Article

Prevalence and Correlates of Perceived Workplace Discrimination Among Older Workers in the United State of America

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Abstract

The workplace is one of the areas in which discrimination most frequently occurs. Despite increasing workforce participation among older adults and the adverse effects of workplace discrimination on the physical and psychological wellbeing of older adults, limited attention has been given to workplace discrimination against older workers. Based on a national survey of 420 older workers age 50 and above, this study first examined the prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination. Results indicated more than 81 per cent of the older workers encountered at least one workplace discriminatory treatment within a year. Prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination differed with age, gender, education, occupation and wage. The study further tested two competing hypotheses on the level of perceived workplace discrimination and found mixed support for both. As hypothesised (based on the social barriers theory), lower education and racial/ethnic minority status were positively associated with perceived workplace discrimination. As counter-hypothesised (based on the attribution-sensitivity theory), younger ages and being male were positively associated with perceived workplace discrimination. In examining the roles of supervisor and co-worker support, the study discovered that supervisor support was negatively associated with workplace discrimination. Finally, this study revealed a non-linear relationship between wages and perceived workplace discrimination, with the mid-range wage group experiencing the highest level of workplace discrimination.

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... Although the experience of discrimination is closely related to sociocultural, economic, organizational, and personal (including age) factors, effects can also be present from aspects of gender or ethnicity (Chou & Choi, 2011); or other macro-social variables, like the economic sector or employment sector -private or public- (Loretto & White, 2006;Solem, 2016), labor market characteristics, and mainstream national values. This suggests that the indications of prevalence of ageism at the workplace will be difficult to disentangle from among distinct contexts. ...
... At the same time, detecting the prevalence of ageism requires valid and reliable measurements for the variables of interest. In work settings, these measurements include direct queries about e.g., being ignored by supervisors or being overlooked for promotions (Chou & Choi, 2011). Some instruments, like The Workplace Intergenerational Climate Scale (WICS; King & Bryant, 2017), evaluate attitudes and perceptions of workers from different age groups and intergenerational dynamics; while others, like the Nordic Ageism Discrimination Scale (NADS; Furunes & Mykletun, 2010), are used to assess the perception of age discrimination at the workplace. ...
... Current socio-demographic general tendencies have pushed the debate about age in the workplace to the foreground of the academic-scientific field, organizational management, and the agenda of public authorities. The roles that age stereotyping, prejudice, and age discrimination at work have played has taken on special relevance (Chou & Choi, 2011;Harris et al., 2017;Posthuma et al., 2012;Solem, 2016). Most of the focus in this investigation about age discrimination has been descriptive, focusing especially on delineating the factors that cause age stereotyping and how they can affect the decision to either continue work or retire (Truxillo et al., 2018). ...
Article
Negative stereotypes about older workers can result in different types of age discrimination. The aim of this study was to run a transcultural adaptation and validation of the Nordic Age Discrimination Scale (NADS) into Spanish. Three independent samples of Chilean (N = 301), Colombian (N = 150), and Spanish (N = 209) workers over the age of 45, from different sectors and professional categories, answered a questionnaire including the NADS scale, measures of perceptions of inequality, workplace harassment and several scales related to outcome variables to test criterion and construct validity. The reliability index for the NADS was .85, a similar value for both Cronbach's alpha (α) and McDonald's omega (ω). CFA by country suggest good fit of this single-dimension structure in a final version of 5 items, and it presents scalar invariance; using the modification indices, partial invariance is achieved at the level of the variance of the errors. Both criterion and construct validity were verified, with strong evidence for criterion validity, and moderate results for construct validity. Therefore, the Spanish version of NADS had a single-dimension structure and adequate psychometric properties being a useful tool in measuring perceptions of age discrimination in different countries.
... In many studies, older employees refer to those who are aged 55 and above (James et al., 2007;Mohren et al., 2010;Staubli, 2011). According to the employment "Age Discrimination Act of 1967" of the United States of America, which protects employees, older employees are referred to as 40 and above (Chou and Choi, 2011). Here, it is understood that old age starts from age 40 and above. ...
... employees which indicate that a negative stereotypical belief of older employees may exist in organisations and may be related to actual age discrimination or to managers' perceptions of age. Moreover, there is strong evidence that managers 53 have stereotypical beliefs about older employees in the work place (Bhaskar et al., 2003;Canduela et al., 2012;Chiu et al., 2001;Chou and Choi, 2011;Cooke, 2006;DeArmond et al., 2006;Martin and Gardiner, 2007;Porcellato et al., 2010;Scroggins et al., 2010;Weller, 2007). If negative stereotypical beliefs are prevalent and are shared with others in managerial positions, then the attitude toward older employees may be negative, which in turn may develop into attitude towards older employees. ...
... Previous studies have found relationships between stereotypical beliefs and managers' discrimination attitude toward older employees (Canduela et al., 2012;Chou and Choi, 2011;Cooke, 2006;DeArmond et al., 2006;Martin and Gardiner, 2007;Porcellato et al., 2010;Scroggins et al., 2010). These studies indicate that a negative stereotype of older employees may exist in organisations and may be related to actual age discrimination or to managers' perceptions of age. ...
Thesis
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The research investigated the role of managers’ attitude in mediating the relationship between managers’ behavior and managers’ intentions to retain older employees in the corporate sector in Libya. Discrimination of age is one of the most challenging aspects of the workforce. This study examined the influence of stereotypical belief, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and organizational goals on intention to retain older employees by examining the managers’ attitude as a mediator. This research was conducted through a quantitative approach by using a questionnaire. A total of 296 respondents were randomly selected. The statistical package of social science (SPSS) software was used to run factor analysis, reliability analysis and descriptive statistical analysis. AMOS program was used to carry out the structural equation model as well as testing the research hypotheses. The study contributes to the body of knowledge in human resources specifically the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) that can predict the influence of managers’ behavior on managers’ intention to retain older employees in the Libyan corporate sector. Statistically significant relationships were found between stereotypical belief, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and organizational goals and managers’ intention to retain older employees. The relationship between managers’ attitude and managers’ intention to retain older employees was statistically significant too. A test of the mediated relationship confirmed that the managers’ attitude has a mediating role in the relationship between managers’ behavior and managers’ intentions to retain older …
... Some research evidence shows that perceived age discrimination is more common among employees with a lower education (Chou & Choi, 2011) and in blue-collar occupations (Kulik et al., 2016). These employees usually work in jobs that are physically more demanding and which they may perceive as having less opportunities to compensate for their age-related health decline (Kulik et al., 2016). ...
... Although the aforementioned hypotheses were formulated for a universally implemented intervention, we also expected the effects of the intervention to be the most beneficial for the more vulnerable groups. Previous research has indicated that older employees' perceptions of age discrimination are more prevalent among those who have a younger supervisor (Kulik et al., 2016;Kunze & Menges, 2017), as well as among less educated employees (Chou & Choi, 2011). In order to evaluate the possibilities for more targeted implementation of this intervention, we used younger supervisors and educational levels as moderators. ...
... Regarding perceived age discrimination in particular, the intervention provided the most benefit to employees with a lower level of education and employees with a younger supervisor. Employees with a lower level of education seem to report more ageism than more highly educated employees, possibly because of their weaker position in work life (Chou & Choi, 2011). Earlier research has also found a relationship between a having younger supervisor and perceived age discrimination or feelings of organizational injustice (Kulik et al., 2016;Kunze & Menges, 2017;Posthuma & Campion, 2009). ...
... In many studies, older employee refers to those who are aged 55 and above (James, 2007;Mohren et al., 2010;Staubli et al., 2011. According to "Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967", United States of America, older employees more than 40 years were protected under this act (Chou & Choi, 2011) Public organization aims to enable increasing economic growth and to end poverty, however, the corruption, reduces revenue and it increases illegal public expenditure. More and more countries have focused on the use of ICT in its activities to strengthen its reform process with transparency as a necessary ingredient of good financial governance Ameen and Ahmad, 2013a. ...
... As the numbers of information quickly rises, numerous researches have been published on the relationship between age and numerous magnitudes of studies includes age discrimination (Chiu & Ngan, 1999;Bennington & Wein, 2003;Rabl, 2010;Cheung et al., 2011;Chou & Choi, 2011;Kunze et al., 2011;Messe, 2012), age stereotypes (Porcellato et al., 2010;Cheung et al., 2011;Krings et al., 2011) and age-related psychological factors (Stamov-Roßnagel & Hertel, 2010;Shacklock & Brunetto, 2011;Bal & Smit, 2012;Messe, 2012) as well as the employability of older employees in the organizations (Jones, 2009;López-Sánchez, 2010, Cardoso et al., 2011Luchman et al., 2012;Mahlberg et al., 2012;. ...
... Most of the age-discrimination and negative stereotypes studies are directed towards older employees. Numerous studies have revealed the factors lead to negative stereotypes towards the employment of older employees (Chiu et al., 2001;Bhaskar et al., 2003;Cooke, 2006;DeArmond et al., 2006;Martin & Gardiner, 2007;Weller, 2007;Porcellato et al., 2010;Rabl, 2010;Chou & Choi, 2011;Canduela et al., 2012). Generally, the studies found that discrimination and negative stereotypes affected older employees' work motivation. ...
Article
Abstract: This study aimed at exploring the direct and indirect relationship between workplace empowerment, work-life quality, and employee commitment. 361 questionnaires were randomly distributed to both nurses and physicians in public hospitals located in Aden, Yemen. Using structural equation modelling, the results revealed a direct positive relationship between workplace empowerment and employee commitment, and a direct positive relationship between workplace empowerment and work-life quality. Moreover, there is a direct positive relationship between work-life quality and employee commitment. Furthermore, there is an indirect effect between Workplace empowerment and employee commitment through work-life quality.
... In many studies, older employee refers to those who are aged 55 and above (James, 2007;Mohren et al., 2010;Staubli et al., 2011. According to "Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967", United States of America, older employees more than 40 years were protected under this act (Chou & Choi, 2011) Public organization aims to enable increasing economic growth and to end poverty, however, the corruption, reduces revenue and it increases illegal public expenditure. More and more countries have focused on the use of ICT in its activities to strengthen its reform process with transparency as a necessary ingredient of good financial governance Ameen and Ahmad, 2013a. ...
... As the numbers of information quickly rises, numerous researches have been published on the relationship between age and numerous magnitudes of studies includes age discrimination (Chiu & Ngan, 1999;Bennington & Wein, 2003;Rabl, 2010;Cheung et al., 2011;Chou & Choi, 2011;Kunze et al., 2011;Messe, 2012), age stereotypes (Porcellato et al., 2010;Cheung et al., 2011;Krings et al., 2011) and age-related psychological factors (Stamov-Roßnagel & Hertel, 2010;Shacklock & Brunetto, 2011;Bal & Smit, 2012;Messe, 2012) as well as the employability of older employees in the organizations (Jones, 2009;López-Sánchez, 2010, Cardoso et al., 2011Luchman et al., 2012;Mahlberg et al., 2012;. ...
... Most of the age-discrimination and negative stereotypes studies are directed towards older employees. Numerous studies have revealed the factors lead to negative stereotypes towards the employment of older employees (Chiu et al., 2001;Bhaskar et al., 2003;Cooke, 2006;DeArmond et al., 2006;Martin & Gardiner, 2007;Weller, 2007;Porcellato et al., 2010;Rabl, 2010;Chou & Choi, 2011;Canduela et al., 2012). Generally, the studies found that discrimination and negative stereotypes affected older employees' work motivation. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed at exploring the direct and indirect relationship between workplace empowerment, work-life quality, and employee commitment. 361 questionnaires were randomly distributed to both nurses and physicians in public hospitals located in Aden, Yemen. Using structural equation modelling, the results revealed a direct positive relationship between workplace empowerment and employee commitment, and a direct positive relationship between workplace empowerment and work-life quality. Moreover, there is a direct positive relationship between work-life quality and employee commitment. Furthermore, there is an indirect effect between Workplace empowerment and employee commitment through work-life quality.
