurs comme une quasi assurance de rendements et de commercialisation. A mon sens, dans une telle situation, seule une évolution de la demande peut influencer sur la transition des agriculteurs vers des pratiques plus durables, en réévaluant les exigences en matière de qualité visuelle, de qualité environnementale et de prix (Hunt, 2007;Iles et Marsh, 2012). D'autres éléments entrent également en jeu, comme les normes techniques : par exemple, les taux de protéines élevés imposés par les industriels pour le blé tendre obligent les agriculteurs à utiliser de fortes doses d'engrais . ...
Thesis
L'objectif principal est de développer une approche analytique en économie régionale permettant de rendre compte de la complexité de la relation entre intensification agricole et bien-être territorial, que ce soit en termes de mesure, d'estimation des freins au changement ou des amorces de solutions. Formellement, dans un premier chapitre, je propose une méthode originale permettant de mesurer l'impact de l'intensification agricole sur le bien-être territorial dans un pays en développement (la Tunisie), au-delà du revenu individuel. Au delà de la méthode, cette relation de causalité complexe a été quantifiée par la mise en œuvre d'un modèle structurel basé sur une approche PLS-PM (Partial Least Squares - Path Modeling). Dans un second chapitre, j'ai utilisé les cadres de la transition agro-écologique qui caractériser empiriquement les facteurs de verrouillage et les déterminants du changement au niveau des agriculteurs. Je mets en exergues des éléments originaux eu égard aux résultats "mainstream" des approches empiriques de la transition agroécologique, comme le poids de l'histoire nationale ou l'incidence de la faiblesse de l'état. Enfin, dans un dernier chapitre, j'évalue la capacité des agriculteurs des zones rurales tunisiennes à s'adapter aux cadres de "l'économie sociale et solidaire", au titre d'une solution alternative permettant de renforcer la résilience ou la durabilité des territoires.
... In this way, agricultural products gain market enthusiasm because the selling price is more significant than government subsidies. Market sales orientation supported the independence of agricultural households based on product quality improvement strategies (Hunt, 2007). Unlike the case with local farmers in Slovakia, the sales of agricultural products depend on the supply chain. ...
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The cause of market failure is the lack of synchronization between supply and demand, or vice versa. Initially, corn was considered as a substitute and a complementary commodity for food, but now it has turned into a basic need for people in Indonesia, especially when they celebrate the new year. The main aim of this study is to examine the interaction between the demand side and the supply side. The study was carried out by inviting 9,850 respondents in Samarinda City to be surveyed regarding interest, tradition, taste, price, opportunity, profit, production cost, and distribution. Empirical testing was used to interpret the data, including correlation, reliability, and validity. Constructive validity was found in the market behavior function, where the indicators of consumer demand (p <0.01) and produce supply (p <0.01) have a significant effect. Also highlighted were production cost and distribution, both of which have a positive channel and are closely related to the other six indicators. The consistent performance of production cost and distribution supported further evidence providing stability of measurement results. Additionally, tradition and opportunity also produced high coefficients in the reliability test. We can further examine empirical results by including other dimensions, such as social, psychological and individual factors. In addition, diagnostic transformations need to be highlighted where market trends can change along with the growth of other commodities.
... This variable, namely "music is part of life", can bring new insights into the study. Music could be significantly related to farmers' markets and the local food movement (Alkon, 2008;Alkonand and McCullen, 2011;La Trobe, 2001;Hamilton, 2002;Gillespie et al., 2007;Hunt, 2007). Besides, researchers have become aware that for many people, listening to music has become a backdrop to everyday life (North and Hargeaves, 1998). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to segment Czech consumers based on their sustainable food consumption and their relationship with listening to music. Specifically, the authors attempt to answer the following question: is the relationship to music a segmentation difference for young consumers in the case of sustainability? The food-related lifestyle (FRL) concept is used as a framework; little attention has been paid to the FRL profile in the context of certain types of consumer orientations toward sustainability as a social value among consumers in Czechia. Design/methodology/approach In this research, the authors used 22 items related to sustainability (identify sustainability-oriented and health-oriented variables and socially and ethically oriented variables). The statistical data analysis techniques included factor analysis and cluster analysis. The results of the cluster analysis are the market segments. The total sample consists of 331 university students from Czechia. These data are from a continuous research project. A factor analysis identified six factors with satisfactory reliability coefficients. Using factor scores, a cluster analysis was run, resulting in four segments. These segments were further analyzed and described toward their sustainability orientation. Findings FRL concept was used to evaluate whether there are differences in the profiles of consumer orientations. Results emphasize the importance of personal characteristics and attitudes toward music, which in turn affect strategies to communicate with different segments to promote sustainable foods. Each segment has statistically significant differences in terms of its FRL. Originality/value This study explores the link between attitudes and behavior and suggests strategies to better understand the effect of information on consumer behavior. The results can help practitioners develop labeling strategies for fair-trade and sustainable foods to better focus on specific segments of consumers. This can be relevant when a sustainable food market is just starting, but hopes to reach more maturity in Czechia should be of the utmost importance for investors making long-term investments.
