Definitive Chemoradiotherapy for Esophageal Carcinoma
Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. Surgical Clinics of North America
(Impact Factor: 1.88).
10/2012; 92(5):1213-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.suc.2012.07.013
Radiation therapy plays an important role in the treatment of esophageal cancer. Radiation therapy may be combined with chemotherapy, used as a component of induction therapy, used in the adjuvant setting, or used for palliation of advanced disease. Chemotherapy is also occasionally used as a solitary treatment modality for patients with esophageal cancer. Current treatment protocols include multiple agents, and agents directed against specific molecular targets have been investigated in clinical trials. This article discusses future directions related to the selection of radiation treatment protocols, novel targeted chemotherapeutic agents, and the selection of patients for surgery.
Available from: Jesper Lagergren
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Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is characterized by 6 striking features: increasing incidence, male predominance, lack of preventive measures, opportunities for early detection, demanding surgical therapy and care, and poor prognosis. Reasons for its rapidly increasing incidence include the rising prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux and obesity, combined with the decreasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The strong male predominance remains unexplained, but hormonal influence might play an important role. Future prevention might include the treatment of reflux or obesity or chemoprevention with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs or statins, but no evidence-based preventive measures are currently available. Likely future developments include endoscopic screening of better defined high-risk groups for EAC. Individuals with Barrett esophagus might benefit from surveillance, at least those with dysplasia, but screening and surveillance strategies need careful evaluation to be feasible and cost-effective. The surgery for EAC is more extensive than virtually any other standard procedure, and postoperative survival, health-related quality of life, and nutrition need to be improved (eg, by improved treatment, better decision-making, and more individually tailored follow-up). Promising clinical developments include increased survival after preoperative chemoradiotherapy, the potentially reduced impact on health-related quality of life after minimally invasive surgery, and the new endoscopic therapies for dysplastic Barrett esophagus or early EAC. The overall survival rates are improving slightly, but poor prognosis remains a challenge. CA Cancer J Clin 2013;63:232–248.
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ABSTRACT: The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 17 (IL-17) is considered to play a crucial role in diverse human tumors; however, its role in disease progression remains controversial. This study investigated the cellular source and distribution of IL-17 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in situ and determined its prognostic value. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy were used to identify IL-17-expressing cells in ESCC tissues, paying particular attention to their anatomic localization. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to estimate overall survival in 215 ESCC patients with long-term follow-up (>10 years). The results showed that mast cells, but not T cells or macrophages, were the predominant cell type expressing IL-17 in ESCC tissues. Unexpectedly, these IL-17(+) cells were highly enriched in the muscularis propria rather than the corresponding tumor nest (p < 0.0001). The density of IL-17(+) cells in muscularis propria was inversely associated with tumor invasion (p = 0.016) and served as an independent predictor of favorable survival (p = 0.007). Moreover, the levels of IL-17(+) cells in muscularis propria were positively associated with the density of effector CD8(+) T cells and activated macrophages in the same area (both p < 0.0001). This finding suggested that mast cells may play a significant role in tumor immunity by releasing IL-17 at a previously unappreciated location, the muscularis propria, in ESCC tissues, which could serve as a potential prognostic marker and a novel therapeutic target for ESCC.
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ABSTRACT: Surgical treatment for patients with esophageal carcinoma that invades the aorta locally (stage IIIc) remains a considerable challenge. This study aimed to introduce radical esophagectomy combined with off-pump descending aorta replacement in these patients and to assess the effects on both short-term and long-term outcomes.
The clinical data of 47 patients who had esophageal carcinoma invading the descending aorta and who underwent radical esophagectomy combined with off-pump aortic replacement between January 2001 and March 2012 in Jinling Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The intraoperative, early postoperative, and follow-up results were analyzed.
Overall, 80.9% and 19.1% of the patients had histopathologically confirmed aortic tunica adventitia invasion and media invasion, respectively. All patients received complete resection (R0) with an average intraoperative blood loss of 227.6 ± 63.3 mL. The mean operative time and aortic cross-clamping time were 4.9 ± 1.3 hours and 17.0 ± 3.2 minutes, respectively. Complications were observed in 59.6% of patients, with no hospital mortality, and all patients resumed an oral diet 1 month after the procedure. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 80.9%, 44.7%, and 21.3%, respectively, with a median survival time of 33.6 months.
In patients with esophageal carcinoma invading the aorta, it is feasible and safe to perform radical esophagectomy combined with off-pump descending aorta replacement to improve nutritional status and achieve satisfactory survival.
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