... Definitions of workplace discrimination vary by discipline (Okechukwu, Souza, Davis, & de Castro, 2014), generally characterized as unfair terms or conditions (e.g., reduced opportunity) or negative treatment based on personal characteristics or membership in a particular social group such as race, sex or age (Chou & Choi, 2011;Dhanani, Beus, & Joseph, 2017;Rospenda, Richman, & Shannon, 2009). Age-based discrimination, for example, may stem from stereotypes about the willingness of older workers to accept change and their level of competence, which may manifest as a reluctance to hire, promote, train or otherwise extend opportunities due to age. ...
... While the national prevalence of workplace discrimination and mistreatment (WDM) in the U.S. workforce has been previously reported (Alterman, Luckhaupt, Dahlhamer, Ward, & Calvert, 2013;Avery, McKay, & Wilson, 2008;Chavez, Ornelas, Lyles, & Williams, 2015;Chou & Choi, 2011;Lutgen-Sandvik & Namie, 2009;Rospenda et al., 2009;Schat, Frone, & Kelloway, 2006), existing research suffers from a number of limitations. First, most studies have relied on small or moderately sized samples (Chou & Choi, 2011 (n = 420); Avery et al., 2008 (n = 763); Rospenda et al., 2009Rospenda et al., (n = 2151; Schat et al., 2006Schat et al., (n = 2500). ...
... First, most studies have relied on small or moderately sized samples (Chou & Choi, 2011 (n = 420); Avery et al., 2008 (n = 763); Rospenda et al., 2009Rospenda et al., (n = 2151; Schat et al., 2006Schat et al., (n = 2500). A number of studies have used the Health and Retirement Survey (Giasson, Queen, Larkina, & Smith, 2017;Han and Richardson, 2015;Rippon, Zaninotto, & Steptoe, 2015) and another used data from the Midlife in United States II (MIDUS II) study (Chou & Choi, 2011) to look at the prevalence of age discrimination in the workplace within the older segment of the workforce (e.g., those aged ≥ 50 years who represent over two-fifths of the U.S. workforce and growing) (BLS, 2017;Toossi, 2013). Although the Health and Retirement Survey (Giasson et al., 2017;Han and Richardson 2015;;Rippon et al., 2015), MIDUS II (Chou & Choi, 2011), the National Health Interview Survey (Alterman et al., 2013), and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 40th Anniversary Civil Rights in the Workplace Survey, (conducted by Gallup) (Avery et al., 2008) oversampled minorities for more reliable prevalence estimates, other studies have not. ...
Article
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Although workplace discrimination and mistreatment (WDM) has recently drawn widespread media attention, our understanding of the prevalence of these phenomena remains limited. In the current study, we generated national prevalence estimates of WDM from a community-based cohort of employed black and white men and women aged ≥48 years. Measures of WDM in the current job were obtained by computer-assisted telephone interview (2011-2013) involving dichotomous responses (yes or no) to five questions and deriving a composite measure of discrimination (yes to at least one). Prevalence estimates and age- and region-adjusted prevalence ratios were derived with use of SUDAAN software to account for the complex sample design. Analyses were stratified by race and sex subgroups. This sample represents over 40 million U.S. workers aged ≥48 years. The prevalence of workplace discrimination ranged from a high of 25% for black women to a low of 11% for white men. Blacks reported a 60% higher rate of discrimination compared to whites; women reported a 53% higher prevalence of discrimination, compared with men. The prevalence of workplace mistreatment ranged from 13% for black women to 8% for white men. Women reported a 52% higher prevalence of mistreatment compared to men, while differences by race were not significant. Mistreatment was 4-8 times more prevalent among those reporting discrimination than among those reporting none. Subgroup differences in mistreatment were confined to the wage-employed. Findings suggest that middle age and older wage-employed blacks and women experience the highest prevalence of WDM; moreover, discrimination is strongly associated with mistreatment. This study contributes to our understanding of at-risk segments of the U.S. labor market and the need for targeted interventions to reduce WDM.
... The Workplace Intergenerational Climate Scale (WICS [58]) evaluates attitudes and perceptions of workers pertaining at di↵erent age groups and intergenerational dynamics at work. Other measurement instruments include direct queries about being ignored by supervisors or being overlooked for promotions [10], or about perceived age discrimination climate, identifying organizational processes that could be source of potential age discrimination in the workplace, like performance assessment, allocations of tasks, professional and personal development, career opportunities, and leadership behaviors [18]. And the Nordic Ageism Discrimination Scale (NADS [25]) is created to assess the perception of age discrimination at the workplace. ...
... In light of recent data reflecting and appreciable increase in age discrimination at work, it is urgent that reliable valiant tools be found to measure this pervasive phenomenon [10,25]. Furthermore, quantitative instruments are needed to obtain a more objective estimation of the scale of the phenomenon. ...
... In a similar vein, there is strong evidence on the negative relationship between perceived age discrimination and psychological wellbeing at work, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction [25,40,48,55,[85][86][87][88], in line with results obtained in our study. Finally, regarding social factors at work, our results coincide with other studies [8,10,25,88], showing a negative relationship between perceived age discrimination and perception of social support; this negative relationship is significant both in relation to the supervisor and to coworkers, which shows that age discrimination is vertical and horizontal. These results are revealing of the need to devote more attention to promote intergenerational contact and relationships at work, and to adopt an organizational multi-age perspective [89]. ...
Article
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Negative stereotypes about older workers can result in ageism and age discrimination in the workplace. The aim of this study is to carry out an adaptation to Spanish and a preliminary validation of the Nordic Age Discrimination Scale (NADS) in a sample of Spanish workers over 55 years of age. The study involved 209 employees aged between 55 and 67 years old (155 women (74.2%) and 54 men (25.8%)) working in the health sector with di↵erent professional categories (nurses, doctors, nursing assistants, ancillaries and health technicians). The reliability index of the six dimensions of the NADS (promotion, training, development, development appraisals, wage increase and change processes) measured by Cronbach's alpha was ↵ = 0.83. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, with the goodness-of-fit indexes used, reflect an acceptable adjustment of the single-factor structure of the NADS. Regarding criterion and construct validity, the NADS correlated positively and negatively with the respective variables in the expected directions, except in one case. These results indicate that the Spanish version of the NADS shows adequate levels of internal consistency and criterion validity, and this instrument meets standard psychometric properties in its Spanish version.
... The literature has highlighted the importance of negative selfimage, workplace discrimination, social support and policy support among various potential factors associated with employment quality [5,23,24]. For example, workplace discrimination can elevate the degree of stress among PLWH, which was of concern for the employment quality among PLWH [4,25]. Similarly, failure to secure social support might also mitigate the employment outcomes among PLWH [26]. ...
... In this study, we examined whether the effects of negative self-image, workplace discrimination, social support, and policy support on employment quality among PLWH differ by demographics. As for age, although previous studies have investigated age differences in perceived psychosocial distress, and workplace discrimination [25], there has been little attention on age differences in psychosocial distress, and workplace discrimination associated with employment quality. We first found that older PLWH can better leverage the undesirable effects of negative self-image and workplace discrimination on employment quality. ...
... For instance, Rzeszutek [43] argued that higher education an important personal property in coping with HIV-related psychological burden among PLWH, and protecting them from workplace discrimination. Similarly, Chou & Choi [25] noted that highly educated PLWH are capable of accessing and utilizing resources for improved employment outcomes. ...
Article
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At the intersection of research areas on health and employment, little attention has been paid on employment quality among people living with HIV (PLWH). The objective of the current study is to identify critical factors and empirically examine their effects on employment quality among PLWH. Based on the social-ecological perspective, we identified negative self-image, workplace discrimination, social support, and policy support as critical factors associated with employment quality among PLWH. Thereafter, a questionnaire survey was conducted to gather information from 339 employed PLWH in China. Hierarchical regression analyses were further performed to analyze the effects of the identified factors on employment quality among PLWH. We obtained three main findings. First, negative self-image and workplace discrimination are detrimental to employment quality among PLWH; whereas social support and policy support are conducive to their employment quality. Second, older, male, and highly educated PLWH can better leverage the undesirable effects of negative self-image and workplace discrimination on employment quality compared with their peers. Third, male, and highly educated PLWH can better utilize social support and policy support to advance employment quality compared with their peers. However, the employment quality effects of the identified factors did not differ by marital status. Our findings provided some useful implications for PLWH, employers, community service providers, and policy makers to promote employment quality among PLWH.
... Data showed negative general treatment of older workers, in relation to negative effect on general evaluations (Bal et al., 2011), assignment of jobs others do not want (Chou & Choi, 2011), preference of younger workers for valuable assignments (Grima, 2011), and decreased likelihood of receiving a bonus (Kluge & Krings, 2008). Chou and Choi (2011) noted that older workers who reported greater supervisor support also reported less age discrimination, though age discrimination varied by gender and wage. ...
... Data showed negative general treatment of older workers, in relation to negative effect on general evaluations (Bal et al., 2011), assignment of jobs others do not want (Chou & Choi, 2011), preference of younger workers for valuable assignments (Grima, 2011), and decreased likelihood of receiving a bonus (Kluge & Krings, 2008). Chou and Choi (2011) noted that older workers who reported greater supervisor support also reported less age discrimination, though age discrimination varied by gender and wage. Specifically, men and those receiving mid-range salaries reported greater age discrimination. ...
... It is evident that there is a need for programs, in employment support services working with older unemployed individuals and in work organizations, which address ageism (Chou & Choi, 2011;Finkelstein, Roher, & Owusu, 2013;Gringart et al., 2012;Levy, 2016;Kluge & Krings, 2008). In addition to drawing on existing evidence summarized in this review and learning from other programs in place such as Age Smart (Finkelstein, Roher et al., 2013), workplace interventions and antiageist educational and advocacy programs can draw on research that challenges ageist assumptions regarding older workers' capacities and capabilities. ...
Article
Purpose of the study: Given the policy shifts toward extended work lives, it is critically important to address barriers that older workers may face in attaining and maintaining satisfactory work. This article presents a scoping review of research addressing ageism and its implications for the employment experiences and opportunities of older workers. Design and methods: The five-step scoping review process outlined by Arksey and O'Malley was followed. The data set included 43 research articles. Results: The majority of articles were cross-sectional quantitative surveys, and various types of study participants (older workers, human resource personnel/manager, employers, younger workers, undergraduate students) were included. Four main themes, representing key research emphases, were identified: stereotypes and perceptions of older workers; intended behavior toward older workers; reported behavior toward older workers; and older workers' negotiation of ageism. Implications: Existing research provides a foundational evidence base for the existence of ageist stereotypes and perceptions about older workers and has begun to demonstrate implications in relation to intended behaviors and, to a lesser extent, actual behaviors toward older workers. A few studies have explored how aging workers attempt to negotiate ageism. Further research that extends beyond cross-sectional surveys is required to achieve more complex understandings of the implications of ageism and inform policies and practices that work against ageism.
... Workplace harassment, bullying and employment discrimination are additional potential issues employers face when dealing with a multigenerational workforce. Discrimination suits are financially detrimental, not just regarding judgments awarded, but also because they lead to employee turnover within the organization (Choi & Choi, 2011). Choi & Choi (2011), in a study using 420 participants, found 81% of employees older than 50 had experienced age-related workplace discrimination. ...
... Discrimination suits are financially detrimental, not just regarding judgments awarded, but also because they lead to employee turnover within the organization (Choi & Choi, 2011). Choi & Choi (2011), in a study using 420 participants, found 81% of employees older than 50 had experienced age-related workplace discrimination. Pelczarski (2013) wrote about the number of workers who were older than 55 and reminded employers of the Age Discrimination Act of 1967, which prohibits age discrimination of any kind in the workplace for workers who are 40 years old or older. ...