... The search for authenticity and connection to food and agriculture has created a cultural momentum heightening the demand for quality local foods produced using environmentally and socially conscious methods [9,11,[44][45][46][47][48][49]. This desire of consumers to know where their food comes from and how it was produced stems, in part, from corporate consolidation in the food system and the resulting, at least perceived, negative consequences for public health and farm viability [50][51][52]. ...
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Farmers markets are regular, recurring gatherings at a common facility or area where farmers and ranchers directly sell a variety of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other locally grown farm products to consumers. Markets rebuild and maintain local and regional food systems, leading to an outsized impact on the food system relative to their share of produce sales. Previous research has demonstrated the multifaceted impacts that farmers markets have on the communities, particularly economically. Recent scholarship in the United States has expanded inquiry into social impacts that markets have on communities, including improving access to fresh food products and increasing awareness of the sustainable agricultural practices adopted by producers, as well developing tools for producers and market stakeholders to measure their impact on both producers and communities. This paper reviews the recent scholarship on farmers markets to identify recent trends and synthesizes the current evidence describing the ways in which farmers markets contribute to the wellbeing of their communities, as well as identifying areas for additional future research.
... Several studies investigate consumers' motivations behind purchasing locally produced food. Many of these studies report that consumers who buy products in LFS do so partly to support local farmers, build social relationships with producers (in the case of DTC channels), and foster the well-being of their own community (Aprile et al., 2016;Aubry and Kebir, 2013;Cerrada-Serra, 2018;Chiffoleau et al., 2019;De Bernardi et al., 2020;Hinrichs and Kremer, 2002;Hunt, 2007;Kirwan, 2006;Lombardi et al., 2015;Megicks et al., 2012;Toler et al., 2009;Winter, 2003). With a focus on the producers' perspective, Izumi et al. (2010) look into farm-to-school programmes in the USA. ...
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CONTEXT Food systems worldwide are under enormous pressure. Over the past decades, local food systems have been promoted by governments and civil society organisations as a lever for change towards more inclusive, resilient and sustainable food systems based on the belief of their many purported benefits. OBJECTIVE The goal of this article is to test eight common beliefs on local food systems – from a consumer, farmer, community and environmental perspective – against scientific evidence, with a focus on North America and Europe. METHODS We conduct a systematic multi-disciplinary literature review and identify 123 peer-reviewed studies on local food systems. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS We find that the impact of local food systems on different social, economic and environmental factors highly depends on the type of supply chain under assessment, with important differences across product types and countries. Hence, our review refutes the idea that local food is inherently good. In addition, we highlight the confusion surrounding the definition of a local food scale and point out a critical lack of cross-country comparable data hindering the possibility of drawing generalisable conclusions on the benefits and drawbacks of local food systems. SIGNIFICANCE A comprehensive review of multi-disciplinary scientific evidence confirming (or refuting) claims on local food systems was missing, leading to possible counter-productive policies. Based on our findings, we suggest that policy-makers should invest in cross-country comparable data collection on local food systems (especially in Europe), which would allow the scientific community to perform robust causal analyses on their impacts on society.
... Studies on farmers' markets have usually focused more on advanced countries such as Canada (Larsen and Gilliland 2009), the United States (Andreatta and Wickliffe 2002;Brown 2002;Hunt 2007;Wolf et al. 2005), and the United Kingdom (Holloway and Kneafsey 2000), and less on developing countries in which resources are often limited. Such markets in EMs may be examined through the macromarketing lens. ...