Research
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ABSTRACT High employee turnover rates are problematic in the retail banking industry because turnover increases the risk of costly regulatory compliance mistakes. The factors that predict turnover in this industry are not well understood, however. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between the independent variables of job satisfaction, job burnout, time on the job, generational identity and the dependent variable of turnover intention for retail banking employees in the United States. A random sample of 100 individuals from the banking industry responded to an online survey that combined elements of a job satisfaction survey by Babin & Boles, a turnover intention survey by Boshoff & Allen and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results of the multiple linear regression analysis suggested statistically significant (p<0.001) relationships between job burnout and turnover intention (=0.297) and between job satisfaction and turnover intention (=0.683). These findings are congruent with research that shows that satisfied employees report less job burnout and are more likely to remain in their job.
... Mandatory retirement policies represent one form of age discrimination, whereby older workers are disadvantaged strictly due to their age rather than their ability. At the interpersonal level, older workers may be subjected to microaggression, which includes prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior in daily social interactions (Chou & Choi, 2011). ...
... Redman and Snape (2006) indicated no significant moderating effects of workbased social support and found the anticipated buffering effect of nonworkbased social support only on life satisfaction, with reverse buffering for job satisfaction and normative commitment. Of the two primary sources of workplace social support proposed in previous studies, that is, supervisors and coworkers (Chou & Robert, 2008;Shimazu, Shimazu, & Odahara, 2004), Chou and Choi (2011) determined that supervisor support was more essential in alleviating perceived workplace discrimination. ...
Article
The present study examined the additive effects of age discrimination, as well as the buffering effects of psychosocial resources in reducing the negative impact of age discrimination on job satisfaction, among older employed men in Japan. Data were obtained from a national survey administered in 2016 to a probability-based sample of men aged 55 to 64 years ( n = 514). The results indicated that perceived age discrimination at work was associated with a lower level of job satisfaction. Moreover, a high level of social support from supervisors and coworkers decreased the negative impact of perceived age discrimination on job satisfaction. Our findings suggest that organizational-level interventions might be necessary to mitigate age discrimination and increase social support for keeping older employees in the workforce beyond their conventional retirement age.
... In many studies, older employees refer to those who are aged 55 and above (James, 2007;Mohren et al., 2010;Staubli et al., 2011). According to "Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967", United States of America, older employees more than 40 years were protected under this act (Chou and Choi, 2011). Aging can affects older employees in many ways which include working memory, competency and work adjustment (Iun and Huang, 2007). ...
... As the numbers of information quickly rises, numerous researches have been published on the relationship between age and numerous magnitudes of studies includes age discrimination (Chiu and Ngan, 1999;Bennington and Wein, 2003;Rabl, 2010;Cheung et al., 2011;Chou and Choi, 2011;Kunze et al., 2011;Messe, 2012), age stereotypes (Porcellato et al., 2010;Cheung et al., 2011;Krings et al., 2011) and age-related psychological factors (Stamov-Roßnagel and Hertel, 2010;Shacklock and Brunetto, 2011;Bal and Smit, 2012;Messe, 2012) as well as the employability of older employees in the organizations (Jones, 2009;López-Sánchez, 2010, Cardoso et al., 2011Luchman et al., 2012;Mahlberg et al., 2012). In the United States, Popkin et al., (2008) reviewed on the impacts of an aging workforce in transportation sector by adopting the socio-technical systems model. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the Managers' Intention to Retain Older Employees in Corporate Sectors in Libya. Older Employee retention has always been important issues for people who work in organization. Hence, the survey analyzed the intention of managers to absorb older employees in an establishment through observed behaviors and actions. Thus, the research employed the Model of Planned Behavior (MPB). It concentrated on the undesirable typecast attitude meted out to the older employees in a working environment. Though, contrary to the expectations of human capital theory (HCT), recruitment processes may select candidates with the best social 'fit' to an existing workplace rather than candidates with the greatest skills or experience. Therefore, Quantitative method of research was adopted through a well prepared questionnaire that collected data on the related research questions. A total number of 600 questionnaires were distributed while 402 were returned. Thus, the Data collected from the returned 402 questionnaires was then analyzed by Correlation and regression analyses which revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables. The results indicate that behavioral belief, significantly influenced the Intention of Managers' to retain older employees (β = .499, p <.05), also, the normative belief significantly influenced the Intention of Managers' to retain older employees (β = .336, p <.05). On the other hand, Control belief does not significantly influenced the Intention of Managers' to retain older employees in Libyan corporate sector (β =-.012, p >.05). The findings unequivocally contribute to the knowledge development of Managers' Intention to Retain Older Employees in Numerous Corporate Sectors.
... According to Creswell (2013), the use of the method allows the research generalization while also assuring appropriateness for multiple regression relationships testing among several variables and analysis of the inter-relationships among many variables within the model. The survey questionnaire has been employed in a lot of management studies in data collection for instance Cheung et al. (2010), Chou andChoi (2011) andDuncan andLoretto (2004). Fowler (2013) stated that the method of survey questionnaire is efficient for decreasing cost. ...
... According to Creswell (2013), the use of the method allows the research generalization while also assuring appropriateness for multiple regression relationships testing among several variables and analysis of the inter-relationships among many variables within the model. The survey questionnaire has been employed in a lot of management studies in data collection for instance Cheung et al. (2010), Chou andChoi (2011) andDuncan andLoretto (2004). Fowler (2013) stated that the method of survey questionnaire is efficient for decreasing cost. ...
... Race discrimination in managers negatively affects their employees (Chou & Choi, 2011;Deitch, Barsky, Butz, Chan, Brief, & Bradley, 2003;Dovidio & Gaertner, 2000;Regmi, Naidoo, & Regmi, 2009;Vasconcelas, 2011). As expected, race-based discrimination impacts employees who are of a different race from their manager, but, moreover, can negatively impact employees who are of the same race as the managerthose who may feel a sense of vicarious injustice (Truong, Museus, & McGuire, 2016). ...
Article
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This article examines manager-employee relations in democratic South Africa, using an unobtrusive, implicit measure of managers’ racial bias. We test the link between manager automatically activated evaluations of race labels with positive/negative words (implicit racial bias), and employees’ judgement of their manager’s effectiveness, their satisfaction with their manager, and their willingness to engage in extra-role workplace behavior. Results indicated that Indian and white managers were similar in their negative automatic evaluation of African blacks, and that employees of white managers reported higher manager satisfaction, higher manager effectiveness, and a greater likelihood of engaging in extra effort, compared to employees of African black managers. From these results we infer that racial bias has gone ‘underground’ and continues to play a pivotal role in manager-employee relations in ‘the Rainbow Nation’.
... Lahey (2008) found that younger applicants were 40% more likely to be invited for an interview than older workers, in an experiment examining hiring for entrylevel jobs in American cities. Eight out of 10 older workers reported experiencing workplace discrimination at least once in the previous year (Chou & Choi, 2011) and perceived age discrimination at work was strongly associated with depression, declined self-rated health, and job dissatisfaction (Gonzales, Lee, Padula, & Jung, 2018;Marchiondo, Gonzales, & Williams, 2017). Scientists (Gonzales et al., 2018;Harris, Krygsman, Waschenko, & Rudman, 2017;Marchiondo et al., 2017;Marchiondo, Gonzales, & Ran, 2015) have called for a more nuanced understanding of how older workers manage the experience of discrimination in the workplace and internalized ageist beliefs. ...
Article
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Objectives This qualitative study explored risk and protective factors affecting employment and health among low-income older women with chronic health conditions or physical disabilities. Methods The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of 14 intensive interviews with low-income older women with chronic health conditions who had participated in a federally funded training and employment program for workers ages 55 and older. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Results The physical nature of the work and discrimination were risk factors, with unaccommodating work environments, ageism and/or ableism, and internalized ageism identified as subthemes of discrimination. Protective factors, namely institutional supports (e.g., access to retraining, time management flexibility) enhanced health and self-confidence. Occupational demands matched with the capacity of the individual resulted in continued employment and improved health. Discussion Working conditions can degrade health through exposure to mental and physical health risks, or support health through access to financial and interpersonal resources. Institutional supports such as workplace flexibility and retraining are crucial to obtaining a good fit between occupational demands and the capacity of individuals, enabling a positive relationship between employment and health. Legislation designed to prevent discrimination, enhance opportunities for lifelong learning, and encourage flexible work arrangements among low-income women with chronic health conditions may facilitate healthier working lives.
... • Having young children (and the associated fatigue and carer's leave) • Being overweight (more common than AOD dependence and associated with similar health concerns) • Chronic health conditions (which may result in cognitive/ physical impairments and substantial time off) • Being older (associated with physical and cognitive health problems) • Being young (lacking experience and judgment, increased risk taking, and corresponding potential for error) [88] While some of these groups may experience stigmatization in the workplace and other settings [89][90][91], they are rarely the targets of formal, systemic discrimination embedded in policy. Indeed, in many countries or regions, legislation exists to protect the rights of such groups at work (e.g., [92,93]). ...
Chapter
Stigma related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use is highly prevalent in society, including within the workplace. Workers who use AOD in ways contrary to social norms may be subject to negative assumptions regarding their capacity to be valuable employees. As a result, they can experience discrimination in hiring and career progression decisions, as well as marginalization and exclusion from full participation in work life. Workplaces may also implement policies and procedures in an effort to manage employee AOD use but in doing so inadvertently promote and perpetuate the stigmatization of individuals who use AOD. A “whole-of-workplace” approach is recommended as an alternative method of addressing workplace AOD use without concomitantly increasing stigma. In addition, a number of targeted antistigma strategies are suggested to decrease AOD-related stigma in the workplace, including information and education, workplace policies and supports, and societal strategies.
... Age is another factor that plays a role in perceived workplace discrimination. Chou and Choi (2011) collected survey data from 420 older workers that were at least 50 years old, and found that 81% of the participants reported experiencing at least one instance of workplace discrimination. Furthermore, employees with lower educational status and/or racial minority status were positively associated with higher levels of perceived workplace discrimination. ...
Chapter
The working world has been undergoing a continuous and gradual process of flexibility, heterogeneity, and complexity of the regulatory mechanisms of work, something which has generated significant impacts and deep changes on many dimensions, revealing new scenarios, in addition to generating precariousness and vulnerability of a large part of the population in all countries. In that sense, the knowledge and strategies developed in the Latin American researches and practices in the career counseling field are potentially important in today's working world, because Latin America is a region in the world where this situation has always been present due to contexts and situations of socioeconomic inequality and psychosocial vulnerability, which often produces discontinuous, fragmented and intermittent work trajectories, despite the recent development of some countries like Brazil. Besides, some countries in the northern hemisphere, which have been under a welfare state for decades, are nowadays living under precarious work conditions with high rates of unemployment, and with an increasing demand of theories and strategies to face flexible and unstable situations. Thus, based on research and practices systematically developed in recent decades, inspired on the Life Design paradigm and grounded on the social constructionist perspective, the main objective of this chapter is to highlight general principles to career counseling in order to deal with situations of psychosocial vulnerability and flexicurity. To this end, the chapter will present and discuss: (a) The challenges that the working world have generated for contemporary workers, mainly through situations of flexicurity and psychosocial vulnerability; (b) The challenges for the career counseling field to face these situations; (c) The general principles of social constructionism, in terms of ontology, epistemology, methodology and ethical-political project, in dealing with the contemporary challenges; (d) The basic concepts of the proposed career counseling (psychosocial approach, psychosocial reality, psychosocial relation, practices, narratives, discourses, decent work, psychosocial vulnerability and psychosocial career); (e) A proposal for a theoretical and technical framework, in addition to an ethical-political project, for the career counseling inspired on the Life Design paradigm and based on social constructionism with some examples of practices with groups of people in situations of flexicurity and psychosocial vulnerability, among them, young people who are institutionalized, people with mental diseases, disabled people and unemployed. As a conclusion, it must be stated that the heterogeneity and the complexity of the current working world have required assumptions that ought to help in the understanding of it, and, at the same time, it might give support in the construction of analysis categories of the psychosocial phenomena of this working world, mainly for the ones who live in a vulnerable situation and have to face instability their entire lives.
... Many studies have reported the negative effects of perceived discrimination on psychological and physical health outcomes (Pascoe and Richman, 2009). As the discrimination experiences usually involve personal or social identity, previous research has examined perceived discrimination due to respondents' race (Meyer, 2014;Shippee et al., 2012), age (Chou and Choi, 2011), gender (Blau and Tatum, 2000;Schmitt et al., 2002), or weight (Carr and Friedman, 2005;Robinson et al., 2017;Sutin et al., 2015). Unlike perceived discrimination, perceived unfairness about work can capture a broader experience of fairness or unfairness for an average worker. ...
Article
Please cite this article as: Lee, S., Mogle, J.A., Jackson, C.L., Buxton, O.M., What's not fair about work keeps Me up: Perceived unfairness about work impairs sleep through negative work-to-family spillover, Abstract This study examined whether perceived unfairness about work was linked to midlife workers' insomnia symptoms over time, and if the association was mediated by negative work-to-family spillover (NWFS). We used 3 waves of longitudinal data across 20 years from the Midlife in the United States Study (N=971, M age =40.52). Results revealed that, wave-to-wave increases in perceived unfairness about work predicted wave-to-wave increases in NWFS over 20 years. Wave-to-wave increases in NWFS, in turn, predicted wave-to-wave increases in insomnia symptoms. Perceived unfairness about work was indirectly, but not directly associated with insomnia symptoms through NWFS. These within-person indirect mediation pathways were found after controlling for sociodemographic and family characteristics, work hours, neuroticism, physical health, and between-person associations between perceived unfairness about work, NWFS, and insomnia symptoms. These findings suggest that perceived unfairness about work may degrade workers' sleep health over time, through the spillover of work stress to the personal domain.
... Banerjee, 2008;Ellemers et al., 1998), the effects of several demographic variables, i.e. age (in years), tenure (in years), gender (0 = male, 1 = female), on job satisfaction were controlled for. Further, extant research has shown that supervisor behavior affects both employee perceptions of discrimination/harassment in the workplace (Bergman, Palmieri, Drasgow, & Ormerod, 2012;Chou & Choi, 2011) and employee work-attitudes, such as job satisfaction (Griffin, Patterson, & West, 2001;Simons & Jankowski, 2007). Against this background, we added perceived supervisor support (PSS) as a control variable in both strands of our model. ...
Article
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Employee job satisfaction is a strong predictor of pivotal individual and organizational outcomes, e.g. commitment, productivity, retention. This study examines the mediating role of workplace racial harassment in the association of employee racioethnicity and job satisfaction in the South African context. Furthermore, this study investigates the moderating effects of career-related variables, i.e. career orientations and managerial rank. Results of a survey of 154 employees in South Africa indicate that black South Africans experience more workplace racial harassment than white employees and thus show lower job satisfaction. Moreover, the detrimental effects of workplace racial harassment on job satisfaction are more pronounced among highly career-oriented individuals and/or among employees with no or low managerial rank. The implications of these findings for theory and practice are discussed.
... In other words, as explained by social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979), older workers can try to cope with age-related stigmatization by retiring early from the labour force. Chou and Choi (2011) found that lower education was associated with higher prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination and, accordingly, discriminated workers at retirement age would be more likely to retire than non-discriminated retirement-age workers. Shultz (2003) showed that the level of education predicts involvement in bridge employment, while Van Solinge (2014,2015) found that the decision to pursue selfemployment after retirement is primarily taken by retirees with relatively high levels of educational attainment. ...
Article
Purpose – Although the world is rapidly ageing, the alarming explosion of youth unemployment seems to have removed the workforce ageing issue as a priority from the policy agenda. The purpose of this paper is to test and investigate the main needs and willingness to work among the older population, as well as the main advantages for organizations employing older workers. Design/methodology/approach – The main research objectives were: first, to explore the effect of demographic and socio-economic predictors on an older person’s intention to work; and second, to focus on the main advantages that should induce organizations to retain older workers in their workplace. The paper is based on a survey and an interdisciplinary review of the literature. Findings – The study indicated that educational level led to improved active behaviours in the labour market. In other words, people who obtained a higher level of education showed a greater likelihood to desire a prolongation of working life, while lower educational attainment may have lessened the willingness and capacity of older people to remain in the workforce. The main benefits for organizations with older workers are highlighted. Research limitations/implications – The survey has a number of limitations: the sample is small and was completed with reference to a single country, making it difficult to generalize results beyond this country study; the questionnaire relied solely on a few areas, while it would be better to gather additional information; the survey only targeted retired people, while it would have been interesting to also collect answers from workers nearing retirement. The association between individuals’ educational levels and their intention to work in later life suggests that continued development of educational programmes for workers could favour greater retention in the workplace. Practical implications – As the ageing population is an increasing phenomenon, the participation of older people in the labour force and lifelong learning should become commonplace in the perspective of a more equitable society. The main challenge is to rethink retirement, by abolishing the mandatory retirement age and by providing more flexible work options. Social implications – Changes in national system and corporate strategies are required to meet the economic challenges of ageing populations. Originality/value – This study advances research on age management because it provided evidence that educational background plays a fundamental role in determining the willingness to return to work. In addition, the paper proposes a new integrated approach of sustainable social change. Keywords: Retirement, Older workers, Active ageing, Educational levels, Working life Paper type: Research paper
... Discrimination against older employees in the hiring process is high and starts at a surprisingly young age (38 years) (Albert et al., 2011). A study by Chou, on the other hand, explores the roles of supervisors and co-worker support in the Usa (Chou, Choi, 2011) and Rabl (2010) focuses on the organisation's role with regard to the perception of discriminating and non-supporting environments. In addition, a few studies explore the issue from the perspective of course of life (Gee et al., 2007). ...
Book
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Il cambiamento demografico in atto è questione di primaria importanza nell’agenda dei policy maker dell’Unione europea, come testimonia il fatto che il 2012 sia stato dichiarato “Anno europeo dell’invecchiamento attivo e della solidarietà tra le generazioni”. Il volume intende far luce sul dibattito sull’invecchiamento delle forze di lavoro, soffermandosi sugli sviluppi che fotografano lo stato dell’arte della riflessione. Il 2012 è stato dichiarato "Anno europeo dell'invecchiamento attivo e della solidarietà tra le generazioni", a testimonianza di quanto il cambiamento demografico in atto sia assurto allo status di questione di primaria importanza nell'agenda dei policy maker all'interno dell'Unione europea. Buona parte della partita dell'invecchiamento demografico si gioca pertanto sul piano dell'inclusività dei sistemi di impiego (come la Strategia europea per l'occupazione prima e la strategia Europa 2020 oggi continuano a dimostrare), della qualificazione di una forza lavoro dall'età media crescente, della posticipazione del pensionamento, della ridefinizione dei modelli previdenziali e di assistenza sociosanitaria. Il volume intende fare luce sul dibattito che si è sviluppato su questa materia dando per acquisito lo scenario che ne fa da sfondo, centrando piuttosto l'attenzione sui paradigmi e gli approcci affermatisi nel tempo e soffermandosi sugli sviluppi che fotografano lo stato dell'arte della riflessione. Un primo insieme dei contributi raccolti si sofferma pertanto sulle dimensioni di carattere concettuale, descrivendo lo sviluppo che le idee e le strategie per la gestione di un fenomeno di tale rilevanza - come l'invecchiamento demografico è e diventerà nei prossimi quattro decenni - hanno subìto. Un secondo insieme di contributi esplora invece nel dettaglio alcuni fronti salienti tuttora aperti: dal persistente dibattito circa le performance dei lavoratori anziani, al ruolo delle parti sociali, dei manager e delle politiche indirizzate al delicato meccanismo del ricambio e dell'equilibrio - nell'impronta della sostenibilità e della solidarietà - tra le generazioni.
... When it is applied to social issues, such a distinction concerns one or more individuals who may be discriminatedon the basis of their physical, social, economic and/or cultural characteristicsas compared with one or more reference groups belonging to the same or to analogous social contexts. From this point of view, workplace discrimination variously involves those "[…] differences in treatment based on personal characteristics[…]" which are likely to impair "[…] fairness of treatment or opportunity in the workplace" (Chou andChoi, 2011, p. 1052). Far from being an issue, which concerns few economic sectors, workplace discrimination has been depicted as a prevailing and multifaceted challenge, which is likely to happen in different work-related settings (Rabl and Del Carmen Triana, 2013). ...
Article
Purpose: Workplace discrimination negatively affects the functioning of organizations. Scholars have generally focused their attention on specific forms of prejudiced treatment at work, as well as on particular groups of discriminated employees. Conversely, studies investigating the multifacetedness of this phenomenon are sporadic. This article contributes to the advancement of the scientific knowledge about workplace discrimination showing a full-fledged portrait of this phenomenon in Italy. Design/methodology/approach: Secondary data about self-reported experiences of workplace discrimination of a large sample of Italian people were collected and run in a logistic regression model. Five forms of discrimination at work were taken into account: 1) prejudiced job design and work allocation; 2) discriminatory use of promotion and awards; 3) wage differentials; 4) unjustified increased workload; and 5) mismanagement of HRM instruments. Findings: More than a fifth of respondents perceived at least one form of workplace discrimination. Different types of prejudiced treatment were triggered by distinctive socio-demographic and work-related factors. People who were unemployed at the moment of the interview were consistent in claiming that they suffered from all the forms of workplace discrimination. Former employees who underwent a work-family conflict were more likely to suffer from iniquitous treatment at work. Research limitations: The occurrence of workplace discrimination was not objectively assessed. Besides, since only Italian people were included in this study, the findings are not generalizable at the international level. Originality/value: This article provides some insights to inspire policy and management interventions intended to prevent and/or curb the occurrence workplace discrimination.
... Age: In terms of chronological age, older workers are conceptualised at different ages, however, they are generally referred to as those being aged 50 and over (ILO 2008, Chou andChoi 2011). Within the NES 2008, age is entered as a continuous variable. ...
Chapter
Much of the research on the rationale for the proliferation of part-time working by females has focused on younger, rather than older, working women with much debate and little agreement on these reasons. On one hand, part-time working arrangements have been extolled as facilitating caring responsibilities, allowing women to maintain a presence in the labour market, avoid skills obsolescence and depreciation of their human capital. On the other hand, women working part-time are more likely to be lower paid, less educated, older and working in temporary, low-level jobs with poor job tenure. Given the seemingly contradictory nature of the characteristics associated with female part-time employment and especially given its popularity in recent decades, a better understanding of its key characteristics is long overdue. Our research focuses on the jobs of older female part-time workers, a frequently forgotten cohort, using Dual labour market theory as a useful lens through which to advance our understanding of these job characteristics. Key findings point to poor quality jobs in secondary labour markets offering low wages and few employment benefits relative to other cohorts, raising serious concerns regarding the likelihood for precarious employment for older females working part-time. These findings have implications at the individual, organisational and societal levels and speak to the value which is placed on the work undertaken by older females who work part-time.
... Regardless, the studies suggest the scope of the problem. In the Midlife in the United States II (MIDUS II) study, 81 percent of respondents reported at least one instance of age discrimination in the past year (Chou and Choi, 2011). These experiences correlate negatively with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, life satisfaction, job involvement, perceived power, and work-life conflict and correlate positively with job turnover intentions and continuance commitment (Minnotte, 2012;Orpen, 1995;Redman and Snape, 2006). ...