Article
Researchers in the marketing domain have investigated some key drivers of market development in subsistence marketplaces in emerging economies. This article contributes to the literature by proposing a 7A framework that identifies an enhanced set of drivers of market development in subsistence marketplaces in emerging markets (EMs) (by extending the 4A framework). Using qualitative data collected through in-depth interviews with farmers (i.e., micro-entrepreneurs) in subsistence marketplaces from two EMs (countries: India, Vietnam), the study findings provide evidence of the 7A's as facilitators and/or inhibitors of market development in such markets. This article draws attention to the growing importance of the selling processes and strategies used by farmers in such markets for maintaining relationships with customers and investigates the benefits and challenges of selling at farmers’ markets that contribute to developing the 7A framework. The study uniquely contributes to the base of pyramid (BoP) literature in emerging markets, which could be of interest to future researchers examining the effectiveness of the 7A marketing framework on micro-entrepreneurs. The study findings offer important insights into policy and practice by uncovering new dimensions of market development for micro-entrepreneurs in emerging markets.
... Some authors investigated the role of interpersonal trust, analysing the building and the implication of trusting relations, e.g. on purchase intentions or actual purchase behaviour (Moore, 2006;Tsai et al., 2019). Others analysed the sharing of information during direct consumer/farmer interaction able to lead to transformative learning and willingness to change behaviour both on the consumption side (Carson et al., 2016;Pascucci et al., 2011) and on the production side (Hunt, 2007). In some cases, the analysis is performed for different types of direct marketing facility (e.g. ...
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Personal relationships can affect economic life, more importantly in alternative food networks. Estimating the value of enjoyment of the relational good produced by consumers’ personal relationship in direct sales from farmers is important to assess how much personal interactions can affect food purchases. We employ different stated preferences models to estimate from a consumer survey in open-air markets in four towns in Italy the value consumers buying directly from farmers attach to their particular choice of a specific vendor. Contingent on the chosen model, the average value of the personal relationship is 13.5-24.4% of their expenditure for fruits and vegetables.
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Using texts from online blogs, this study aimed to analyze the effect of perceived characteristics of a place in the virtual space and their influence on its economic performance. Specifically, this study analyzed old retail space (traditional markets) in Seoul by empirically examining the relationship among the perceived characteristics, economic performances, and the physical and operative conditions of the markets’ facilities. The perceived characteristics by the bloggers were analyzed by the text‐mining of the blog posts. Next, the associations among the multiple factors including the perceived characteristics, economic measures, were analyzed by PLS‐SEM. Three types of characteristics were found from the texts: (a) value shopping, (b) novelty & food, and (c) affective sentiments. Among them, novelty & food have significant positive effects on annual sales growth and the vacancy reduction rates of the markets. The improved physical condition also had a positive direct effect on annual sales growth, which can be partially explained by its positive mediating effects on Novelty & Food. The operating condition had no significant relationship with the perceived characteristics but had significant effects on the four economic measures. The results imply that renovation projects could diminish certain characteristics of the space (i.e., affective sentiments), but it enhanced other place characteristics (i.e., food and novelty) following economic gains.
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Current global challenges, including climate change, pandemics such as COVID-19, and over-consumption, have led tourism scholars to rethink the (un)sustainability of the mass tourism model and its effects on communities and environments. A local focus, many argue, could bring about better outcomes for the economy, society, and the environment where tourism encounters occur. In this chapter, we explore the connection between farmers’ markets and sustainable tourism, conceptualising local food as a driver of sociocultural, economic, and environmental value. We argue that as a by-product of their contribution to the sustainability of the local food system they are embedded in, farmers’ markets can also offer authentic, social activities that support more sustainable forms of tourism and travel, such as proximity and slow tourism. We illustrate our arguments with findings from a case study of a farmers’ market held weekly in Tasmania, Australia. Our findings indicate that farmers’ markets contribute to a shift towards conscious consumption and more sustainable tourism behaviours in regional communities, including support for local businesses and local produce, enhancement and preservation of cultural, gastronomic heritage, and stimulation of slow and proximity forms of tourism as alternatives to mass tourism and other forms of (un)sustainable tourism activities.