Chapter
Considerable scientific, legal, and public effort has been devoted to understanding and remedying workplace discrimination. Despite positive strides in recognizing and addressing discrimination due to sex and race, many other forms of stereotypes and discrimination, such as ageism, quietly prevail in the workforce. At best, employers and coworkers are simply unaware of ageist attitudes and behavior (e.g., failing to invite an older coworker to a social outing); at worst, they condone and even encourage them (e.g., telling age-based jokes, actively dismissing a young coworker’s contribution). This chapter focuses on ageism, a form of discrimination still often tacitly accepted in Western societies. As the workforce becomes increasingly multi-generational and as the number of older workers continues to rise, age-related stereotypes and discrimination (the cognitive and behavioral manifestations of ageism, respectively) become increasingly important to address. This chapter explores ageism as it is directed toward both older and younger workers. I consider differences and similarities in their experiences, diverse in age as these workers may be. I also discuss the practical implications of ageism or, put differently, why organizations should care about this matter. In addition, I consider several of the many actions organizations and employees can take to reduce the presence and negative effects of ageism. I conclude by suggesting future directions for researchers interested in tackling the pervasive problem of ageism in the workplace.
... The worker cohort included in this study, older female part-time workers, was chosen based on gender, age and employment status (full-or part-time). In terms of chronological age, older workers are conceptualised at different ages, however, they are generally referred to as those being aged 50 and over (Chou and Choi, 2011;ILO, 2008). ...
Article
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Changing labour markets, educational attainment, work experience, constraints and preferences have all been proposed to explain the features of contemporary female labour force participation. This engagement has been characterised as part-time and segregated in low status, poorly paid jobs. Despite the fact that almost half of all older female workers are employed part-time, there is a dearth of information on who these workers are (the forgotten labour force) and what, if anything has changed over time for this cohort. For the first time, key variables are drawn from three labour force datasets over a 16-year period to provide a likely profile of the older female part-time worker, highlight where they work and in what capacity, as well as shedding light on what has changed over this period. This trend analysis highlights significant changes for this worker cohort, the implications of which are discussed from individual, organisational and societal perspectives.
... In terms of chronological age, older workers are conceptualised at different ages; however, they are generally referred to as those being aged 50 and over (Chou & Choi, 2011;ILO, 2008). Accordingly, older workers are defined in this study as being aged 50-64 and younger workers are those aged 20-34. ...
Article
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Despite consistently high rates of part-time employment among older women, the quality of this cohort's work is largely under-researched with the focus being mainly on younger women. To address this gap, our paper engages with the key strands of this debate—age, gender and employment status—to interrogate the job characteristics and position of this worker cohort in the Irish labour market. Findings reveal notable differences between this cohort's job characteristics compared with those of other part-time workers and older women working full-time. These job characteristics include low-wage employment in poor-quality jobs, suggesting that job quality is influenced by age, gender and employment status, raising concerns regarding the likelihood for precarious employment among this cohort. In addition to individual-level consequences, this study's findings have major implications for public and organisational policy on part-time labour market participation, highlighting the need for a new research agenda on older workers.
... Past investigations have shown that lower SES status [37,38] and being female [39] were associated with higher levels of work stress. Marginalized social groups, including older adults [40], ethnic minorities [41,42], and sexual minorities [43], also experienced elevated work stress, mostly due to workplace discrimination. ...
Article
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This study provides insights on mental health correlates and work stress patterns in a representative sample of working adults in Hong Kong using an intersectional perspective. Using data from a cross-sectional, population-based telephone survey of 1007 working adults in Hong Kong, latent class analysis was conducted to identify socioeconomic classes within the sample. Three latent classes were identified, and they differed significantly in all the SES variables. Results suggested mental health to be the lowest in Class 1, the lowest income group. The three classes did not differ from their perceived level of job demand and control in work-related stress. Predictably, the highest income group perceived the lowest level of effort-reward imbalance. The lowest paid class was also reported perceiving the lowest level of relational justice. Different barriers to mental health services were also identified. Finally, cultural implications associated with work stress patterns, research, and practice implications are discussed. This study provides an empirical foundation for future studies to investigate patterns of job stress and mental health needs in a diverse population of working adults, with a particular focus on addressing the intersectional profiles of working adults and their needs in mental health services.
... 36 Stereotypes may lead to increased discrimination limiting older people's ability to participate in the workforce. 37 Research has repeatedly shown that when employers receive identical resumes, they prefer the younger candidate over the older person. Older people also are less likely to be sent off for training and the first to be laid off. ...
Article
This paper discusses the right to work as a basic human right that should be granted unrelated to chronological age, health or mental health status and disability including declining cognitive functioning. The benefits of continued employment are both at the individual level and at the organizational and societal levels. Nonetheless, there are multiple barriers that prevent older people and particularly older people with mental conditions and psychosocial disabilities from remaining in the workforce and/or from rejoining the workforce. We outline interventions at the organizational, national, and international level to ensure the full participation of people of all ages and abilities in the workforce. Such interventions should address the intersection between disabilities and advanced age at the global, regional, and country levels.
... Findings are conclusive with findings of Fung et al. (2016) who found that older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. This highlights the importance of interpersonal contact, relationships, and instrumental and emotional help for older generations which according to researchers sits in a negative relation to age discrimination (Chou & Choi, 2011). It also offers important data for HR practitioners and organization management who should systematically and holistically develop and implement approaches to prevent age discrimination, especially towards older employees. ...
Article
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With the ageing population in the developed world, age diversity in the workforce in organizations is growing. Consequently, perception of the work environment, job satisfaction and engagement are influenced by differences in age as well as a corresponding diverse set of values and often manifested through age discrimination. Using an age-diverse national sample (n = 1505) of older (n = 750) and younger (n = 755) workers in Slovenia, this study investigates the understudied influence of intergenerational differentiation (age discrimination) on job satisfaction and employee engagement between two age cohorts. Three different instruments were used: Intergenerational Differentiation in the Workplace Measure (IDWM), Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (JSQ) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). The main goal of the study was to (through structural equation modelling) find out if and how the perception of intergenerational differentiation in the workplace affects job satisfaction and employee engagement between young and old employees. The constructed structural model shows that independent of the age group, intergenerational differences have a direct negative effect on job satisfaction and an indirect negative effect on employee engagement. It was also found that perceived age discrimination has both a greater direct effect on job satisfaction among older employees and a greater indirect effect on older employees' engagement than on younger employees' job satisfaction and engagement. Thus, by
... These stereotypes directly effect managerial decisions as those with ageist views are less willing to offer training to older workers (Rosen and Jerdee, 1976). Being supported by one's supervisors, on the contrary, reduces older workers' experiences of age discrimination (Chou and Choi, 2011). ...
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discourse on labour market discrimination by introducing an analytical process model that offers a template for the systematic analysis of discrimination within the process of labour market integration. Its usage and contribution to the field is exemplified by applying the proposed model to the case of ageism in labour market integration. Design/methodology/approach - Five phases and four actors are distinguished that, added together, compose the proposed analytical process model. In the following, the model is used as an analytical framework for a mapping review, aimed at identifying and critically evaluating the vast and extensive literature on ageism in the process of labour market integration. Findings - The paper concludes that ageism occurs in all five phases of the integration process, pinpointing potential areas for policy interventions. Furthermore, the authors conclude that the existing literature on ageism in labour market integration is fragmented, with some elements and/or actors within the process so far having received little attention. Originality/value - The analytical process model developed in this paper provides the scientific community with a tool to systematise the literature, detect underlying mechanisms and uncover existing research gaps, not only for the case of ageism presented here, but for a vast variety of other-isms. In addition, policy makers, trade unions and employers can use the model to better target and tailor anti-discrimination measures in labour market integration.
... Moreover, the pre-assumption of the program is that the senior employees with less resources (i.e., lower education) would benefit from the resource enhancing training the most. It is believed that the employees with lower education see the risk of losing their working careers as more substantial due to their greater perception of age discrimination (Chou & Choi 2011). The perception of age discrimination may result from employees' experiences that their skills and performance are not valued at work and they have less opportunities to compensate their age-related declines in health, for example, with more cognitive-based tasks.The program focuses on decreasing aging employees' perception of age discrimination by enhancing their self-efficacies regarding seniority skills, such as assertiveness against age discrimination, recognizing own strengths and sharing experiencebased knowledge with colleagues and their confidence in dealing with career setbacks. ...
Chapter
Die Einstellung der deutschen Tarifparteien, insbesondere aber der Gewerkschaften, zur Verlängerung der Lebensarbeitszeit war jahrzehntelang und ist bei vielen noch heute ambivalent. Vor allem in den Branchen, in denen die gesundheitsbedingten Frühverrentungen hoch sind und die Arbeitsbedingungen als überdurchschnittlich belastend gelten, war die Position der hier vertretenen Gewerkschaften stark auf die Beibehaltung von Frühverrentungsoptionen und gegen die „Rente mit 67“ gerichtet. Allerdings wächst auch bei vielen Gewerkschaftsvertreter*innen das Bewusstsein, dass eine Verlängerung der Lebensarbeitszeit in Anbetracht der multidimensionalen Herausforderungen des demografischen Wandels eine Option ist, mit der man sich kritisch und objektiv auseinandersetzen muss. Dennoch dominiert einerseits nach wie vor die Überzeugung, dass besonders die innerbetrieblichen Voraussetzungen dazu flächendeckend derzeit nicht gegeben sind. Andererseits besteht weitgehend Einigkeit darüber, dass den Tarifparteien bei der Herstellung der Voraussetzungen eine wichtige Rolle zukommt. [...]
... Racial Discrimination occurs around us every day. The workplace is one of the areas in which discrimination most frequently occurs (De Castro et al., 2008;Chou & Choi, 2011). All people should be dealt with similarly because individuals are supposed to have freedom. ...
... Their decisions have a concrete impact on employees" behaviours and commitment as well as on work-related satisfaction of workers (Durham, Knight & Locke, 1997). On the other side, colleagues" support is crucial in increasing a feeling of belongingness to the company (or eventually to the work-group) that impacts, consequently, on job satisfaction (Ducharme, Martin, 2000;Abraham, 2012), as well as on perception of discrimination (Storey & Garff, 1997;Chou & Choi, 2011). ...
Article
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This research contributes to the debate in the human resources management (HRM) literature by examining the impact of some HRM practices on workers’ overall job satisfaction and the determinants of workers’ perception of discrimination. The novelty of our study consists in the deepening of the relation between HRM practices and the employees’ perception of discrimination in workplace: a largely unexplored topic, until now. Our aim is to add value to existing literature by assessing the synergy effect between perception of discrimination and HRM practices on workers’ job satisfaction, performing a probit regression analysis of a selection of variables drawn from the sixth wave of European Working Condition Survey data, collected in 2015. We also provide a comparison of different types of discrimination, examining the moderating effect of the perception of discrimination on the relationship between HRM practices and employees’ job satisfaction, assuming that the strength of the above relation is weaker for discriminated workers. Our findings highlight that HRM practices we analysed (except for autonomy of the work-group and job-intensity) have a positive impact on workers’ satisfaction and reduce the perception of discrimination. Moreover, we find that the perception of every kind of discrimination have a negative impact on workers’ job satisfaction. Our results also suggest that the perception of discrimination has a moderator role in the relation between HRM practices and job satisfaction. Policy implications are finally discussed.
... Studi kualitatif di Perancis menunjukkan bahwa pola promosi yang ditujukan bagi karyawan usia muda relatif diarahkan untuk jenjang yang lebih tinggi, sedangkan para older worker dipromosikan untuk pekerjaan yang membutuhkan keterampilan lebih rendah. (Grima, 2011 (Chou & Choi, 2011), dan kecenderungan menurunnya bonus bagi mereka (Kluge & Krings, 2008 ...