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Purpose The purposes of this paper are to: (1) characterize farmers’ market manager and vendor perceptions of the economic, social and environmental impact markets have on their local communities; and (2) how those impacts are tracked and communicated to market actors and the local community. Design/methodology/approach Twenty-nine semistructured interviews were conducted with market managers and vendors across four farmers’ markets within Michigan. The interviews were coded and analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings Managers and vendors report economic and social and environmental benefits associated with the presence of a farmers' market, consistent with the existing literature. Metrics are tracked to estimate market impact, particularly economic and social benefits. Market managers reported uncertainty about how best to use data internally, and there are gaps in communicating market impacts with vendors. Most data are used for external reporting, to statewide organizations or for grant evaluation. Respondents reported data fatigue and unwillingness among vendors to share personal business information due to concerns about privacy relative to the perceived benefits of sharing data. Practical implications Additional resources are needed for markets, specifically market managers, to better utilize the data they collect for internal versus external purposes. Originality/value Metric collection and reporting are a nascent development among markets. Understanding how market actors are utilizing these tools will provide guidance to improve future efforts at impact measurement.
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Temporary street activities influence pedestrian movement in public spaces, yet there is no evidence of their influence in shared space environments. Therefore, this paper presents a comparative analysis of the spatial behaviour of pedestrians, cyclists, and motor vehicles in two different shared space schemes in Germany. Their trajectories were extracted from video recordings to evaluate the use of space and speed. The results indicate that a farmers’ market could be considered an influential factor in extending pedestrian movement in the circulation zone and potentially increasing their dominance in the shared space while reducing the speed of all road users.
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Purpose Farmers’ markets have grown rapidly in recent years and at the same time consumers increasingly desire to eat healthfully and sustainably. This research aims to analyze the way consumers process information regarding local food claims such as sustainability and organics when shopping for local foods at farmers’ markets. Design/methodology/approach This research uses ethnographic methods that included interviews with 36 participants, more than 100 hours of participant observation and prolonged engagement over a two and half-year period. Findings The findings indicate that there are two dominant types of consumers at the farmers’ market, hedonistic and utilitarian consumers. Hedonistic consumers rely on heuristic cues such as aesthetics, their relationship with the farmer and other peripheral sources of information when making purchase decisions. Utilitarian consumers, by contrast, carefully analyze marketing messages using central route cues and tend to be more conscious of their purchase choices. Practical implications This study will help farmers more effectively position their marketing messages and help consumers be aware how they process information in this space. Originality/value Unlike previous studies of consumer behavior at farmers’ markets that primarily use survey methods, this study uses observational and ethnographic methods to capture in situ interactions in this complex buying context. Further, while much work has been done on broad concepts of local food and organic preferences, this study provides a more in-depth look at consumer information processing in the farmers’ market space that reflects a mixture of organic and non-organic food.
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The entire supply chain of organic food products in Karnataka is burdened with various issues and challenges. To list the possible challenges and suggest a way forward, there is a need to study the supply chain of organic food products sector in Karnataka. The purpose of the paper is to identify and discuss the supply chain of organic food products in Karnataka and recognize the issues which are the causes for slow and inefficient supply of organic food products. The attempt is made to suggest alleviation strategies to overcome the recognized issues and challenges.
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The purpose of this research is to propose a new conceptual framework intended to offer scholars a tool for assessing the geographic qualities among the myriad expressions of neolocalism reflected by craft food producers. Our objectives were to determine the extent to which Texas craft cider producers employ neolocal traits in the identity and marketing of their products and place; to examine how and under what conditions does the role of neolocalism and the traits employed in Texas craft cider production vary by location, reflecting local sites and situations; and to discover whether geographic, relational, or value-based traits hold greater influence when employing neolocalism in Texas craft cider. Incorporating geographic, relational, and values of proximity along with identified neolocal traits, we created a visual representation of neolocal engagement, the neolocal product model. The model visually demonstrates how Texas craft cider producers’ ability to conscientiously create a locally embedded product imbued with neolocal traits is affected by how the producers situate themselves within a local food network, reflect local resources and values, and present their cidery within a chosen landscape.
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The marketization of emerging economies can facilitate economic development but may do little to advance societal well-being. The food sector of Turkey exemplifies rapid marketization, where economic development has brought large supermarkets through long supply chains, but left consumers feeling disconnected from the food and its producers. This chapter aims to show how an alternative type of market based on strengthened social ties and shared commitments has the potential to improve the overall life satisfaction of consumers in the context of an emerging economy. Shared commitments between market actors are characterized by collective action, congruent values and goals, and concern for the future welfare of others. Measurement-based empirical evidence from the customers of Miss Silk’s Farm, a predominant alternative food network in Turkey, indicates that reconnecting consumers and producers through shared commitments can improve life satisfaction. Public policies and procedures bolster shared commitments as a foundation for an alternative market that can improve well-being in emerging economies.
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Rural shopping is emerging as a tourism market that is under-researched and offers potential for the economic development of rural regions. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the role and importance of the domestic rural shopping market in Canada as a ‘niche’ market in rural tourism, and to provide a description of the characteristics of rural shoppers. Secondary data analysis of the domestic Canadian Travel Survey (1998-2001) reveals that there are many rural visitors who also participate in shopping, and that rural shoppers display different characteristics from average Canadian domestic travellers. Market segmentation using cluster analysis identifies five activity-based groups that differ on the basis of demographics and trip characteristics.
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This study was based on a survey of customers who shopped at a small farmers' market during the summer/fall market season of 1995. Information from a survey completed by 239 shoppers was used to develop a profile of the primary consumer group, defined as those who shop regularly at the market and spend the most per visit. Comparisons between survey data and census data for the local population showed that primary shoppers at the market had higher education, higher annual household income, tended to be slightly older, and were more likely to be employed women. For the most part, the respondents were loyal, weekly shoppers who patronized the market because of the high quality of the products. Most reported that they were willing to pay more for produce at the farmers' market.
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A consumer survey was used to identify the proportion of consumers who shop for produce at farmers' markets. A profile of the target market was developed. Characteristics of produce which are most desirable to consumers when making their purchase decision were identified. Consumers' perceptions of the characteristics of produce sold at farmers' markets versus supermarkets were evaluated. The most desirable characteristics of produce which provide farmers' markets produce with a relative advantage over supermarket produce were identified for use in a promotional campaign.
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The contemporary US food systemis characterized by both an unprecedentedconcentration of corporate control as well as afragmentation of sourcing and marketingprocesses, introducing both new constraints andnew opportunities for more localized foodsystems. The purpose of our study is to explorethese issues by investigating three keyquestions. First, what are the key trends inthe US grocery industry? Second, how dodifferent kinds of food outlets choose,procure, and promote food products? Finally,what are the implications of recent trends inthe food retailing process for strengtheninglocal flows of the production, distribution,and consumption of food? Background informationon the grocery industry and the results ofseven open-ended interviews conducted withowners and managers of grocery stores in oneupstate New York county indicate that theretailing process differs in complex ways fromstore to store and in most aspects cannot beinferred from store type. The paper concludeswith a discussion of the implications of ourfindings for local food system efforts,specifically in terms of new collaborationsamong producers, distributors, retailers, andshoppers, who play an indispensable role indeveloping viable alternatives to increasingcorporate control.
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Because of growth and development in agricultural areas at the rural–urban interface, a variety of farmer adaptations have been identified. While exiting from farming or entrepreneurial adaptations that tap urban markets are frequently identified responses, farmers might also attempt to develop social capital, or neighborly relations, with nonfarm neighbors to mitigate social constraints created by nonfarmer concerns at the rural–urban interface. In a case study of an agricultural region within a large metropolitan area, this research reports data from a survey of farm and nonfarm residents (N=620). The analysis operationalizes the concept of social capital, nonfarmer trust of farmers and frequency of nonfarmer interaction with farmers, to determine whether these social relations have a discernable impact on nonfarmer support or tolerance of agriculture. Results reveal a relationship, indicating that support and tolerance of agriculture is stronger when nonfarmers report the existence of social capital with farmers. These findings have implications for farm operator adaptations as well as community capacity to preserve or develop local agriculture.
Article
Direct agricultural markets, predicated on face-to-face ties between producers and consumers, are often seen as central components of local food systems. Activists and academic analysts often assume that trust and social connection characterize direct agricultural markets, distinguishing local food systems from the “global food system”. This article examines that premise about direct agricultural markets, using the concept of social embeddedness from economic sociology to analyze the interplay of the economic and the social. Specifically, it draws on Block's (1990) elaboration of the concepts of marketness and instrumentalism to qualify the concept of social embeddedness. Taken together, and augmented by consideration of how they relate to power and privilege, these concepts provide an analytical framework that more accurately describes the social relations of two types of direct agricultural markets — the farmers’ market and community supported agriculture. In providing an alternative market, farmers’ markets create a context for closer social ties between farmers and consumers, but remain fundamentally rooted in commodity relations. In attempting to construct an alternative to the market, as reflected in an explicit emphasis on community and in the distinctive “share” relationship, community supported agriculture moves closer towards the decommodification of food. Nonetheless, in both types of direct markets, tensions between embeddedness, on the one hand, and marketness and instrumentalism, on the other, suggest how power and privilege may sometimes rest more with educated, middle-class consumers than with farmers or less-advantaged consumers. Recognizing how marketness and instrumentalism complicate social embeddedness is critical for understanding the viability, development and prospects of local food systems.