Conference Paper
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OLDER WORKER DAN KONSEKUENSINYA TERHADAP ORGANISASI DENGAN PENDEKATAN SCOPING REVIEW 1) Yuni Siswanti Manajemen, FEB, UPN "Veteran"Yogyakarta (yuni.siswanti@upnyk.ac.id) / (yuni_sis2@yahoo.co.id) 2) Ahmad Muhsin Teknik Industri, FTI, UPN "Veteran"Yogyakarta (ahmad.muhsin@upnyk.ac.id) 3) Laila Nafisah (lailanafisah71@gmail.com) Teknik Industri, FTI, UPN "Veteran"Yogyakarta Abstract Research purposes : Knowing and analyzing perceptions and stereotypes of older workers (positive and negative), organizational attitudes towards older workers (positive and negative), skills and negotiation processes for older workers and identifying "knowledge gap" in previous studies on older wolker (workers entering full duty. Research Method: Scoping review includes five stages: (1) defining study objectives, (2) identification, (3) screening process, (4) data extraction, and (5) summarizing data. by utilizing electronic databases (CINAHL, Embase, Proquest Nursing & Allied Health Source, J-Stor, Emerald) from various professions, ranging from the age of students to older workers (56 years and over). The results of data extraction are 50 relevant articles for analysis. Research result: The main focus was successfully identified from the results of scooping review regarding older workers, namely: 1). Perceptions and stereotypes of older workers (positive and negative), 2). The tendency of organizational attitudes towards older workers (positive and negative), 3). The skills and negotiation process of the older workers, 4) the results of this scooping review show that there is a "knowledge gap" in terms of organizational perceptions of older wolker. Key Words: older worker, scooping review, persepsi dan stereotip, sikap terhadap older worker, ketrampilan negosiasi older worker A. Pendahuuan
... Age barriers, limited resources, and social stratification victimize older adults. They experience frequent or regular age discrimination (Van den Heuvel, 2012) and a behavioral manifestation of negative attitudes, judgment, and unequal treatment in their society (Chou & Choi, 2011). Significantly, in India, dalit 3 women are less likely to own land than other castes, which forces them to participate in low-paid and often exploitative labor (Mangubhai & Capraro, 2015). ...
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In India, the "feminization of aging" is one of the areas in which prejudice most frequently occurs. Noticeably, poverty, isolation, changes in residential care, and weak institutional support push women into several vulnerabilities. This study demonstrates that elderly women are often denied basic rights and are compelled to reside in old-age homes; the situation is worse for elderly widowed women. We examine the claims that the lives of elderly women are more precarious due to their lower literacy, limited social exposure, and monetary dependence. Being women, old, and widowed, they are affected by triple vulnerabilities that require concrete policy implications.
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With a worldwide aging population and increasingly youth-centered societies around the world, there are mounting concerns about how perceptions of age and aging may influence the workplace. Using an age diverse national sample of workers (n = 800) from a wide range of occupations and socioeconomic backgrounds in the United States, this study investigated understudied psychosocial factors (age identity, aging anxiety, perceived age discrimination, perceived social support at work, and work centrality) that may buffer or hinder job satisfaction, commitment, and engagement. Identity variables, both age identity and work centrality, as well as perceived social support at work, were found to be positively associated with job satisfaction, commitment, and engagement, while both perceived age discrimination and anxiety about aging were negatively associated with these three job longevity variables. The results suggest that psychosocial factors such as age identity, work centrality, and perceived social support could be targeted to improve job satisfaction, commitment, and engagement, while it would be beneficial for organizational policies to continue to focus on reducing age discrimination as well as reducing anxiety about aging in the workplace. © 2016 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.
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This study compares younger and older librarians with regard to how they experience age-related stigma. The purpose was to show how youth, although a culturally valued attribute, can be experienced as stigmatizing (i.e., as a form of positive deviance known as rate-busting). We conducted semi-structured interviews with 26 librarians who ranged in age from 27 to 64. Although both younger and older librarians reported feeling stigmatized because of their age, only younger librarians reported instances of other people drawing unwanted attention to their age. Because librarians are an older demographic, the attention young librarians receive as rate-busters may be due to disconfirming expectations.
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Worldwide, the population is ageing. This welcome increase in longevity represents one of the most spectacular social gains of the last century. As the general population ages, so too does the working population. Older workers in employment benefit from, among other things, a broadened social network, enhanced independence, as well as a sense of empowerment and self-esteem. These benefits, in turn, have positive health effects, both physical and psychological. Age-related health problems, however, can restrict employment options for many older workers. Consequently, there are broad advantages to be realised by optimising health and introducing accommodations in the workplace to facilitate ongoing employment. As complexity is the hallmark of ageing, a key challenge is how to illuminate the need for equipoise in viewing the gains and losses of ageing for employers, and society as a whole. In this chapter, we describe the possible impact of ageing on work and employment from a health perspective, together with both medical and employer options to encourage older workers to remain in the labour market.
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Diversity management continues to be a subject of importance in organizations of all types. Therefore, the purpose of our research was to explore the experiences of oppression for Black mothers at work with the goal of providing managers and Black mothers a means of addressing workplace oppression. We conducted qualitative interviews with Black mothers about their experiences of workplace oppression, and then we conducted an interdisciplinary literature review of Womanism in the Black Church around the subject of oppression, as well as the concepts of workplace oppression and anti-oppressive practice. By tracing both contemplative and anti-oppressive practices, we are highlighting the legacy of Black women as architects for inspiring change. We built our Contemplative AntiOppressive Practice (CAOP) framework in light of our findings. While contemplative practice and anti-oppressive practice have been explored separately in management literature, they have yet to be explored in combination as a possible framework to dismantle oppression. We offer this framework as an approach for managers and employees to enable them to address both the inner and outer work that needs to be done in order to dismantle workplace oppression.
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Self-stigma in addiction occurs when individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) experience shame based on mythological stereotypes in public stigma, as well as from their own sense of what they take to be shameful about addiction. This process leads to changes in identity in line with negative stigmatising stereotypes. The main source of the shaming process comes from public stigma where powerful others impose upon the individual with SUDs a social world (an ambience) containing false and distorting attitudes and beliefs that are internalised and lead to harmful effects, including further substance use and self-sabotage. A second source of self-stigma is the private shame that individuals feel based on accurate recognition of their situation. This may generate the motivation to heal but typically only when it occurs in a supportive context where public stigma is absent and acceptance by others is present. With the barrier of public stigma removed, or at least lowered, the individual with SUDs will stop self-stigmatising based on the damaging mythology around addiction and so may be given the support he or she needs for self-compassion, and in particular self-trust, in order to recover.
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Adults with disability have significantly lower rates of labor force participation relative to persons without disability, although it is unclear whether this disparity extends to subjective workplace experiences. Using data from the 2004 to 2006 wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (n =2,030), we evaluate: (1) whether U.S. workers with physical disability report higher levels of perceived job discrimination and unequal workplace opportunities and lower levels of supervisor and coworker support and (2) whether these patterns differ by sex, age, and occupation group. We find that workers with physical disability fare significantly worse on all four outcomes net of covariates. Disability takes a particularly large toll on men's perceived workplace opportunities and white-collar employees' relationships with coworkers. Young adult workers (ages 30-39) with disability report significantly more support from their supervisor relative to their counterparts without disability. We discuss implications for research and policy.
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Ageism is a widespread phenomenon and constitutes a significant threat to older people's well-being. Identifying the factors contributing to ageism is critical to inform policies that minimise its societal impact. In this systematic review, we gathered and summarised empirical studies exploring the key determinants of ageism against older people for a period of over forty years (1970-2017). A comprehensive search using fourteen databases identified all published records related to the umbrella concept of "ageism". Reviewers independently screened the final pool to identify all papers focusing on determinants, according to a predefined list of inclusion and exclusion criteria. All relevant information was extracted and summarised following a narrative synthesis approach. A total of 199 papers were included in this review. We identified a total of 14 determinants as robustly associated with ageism. Of these, 13 have an effect on other-directed ageism, and one on self-directed ageism. The quality of contact with older people and the positive or negative presentation of older people to others emerged as the most robust determinants of other-directed ageism; self-directed ageism is mostly determined by older adults' health status. Given the correlational nature of most studies included in this review, inferences on causality should be made cautiously.
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Researchers in entrepreneurial studies are increasingly interested in the psychological well-being of entrepreneurs. Approaches to well-being tend to be partitioned into hedonic and eudaimonic formulations. Most entrepreneurial studies have focused on hedonic indicators (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect). The central objective of this essay is to examine the relevance of eudaimonic well-being for understanding entrepreneurial experience. The theoretical background and key dimensions of eudaimonic well-being are described and their relevance for entrepreneurial studies is considered. Illustrative findings from prior well-being studies are examined, also with emphasis on possible extensions to entrepreneurship. Five key venues for the entrepreneurial field are then considered: (1) entrepreneurship and autonomy, viewed both as a motive (self-determination theory) and as an aspect of well-being (eudaimonic well-being theory); (2) varieties of entrepreneurship (opportunity versus necessity) and eudaimonic well-being; (3) eudaimonia in the entrepreneurial journey (beginning, middle, end); (4) entrepreneurship, well-being and health; and (5) entrepreneurs and the eudaimonia of others - contrasting virtuous and vicious types. In each topic, extant findings from entrepreneurial studies are considered and new research directions proposed. The overall aim is to be generative regarding the interplay between entrepreneurial experience and eudaimonic wellbeing.
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Job discrimination, a social stressor, may lead to sleep health disparities among workers; yet, limited research has examined this relationship and specific sources of job discrimination. We used a US sample of working women (n=26,085), participants of the Sister Study (2008-2016), to examine the associations of perceived job discrimination due to sex, race, age, health conditions, and/or sexual orientation with sleep health. Cross-sectionally, linear or logistic regression models revealed that each source of job discrimination was independently associated with different sleep problems after controlling for other sources of job discrimination. Longitudinally, among those without short sleep (<7hrs/night) at Time 1 (2012-2014), age-specific job discrimination was associated with 21% increased odds of new-onset short sleep (95% CI=1.03─1.43) at Time 2 (2014-2016). Among those without insomnia symptoms at Time 1, race-specific job discrimination was associated with 37% (95% CI=1.07─1.75) increased odds of new-onset insomnia symptoms at Time 2. Sex- and health-specific job discrimination also predicted new-onset sleepiness. There were dose-response relationships such that more sources (≥3) of job discrimination were associated with greater odds of prevalent and incident sleep problems. Perceived job discrimination may contribute to working women's poor sleep health over time, raising concerns about sleep health disparities emanating from the workplace.
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Background More people remain in the workforce into their late life as people’s life expectancy increases. This study examined the relationship between work stress and depressive symptoms of older workers in mainland China, focusing on the interplay between work stress with family and community factors in three (i.e., urban, rural, and migrant) settings. Methods National representative survey data on the Chinese labor force collected by the Social Science Research Center of Sun-Yetsen University in 2014 were used. The sample consisted of 5,751 workers aged 50 and above recruited from 29 out of 31 provinces in mainland China. Results Work stress had a consistent and robust effect on depressive symptoms across older worker groups. Moreover, it interacted with family and community factors differentially in three settings. For migrant older workers, work stress was a dominant factor affecting their depressive symptoms. Among rural older workers, the influence of work stress on depressive symptoms depended on their family debt and neighborhood cohesion levels. Conclusion Stressors from work, family, and community comprised a general model that explains depressive symptoms in Chinese older workers. Interventions or service programs aimed at reducing work stress and improving mental health among older adults should consider the complexity of intertwining family and community dynamics as well as respective strengths in urban, rural, and migrant communities.
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The main aim of the “Work Engagement for Senior Employees” training program is to reduce senior employees’ (55+) perceptions of age discrimination at work and increase their engagement for their current working career. The program is based on recognizing and optimizing employee’s own personal resources. In the program employees’ late-career management preparedness (i.e., career management self-efficacy and preparation for dealing with career setbacks) is fostered using a peer group training in the organizational context.
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Age discrimination in employment has received mounting attention over the past two decades, and from various cross-cutting social science disciplines. Findings from survey and experimental analyses have revealed the pervasiveness of ageist stereotypes, while aggregate and life course analyses suggest trends toward downward occupational mobility for ageing workers, especially in the face of economic restructuring and global economic pressures. In this article, we extend the literature by offering explicit theoretical conceptualization of age discrimination in employment – conceptualization that builds on prior social closure perspectives dealing with social stratification, broadly – and then analyzing unique quantitative and qualitative data on verified cases of workplace age discrimination occurring between 1988 and 2003. Our analyses center on 1.) the interactional nature of workplace age discrimination and its relation to status, 2.) how explicit ageist stereotypes both invoke discrimination and help gatekeepers justify such behavior, and 3.) the ways in which supposedly age-neutral ideologies, centering specifically on corporate costs and well-being, may also spur ageist discriminatory treatment. Results reveal vulnerability for skilled and semi-skilled workers, particularly those nearing 50 years old and retirement. Qualitative immersion into a subsample of cases reveals precisely how stereotypes are used, how employers rationalize discrimination by invoking business costs, and how the workers are affected. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings as well as the utility of social closure theory for future research and theorizing on age discrimination and inequality.
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Because employment is a significant predictor of the quality of life of people with disabilities (Rumrill, Roessler, & Fitzgerald, 2004; Viermo & Krause, 1998), discrimination in the workplace that interferes with successful job acquisition or retention is a serious matter. Unfortunately, this type of discrimination is all too prevalent. In a survey conducted by the National Organization on Disability (National Organization on Disability, 2004), one in five employed individuals with disabilities reported that they experienced discrimination in their efforts to work. This finding of one in five workers with disabilities translates into substantial numbers of Americans who do not have fair access to employment opportunities. For example, estimates based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau (Head & Baker, 2005) indicate that approximately 50 million Americans of workforce age have disabilities.
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Self-reported discrimination is linked to diminished well-being, but the processes generating these reports remain poorly understood. Employing the life course perspective, this paper examines the correspondence between expected age preferences for workers and perceived age discrimination among a nationally representative sample of 7,225 working women, followed between 1972-1989. Analyses find that perceived age discrimination is high in the 20s, drops in the 30s and peaks in the 50s. This curvilinear pattern matches external reports of age preferences and is robust to a variety of controls and model specifications. Additionally, the primary driver of perceived age discrimination is age – not cohort or historical period. These findings suggest that perceived age discrimination is a useful indicator of population-level exposure to work-related age discrimination among women.
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This article presents the results of a study into stereotyping by managers of their older workers and the influence of these stereotypes on the inclination of managers to keep their older workers in employment. The data for the study were gathered among 796 managers. Through principal components analysis, 15 opinions about older workers were reduced to three dimensions of stereotypes. The first dimension deals with the productivity of older staff; the other two dimensions have to do with their reliability and their adaptability. These stereotypical ideas about older workers influence managers' attitudes toward the retirement of their employees. The analyses show that, besides organizational factors, psychological mechanisms also explain why people view older workers through stereotypes. Managers who are older and in more frequent contact with older employees tend to hold more positive views.
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Although women of color have been hypothesized to experience double jeopardy in the form of chronic exposure to both race-based (RBD) and gender-based discrimination (GBD; Beal, 1970), few empirical investigations that examine both RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups have been conducted. In addition to being one of the only simultaneous examinations of RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups, the current study includes both self-report and objective behavioral data to examine the independent and interactive effects of both forms of discrimination. This study is also the first of its kind to examine these constructs in these ways and to explore their impact in a unique sample of ethnically diverse male and female Marine recruits (N = 1,516). As anticipated, both RBD and GBD had a strong and consistent negative impact on mental health symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), independent of the contributions of gender and race. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that people of color are able to maintain resiliency (as measured by physical fitness testing) in the face of low levels of RBD, but are less able to overcome the negative effects of discrimination at high levels. It is interesting to note that the interaction between race, gender, and levels of discrimination was only found with objective physical fitness test scores but not with self-report measures. These findings underscore the importance of including objective measures when assessing the impact of discrimination in order to understand these complex interrelationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the problems faced by older workers in the UK labour market. In this paper we examine the issue of older workers: participation in vocational training and education, drawing upon data from the Labour Force Survey. Our initial analysis identifies how rates of participation in work-related education and training differ between age groups. Further exploratory analysis attempts to identify possible reasons for this, analysing the type of training undertaken by various age groups as well as the incidence of self-financed training. We then estimate an ordered-probit model for males and females separately, in an attempt to isolate the extent to which this lower incidence among older workers is due to employer or employee decision making. We find that, when compared to a reference group of prime aged individuals, those aged between 40 and 49 and 50 and 59/64 are less likely to undergo training and, also, less likely to be offered training. We conclude that the lower incidence of training among older workers can be mainly attributed to employer decision making. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for public policy.
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In drawing from the nonsymmetry hypothesis, the purpose of this study was to examine the possible differential effects of treatment discrimination on the career satisfaction and occupational turnover intentions of male and female head coaches of NCAA athletic teams. Data were gathered from 200 coaches. While there were no mean differences in the extent to which treatment discrimination was experienced, results from competing structural equation models demonstrated that treatment discrimination more adversely affected the work outcomes of men than women, thereby supporting the primary study hypothesis. Results demonstrate the need to not only examine mean differences in treatment discrimination, but also the potential for differential impact among members of various social categories.
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This article examines perceptions of police misconduct in the United States and the factors that influence these perceptions. Using data from a large, nationally representative survey of whites, African Americans, and His-panics, we examine how citizens' views of four types of police misconduct—verbal abuse, excessive force, unwar-ranted stops, and corruption—are shaped by race and other factors, including personal and vicarious experiences with police officers, exposure to mass media coverage of police behavior, and neighborhood conditions. Results show that race remains a key factor in structuring attitudes toward police misconduct even after controlling for these other variables. Race is a strong predictor in large part because blacks and Hispanics are more likely than whites to report having negative interactions with police, to be exposed to media reports of police misconduct, and to live in high-crime neighborhoods where policing may be contentious—each of which increases perceptions of police misconduct. The findings are consistent with the group-position model of race relations. Relations between the police and minority groups are a continuing problem in the United States and other multiracial societies. Surveys consistently document racial differences in per-ceptions of the police, with minorities more likely than whites to harbor negative views. While racial differences have been amply documented, less is known about the sources of these differences. This article explores this question through an examination of citizens' per-ceptions and reported experiences regarding several types of police misconduct.
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An in-depth analysis of the state of the U.S. labor market over the past three decades reveals that the U.S. labor market is polarizing into low- and high-skill jobs, with fewer opportunities in the middle.
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This paper explores the consequences of age discrimination in the work-place by analyzing self-reports of discrimination in the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, for the period 1966-80. Workers with positive reports were much more likely to separate from their employer and less likely to remain employed than workers who report no employer-related age discrimination. The findings for job separations, but not employment status, are robust to numerous attempts to correct the estimates for the inherent limitations of self-reported data, particularly heterogeneity in the propensity to report discrimination, the influence of mandatory retirement, and the possibility that other negative labor market outcomes are attributed to discrimination.
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Perceived discrimination has been studied with regard to its impact on several types of health effects. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive account of the relationships between multiple forms of perceived discrimination and both mental and physical health outcomes. In addition, this meta-analysis examines potential mechanisms by which perceiving discrimination may affect health, including through psychological and physiological stress responses and health behaviors. Analysis of 134 samples suggests that when weighting each study's contribution by sample size, perceived discrimination has a significant negative effect on both mental and physical health. Perceived discrimination also produces significantly heightened stress responses and is related to participation in unhealthy and nonparticipation in healthy behaviors. These findings suggest potential pathways linking perceived discrimination to negative health outcomes.
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This article examines the age-related management techniques used by older workers in their search for employment. Data are drawn from interviews with individuals aged 45-65 years (N = 30). Findings indicate that participants develop "counteractions" and "concealments" to manage perceived age discrimination. Individuals counteract employers' ageist stereotypes by maintaining their skills and changing their work-related expectations and conceal age by altering their résumés, physical appearance, and language used. This research suggests that there is a need to reexamine the hiring practices of employers and to improve legislation in relation to their accountability.
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Previous research has suggested higher work stress among minority ethnic workers. To determine levels of work stress in three ethnic groups, consider the contribution of racial discrimination to the groups' profiles of occupational and demographic associations with stress, and assess the association between work stress and well-being. A household quota sample design was used, and 204 black African-Caribbean, 206 Bangladeshi and 216 white (UK born) working people took part in structured interviews. More black African-Caribbean respondents reported high work stress than either Bangladeshi or white respondents. Reported racial discrimination among black African-Caribbean female respondents was strongly associated with perceived work stress. Among the black African-Caribbean respondents, women who reported experiencing racial discrimination at work had higher levels of psychological distress. Perceived work stress may be underpinned by exposure to racial discrimination at work among black African-Caribbean women, and this may affect their psychological well-being.
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We examined the association between work discrimination and morbidity among Filipinos in the United States, independent of more-global measures of discrimination. Data were collected from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey. Our analysis focused on 1652 participants who were employed at the time of data collection, and we used negative binomial regression to determine the association between work discrimination and health conditions. The report of workplace discrimination specific to being Filipino was associated with an increased number of health conditions. This association persisted even after we controlled for everyday discrimination, a general assessment of discrimination; job concerns, a general assessment of unpleasant work circumstances; having immigrated for employment reasons; job category; income; education; gender; and other sociodemographic factors. Racial discrimination in the workplace was positively associated with poor health among Filipino Americans after we controlled for reports of everyday discrimination and general concerns about one's job. This finding shows the importance of considering the work setting as a source of discrimination and its effect on morbidity among racial minorities.
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Two experiments examined how disadvantaged group members perceive the discrimination that confronts them. Women reacted to negative feedback after receiving information about the probability that they had been discriminated against. In both experiments, attribution to discrimination was a function of situational ambiguity. When discrimination was certain, participants attributed their failure to discrimination. When discrimination was ambiguous, however, participants minimized discrimination and attributed their failure to themselves. The second experiment investigated the role of perceived control in the minimization of personal discrimination. Results indicated that disadvantaged group members were reluctant to blame their performance on discrimination because they were placing control for their outcomes in the hands of others rather than their own.
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In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the problems faced by older workers in the UK labour market. In this paper we examine the issue of older workers' participation in vocational training and education, drawing upon data from the Labour Force Survey. Our initial analysis identifies how rates of participation in workrelated education and training differ between age groups. Further exploratory analysis attempts to identify possible reasons for this, analysing the type of training undertaken by various age groups as well as the incidence of self-financed training. We then estimate an ordered-probit model for males and females separately, in an attempt to isolate the extent to which this lower incidence among older workers is due to employer or employee decision making. We find that, when compared to a reference group of prime aged individuals, those aged between 40 and 49 and 50 and 59/64 are less likely to undergo training and, also, less likely to be offered training. We conclude that the lower incidence of training among older workers can be mainly attributed to employer decision making. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for public policy.
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This article is based largely on research completed recently for the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, which considered recent trends in public policy toward older workers in eleven Member States of the European Union and developments in workplace policy in approximately 120 organizations, primarily larger and operating in the private sector. The article summarizes and evaluates the European public policy response to economic challenges resulting from population aging, before going on to discuss the response of businesses, particularly as they wrestle with increasing competition. The article concludes by asking questions about the future place of older workers in the labor markets of the industrialized nations, and how they will experience efforts to make them work for longer.