Article
The concept of embeddedness has general applicability in the study of economic life and can alter theoretical and empirical approaches to the study of economic behaviors. Argues that in modern industrial societies, most economic action is embedded in structures of social relations. The author challenges the traditional economic theories that have both under- and oversocialized views of the conception of economic action and decisions that merge in their conception of economic actors atomized (separated) from their social context. Social relations are assumed to play on frictional and disruptive, not central, roles in market processes. There is, hence, a place and need for sociology in the study of economic life. Productive analysis of human action requires avoiding the atomization in the extremes of the over- and undersocialized concepts. Economic actors are neither atoms outside a social context nor slavish adherents to social scripts. The markets and hierarchies problem of Oliver Williamson (with a focus on the question of trust and malfeasance) is used to illustrate the use of embeddedness in explicating the proximate causes of patterns of macro-level interest. Answers to the problem of how economic life is not riddled with mistrust and malfeasance are linked to over- and undersocialized conceptions of human nature. The embeddedness argument, on the contrary, stresses the role of concrete personal relations and networks (or structures) in generating trust and discouraging malfeasance in economic life. It finds a middle way between the oversocialized (generalized morality) and undersocialized (impersonal institutional arrangements) approaches. The embeddedness approach opens the way for analysis of the influence of social structures on market behavior, specifically showing how business relations are intertwined with social and personal relations and networks. The approach can easily explain what looks otherwise like irrational behavior. (TNM)
Article
Includes sample questionnaires. Thesis (M.S.)--Kansas State University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 51-53).
Article
This article explores the concept of market embeddedness and its impact on purchasing behavior in a consumer market. Embeddedness exists when consumers derive utility from two sources simultaneously: from attributes of the product and from social capital found in preexisting ties between buyers and sellers. This framework is applied to the home party method of direct sales. We find that the degree of social capital present, as measured by the strength of the buyer-seller tie and buyer indebtedness to the seller. Significantly affects the likelihood of purchase. Copyright 1990 by the University of Chicago.
Article
Changing food consumption patterns indicate that food retailers need to be responsive to patrons. Consumer surveys can be used to identify changes that should be made in the management of a facility and to identify relevant promotional messages for food shoppers. A survey of shoppers at a farmers' market is used to estimate a Poisson regression of the number of trips. Results provide a basis for the outlet becoming more responsive to consumer information needs.
Article
Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.
Article
SUMMARY The contingent valuation method has been used to estimate the Swedes' willingness to pay to preserve the agricultural landscape. They seem willing to pay about 541 SEK/person*year (78 ECU) or 975 SEK/hectare*year (140 ECU) (May 1986). The results are judged to be reliable but with a low degree of precision. It is shown that willingness to pay is significantly correlated to income, age (negatively), level of education and to positive attitudes towards preservation of the agricultural landscape. Willingness to pay per hectare differs due to land use and regional location. Subsidies based on acreage instead of price support may be an adequate political solution.
Article
Conservation easements allow landowners to transfer their land's development rights to another entity, usually a nontaxable conservation organization. Conservation reduces the town's tax base, necessitating a tax rate increase to maintain service levels. However, conserving land also decreases the supply of developable land and provides open space amenities that may be capitalized into the value of nearby properties. These effects may offset the decrease in the tax base caused by the easement. Using a sample of twenty-nine Vermont towns, we show that private conservation easements increase property tax rates in the short run, but are tax-neutral or tax-suppressing in the long run.
A short-order revolutionary
  • Shorto
Preserving the economic viability of the agricultural landscape: a contingent valuation study of locally produced beef
  • A R Hunt
Soya boom threat to South America
  • A Kirby
Farmers' Produce Markets in the United States
  • J L Wann
  • E L Cake
  • W H Elliot
  • R F Burdete
Characteristics of producers and consumers at northwest Missouri farmers' markets
  • Larson
Personal communication with the Maine Commissioner of Agriculture
  • R W Spear
Consumers' perceptions and attitudes regarding Tennessee's new farmers' markets
  • Brooker