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Background: Racial and ethnic discrimination has been shown to occur in work organizations, yet little is known about the relationship of this stressor to occupational mental health. Aims: This paper explores the degree to which racial and ethnic groups may be subjected to discrimination at work and examines associations between discrimination and mental health indicators. Methods: In a national study, 1728 American workers were interviewed about aspects of their jobs, their exposure to racial and ethnic discrimination at work, and dimensions of their mental health. Results: American minorities reported perceptions of discrimination at work at greater frequencies than White Americans, and findings suggested some indication of institutional discrimination against minorities. Further, White, Black, and Hispanic-Americans, who reported that they had been discriminated against, were found to have poorer mental health outcomes than their same-race counterparts, who did not acknowledge being discriminated against. Conclusions: These findings may be used to inform the development of occupational stress and health models that are more cross-culturally applicable. Declaration of interest: None
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Research has shown that low-status group members tend to minimize discrimination as a reason for negative feedback relative to other causes. Three experiments examined whether this tendency is limited to low-status group members or extends to high-status group members. Participants made attributions for negative feedback on a test after receiving information about the probability that they had been discriminated against by an out-group member. Experiment 1 compared women and men, Experiment 2 compared Blacks and Whites, and Experiment 3 compared members of experimentally created low- and high-status groups. All experiments demonstrated that low-status group members were significantly less likely than high-status group members to blame their poor performance on discrimination and more likely to blame their failure on the type of test, the quality of their answers, and their ability and effort. This was especially apparent when the probability for discrimination was ambiguous.
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Gender discrimination continues to be an issue that is encountered by women in the workplace. In this study we test hypotheses about two forms of gender discrimination, sexual harassment and gender evaluation (the use of gender as a criteria for job-related decisions), and several job-related outcomes. Our sample of 583 working women is drawn from three geographic regions (the United States, Chinese mainland, and Hong Kong SAR). These regions each have distinct cultural and social characteristics as well as different levels of legislation and enforcement regarding gender discrimination. Results indicated that gender discrimination was negatively associated with job satisfaction and affective commitment and positively associated with turnover intentions and life stress. Across geographical regions, women reported significant differences in all constructs. Several relationships between gender discrimination and the job-related outcomes were moderated by geographic region, (C) 2000 Academic Press.
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Findings from a study of 164 part-time employed older adults (mean age = 67.1 years) placed by four senior employ- ment programs in the greater Philadelphia metropolitan area docu- ment an important aspect of the quality of the work experience of lower-income, white and minority (Hispanic and African American) elders. Analysis of quantitative index data suggest that discrimina- tion was not perceived to be a major impediment in the work lives of these individuals. Age discrimination, and to a lesser degree, racial and gender discrimination are experienced, but only by a small ro- portion of older workers in part-time jobs. When it does s&e. older workers verceive it to be reflected in reduced salaries, fewer promotions, arid inadequacies in fringe benefit packages. Given a series of qualitative responses offered by study subjects, the possibil- ity that i~tances of dikrimination, especially ageism, may 6e down- played by some elder part-time employees because of fear of job loss is not ruled out.
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This book turns the tables on the way prejudice has been looked at in the past. Almost all of the current information on prejudice focuses on the person holding prejudiced beliefs. This book, however, provides a summary of research focusing on the intended victims of prejudice. The 1st part discusses how people identify prejudice, what types of prejudice they encounter, and how people react to this prejudice in interpersonal and intergroup settings. The 2nd section discusses the effect of prejudice on task performance, assessment of one's own abilities, self-esteem, and stress. The final section examines how people cope with prejudice, including a discussion of coping mechanisms, reporting sexual harassment, and how identity is related to effective coping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two experiments examined how disadvantaged group members perceive the discrimination that confronts them. Women reacted to negative feedback after receiving information about the probability that they had been discriminated against. In both experiments, attribution to discrimination was a function of situational ambiguity. When discrimination was certain, participants attributed their failure to discrimination. When discrimination was ambiguous, however, participants minimized discrimination and attributed their failure to themselves. The second experiment investigated the role of perceived control in the minimization of personal discrimination. Results indicated that disadvantaged group members were reluctant to blame their performance on discrimination because they were placing control for their outcomes in the hands of others rather than their own. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The first part of this article examines the scope of the notion of discrimination in law with particular reference to the ILO's Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111). The discussion covers not only direct and indirect discrimination grounded in the conventional legal categories of sex, race, disability, etc., but also the socially constructed notion of merit and the effects of "intersection" on individuals combining several identities targeted by discrimination. The second part looks at the conceptual and practical implications of different approaches to equality of treatment and opportunity, namely, individual justice, social justice, and equality as recognition of diversity.
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Although UK legislation against age discrimination is required by December 2006, little is yet known about how ageism affects different age categories of employees, and the gender dimensions of ageism have also been neglected. Both issues were investigated by questionnaire survey, producing responses from over 1000 employees of a major UK financial services enterprise. The extent and manifestations of ageism were found to vary across age categories and by sex, and evidence of gendered ageism emerged. Reported examples of ageism were highest among younger and older age categories, but all age groups were affected to some degree. Across all ages, women were more likely than men to experience ageist attitudes concerning appearance or sexuality. To be effective, legislation will need to cater for the complex nature and patterns of age discrimination revealed, though the comparator problem and other complexities are such that important aspects of age prejudice, including gender dimensions, risk being overlooked.
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Once again, the articles in this issue draw on a variety of approaches. Any continuing attempts to protect the freedom of older workers to continue working, or to retire with dignity and economic security, benefit from the cross-societal examples in these articles, from the careful use of multiple method approaches, and from the wealth of advice generated from research that combines general and comparative contextual data with on-the-ground experiences documented in the various forms of case studies cited.
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the degree to which adults in four racial/gender categories perceive that they experience discrimination. Using the 1995–1996 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), the author employs logistic regression to compare the likelihood of perceiving specific types of discrimination for black men, black women, white men, and white women. Results indicate that variations in perceived discrimination occur across the racial/gender categories. The findings highlight the need for researchers to be aware of gendered and racialized perceptions of discrimination.
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This study considered whether pregnant women are considered as mothers (to be) in the workplace. Working from the stereotype content model (SCM) we predicted that pregnant women would be stereotyped as warm and incompetent, and experience workplace discrimination; with these effects accentuated in masculine-type occupations. Eighty-two Australian University undergraduates evaluated a candidate who was pregnant or not for a masculine- or feminine-type short-term position. Results provided mixed support for the SCM. Across both occupations, the pregnant candidate was rated as warmer, more competent, but was discriminated against in comparison to the non-pregnant candidate. We suggest that participants may employ a shifting standard of comparison, thus highlighting a potential limitation of the usefulness of traditional SCM measures with individual targets.
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This paper identifies and analyzes an inherent conflict between some proposed U. S. Social Security reform measures, which would encourage delayed retirement decisions, and the objective of minimizing the economy's unemployment rate. Using recent demographic trends in the age composition of the U.S. labor force, the study suggests that such proposed U.S. Social Security reform measures may actually increase the economy's unemployment rate. It concludes that measures to encourage older workers would relieve labor market pressures (while also helping the Social Security system) if and only if unemployment was persistently near the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (NAIRU). However, in an economy with above NAIRU unemployment, which has been the case most often in recent years, the opposite Social Security policy logic would apply.
Article
This study examines racial and ethnic discrimination in discrete choices by real estate brokers using national audit data from the 2000 Housing Discrimination Study. It uses a fixed-effects logit model to estimate the probability that discrimination occurs and to study the causes of discrimination. The data make it possible to control for auditors' actual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and characteristics assigned for the purposes of the audit. The study finds that discrimination remains strong but has declined in both the scope and incidence since 1989. The estimations also identify both brokers' prejudice and white customers' prejudice as causes of discrimination.
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This study aims to enhance our understanding of job satisfaction of direct care workers in assisted living facilities. Low job satisfaction is related to high turnover rates and lower quality of care in assisted living. We integrate two theories of job satisfaction to investigate relationships among workplace support, role overload, and job satisfaction. Data are from a survey of 984 direct care workers in 108 assisted living facilities. Results from multilevel hierarchical linear models (HLM) indicate that job satisfaction varies both within and among facilities. Job satisfaction is negatively associated with role overload, and it is positively associated with institutional support, supervisor instrumental and emotional support, and coworker emotional support. These workplace support measures and role overload are separately and independently associated with job satisfaction. Enhancing job satisfaction of assisted living direct care workers will likely require a multipronged approach that includes improving institutional, supervisor, and coworker support while simultaneously directly addressing role overload.
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Discrimination against older workers and the higher barriers for entrance to the workforce that these workers face are well documented in the literature. This situation becomes even worse when technological changes take place. In this paper the different responses of younger and older workers to those technological changes were analyzed, and it was revealed that older workers can be severely harmed when such changes occur. It was found that providing a subsidy for older workers could aid in reducing the unemployment among older workers, together with increasing growth of the economy and decreasing the inequality of income distribution.
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This review highlights some of the principal issues and debates surrounding age discrimination at the workplace. Essentially, the existing research in this area can be divided into three broad, although somewhat overlapping, categories. The first explores the underlying causes and consequences of age discrimination at the workplace from one or other theoretical tradition. The second broad body of literature encompasses empirical studies which document the nature and extent of age discrimination, based on the use of official statistics, and/or firm-level survey evidence. The third explores the effects of various governmental initiatives to reduce the incidence of age discrimination and policy options in this area. Even though age discrimination is widely accepted to be prevalent, its causes are rather more contentious. Age discrimination has variously been ascribed to market imperfections, the product of rational choices and the effects of long-term changes in the nature of the economy. Policy interventions may be prompted by economic pressure, demographic changes or cultural shifts, and have involved voluntary codes as well as legislation. Although voluntary codes have generally proved ineffective, the literature indicates that more formal regulations may still have only limited efficacy, underscoring the deeply rooted nature of age discrimination in society. Yes Yes
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We present three case studies of discrimination to illustrate how racist bullying as discriminatory practices operates in the workplace. Workplace bullying in the British health care sector is reported along with evidence of discrimination towards overseas-trained nurses recruited to work in the United Kingdom (UK). The three interviews, which form the basis of the discussion in this paper, were selected purposively from a national study of overseas nurses because they present strong examples of the phenomenon of workplace bullying. The data on which this paper draws were collected through semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews and thematically re-analysed using nvivo V2. The national study showed how racism is entrenched in health workplaces. Our findings in this paper suggest that racism can be understood by the concept of racist bullying. There are four key findings which illustrate racist bullying in the workplace: abusive power relationships, communication difficulties, emotional reactions to racist bullying and responses to bullying. We argue that the literature on workplace bullying adds a layer of analysis of discrimination at the individual and organizational levels which enables us to further delineate racist bullying. We conclude that racist bullying can be specifically identified as a form of bullying. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGERS: Our data may assist managers to challenge current workplace working practices and support bullied employees. The three interviews show different responses to racist bullying which allow us to explore some implications for management practice.
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Prior research indicates overweight women are penalized with lower wages. The connection between weight and wages is tested for several occupational categories. The results suggest weight significantly reduces pay only for women in sales and service occupations, a finding consistent with customer discrimination. Obese females who are self-employed also receive a significant wage penalty in customer-oriented occupations, suggesting the pay discrepancy is not originating from employer discrimination.
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This study is a theory-based examination of the meaning of work for older adults in a sample of 146 older job-seekers. It proposes four factors to the meaning of work: Financial, Personal, Social, and the Generativity factor. The Generativity factor, unique to older adults, refers to viewing work as a way to teach, train and share skills with younger generations. A factor analysis of a 16-item Meaning of Work Scale (MWS) supports the proposed four factors. The results indicate ethnic and employment differences with respect to the meaning of work, but no gender differences. Significant differences were detected between older adult job-seekers who obtained a job within a year of job search and those who did not, with respect to the personal factor of the MWS and with respect to ethnicity. The findings indicate that jobs providing opportunities for transfer of knowledge and experience to younger generations may be of particular value for older adults.